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SATSHASRIK-HEVAJRA-TIK

SATSHASRIK-HEVAJRA-TIKA
A Critical Edition

Edited by

Malati J. Shendge

PRATIBHA PRAKASHAN
DELHI! 10007

First Edition : 2004 Malati J. Shendge 2004 ISBN : 81-7702-065-X Price : Rs. 1500/$ 100

Published by :
Dr. Radhey Shyam Shukla
M.A., M.PHIL., PH.D.

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Dedicated to the Memory of My Teachers

Professor R.D. Vadekar


and

Professor V.V. Gokhale


in their Birth Centenary

Preface
I am delighted to present this critical edition of Sat-shasrik-hevajratlk, the first fruit of my research endeavour, to the Buddhist world. Along with it, other material relevant to the Hevajra-tantra is also included. All this work was done between 1960-63 as part of my doctoral dissertation. As many readers may recall, hardly anything was known about Vajrayna at the time. Nor is the situation any the better now. But personally I think after all these years I have developed some insights into its nature. This is due to the base prepared in those early years. Let me quote from my preface to the dissertation : "... I found that in order to conduct scientific research in this field, it is essential to observe certain principles. First, Vajrayna should be treated in its totality as one religio-philosophical system... Instead of treating various texts as independent isolated works, they should be treated as parts of a system (of thoughts) and should be interpreted in connection with other correlated texts which will lead to the understanding of its philosophical background. This is of first-rate importance in Buddhist Tantrism as it is not only a philosophy but also a religion, and certain practices severed from their philosophical background will lead (as in reality they have) to many a misunderstanding about the nature of Buddhist Tan trism as religion." Now I would like to add that in order to appreciate the true significance of a given religion, it needs to be studied inits indigenous context and it is unjustifiable to analyse its concepts and doctrines from the standpoint of the concepts of other cultures or religions. Such a study does not lead to the understanding of the system in hand. In fact, its true understanding may be marred and the study may result in a mere verbal circus leading to intellectual obfuscation. The task of understanding a given culture by a practitioner of another is itself a daunting one, and in fact some social anthropologists like Henry Frankfort have thought it pratically impossible. I have independently come to the conclusion that understanding of an alien culture is indeed difficult, and more so that of Indian culture by a foreigner as it was

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born and developed over five millennia, and carries within its fold innumerable survivals of earlier ages. This is not to say that I have succeeded in bringing the Vajrayanic teaching any way within the grasp of the present day readerfar from it Only point I can add after all these years that systems like Vajrayna are not for mere intellectual discussions carried on in contexts of philosophy, philology, collation of manuscripts, critical editions and dissertations. The awakened ones i.e. those apparajakkha-jtikas, as Pali Buddhism calls them, must really search for an experienced guru and then drink deep at that fountain of knowledge only to experience all that. No amount of wordy knowledge is complete without that experience and once set on the path the traveller never looks back. Buddhism is world's first rational religion, thought out logically by a human being who existed historically. In this event man's religious thinking rooted in reason, in other words, reason itself, came of age. This is a very unique circumstance as far as a religion is concerned. Even though several centuries of thought development intervened between the Buddha and the onset of Vajrayna, still there is an underlying thought and conceptual continuity which must be noted. What appear to be the changes, are attempts to spell out the psychic experiences and also they endeavour to bring Buddhism closer to the aspirants through use of new yogic techniques which may not have been known earlier or also could have been rejected by the Buddha because of his preoccupation with self dependence. In fact the Buddha's preachings do not describe the psychic experiences. He discouraged his disciples from indulging in philosophical speculations and also descriptions of experiences barring a few landmarks. But later on this aspect came to be developed in detail. Vajrayna has to be looked at as such a development. All that looks obscure in Vajrayna are generally the inner experiences of the practicants expressed in words. Unless one undergoes them, it is practically impossible to recognise or understand them. In the initial stages of my study of Tibetan language, I appealed to His Holiness the Dalai Lama who had just arrived in India (1959), for advice and assistance. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to His Holiness for prompt reply and arrangement for my study in Mussorie. Mrs Mary Tering gave me lessor^ to \ egin with. I remember her with affection and gratitude.

IX

I must also express my sincerest gratitude to Late Professor R.D. Vadekar for all manner of assistance, encouragement and unsparingly bestowed care, affection, and guidance in the interest of enhancement of knowledge. I am deeply grateful to Late Professor Dr. V.V. Gokhale who is sadly enough no more with us to see the work done under his guidance in print. I cannot help reminiscing in the manner of his guidance. After reading the manuscript of Hevajratik the problem of tracing the quotations arose. I expected his expert help and advice. However, he left all that to me and I must confess that I was baffled but was compelled to find my own way. Ultimately I succeeded in tracing all the quotations from multifarious and more often than not unheard of texts. This I considered more of a miracle than an intelligence oriented pursuit. But Dr. Gokhale's greatest gift to me has been the opening of a critical eye which has stood me in good stead through these years. Thanks are due to K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna for lending the use of the photographic negative of the manuscript of Satshasrikhevajra-k through the University of Bombay and also to the Bihar and Orissa Research Society which gave me access to their collection of Tibetan Manuscripts. Thanks are also due to the Department of Buddhist studies, University of Delhi for making available to me a microfilm of another manuscript of the said kaxid of Srisahajasiddhi from the Bir library, Kathmandu with the generous permission of the Nepal government and the Indian Aid Mission (Nepal) and also its copy from the collection of Oriental Institute, Baroda. I must also mention the facilities extended to me for the collation of the Tibetan Text (sDe.rge edn) available in the collection of Benares Hindu University, Varanasi. Finally this work was possible at that time because of the financial support by way of a fellowship extended to me by the Department of Buddhist Studies, University of Delhi. Amongst those who rendered multifarious assistance and to whom I would like to express my sincere thanks, I mention Mr. Ryojun Sato, Lama Chimpa, Mrs. Yang and Mr. Raghavendrachar. Saraswati-Prasad, 1603SadashivPeth, Pune-411030 Malati J. Shendge

Abbreviations
1. DVP Dakini'Vajra-panjara-mahatantraraja'-kalpay PTT, Vo. I. 10. 2. GS Guhyasamja, ed. B. Bhattacarya, Gaekwad Oriental Series, Vol. LIII, 1931. 3. HT Hevajra-tantrarja-nma, ed. D.L. Snellgrove, London, 1959. 4. Hti Satsharik-hevajra-ttk (manuscripts) (a) N = Nor monastery ms. preserved in photographs in the collection of K.PJ. Research Institute, Patna, Bihar. (b) B = Microfilm of Bir Library ms. c 93 (M.L. 250) in the collection of the Department of Buddhist Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi. Tibetan translation of Hti : kyehi.rdo.rje.bsdus.pahi.don.gyi. rgya.cher.bsad.pa, PTT, Vol. 53. 2310. 5. PTT-Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking edition, Photographic reprint, Tokyo-Kyoto, 1955 ff. 6. Srisahaja-siddhi-nma, Dombl Heruka (manuscript) (a) O : The photographs of the ms. preserved in the collection of the library of Oriental Institute, Baroda. B : Microfilm of the ms. of the Bir Library, Nepal, in the collection of the Department of Buddhist Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi. (b) Trans. dPal.lhan.cig.skyes.pa.zes.bya.ba, PTT, Vol. 68.3067. 7. Tib. trans. Tibetan translation. 8. rGyud.sde.spyihi.rnam.gzag, bSod.nams.rtse.mo, Sa.skya.bkah.hbum (ga), K.PJ. Research Institute Collection.

Contents
Preface Abbreviations vii-ix x

Introduction Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk (Sanskrit Text) Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk (Tibetan Text) English Translation English Summaries Notes to Sanskrit Text Notes to English Translation Appendix I Colophons of the patalas of the H Appendix II Srisahajasiddhi, with Tibetan translation, notes and English translation Appendix III The literary forms of tantras Appendix TV The place of Hevajratantra in the Tibetan canonical literature
Index

1-6 7-66 67-140 141-209 210-239 240-274 275-283 284-288 289-309 336-348 349-363
364-375

Introduction
1. Description of the mss : In the preparation of the critical edition of Hevajra-tik two manuscripts were utilised. One is a photostat copy of the manuscript discovered in Nor monastery, Tibet, by R. Snkrtyyana (RS). The other is the microfilm of the manuscript preserved in the Bir Library, Nepal. Both the mss are incomplete. The present photostat copy of the Nor ms. belongs to the collection of K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna. It was photographed by RS in Tibet and is mentioned in his "List of the palm leaf Ms. from Tibet".1 The ms. is written on palm leaf and is in good condition. It is pinned on a wooden board and many letters are lost under the pins. There are in all six big plates of the size of 12 x 9.5 each containing ten folios i.e. in all there are thirty folios and sixty pages available. The heading on each page is Dasashasrik-hevajra-tikwritten in devangari, (obviously by the photographer) accompanied by plate-number. On the first folio of the ms. the title of the text is written in Tibetan dbu.med script as :
dgye.pa. rdor, hi. hgrel.pa. rdo. rje. snin.pohi (hevajra-iik-Vajragarbhasya).

Above the title is written Vajragarbha (in devangari) who proves to be, in the course of the text, the author of the iik. The manuscript is written in one handwriting throughout and is fairly legible. Wherever the scribe has made mistakes he has put two dots on the top of the letter to indicate cancellation. There are a few scribal errors or slips of the pen. The manuscript must have been used very carefully as none of the pages are in any way damaged and there are no marginal notes, etc. But the last page of the ms. contains an account of the grains donated to a monastery called Sri Raudharmamahvihra in the Samvatsara 210 i.e. circa 1098. Paleographic Data of the mss: Numerals: The method of pagination is a mixture of ancient and modern style i.e. the figure numerals are similar to those given in Biihler's pi. 9 Nepal MS. no. 866 but the tens

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

are indicated by adding a zero which suggests a later date, i.e. later than 8th century. But from the evidence furnished by Bendall's Catalogue of Sanskrit Buddhist manuscripts in the Cambridge University library2 it is clear that this manuscript belongs to the early part of 11 th century or a little earlier than that, as the numerals of the ms. no. 866 Astashasrikprajnpramit agree with this except in the zero written below the figures indicating 10, 20, 30. The script is hooked Newari and many letters are similar to those
given in Ojha's chart "no. 24 -nepal se mile hue hastalikhita pustaka men

(10th century A.D.)".3 Bir library ms. of which a microfilm was used bears the no. c 93 (M.L. 250) on the title page. It is a palm leaf manuscript broken in many places; but fortunately no letters are lost. Many times the letters are faint and blurred. This ms. is also a fragment and contains 28 folios, followed by a folio numbered 29, followed by another fol. 29 but the contents of this foL 29 are not a continuation of the previous page and a big gap becomes obvious from the Nor ms. Thereupon follows a folio numbered 44, the last two lines of which are inconsistent and added from the later part of the text. The numerals indicate that the ms. belongs to the latter half of 14th c. A.D. The script is devangari. Both the mss. are incomplete. But Nor MS. is the longer. A third manuscript, I am told, is available in the library of Field Marshal Samsher Jung, but it is also fragmentary. The extent of the Tibetan translation available in Peking edition of Tibetan Tripitaka4 is 130 folios and a comparison of the Sanskrit text of the Nor MS. shows that the fragmentary Sanskrit text is only a fifth part of the whole commentary. I have used the Peking edition of the Tibetan Tripitaka, collating it with the sDe.rge edition (Benares Hindu University Collection) which was found to be deficient in Folios 3 and 12-24. The emendations suggested in the text are in general based on the Tibetan translation, unless otherwise mentioned. All the variant readings are noted in the footnotes. The additions to the ms. in cases where the readings of the MSS. are found defective are based on the Tibetan translations and marked by square [ ] brackets. The verses are numbered in order to facilitate references. No such arrangement is followed in the MSS.

Introduction

2.The authorship : The author of the tzk describes himself as Dasabhumisvara Vajragarbha. He probably lived about the beginning of the 8th century. But there are certain points which may perhaps lead one to hypothesize that the commentary was begun by Vajragarbha and completed by somebody else. The reasons are as follows : (i) Both the available Sanskrit manuscripts of the commentary are incomplete (as well as the third which I had not the opportunity to use). The Tibetan translation was also interrupted after the tenth pariccheda (yons.su.bcad.pa) of the
tzk.

(ii) The colophons of the Sanskrit fragment and its Tib. translation
up to 10th pariccheda read as "Satshasrikym hevajrakym ... etc." But after the tenth, they read as (Kyehi.rdo.rjehi.nos.pahi.

don. gyi.rgya. eher, bsad.pa. las ... (name of the patala) rgya.cher bsad.pa.ste ... (serial number of the patala) (i.e. Hevajrasya nitrthatikym... patalasya-tik ...). As is obvious the title and colophon is completely changed and moreover, for no obvious reason. The title of the tzk as given in the colophon of the first ten chapters seems to be its legitimate title. Because in the introductory chapter he says : "This tzk following the mulatantra and containing 6000 slokas is inspired by Hevajra in order to explain the tantra." Thus the extent of the tzk supposedly is six thousand slokas, but a rough calculation shows that it is less than six thousand. (iii) In the first ten paridchedas, every pariccheda does not necessarily constitute a complete commentary of the corresponding patala and at the completion of the commentary on the patala another colophon stating the name of the patalais added and paricchedasare counted independently of the patalas. But after the 10th pariccheda, the paricchedas vanish altogether and only the patalas are counted and each patala has a corresponding patala in the commentary. This means that the original plan of the izkwas completely changed. What could be the possible reason for such a drastric change? Perhaps the part of the commentary written by Vajragarbha was upto the ninth patala and later on somebody else has compeleted it.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

This is the only possible explanation of the change in the plan of the tik, as there is no reason for Vajragarbha to change it, had he himself completed it. Moreover it is not at all likely that the translators would have anyway tampered with the text. If at all there had been such a change in the composer of the commentary, the next problem that is to be faced is of the identification of the person. No direct clues in this connection are available but a statement in the colophon of the Hevajra-tik may enable us to form a plausible hypothesis. In the colophon he says "Vajragarbha has written the commentaries on the Hevajra of five lakh, Paramditantra and Laksbhidhnatantra etc." Out of these tiks referred to here the first mentioned only is available and that is the only work attributed to Vajragarbha in bsTan.hgyur ard the one writer who seems to have commented on the other two tantras is nandagarbha5 and it might be he who has perhaps completed the Hevajratik. We do not know much about his date, but since he also refers to the mlatantra in the course of the part of the k written by him, he may not have been far removed from Vajragarbha himself. It is not impossible that he was one of the immediate disciples of Vajragarbha himself and was well-acquainted with the ideas of his guru. But Vajragarbha was no doubt a person of authority and this name is his assumed name or one which was bestowed on him at the time of his initiation. The fact that he is not included in the list of 84 Siddhas does not make him any the less important. To me the cause of this appears to be in the fact that he lived long before the tradition of the Siddhas. The very fact that he could found a separate school is a testimony to his critical acumen as well as authority. In the colophon of the k are laid down the injunctions as to the study of the tantra. He recommends discussion of the tik without acrimony and the comprehension of the secret, the avoidance of association with hypocrites and the secret worship of Vajrcrya. He also points out to the manner in which this k should be studied, i.e. the relation between the nitrtha and neyrtha should be the main concern without paying attention to those self-assured people who would not believe in the authority of this commentary.6 In the arrangement of the tik a definite plan is followed by the writer. The tik is introduced by a lengthy pariccheda of general nature in which the author condemns the bad teachers who advocate

Introduction

malpractices. The following paricchedas are always introduced by the salutation to Hevajra and a short introductory passage, after which he takes up the tantra. He generally quotes the text in full and proceeds to explain its meaning but does not discuss it in detail. In fact this is the characteristic of a ttk which is defined by Hemacandra (quoted in
Vcaspatyam) as tik nirantar vykhy panjik padabhanjik.

From the point of view of relation between mlatantra, laghutantra and the ttk, the first pariccheda is of great importance. Also the extent of each is given by the author. The verse runs as follows: "This commentary, inspired by Hevajra, contains 6000 slokas and follows the mlatantra in its revelation of the tantra. The smaller tantra with 750 slokas and containing many vajrapadashas been selected from the larger tantra of five lakh slokas." This reference to the extent of the mlatantra, shorter tantra and the ttk seems to be wrongly interpreted by Snellgrove. He says, "In his Introduction Vajragarbha announces his intention of explaining the short version of 750 slokas which comes out of the long version of 500,000 slokas 'in conformity with the basic tantra (mlatantra), the fundamental text of 6000 slokas.' He confuses the matter by sometimes referring to this work as the 'basic tantra of 500,000 slokas\ a confusion probably arising from vagueness concerning this long version, the existence of which tradition maintained."7 However, there is no confusion in Vajragarbha's statement. His 6000 slokas clearly refer to the extent of the ttk and not that of the mlatantra, as has been interpreted by Snellgrove. 3. Language of the tzk: It is not necessary to go into the linguistic details. However, here a few characteristics are noted. First and of frequent occurence is the interchange of masculine and neuter genders e.g. instead of sattvah, sattvam is used, abhvah bhvyah instead of abhvam bhvyam. No attention is paid to the use of anusvra or visarga leading to the above mentioned result Secondly, of equal frequency is the interchange of singular and plural numbers. Some peculiar sandhis like rdhvamukhVdhomukhi etc. (chap. 4) occur. No major emendations have been made and minor emendations of anusvra and visarga in palces where such an emendation gave proper form to the line or sentence or corrected the metre are not noted* Many hitherto unrecorded words are found, e.g. pnipala, vandka,
etka, atavyt, kitikiti, pic, varataka etc.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

4. Contents : There is nothing of outstanding meirt in the part composed by the commentator himself but his quotations from the mlatantra of Hevajradeserve a special mention. These quotations seem to come from a work of considerable antiquity and contain information which might have been the common heritage of the Hindus and the Buddhists. In this it must be said to the credit of the commentator that he was well versed in the ancient yogic lore. Also he must have been well-acquainted with the various linguistic theories of the Hindus and the Buddhists. To bring out the many aspects of this commentary a thorough investigation of the whole of the Tibetan translation of the commentary is necessary. However, the part that is not available in Sanskrit mss. is summarised here chapterwise from the Tibetan translation. In the Sanskrit text, quotations from HT are marked with asterisk. Notes
1. Journal of Bihar and Orissa Rasearch Society, Vol. 21.2, p.- 36. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pub. 1883. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, Bharatiya Prcina Lipiml, (2nd edn.), 1918, Chart 24. Kyoto-Tokyo (photographic reprint) 1955 ff, Vol. 53. 2310. Sn-paramdi-vrtti, PTT, Vol. 72. 3334. Laksbhidhnd-uddhrta-laghutantra-pindrtha-vivarana-nma, Vol. 73. 2117. See Appendix I. D.L. Snellgrove, The Hevajra Tantra, a critical study, London : Oxford University Press, 1959, pp. 16-17.

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ftT:il 31

4lPi*i)a*ct

qioii^SHMif^a WJt

II 32 I

69

_^

TI^[Fl. 7b]omt<i ^RJT rWr 11 33 11

20

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

crarr fct^ii^M ^cMi<;cqt4c^^nnT: 113411

1135 II
^(

i: II
i: 11 36 11

I 37 11

i i^cfcbi^ vifaf^a:

II 38 II

39

F% 4tP
^ ^ T ^

^nf

: I ni^fi^cHfaR^fa^K^f <*>!<) I

II

4011

% "3FPf ^
I

II 41 II

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)


94
k

21

[FoL
.97

rs

r> rs

/N

rs r 98 %

I 3TcT:

f l f

.114211

* ^Tra

f1 3
106

^ M y M ^ f MHyyM^f

4 l P ^ f ^TRT "^F?:

W T ^ H ^ I ft

\ "^^T TRH crfaFT: I c!FT


l ^

: I cfg^"9F^t5"?^^I%5cfn ^dPiRi I

ftTSg^

22

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

i
i II 43 1 1

44

11 ffrT ticjrm 11 45 11

l"

TJ<T

f^?f

*I^13ff^nR[I^TOf^

f^

:I : 1146

Satshasrik-hevajra-iik (Sanskrit Text)

23

: I *H|c|Mlg glBl'yNI^tl: I

I : I^ f ^ l ^ F [ F l Q]" 0 ^?! "5%

^^it^rg ^ - W ^ I ^ I ^ MI^NI^FIT ^RT


T I^ ^ I I ^KiTOT^I ^ $j : ficf * rTIW rTIW "^fT TraPTT ^IT?[^RT ^ ^ ^ "^^IT [^iT]4

II 1 11 ffcf

rf: '?raT "PJWT11 2 11

24

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

P" ^ l P

[Fol. 9b]

cr l "Q^f l i l ^
?i i CR^ cbcbr<dK^32 m^Hi^rmT ^fir i ^ q^Trrq R-fk^331

?fcl ^ ^ 1 % I clcf:

^ ITJ^F^

iil

f ^ : i rraf
*ich<cn<i cTP? yc^ch n

I ^T^t ^ P ) ^ I I ^ ^

cRT: ^

<ixKHul fWT: I cfcft [FoL 10a] Hiqif^ifc Tf^HM^MTbtiP^^J^mcOPi

H U 6CIIPI ^isbA^fa

TWtt I 3T3^jdt ^Hlq^Hyi^^i^ch^fyai "R^T^t "3

Satshasrik-hevajra-k (Sanskrit Text)

25

'TORT [ F o l . 1 Ob] ^Hff I cTcT:


B/
I dRrH^ U^cf^T SiBwc^ shw*i: I

: I <5WJ1^ i^fciMSj*^ I T R ' ^ ^ I ' ^ T ^ R r ^

I ^RJ ^ e ^ t - M u ^ ^ f ^ ^ j ^^: t^ifti | TTg "TraR^Rt: "^f^PmiiPi <IiPiii

I cTlftf: ^TTf^f^T: ^pTT^f c!^ ^ T c f &ff^i

WN "%fcf I 3T? chKullclvl

<SMmi 3ic^al W iralfcW

11 3 11

^mg^rf^ft ^

HWI^ cTeRT I TW ^ t ^ : . [FoL 11 a]

crl<rHK^Hlc|^cft ^^

^ : I

I Tj^ n^t^TlT^ ^jf^i


Pf 1 J^ M^bHI^I Icm^T

: ifa I cRf:

r f^r

26

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

^ T^FTRTT

A
1

f ^! I clclt

3T^*$ft ^ ) l

I cRT:

3 T M " R ^ ^f TFRT^T: I
99

tcfciMii yni^i lfll Hicichl ^ H I I Treu I


101

lfm

rN

rN _N

o 102

ii6iiffcr

: W^:

PH^RI I T?RT ^fcT

ffcf I

TffW: "5R^: ( ?)

117

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

27

* ^FRI cncmi ddl chlRrl <+>u J^l ^


4

'^T^'SqFT: I ^^cbl'41 HPft I ^4chl4l " ^ I

I ^ i t ^ ^ t 1 1 ^ ' ; 55 1 ^: l ^ 1 ^ " ^ 1 ^ : ! cncnii^nTRT: I

I "^ig^ra^f ^Fn% I f^*rac*f 1 ^ I HH?r4J ^ ^ I "^IrcIlR d ^ | R 8 I : I I ^R^lft Pi^hi^i: I

" 5 ft^TT B HR

: II 1 II [Fol. 1 2 b . ] 3T3T?FT:26| Tj^T^onqTT^H " Q ^ ^ : I :I | 3^


r

P ^ ^
T

"RFJT I

^ ^ ^

* I ^l^^lfV^Tl'^' 9tj4<l^^ i B * ^ : 1

28

Satshasrik-hevajra-ttk I "^Nn^^r^T^RFR: I "^T^v^r^T q^ni: I fgSfT^F^[:

fgsn TTf: fsffl <*>ldlfH: ^MI^^HI^HH: 3T? " ^ ^ t crlcrlli crlfHchN*H,l

fg^TTf^glrT:3

11 3 11

^ ^ ^ i
cT5f

?i?fi

II 5 II ^ry^^m^H, II

4 ( ^ * ilP

! 1611
RT: 117 11

f^nf^rsn^JF^i 1811
1911

^^3^ ^ftfnT T^tT ^T11 1 0 I I

b fefd "5 d l ^ i ^ i c b i v w i i * ^ 1112.11

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)


0101*11

29

l f ^ "3FJ <*>^^ H 1 3 1 1
i: II 1 4 1 1 I 1115 11

J 010111

oicmK*m<ih T^flT 1118 11


59 *
N

60

^F?

l ^

I 19 II

I 20 11

R J W 1 J 1 T f'T^Jir I
21 II

: IT i^nft "^^ spjf fwdH


II 22 11

^T^T:

r^i i

! ''jF&T irf^Tl: 11 2 3 II
*$$ [Fol. 13b] ch^oi^i^i TTcfTTF?T: I

^pra^TTfir^RTr
25 11

II24M

30

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

'I 26 11

WT^Jcfr ?&n ^gf: rTOT *in<*tU4q*tJ I 28 1

<;<;ifa f ^ c T 3?Tyrf^T^fT *5& Tl^: "^J: Trff: rlT sie ] ^TgK^T

t^Viq:

11 29 11

^jfrpgfrBtBcTO^r: 11 30 11

^f|f:

II 31 II

II 33 II

it^ni <4im ^prSHclT 'ST^r^l I 34 11

rftfr ^^f^frf 11 35 11

?rjjTt> chlcn^

^pFJJKJn 1136 I I

i ^fFf

i)4^

f
:

l
I

I 37 11

: 11 38 II

11 39 II

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

31

&V([FoL 14a]?^r^pp% 1140 M

f
: II 41 II

01 d i e iMTjcisfl i<{[<^ SPCTTSr ^HHM5ia^

11 4 3 I I

f ^ :

II 44 II

45 11

^T^:

1146 II

q IT: I <sqmi sifch^: M tsieiiaci: 11 4 7 11 _ ^ % ^ T : 1148 11


#

^ I 49 11

* ^ %&k fMrt^%*i: 11 s o 11

>tmaWHICH "m ^ i i i ^ u ti^^9h 11 51 II

11 52 11

32

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

V I 1 5 3 II

I W H W I

1154II

^ I 55 11

*%

^tf|[Fol. MbpTTR^II 5 6 II

II 57 II

:115811

: ?I^T: 11 59 11

^ : 11 60 11

^TFRT: i^M^n^iq^tiMif^hi:

11

M^fldl

KVi^

VI161 II

: VIIR*I*H* ^fcj^i^ch: 11 6 2 11

K Tjff^Pft 1164 11

l ^ m ^ TargfT ^ H ^ l I 6 5 11

Satshasrik-hevajra-k (Sanskrit Text)

33

^
5RT:

J I 66' 11

cRT: ^ rieft f rlW: v<iuil ^utii*^

<HHifa?1nJ I 6 7 11

r^vjifct *jr^n: 11 6 8 11

rRT: 11 6 9 11

ff^Tfff^W^^^I I 70 1 1

r
1 71II

Pjl

7 2

. 15a]TUPi M^if^i frrf^l^c^wTM^uilcJ^ II 73 I I

rlrfr ^rrfrf

fc;*iAch I T ^ H I H ^ H , ' I 74 I I

f cfcT; <KC|| M^yH^r^iHr^til I f ^ fr 5 F ^ I I 75 11

I 76 11

^rarr
77 I
<;

Tra? foRT ^TRT:

f^IfJW^CT?w^rTT?^l I 7 8 11

34

Satshasrik-h(wajra-tik

"3CT5IT ^iTT^ f^TSF^F W 3 T : 8h^1 t^'cil : f^Tcf TTTB" SMU|imtg<4

I I 80 11

I 81 I I

11 82 11

Tlgf^rfrT: chieiM^x^MMci: 11 83 11

^fcT: TrR[TrQ H\IA ***&&<*: 11 84 II

^FffT^fr Wtt

I I S I M ^ H^rHfui: 11 85 11 tT5TT

4<M<A f^dM^^l ^ r f

^VJMJV^I

^(eifM^I I 86 II

^rT2!J: T: ^stj4a-HlH*i:

11 87 11

8 8 11 dl<4Pi^H(ri<*'^PJrfW: TtRtT: I ^MMW 3Tf^T: [Fol. 15b] T ^ 11 89 11

cTTTT ^ o T ^ "2[f^nXTT^| I 9 0 11

f f f i d * f ^ R j f fgr^nr wsnr 119111

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)


u m l i e f ?FRr|m >aJfcl: ^
N N
M r

35

.161 .162 ^

rrerrn 92 n

^Sh^M0! Bf'MI ^IJJ* 4*lf-M M^4U 3*T: 11 9 3 11


& ^v ps ps 163

II >JflHclHiHHil 11 94 11
NS164 .165 *

ja^i P
N N
166

VW rc|>M: 11 9 5 11

^167 p 11 1151 WJUi: I * ?cr i


N N

T
170

168

. . A W

LI

LL

I^^H 'S 1

11 yo h

OH*

Duoqyi^ti.

[T^l 1 9 7 11 ?HI:I rilMU RART: 11 9 8 11

,,_,_ 172

^jdH,
1 HglGICtl :

II 99 II

*T^II 10011

*\

dl M^\
srr^cRT^n 101 n

F>:l*fr:ll 10211

175 N

176

Hau*:

Mirti::

<Iani^it<j
L ^

*IMd:U 103 1

ST: 3>M:H 10411


179

180

# s

,UH

181

Sie^ u fMdl

I110S 11

36
183

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

106

107 u I : 11108 1 1

: 11109 1 1

Kiy^rcll -5 1 8 9 ^(%rfcrf^^: I i 110 1 1


190

191

192

193

195

r..%

96

Fn^^rspfTTrrSRT:

11111 II

u ^sar^HT^r 1 1 1 1 2 11

f n : :I
IKIMI

113 11

^t^RT^f fq^Fq^^l 3R$m "^cTFT "JT:


PI^H:

I :
1

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

37

1111

[Fl. lbl^^HsH M^IVI^l y ^ l ^ M^K^I: 11 3 II

: 11 4 11

f^RT: H 5 U

^ 16 11 :I
17 11

II 8 II

11911

"grtt l

^JpFT II 10 II

: II 1111

38

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

111211

13 11

l f d IT: 11 14II
T

"ST:
24 rs 25

rfOT
26 27

*jUimj | 15 11

16 II

II 17 II I I 18 11

i :I * 3&

: 11 19 11

T: ^ r 11 20 11

f W%

Satshasrika-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)


.38

39

ITT^ ^ ^ - ^ q - ^ T j j ^ ( T \

^ ^<icbKS^ r i

^ B ^
13H<+>RU|47 T ^ f IV
cRT: [Fol. 17b]
* 3&>

^T^A

^l

4 l

^ I^Rt^FF^

*
W& ffrT f^RW: 11

3 ] ^R^ W!^| 3 ] M^iWi^l I ^frf

: I [ 3& OT: ^

I 3T TT 3T^ 3 ^ 3 7 ^ ^

40

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

3T

1:1

cfcTt I cRT:

ff5V1

f
( ? ) i TJT^J ^ i ) "

I
.:97 11 21 11 | 22 I I

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

41

I 23 11

' ^

r ^ 1 f % '2JT^TT?TTT5FTTF: 11 24 11
VUTT>

11 25 11

: ^ T ?nfV'Mftftich of^f Pilcjq

[Fol. 19a] rTOT11 26 II

1 gffar
Tran 127 ii

f wutf
I 28 II
29

: II 30 II
31

32 I I

f^fig^r ^ r ^ i i 3311 raRTT ^


113

I
Nrv

114

115

d RiT

RT ?F%

il

11 34 11 3511

^TT^r f^T^nri':

42
118 .119

Satsahasrik-hevajra-tik

teMId ^HH<I: IT 3^q% 11 36 11

p l i 4 i H * l 4 ^TT^f ^p2T'^

i 3811

: II 39 11 I ^T^^ ^R^ f ^T^FTR^I I 40 11

iT^r 3f 3T: ^ ^ : 11 41 II

I 42 11 1 [Fol. 19b] yfycO^u^cdd^nnT 1143 11 :I I 44 I I

:
137

II 45 11

rRTT

^
138

11 46 II

rv

py 139

I 47 11 I 114811

Satshasrika-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

43

3ii<sam: q^fctST: ^T^ilqii 11 49 11

TfrfT:

11 50 11

Ixnl IcJM^I^ ilci^cb: 11 5 1 11

: I I 52 11

<4MM ^^^ilc^chilc^W: 11 53 11

4l4^[f: 1 54 1 1 1

^7T^%T^nj5fTnft^ll 55

iT
^ ^ n , ! I 56 11

I I 5711

H R ^ ^ C ^ 11 58 11

115911

1 6011

11 61 II

44

Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk

(sti u i ^T5Fd: ^nf^fr5cn^%5ftr ^T11 62 11

:11 63 11

! I 64 11

f
11 65 11

I 66 11

I 67 11

n 11 68 11

1 69 11

) i n 11 70 11

* c|chK$mch*i n 11 71 II

72 11

73 11

'
: 11 74 11

Satsahasrika-hevajra-tik

(Sanskrit Text) F3 : 11 7 5 11
r.158 IN js159 ^ 160

45

[Fol. 20b] ^ f r s f g rRTT TRTT5T c<MMH9h^: 11 7 6 11

"T % 11 77 11

IT: II 78

f^nffe^^ 1 1 79 1 1
13011

I 81 11

ch<*H qchKlSji^'H^c^H,' I 8 2 11

I 83 11

I 84 11

8511

I 86

TrfiT qchK'H^JrT i^chK^itiira^l I 87 1 1

I 88 11

46

Satsahasrika-hevajra-tik

fggx y<^fd^HJU||: II 89 11

"SP^ST: nusoiiiqcbi: 11 90 11

J ^ ^ ^ ^ *

11 91 11

11 92 11

* 11 93 11 I I 94 11

167

fs

f\ y

WT N l < ^ raTII 95
"^TT <p***\: ^r^Ffft" *n(t4chi rT^IT 11 96 11

ftcJf craT "^n^ ^Ff: t*ja*^

I I 97 11

I 98 11

H, TToT ^ I

I 99 1 1

[<X>M\ TTfTT: 1lJtomfq^ctlc^t* 11 100 11 : y l m i : "'ST^^^IT^f^TlfoT ^T |

iJl^rW

11 101 11

Satsahasrika-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

47

WTIT^ ^S

II 102 II

1103 11
[ F o l . 2 1 b ] >flcHi ^ f ^ [ ^ 1 ^ i ^ ^ t i ^ i H K i i l l 1 0 4 I I

^r

I 1105 II

*rafT^fiHlHJ1106 : II 107 II I 108 II

no ii 11111 II ^T^f^TP^I I 112 II

113 1 1
178

ff^RT sn^^Tra?T: II 114 11

48

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

nSH^TT H^l'HT! ^^RTrirrf^HT^Tn 11 1 1 5 11

II 116 1 1

[Fol. 22a] ^
: 1 17 1 1 1 1

ip

118 1 11 1

119

112011
^fl5|cfj qi^vJtpHIIH,'I 121 II ^ f " I

^T3[r W ^ ^ J F T T|2L|IVlFHl: 11 1 2 2 11

:
185
s
A 86 rs

II 1 2 3 11
187

fv

TCTTT r f ^ T HQIIUII
^ 188 189

|q*4SiHoHTict)l<u|4^

I1124 II

3&J oMv
v *v

TTTp:

TnmixviKg^a: 11 125 11

f^RTSR^ 11 1 2 6 11

: ^JcTT: II 1 2 7 1 1

: 1 1 1 2 8 11

Satshasrik-hevajra-tzk (Sanskrit Text)

49

129

13011

: ^[FoL 22b]^%^WI l 132 1 1

f g [ S T T f f r ^ f q * ^ ^ f r c4vjHfc|<H^ftnr: II 13311

l 1134 II

T:

11 135 11

136 :I, : rf^TTI I 137 II

138 11

: I1140 II

l: II 141 1 1

50

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

^OTrafTO[T^?: ^PJrTT: 11 142 11

: 11 143 M

^F^FT

ufdcbdl: T^rTT: 11 144 11

ft ^

I 145 ! I

fgol^
'3P*FT: ^R*
TN

<$T*4?I
j198

11 146 11
_:
199

I4^^U| ^

^ ^" 11 147

[Fol. 23a] ^ ^ F > : II 1 4 8

: 11 149 11 cRT: i r: M 150 II


204

f^: II 151 11

T "5
1152 n

rRT: 11 153 11

154II

Satsahasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

51

II 15511

* 11156 11

rRT: <j>^ii

^ T ^^f^q^nf^cr)*!' I 157 11

158 II I
g> 1115911

^j

160 II

^ i

fc

II

^T <Hi*Jcbi: I I 162 I I

: tuichitf "qTTNn^l 1163 11

FTP?

f [ F l 23b]ftT5^
: II 164 II

^
2

^ : I ( 165 11

S - i

rs rs 213

3-o ^

^RrJ&l

s 215

52
* <o

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

* 3&

220

223

f
^ TR^I I 166 II

226

^TPT
227

I 167 11

16811

: II 169 11

17011
; 228

171 II

[FoL 24a]

: 11 172 11

r
11 173 11

54

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

1 1 II 1

iHKI^I 3i

[Fol. 24b]

, I w ^ n ^ ^ i i TrfTR^I Mft^H-

<>!"[<*>! I *

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

55

: I "qf^TT3J3F: l ^

*><*>\<t#i: I 3F^li "TO: I q i ^ i H^IM^: I

: I T j f W * W ^ S t t ^ : I ^^iq^oHH^'J): I ( 8 ) I

" t T "3rft *#cIT M-ftlIMHJ Hu^dl^d'HlPlb K^Hlf P l ^ 1 ! ' Tc T

[Fol. 25a] ^kQ


^i I
I

(^pWf

I cRTt

2 ) ^<T ( 2

3T cjtffd |

3 )^(

3 )^(

2 ) ZSt ( 2 ) ( 2 ) <* ( 2 ) < 5 ( 2 ) 33b 2T

''TFIT ' T ^ P 7R[r ' l | p t f

l I3 4 ^

4^

l f ^ h fefe: I

TFIT T 3=PT^f cT^T cFPRf [Fol. 25b]

56

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

28

cTclt

* rrf ^Hi^f^rcii c^H^^cjtTl^i^m vtiT

11

( 2 ) ^T ( 3 ) [Fol 26a]

: elf

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

57

TTlf^f ^ T SFJcf "SF^jj Tffi:

"nt^f^nr Tr?rrf5#r ^^: \


I

f
cRT:

Tp5T V J I M ^ I <&> c^t>c

: 11

[Fol. 26b]

cisBich irr "R?r ( 2 ) f?rar ( 2

1 "q^lq^rR^ ^r 3 > q^-q*^ ^ n f ^ n 1 srjcf ^Hlri^la "^F^t ^jff wr 1 S

58

Saphasrik-hevajra-tik

T H I M ^

ofT

1 ^fcT ^?Ief^: ^HF^f^rqi TTcT: ( 2)

( 2 ) f r j % ii: ( 2 ) $r5jTn [FoL 27a] W$:

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

59

il

ft [Fol. 27b]
WT HIMCU'HIM CISB^I^H^l Ifl'^SMH 11

f H 211

1311

^iq^A^I*^

: 1 4 11 1

115 II

6 11

60

Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk

^F

sbqj

911

tal A ^ i f 4 ^^f * f^

10 II || 11 ||

ti t4*(l

II12II

tt [Fol. 28a]

1113 II

1 14 1 1
: I *f ^f ^f "H ?3 ^ liM^t^^
"? n R^ff
s: ;:

O^l

II

%5RRF3f'%T5ri^

^TlRM^FfTrf

\ 3 $ \ l [ f ^ R T

cf?

1115 11

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

61

: ^T: I116 II 17 II 2 8 b ] ^ l T fcj^l'r^rR^Ur^* ^ l ^ u ^ || 1 8 1 1


19 11

I 20 1

I 21 11

T9RTO ^T chmci3>: I

l ^ 2 3
: 11 24 11

II

12511
II 26 11

tf 27

: || 28 II 3T*TT: I "5[f^nJt ^ M ^ ^ l 11 29 II

62

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

28 . .

: 11 30 II

I 3 1 11

: 113211

33

11 34 11

35
TWT "^TJF t i c q ^ ^ m ^ q j I 36 11

H, I 37 11

1 38 11

n
39 II

l I 40 11

11 41 II

42 11

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Sanskrit Text)

63

114411

{\cH\HZXi

d^^ly^lM^r^ 11 45 11

^ ^ 1 1 4 6 11

l I 47

Q
^ h l ^ ^ %|^H<^i^l | 48

[Fol. 29b] <5T^ ^ W W * WH^ T&h y^Mcb ^ l ^ ^ l I 49 M fcJHW* 5011


41

^ II 51 II
3HlrHIH
: I ^4fq^1lPl HIHlPi ^'HHI^i^ c h l d ^ l 3S> ^ ( 2 )

(2)

^ ^ ^ f ^ ' H ^ ' C ^ ^u^lM'M ( 2 )

"^(2) ^FFT I %

II 5 2

11

S3 11

64

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

< fa^^g, PI^CIH, 1 54 1 J 1 1


3S> -EJM -EJTCPT ( 2 ) ^^5^1^TtfZ ( 2 ) q^icn^H H ^ H I H I - ^ 1 ^ ( 2 ) \ I ^cffq^iMi* chNqitV^xi ehielt " ^ ( 2 ) ( 2 ) <=**<*>] <n

!J H^yu^i H^fcir^l I 55 11 ( 2 ) "RT^ ( 2 )

I 56 11

l 4
[Fol. 30a]

^MdJ^ 5 II 57 II
5 9

cRT: Tief: TR\ <RfHBiciuff^rqi " ^ 1 ^ "Slf^PT ^

^ H j I 58 11

I 59 11

TR^rft rf5Tr 11 60 11

Satshasrik-hevajra4ik (Sanskrit Text)

65

61

I 62 II I
i^r^l I 63 11

T1164 11 rfrlt f ^ O T ^ l 165 11

: [Fol. 30b]
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English Translation (with notes) 1


Hail to Hevajra

1. Having bowed down I will reflect upon the naturally immortal body of the Buddhas, which has abandoned all popular way of life, which is of the nature of the Victorious One, always emergent and pervading, without duality, pure, whose Bliss is non-sensual, the ultimate knower of all, which represents the peaceful mind, which is not inanimate, and which has all senses in every direction. 2-3. Having bowed down to the Lord whose eight faces arising from the destruction of eight qualities, represent the eight liberations1 whose hands represent sixteen voids2 and whose skulls represent compassion, who wears on his shoulder, a garland of heads representing the fifty changeless fundamental alphabetical units, in whose crown there is the Bodhisattva Aksobhya with the half moon representing thunderbolt, (3) who has feet representing friendliness and the rest as liberators and which are resting after subduing the Mras, who has the collection and conjunction of moral and intellectual faults in the form of serpents and the tiger hide as his mudr, who has made the hindrances in the form of the Mras a part of his ornaments, for the sake of living creatures, I shall write a commentary relating to the tan trie secret of this (work). 4-6. On this shorter tantra of 750 verses containing many vajrapadas (adamantine words i.e. phrases pertaining to Vajrayna), which is selected from another big tantra of five lakhs of verses3, is revealed this commentary, which owes its inspiration to Hevajra and which is known to contain 6000 verses and following ur-tantra (miilatantra), by the illustrious Vajragarbha, a master

154

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

7-8.

9-10.

11-14.

15-16

17-20.

often stages, a well-wisher, of all creatures, for the apprehension of the path by the yoglns. In these times of five degradations4, those teachers who are instructors in Yogcra are not the promoters of the right path, (but) (8) they, the followers of bad practices and eager to go to hell by their greed of others' wives and money, teach the smaller tantras; without any commentaries. Some despisers of Yogcra comment (on the tantras) without the five abhijns (intuitive or supernatural powers) by taking pride in logic; (10) we, holders of Vajra (the knowers of Ultimate Adamantine Reality), having comprehended with great effort the essence of Buddhahood and Vajrasattvahood by means of initiations, speak (it) to the mankind. All monks, who are observers of discipline and vows, are unworthy of respect; we who wear white garments and are ourselves the Vajradharas are said to be worthy of salutation on this earth. (12) Those servants, merchants, low class people and those who take delight in farming are the fools who trade in the holy path and enjoy unenjoyable objects. (13) They, belonging to the family of the Mara (the Evil one), become the teachers of the disciples. Only by pretending to follow Yogcra, they having concealed selfmade faults, (14) talk of renouncing faults (in others). Only the good qualities of the teacher should be acquired but never his faults. (15-16) There is no doubt that accepting the faults will definitely not lead the disciple to perfection. An intelligent disciple should not accept a teacher who is merciless, wrathful, given to self-conceit and unrestrained. He will not teach this principle to his disciples. He is said to be one who is a farm labourer, merciless, wrathful, cruel, hater of monks, puffed up with all the bad knowledge, (18) greedy and wanting to enjoy unenjoyable objects, unrestrained in drinking too much wine, self-aggrandising and fault-finder of the virtuous. (19) "A vajrcryawho has obtained the best abhiseka is bowed down by the Tathgatas residing in the spheres of ten directions at all times." (20) Without understanding the esoteric meaning of such language, (he) is deluded by mere words. By insulting the Tathgalas, they go to hell.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

155

21-26 He is the vajrcrya (teacher of Vajrayna) who has obtained the best abhiseka on his head and who is initiated by the Vajrasattva at the foot of the Bodhi tree. (22) To him, the worlds composing the bodies made of the five skandhas of the Bodhisattvas of ten quarters of all three times bow down in respect (23) He is the vajrcrya of the yoginswho is honoured by the Buddhas who are residing in their crowns (in the forms) of worlds and studded with the various gems. (24) As by convention (samaya) excreta means Vairocana, urine, Aksobhya and semen virile, Amitbha, so (by the same convention) crya is the holder of Vajra (one who has realised the Ultimate Adamantine Reality). (25) While as crya, he is the bestower of the physical vocal and mental perfections. (26) That seka which is valid for all times (lit. before and after) is conferred by the yogins on the disciples either in the conventional or absolute senses, either in mandala or at the Bodhi-mula (respectively). 27-32. A tantra is characterised by these six extremities : Esoteric meaning as also one without esoteric meaning, neither expressed nor not expressed and absolute meaning and conventional meaning.5 (28) The good qualities of the teacher are shown through practice. Therefore, the qualities of the Vajrasattva (adamantine being) are characterised by the six supernatural powers etc. (29) Firm, disciplined, intelligent, patient, straightforward, not fraudulent, knower of the application of the mantra and tantra, compassionate, well-versed in the scriptures, (30) one who has comprehended the ten principles and knows the art of painting the mandalas, pure-minded, one who has control over his senses and a teacher who can explain the mantras. (31) A monk, who is Vajradhara, endowed by these said qualities, is neither a celuka (a monk who wears no more than a loin cloth) nor a householder. A deka of them is not equal to him. (32) It is said that those three, viz. followers of ten moral commandments, five moral commandments and the ultimate moral commandments are not equal. 33-38. The state of Vajradhara, as explained in the mulatantra, (basic tantra) attained, by a monk is being partially explained to the disciples, attending on the teachers. (34) The Vajrin (i.e. Hevajra), requested by Nairtmy in the same manner as before,

156

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

speaks these words in order to bestow the moral commandments. (35) In the beginning by conferring the five moral commandments along with the posadha (observation of weekly sacred day) and by bestowing the precept of the rejection of the ten improper deeds, he should be made upsaka (a lay follower). (36) Thereafter, he should be made srdmanera by conferring the ten moral commandments. By bestowing on him the ten million moral injunctions, he should be made vrati (practitioner of a vow). (37) Then having studied Prdtimoksa, the views of the Vaibhdsikas should be studied. After having known the Siitrdnta, one should study the Vijnnavda from the point of view of one's own dharma. (38) Then having known the Madhyamaka, he should study the doctrine (Tib. dgons.papurpose) of Prajnpramit. Having learnt all other tantras, he
should study Hevajra(tantra).

39-41. The outcome of all three ynas is in the result of one ydna; here
[they are] Srvakayna, Pratyekabuddhaynaand Mahynais the

third. (40) The Buddhists do not have a fourth and there is no fifth view accepted by the sage.6 The void endowed with all the best forms is the primeaval cause. (4 1) From pranidhna (vow) arises compassion which gives rise later on to a result useful to the world; he, who having accomplished his own aim, looks to the interests of others, is a wise man. 42. How will he, who himself is suffering and poverty-stricken, give any pleasure, power or wealth to others when inspired through the commiseration for the benefit of being? 43. Until those seeking after the results have not realised the cause, till then, how can there be at all any fruit which is causeless? 44-55. It is said that there is no other ydna than the Mahdydna for the consolation of those who are devoid of ddna, sila etc. pdramits (perfections). (45) The emptiness of all phenomenal world has been explained by me with a view to discard it. Therefore, through that discarding and also through the power of pranidhna (vow), (46) there arises the great result of supportless compassion. This compassion is said to be of three types (compassion for) beings, (compassion for) the phenomenal world and that compassion which is without any substratum. (47) The compassion which is supported by

Satsahasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

157

creatures and phenomenal world and which is partially beneficial, belongs to the perfect ones (Siddhas) and the Bodhisattvas who have mastered the ten stages. (48) That supportless compassion which is said to be beneficial to the whole world, belongs to the Sugatas who have suppressed the twelve angas (parts) and mastered all the bhmis (stages). (49) As is the cause likewise will be the result. From any kodravas (paspalum scrobiculatum) whatsoever, paddy will not be produced. (50) As is the seed so will be the fruit. My words are beneficial in the beginning, middle and end. (51) In the beginning from the cause of ideation the result is attained by ideation and ultimately all the buddhists attain the Snyat fruit through the absence of ideation. (52) As in the beginning in order to till the field, the kodravas should be sheared, afterwards in that cleaned field the rice seeds should be sowed. (53) Although the birth in the six different categories (of the living world) is impure and a result of the good and bad, this human state born of the soil of deeds is not to be called impure. (54) If the seed of substratumless compassion is sown in the human birth, (i.e.) in the pure soil, then from it will arise the heavenly tree of Snyat. (55) Doubtlessly the fruit of the substratumless compassion is considered by all the beings to be arising from the heavenly tree of Snyat. 56-57. Oh beloved, I have instructed through mudr (positions of hands), mandala (figurative drawing), mantra (lit. syllabic formulas)7 etc. those who have lost all sense of glory with respect to the deep and illustrious doctrines; (57) that doctrine, imparted through mudr, mandala, mantra, etc., in order to attain buddhahood and vajrasattvahood, will in future be imparted by the teachers who will be of the family of Mra. 58-60. Therefore in Mahayana, a monk, who is called Vajradhrk (the holder of Vajra, the Adamantine Reality), an instructor, knows thoroughly the three ynas and comprehends all the collection of the doctrine. (59-60) That fool who does not know Veda, Siddhnta and Yoga systems, created by Isvara and others8, and the tantra and mantra etc. of buddhists with Snyat as the special doctrine, will bring about the fall of all his disciples. 61-65. There is no action without the doer and without action there is

158

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

66-69.

70.

71.

72.

no fruit. The great illusion, the active force underlying creation and destruction, is terrible. (62) The Lord himself is the doer, the depriver and the king. The illusion of god is also called God by the heretics and followers of Saivasiddhnta. (63) Oh Janrdana in the Git-dharma (philosophy of Bhagavad-git), he is called the uncontrollable discipliner and the protector of good. (64) Oh descendant of Bharata : whenever the doctrine becomes faint and the wrong doctrine becomes manifest, I create myself. (65) I am born from time to time for the protection of the good, the desctruction of evildoers and the firm establishment of the doctrine. Having known all this mistaken instruction of the doctrine, Hevajra himself has inspired me to write a commentary. (67) Having, bowed down to the best body, natural and worshipped by the three worlds, which is called the doctrine, which is the instructor and the sambhogakya bereft of pleasure and pain and the nirmna, which is accompanied by heavenly wonderful miraculous powers, comparable to the illusionary rainbow, I will explain the secret words of the shorter tantra and its absolute meaning in brief. (68) Here in the shorter Hevajra is made manifest to men, that instruction of the Victorious Ones which in the bygone days has been preached by the Buddhas through a collection of ditantra (basic tantra) of five lakh slokas, (69) That instruction is made comprehensible through the commentaries on the Laksbhidhna9 consisting of one lakh slokas and another collection of the tantrarjas. He who imparts instruction about the secret words in the commentariless smaller tantras, is like a blind man who is able to see the foot-prints of the serpent on water after a long time (after its departure). The conventional meaning and not the absolute meaning has been preached by the Victorious Ones. If the conventional meaning is made manifest by the commentary then the absolute meaning will be meaningless. The Victorious Ones have preached the tantra which is neither the esoteric language nor the non-esoteric; neither the declared nor undeclared and which is neither absolute meaning nor conventional meaning.10

Satshasrik-hevajra-fik (English Translation)

159

73-75. Here those spheres which are not excreta etc. being impure spheres are not goddesses. The faces and hands of goddesses are themselves not enlightened but they are imagined for the sake of Bodhi. (74) That tantra Guhyasamja etc., having six extremities and the destroyer of the pride of the learned sdstras, has been revealed by the Lord. How can it be understood through reason? (75) That knowledge which is like the prognosticating image reflected in the charmed mirror, giving knowledge of the three times and which is bereft of the net of ideation about existence and non-existence, is the non-dual knowledge. 76-79. The Lord had explained the thirty-two veins viz., those which are at the throat, heart, navel and the guhya carrying the semen virile to the mahsukha-cakra. (77) However, the Victorious One has not explained to me who am Vajragarbha, what those veins at the joint of hands, feet, the hands and fingers, carry. (78) Whichever is said to be the ancient teaching by the monks is contained in the Theravda pitaka in the mgadha (language) and not in any other; (79) however, in order to cure a different malady another medicine is necessary; because the fourfold basis of teaching is primarily in the meaning etc., and not in the letters. 80-81. Is it not surprising that this language which having the characteristics of Sanskrit has been considered (fit) for the religious instruction even by gods, demons, nga (serpents) and yaksa and garuda (a mythical bird) and by many others, (which has been considered as) incomparable and wonderful and which is spoken even by the Lord in evam mayd (thus have I etc.), should be called by the wise as archaic? 82-83. That body which is like an optical illusion and is compared to an illusion which is flying, that body which is called the Lord's body for the understanding of the fools and the learned, (83) that which is endowed with the thirty-two major characteristics and eighty minor marks, stays in the mandalawith all the spheres, elements, with the sense organs and the sense-objects. 84-85. Always the fools desire to know the praiitya samutpdda here. The creation, destruction, the date, the calculations of constellation etc., are preached in other tantras. (85) Some fool desires (to

160

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

have) curds without milk or desires to obtain cow's milk without the cow. So here what is the fault of the ignorant devoid of all commonsense? 86-88. The Cakrasamvara and the Catuhpithaka to be understood through the Hevajratantra, Hevajra and Catuhpithaka is to be understood through the text of Cakrasamvara. The Hevajra is the shorter Cakrasamvara and this is to be understood through the Catuhpithaka. (87) And the absolute meaning is to be known from the words of the Paramdibuddha and from the Mahsamvara. (88) Like this always a seeker of path should understand other tantras by the help of another ones as being the uddesa (the enumeration) and nirdesa (explanation).11 Colophon : Here ends the first chapter viz., tantrrthvatra eulogising the tutelary deity of the commentary on Hevajra(-tantra) compiled in 6000 slokas.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

161

Now, the tantra is explained. Here, first having considered the relation between subject and (its) explanation, the purpose, the purposes of another purpose; the Lord, surrounded by a host of dkiriis, residing in evamkraznd has attained the //^o/'m-meditation, requested by Vajragarbha and questioned by Nairtmy, explained this short tantra, consisting of 750 slokas, (selected) out of the Hevajra(-tantra) of 5 lakh slokas, which will confer Buddhahood on the undisciplined disciples according to the intention of their own minds, in this life. Here the subject is Lord Hevajra along with Nairtmy; the king amongst tantras with its collection of chapters is the explanation; the relation between the subject and the explanation is of the character of the matter signified and the signifier. The purpose is the entrance into the mandala and the bestowal of abhiseka (sprinkling water as an indication of bestowal of power). The manifestation of the principles of teaching is the purpose of the purpose. Thus having considered all these 'the undisciplined disciples', means those who have not taken the vows of monkhood 'according to the intentions of their own minds' means by the mind ready for the enjoyment of five sense pleasures; 'conferring the Buddhahood in this life' means again and again in human birth only and not in those of gods and spirits etc.; 'residing in evamkra? means residingin the abode of all Bliss by the meditation on Reality; 'Being surrounded by a net of dkinis' (means by) the marks, of skandha (spheres), dhtu (elements), yatana (organs of sense); the Lord Vajrasattva who has attained the /fe^'ra-meditation, who is requested by Vajragarbha and also, questioned by Prajn Nairtmy; from a basic tantra of Hevajra containing 5 lakh verses and 32 great sections (kalpas) has preached a shorter tantra containing two short sections of the nature of Sambodhi and Myjla, having 22 chapters and 750 slokas12, by means of the discussion of the mundane and supra-mundane perfection, through

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utpatti-krama (the process of creation) and utpannakrama (the process of complete production of reality)13 through the meditation on mandala and cakra 'and through' the meditation on the Reality. This tantra explains Hevajra and the tantrais the expresser of Hevajra and he exists by the relationship of to be expressed and expresser. In the first chapter he exists by the nature of Vajrafamily. Then by the nature of the chapter on mantra; by the nature of the chapter on devat; by the nature of the chapter on abhiseka;u by the nature of the chapter on the Reality; by the nature of the chapter on the practice; by the nature of the chapter on determining gestures and the seats (of tan trie practice); by the nature of the chapter on the gathering of the yoginzs; by the nature of the chapter on the king of sections viz. abhisambodhi. Thus the first section contains eleven chapters. Then in the section of the net of illusion, illusion means dkinis14 and net is a group. Samvara means assembly, accompanied by Heruka, is the rule. Therefore, the first (chapter) at that time exists by the nature of the chapter on pratisth (consecration)15 homakundakarma-prasara (the making of the altar for fire offerings) and pj (worship), (then) by the nature of the chapter on the determination of perfections; by the nature of the chapter on the symbolic language (samdhybhs) and the origin of all the tantras; by the nature of the chapter on the rising of Hevajra; by the nature of the chapter on the purification of the mudr and rules for drawing the pata and writing the book of Hevajra; by the nature of the chapter on purification of the meals; by the nature of the chapter on the characteristics oiPadminl (the woman chosen for the performance of ritual) and disciples; by the nature of the chapter on the purification of idols and a collection of mantras; by the nature of the chapter on the recitation of mantras; by the nature of the chapter on the permission to practise the yoga for the meaning of Sahaja (Innate). Thus the tantra containing twenty-two chapters16 exists naturally. Lord Hevajra addresses Vajragarbha : * "Then the Lord said, the essence of the body, speech and mind of all the Buddhas" is the knowledge which is the Great Bliss, "That (also) is the Bhattraka (Lordly), the secret and all the more secret" to be hidden and all the more hidden, from those taking delight in the cultivation of duality. "O Vajragarbha, well done, well done : (Do thou) Listen to the essence of Vajrasattva,

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Samayasattva, Mahsattva&nd Mahbodhisattva called Hevajra."

Therefore, the words of the Lord appear at the end of the vijahra sentence. Therefore, the vijahra sentence appears first and the words of the Lord are given (next). Therefore, it is said before, that the Lord has spoken about the dwelling place; and the inspired words of the Lord are due to the request of Vajragarbha. * "Thus have I heard at one time, the Lord dwelt in the bhagas of the adamantine ladies who are the body, speech and mind of all the Buddhas."17 'Indeed have I heard at one time'. Those words are they spoken by the omniscient preceptor or by the compiler of the treatise who is soliciting? By the conventional meaning both (interpretations) are faulty. Now, if he is reporting, whatever he has heard in the past, then he is ignorant about the future times, as the perception (has arisen) through having heard from others. And if they are those of the compiler then the words, thus etc., will carry no meaning, as the Vajrasattva has not uttered them. Therefore, this sentence should be understood in its absolute meaning, by having recourse to the symbolic language. The absolute meaning of this is : (1) "The casket of the Buddha which is the abode of all bliss, is that which is of the excellent shape of and in the centre is adorned
by Yarn."

The Great Bliss', (is) the Vajrasattva, who is myself, the preceptor, (that is) the Great Bliss. 'Heard' is known; 'by me' means by himself, 'at one time' (means) in a moment of Perfect Enlightenment. 'The Lord' (is) the Great Bliss. 'All the Buddhas' in the esoteric (symbolic) language are the five spheres. 'Their body, speech and mind' is the adamantine Lady. The physical, vocal and mental actions are the adamantine Ladies of the nature of the sense objects, the space etc:, elements; by the difference in the coming and going of the breath in five places in the top of the head, in the forehead, at the throat, in the heart and in the navel lotus; and 'in the bhaga' means exists in the threefold differences, in the navel the secret parts and in the adamantine jewel. By the differences in the joy etc. (means) dwelt in the Bodhicitta. 'By the change' (means) by its reversal, by the destruction of the qualities, in the adamantine jewel, in the secret parts and in the navel; by the gradual destruction of the spheres in the navel, in the

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heart, throat, forehead, top of the head; (he) dwelt in these, by the difference in the natural result (nisyandaphala) etc. Thus, the attainment from the Great Bliss is explained because of the uncovered state of the words spheres etc.
e indicates syllable vam indicates syllable ma indicates syllable The syllable y indicates The sru indicates syllable The tarn indicates syllable The Then the spheres * indicates syllable e The indicates ka syllable The syllable smin indicates The syllable sa indicates The ma indicates syllable The syllable ye indicates The bha indicates syllable The syllable ga indicates The van indicates syllable The The syllable sa indicates rva indicates The syllable ta indicates syllable The th indicates The syllable syllable ga indicates The indicates syllable ta The syllable k indicates The The syllable ya indicates v indicates The syllable Thus the twelve sensei organs: cd indicates syllable The tta indicates syllable The va syllable indicates The The syllable jra indicates

The The

Locan. Mmaki. Pndar. Trinl. Vajradhtvesvari. Prajnpramit. Vajrasattva Aksobhya. Amoghasiddhi. Ratnasambhava, Amitbha. Vairocana. Gandhavajra. Rasavajra. Bhsavajra. Spa^savajra. * Sabdavajra. Dharmadhtuvajra. Sarvanivaranaviskambhin. Lokesvara. Ksitigarbha. Khagarbha. Vajrapnl. Samantabhadra. Stambhi. Mninl. Jambhi. Ativirya.

Satshasrik-hevajra-ttk (English Translation) The The The The The The The The The syllable syllable syllable syllable syllable syllable syllable syllable syllable

165

yo indicates Atinila. 5 2 indicates Raudrksi. dbha indicates Sumbha. ge indicates Usnisa. su indicates Vighnntaka. vi indicates Prajnntaka. ja indicates Padmntaka. h indicates Yamntaka. ra indicates Prajnopytmaka. The chief of Vajrasattvas is the 37th. Thus the thirty seven qualities contributing to Enlightenment (Bodhipksik-dharm) are gradually purified. The six worlds, the six spheres, six senses, six organs of action, six types of actions of the (six) organs of action and the Great Bliss though the gradual destruction of the try state,18 Then the four items of intent contemplation and mindfulness, four items of thorough abandoning, four bases of psychic powers, five sense organs, five powers, the noble eightfold path, the seven constituents of Enlightenment, Thus from the natural Great Bliss, the dharmakya arises. From the gradual destruction of the try (is brought about) destruction of deep sleep; from the destruction of deep sleep, (is brought about) the destruction of dream-state; from the destruction of dream-state (is brought about) the destruction of wakefulness; the bodies Sahaja (innate), Dharma (doctrinal), Sambhoga (enjoyment body), Nirmna (transformation body) will be (experienced) in the order of the destruction etc. respectively. 'The knowledge5 means the mind, speech and body become uncovered. Then, (2) "Everywhere hands, feet etc., every where eyes, head, face, everywhere in the world endowed with hearing, dwells by covering everything." Therefore, (3-4) partless, all-pervading, minute, omni-present, the seed (of everything), pure, dirtless and free from dirt, faultless, spotless, free from blemishes and (4) the awakened, enlightened, omniscient the best knower of all, beyond all phenomena of consciousness, which assumes the form of non-duality. This Lord Hevajra from whom all the (mental) wrappers are gone, who is of the nature of the four bodies and who is the master of twelve stages in the preceptor. Bodhisattva Vajragarbha, master of ten stages is the one who is the solicitor.

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Colophon : Here ends the second chapter, of the Hevajratlk of 6000 slokas, viz., the relation between the preceptor and the solicitor, expressed and expressor and the rule about the place of dwelling.

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Now is explained the request of Vajragarbha and the Lord's reply to it. Vajragarbha asks ' Vajra etc/ * (1) "By what a person attains (the state of) Vajrasattva? How one attains (the state of) Bodhisattva? Through what one attains (the state of) Mahsattva? How does one attain (the state of) Samayasattva? "]9

Having heard this query made by Vajragarbha the Lord said, (2) "Vajra is said to be indivisible. Being means unity of the three worlds. By this method of understanding he is called
Vajrasattva"20 (3) "One who resides in Bodhi (Enlightenment) is called Bodhisattva. One who is full of the essence of the Great knowledge is called Mahsattva. One who always observes the samaya is said to be Samayasattva e tc, "2l (This) is the explanation of the enumeration manifested in the tantra of five lakh slokas. Therefore, it is laid down here. There the Lord says : (4-5) " Vajra is said to be indivisible and it is proclaimed as the syllable Vam. Similarly body, speech and mind are indivisible and are indicated by Vam. (5) Being is the unity of three worlds and is indicated by the syllable E. The syllable E goes with Prajn and the syllable Vam is of the nature of three kulas. (6-9) The vira dwells in the navel centre i.e. a region concealed in the anthers. One who is endowed with a self-effulgent wisdom is praised as Vajrasattva. (7) Having two arms, he is called Heruka and he is the mover of the three worlds; he is called the svbhvika-kya (the natural body) of the Buddhas, that is perfectly Blissful. (8) He is the Jnnavajra (Adamantine knowledge). He is the Sahajnanda (Innate joy). He is said to be the nisyandaphala (the natural result) (and) the single-

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(10-12)

(13-15)

(16-21)

(22-23)

peaked Vajra. (9) He is that stage where the try condition is also destroyed and he is the pure, the best and the indestructible and the one who exists in Enlightenment and dwells in the heart-lotus. The being is said to be the syllable Hum and he is Aksobhya; he is said to be the cittavajra and Visnu having four arms, (11) He is referred to as jvalajvalabhyo(?) ,22 The same is the dharmakya. He who is endowed with Vajra, dwells in the Dharmacakra and (he is) the holder of the form of viramnanda. (12) He is also said to be the Vipkaphala (the ripened effect) and the destroyer of the state of deep-sleep. He is called the Great Being (as he is) filled with the essence of Great Knowledge. He is the Lord of the sambhoga-cakra at the throat and is called Amitbha. He is said to be the vgvajra and the Buddha who holds a lotus in his hand. (14) He is the paramnanda and is praised as the purusakra-phala (the result attained through human effort). By conventional truth and absolute truth he is all in all and the destroyer of the dream-state. (15) He is the sambhoga-kya and preceptor of the doctrine of the Buddhas. He is said to be Sarhkara, having three faces and six hands. He is the Kitikiti-vajra23 and is the third Heruka. He is said to be existing always in the condition of samaya. (17) Samaya (is) the hare-bearer (i.e. the moon), the semen virile, the Great Bliss dwelling in the forehead. The being residing in the nectar is said to be the syllable Om. (18) He is said to be Vairocana and also he is the kyavajra. He is said to be Brahma, holder of kyavajra, (19) The form of Brahman is of the nature of nanda and he is called the rpakya (form-body). He has a cakra (a discus) in his hand and his body bears phenomenal characteristics. (20) By the transfiguration (vivrty) he is the purity and is also the destruction of awakened state. He is the Picvajra24 (?) and Heruka with eight faces. (21) The great chief is endowed with four feet and sixteen hands. Thus by the difference in the body, he is called the fourth Heruka.25 From the svbhvika arises the dharmakya: from the

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dharmakya arises sambhogakya and from it arises the nirmnakya. Thus are the four kyas. (23) Brahma is the holder of kyavajra; Mahesvara is the holder of vgvajra; Visnu is the bearer of cittavajra and Vajrasattva is the Great Bliss. This is the explanation in the basic tantra in connection with the cause of three families." (24) The families become fourfold when joined with the svbhvika-kya. That is the distinction made in the families by the four differences. This should be known by one who is practising yoga and desires to follow the path of the Buddhas. The syllable Evam is Vajrasattva; the syllable Hum is cittavajra; the sylable h is vguajra; the syllable Om is kyavajra, Evam (means) h, Hum, Om. By the sign of each of these syllables one should grasp the explained meaning and not the sign of the syllable. Here the sign is not an entity; if it would be, then it can be grasped by the mind and the eye. Since it is not like this, the sign can be grasped by the ears only. The signs of syllables cannot be grasped by the mind and eyes and further the objects like the jar, piece of cloth etc., which are fashioned by means of clay, (potter's) wheel, staff, water, thread, bamboo-peg, a rope, thread etc. are not created by mere designations. The designations are just mere sounds; earth etc. are not like the clay which is the cause of the properties like cold etc. Thus is the answer of the Lord which is explanation. Now again the query of Vajragarbha and the reply given by the Lord is commented upon. Vajragarbha asks : * (25) "By what one becomes Hevajra? What is the use of this composite name? What is proclaimed by the syllable He? And likewise what is meant by Vajra? The Lord said, * (26) The syllable He indicates Mahkarun (Great Compassion) and Vajrais calledPrajn (wisdom). Listen to this tantra consisting of Prajn (wisdom) and Upya, spoken by me.26 That explanation of this enumeration as given in the ur-tantra is introduced here. There the Lord says :

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(27-28) "This compassion is said to be of three types, viz., sattva(creatures), dharma- (phenomenal world), and nirlamb(substratumless). The nirlamb-karun which on account of its greatest import is expressed by the syllable He.27 (28) This same is the earlier syllable Vamhy the harmony (yoga) of body, speech and mind. The word Vajra indicates the syllable E which is the snyat of all forms. (29-33) This union of these two is expressed by the word yoga (union). Therefore, the tantra (a treatise) consisting of Prajn (wisdom) and Upya is called Yogatantra. (30) Yoga is indicated neither by the word Upyanor by the word Prajn. Therefore, Hevajra, free from duality, is indeed yogatantra. (31) Samja (i.e. Guhyasamja) etc. all the tantrascontain Prajn and Upyaand therefore, all these tantras are yogatantras through the names of Prajn and Upya. (32) Where the yoginis are active (lit. movement) the Upyas (i.e. male yogins) exist side by side. Conventionally, it is called yoginitantra which I have explained to the ignorant. (33) Where Upya is active and the Prajn exists side by side, it is called upyatantra, and conventionally it may be whatever it is.28 (34-35) In whatever manner the cultivation of mudr and mandala is considered, in that manner the characteristics of creation and destruction will disintegrate. (35) The union of Prajn and Upyahas the characteristics of indivisibility of the three Vajras (i.e. kya-, vk-, citta-vajra); the unity of knowledge and the object to be known is the non-duality of Snyat (void) and Karun (compassion). (36-39) Four Vimokss (freedom)29 are enumerated viz., void, signless, aimlessness and absence of accumulation (of deeds good or bad). The four brahmavihras (sublime emotions) are compassion, friendly feeling, delight and equanimity. They are not being conceived as the dharmas and hence having the quality of not being hindered, they are perceived as bereft of duality. (37) The Prajn and Upya themselves as well as the kyavajras are non-dual, as also the six spheres, the elements, the senses and their objects. (38) Non-duality is that by which the actions and the organs of the actions exist; (it is the non-

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duality) which is the samvara (the rule or binding vow) of all the Enlightened Ones and dwells in the syllable Evam. (39) Listen to the tantraoi the nature of Prajnznd Upya which is being preached by me, through the differences of three families, five families, six families, and thus by hundred differences. Thus (this is) the reply i.e. the explanation (given by) of the Lord which is the rule of establishment in the yogatantras. Now is stated the cause of the rise of the yogints. Here, in the tantra. the yoginis are the five spheres, four worlds, six organs of senses; by the difference of the fifteen phases of the moon, Nairtmy and others. The cause of their rise and continued existence (utpatti-sthitz) is the syllable Hum; Heruka is the second (cause). From it their power is cognition and perception, in which manner the goddesses would rise. Thus, Oh Vajragarbha, you should listen to Hevajra speaking of * (40) "the attraction by gaze, the language of physical signs and many types of well-known powers, as also, petrification, causing a person to decamp (from his occupation etc., by means of incantation), the stiffening of the army and bewitching and some others."30 Again saying, 'Oh Vajragarbha, you please listen/ Thus is the rule about the rise and continued existence of the goddesses. Now also the cause of his rise is described. "Then first becomes Evam etc." The syllable Evamis the first cause of Heruka and the syllable Hum is the cause of the rise of the second (cause). This is the rule. (41) Then from it arises the existence with subject and object difference and through the relation of (according to Tib. trans.) the sense-organs and their objects, the different kinds of perceptions arise.31 * "One is bound by the bond of phenomenal existence (matter)." By that bondage of the phenomenal existence are bound the perceptions etc. and eyes etc. * "The liberation is attained by its thorough knowledge."32

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"Its thorough knowledge'* means the cessation of the functions of the sense organs and their objects. Therefore, * "Only this phenomenal existence releases" means by seeing the past, present and future with the faculty of divine eye, the six perceptions are released. Their perception is something elseso is said by the Lord. So the form etc. are also different. Therefore, (42) "Hands and feet in all directions, everywhere the eyes, head, face etc.; he can hear from all directions and he exists by pervading everything." Now as is said before, the absolute meditation on Prajn and Upya is explained * "The meditation, the object of meditation etc." Here the meditation on the existence of space is like a dream which is beyond the nature of atoms. By its thorough knowledge, the nonexistence should be meditated (means) the reflex (i.e. reflected image) should be considered with an undistinguishing mind. "The direct perception is that which is free from construction and which is a non-illusory (state)." This (i.e. direct perception) is of four types : Indriya-pratyaksa (sensory perception), mnasa-pratyaksa (mental perception), yogi-pratyaksa (supernatural perception) and svasamvedana-pratyaksa (perception through self-experience). The knowledge derived from them is indicatory, promoting and leading towards attainment and direct experience. This alone is the reflex which is proved (literally, accomplished) by nine illustrations. Thus, the reflected images are the miracle city, echo, dream, illusion, artificial contrivance, mirage, the reflection in the mirror, the moon reflected in water and space. The Prajn becomes the syllable E. * "Likewise Heruka etc". Means the non-existence should be meditated as the knowledge of Prajn-(pramit); Heruka is the Great Bliss. As is Prajn so is Upya. By his (Heruka's) thorough knowledge, the non-existence becomes the object of meditation and (hence) it is Upya. The word "likewise" indicates here (the principle) that the result is in consonance with

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cause. The syllable Evam consists of Prajnd and Upya. Residing in the body means resides in the navel. Thus The Great Knowledge bereft of all false notions resides in the body perfected; bereft of the thought of mandala, cakra, karmamudra and jnnamudr; so also bereft of the net of false ideas about the knowledge of perfection of wisdom. (This) is the rule. He is Vajrasattva, the agitator of the three worlds and the svbhvika-kya. * "The pervader of all existence" means he pervades the six spheres, the six worlds, six sense-organs, six objects, six organs of actions, six actions of six organs. He is the Jnna-kya. * "Though he resides in the bodies, he is not born of body" etc. (means) because of the absence of generation and destruction. Here whatever is spoken of in the second section (kalpa) in the Dkirii-jla-samvara in the chapter on the Siddhinirnaya (the determination of perfection), that of Vajragarbha and the reply of the Lord, the bliss of the two senses through utpattikrama (the process of creation) for the sake of the understanding of the ignorant. (43) Through utpanna-krama (process of complete production of Reality) the Bliss that is born, is the Great Bliss. If the utpanna-krama bereft of contemplation, then what is the purpose of utpattikrama (process of creation) ?"33 Here the utpannakrama is bereft of thoughts and the pleasure of two senses. It alone is capable of bestowing the Buddhahood. Therefore, what is the purpose of creating the mandala and mudr by thought construction? Having heard these words, Lord Hevajra replies, (44) "Oh, Mahdbodhisattva, you are lost by your overweening faith. "34 Conventionally, "On account of the absence of the body, the Great Bliss cannot be called Bliss at alL The world is pervaded by Bliss in the form of that which pervades and the object pervaded. (45) As the fragrance in the flower is not obtainable in the absence of the flower, so on account of the absence of form etc., Bliss is also not experienced." Thus (it is explained) conventionally. There again in the absolute, it is negated. (It is negated) in this

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manner : The Hightest Wisdom assumes all the forms like "I am existence, I am non-existence' i.e. the wisdom endowed with all forms. I am the Enlightened One because of the understanding of the existences. (This) means that the six abhijns (subtle powers) are the Upya. "Those are ignorant who do not know it and being thus, are vanquished by indolence", meaning thereby that (they) are vanquished by the pleasure of the two senses etc. The preceding and following as well as the conventional and absolute meaning will be explained in detail in that chapter itself. Here again is stated what is said in the chapter on families : Here if the knowledge of the Enlightened Ones on account of its pervasion of the three worlds, with movable and immovable objects of past, future and present is (said to be) born of the body, then, just as, the fragrance of the flower is destroyed by the absence of the flower, in accordance with the relation between the thing and its substratum and likewise the absence of the flower, means the absence of the fragrance too (then such is not the case of the Buddhajnna). Therefore, on account of its pervasion of the external body, it is called as abiding in the external, and (hence) is said to be residing in the body. (By that reason) by which in the absence of the body it (i.e. the knowledge of the Enlightened Ones) is not absent, by that same (reason) it is not born of the body. Thus is the rule. As is said, (46) Just as the space (occupied by the jar) is not destroyed on account of the destruction of the jar, so on account of the destruction of the body, the knowledge is not destroyed. Colophon : (Here ends) the third chapter viz., the rule about the non-dual knowledge of Prajn and Upya, in the Hevajra-tik consisting of six thousand slokas.

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Now the ndis in the Vajra-body are spoken of.35 Here Vajragarbha said, * "Oh Lord, how many ndis are there in the vajra-body? The Lord replied, thirty-two ndis; thirty-two ndis which lead to the Bodhicitta and now into the place of Great Bliss." Here T h e Great Bliss etc*. The Great Bliss is the experience of Great Bliss. Guhyacakra contains thirty-two ndis. The six classes of thirty consonants beginning with kaetc, are the characteristics of the anhata (sound unproduced by any impact) of the nature of non-duality; as also by the nature of the elements of space, wind, fire, water, earth and knowledge (means) by the nature of the syllables Evam. Thus, k, kh g, gh, n, are (the consonants representing) the space element. "A ku, ha and Visarga are the guttarals" i.e. "are suggested by the letter ha as it falls in the middle (and hence) by taking ha, (all) are taken". As is proved by the above maxim Aa-class is the space element. Thus also c, ch,j,jh, na; i, cu, ya, sa are the palatals. They are the representatives of the element of wind and are suggested by ya-kra. Also t, th da, dh and n; r, tu, ra, s, are the cerebrals and are the representatives of the fire element and are suggested by ra-kra. Thus p, ph, b, bh, m; u, pu, vya, ni are the labials representing the element of water and are known from vakra. Thus again t, th, da, dh, n; l, tu, la, s are the dentals representing element of earth and are known from La-kra. Amongst these s, s (?), s, s, (ks?),jnare of the nature, consisting of five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space and consciousness, sixth being the element of knowledge. 'Of the nature' means the pair of letters Evam. As the syllables Evam etc. are the attractors of the Bodhicitta, by that they are said to be the bearers of the Bodhicitta. 'Flow into the place of the Great Bliss' means the flow of urine, excreta, and semen virile. 'In them the three nerves upper and lower are chief; below the navel (are three) i.e. the lower

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one in which flows the excreta, urine and semen virile. Above the navel (are three), Lalan, Rasan and Avadhti. As it is : * "Lalan dwells by the nature oiPrajn and Rasan that of Upya; Avadhti dwells in the central region, having abandoned the grasper and grasped relation." Here by the word 'Prajii', is signified the moon of the nature of the bearer of breath in his (i.e. of the sdhaka) left nostril; by it, by the nature of moon dwells Lalan, the bearer of breath. By the word Upya, the sun is signified in the right nostril, by its nature of carrying the breath; by it, by the same nature, dwells Rasan. As is said, "The Lord Vajrin is the day and Prajn is said to be the night. As the sun is called Siva, Sakti is called moon." Lalan exists by the process of creation (srsti-krama) of the five mandalas of Vijnna (consciousness), Samskra (impressions of past actions), Vedan (feeling), Samn (thought), and Rpa (form); Rasan exists by the process of dissolution (samhra-krama) of the mandalas of the elements earth, water, fire, wind and space. By the cycle of twelve junctions (lagnas), by the odd and even junctions, Lalan and Rasan pass through thirty mandalas each. Here in (the right ndi i.e. Rasan, in the makara-lagna (the junction of capricornus) the mandalas (of the elements) earth etc. respectively (by the process of dissolution) and are (the long letters) k, kh, g, gh, n. Then by reversal in the left ndi (i.e. Lalan) in the kumbha-lagna (the junction of acquarius), the mandalas (of the sphere of) Vijnna and the element of space are the letters viz. n, gh, g, kh, k. In the right (ndi) likewise are the mandalas of form etc. (skandhas) and those of the elements earth etc. by the difference of the existence of body and speech, by the relation of grasper and grasped (i.e. subject and object). Thus at the rise of mina-lagna (thejunction of pisces) are (the letters) ca, ch,j,jh, nin the right by the process of dissolution. Then at the rise ofmesa-lagna (the junction of aries) in the left (ndi) by the process of creation are (the letters) n,jh,j, ch, c. Also at the rise of vrsa-lagna (the junction of taurus) are (the letters) t, th, da dh, n as also at the rise of mithuna-lagna (the junction of gemini) are (the letters) n, dh, da, th, t. Then at the rise of karkata-lagna (the junction of cancer) are (the letters) pa, ph, b, bh, m. And at the rise of simhalagna (the junction of leo) are the (letters) m, bh, b, ph, p. At the rise oikany-lagna (the junction

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of virgo) are (the letters)^ th, da, dh, n, and at the tul-lagna (the junction of libra) are the letters n, dh, da, th, t. Then at the (rise of) the vrscika-lagna (the junction of scorpio) are (the letters) s, s (?) s, ks,jn, and at the rise of dhanu-lagna (the junction of Sagittarius) are (the letters) ks,jn, s, s, s. Thus in a day and night sixty mandalas (are covered). Thus the inner veins are the carriers of mandalas. Their suggestors are said to be born from them at the joints of hands and feet. In the joint of right shoulder and arm is the junction of capricornus (along with) its every mandalai.e. the mandalas of earth etc. below the joint of the thumb, fore-finger, middle-finger, ring-finger and the little-finger respectively. Then in the joint of left shoulder and arm is the junction of aquarius (along with) mandalas of space etc. below the joints of the little finger, the ring finger, the middle finger, the fore-finger and the thumb. Thus in the joint of right arm and the lower arm is the junction of pisces (along with) the mandalas of earth etc. at the second joints of thumb etc. Thus in the joint of left arm and the lower arm is the junction of aries (along with) the mandalas (space etc.) at the second joint of the little finger etc. Then in the joint of right hand and the lower arm is the junction of taurus (along with) the mandalas of (earth etc.) at the third joints of the thumb etc. Thus in the joint of the left hand and the lower arm is the junction of gemini (along with) the mandalas of (space etc.) at the third joints of the little finger etc. This is the rule of the uttaryana (summer solstice). Then in the daksinyana (the winter solstice) in the like-manner : In the joint of right hip and the thigh is the junction of cancer (along with) the mandalas of earth etc. respectively at the first joints of the thumb etc. of the right foot. Then in the joint of left hip and the thigh is the junction of leo (along with) the mandalas of the space etc. respectively at the first joints of the the little finger etc. of the left foot. Likewise in the joint of the right knee and the thigh is the junction of virgo (along with) the mandala of (earth etc.) at the second joints of thumb etc. Thus in the joint of the left foot and knee is the junction of libra (along with) the mandalas (of space etc.) at the second joints of the little finger etc. Thus in the joint of right foot and knee is the junction of scorpio (along with) the mandalas (of earth etc.) at the third joints of the thumb etc. Thus in the joint of left foot and knee is the junction of Sagittarius (along with) the mandalas (of space etc.) in order at the third joints of the little finger etc. Thus,

178

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in the Nirmna cakra, are the sixty mandalas and four (are) the siinyasthnas by the nature if the syllable Evam. Therefore, in the Nirmna-cakra is a lotus having 64 petals. (That is) by the petals are meant the 60 ndis bearing the mandalas and the four ndis, bearers of snya. Thus in every lagna and ndi there are five places and (therefore), in the middle is the ndi carrying snya. To the east is the ndi carrying snya. To the south is the ndi carrying fire. To the north is the ndi carrying water. To the west is the ndi carrying earth; at the centre is the ndi Avadhti carrying the Jnnamandala. As is said, "the warrior residing in the navel, in the secret sphere of activity (like that) of the anthers of the flower". Thus the sixty dandas (measure of time equivalent to 60 vikals) (are equal to) sixty ndis carrying the mandalas; four carrying snya (are) equivalent to an instant just as in the case of the 16th phase of the moon (and) should be known as such. (Thus) they do not carry the complete mandalas. Thus in the Nirmna-cakra, visamalagna (an uneven junction) represents Lalan on account of its lunar nature. Samalagna (an even junction) represents Rasan on account of its solar nature. Avadhti is in the centre; free, from sama-visama-lagnas (even and uneven junctions) as well as subject-object relation and apprises of jnnamandala. Thus in the Nirmna-cakra, there are 64 changes of passages of the dandas (danda-samkrntayah) (out of which) the four are snya. Further, in the Dharma-cakra is an eight-petalled lotus. Then in the eight-petals, there are eight samkrntis (changes) by the division of the praharas (watch = an eighth part of the day), Lalan and Rasan each consisting of one and half lagnas. Then in the Sambhoga-cakra at the throat are 32 ndis by the division of long and short; this sambhoga lotus, according to the instruction of the Guru, is thirty-two petalled and is explained in the tantras in a reversed way. It has, according to the division of muhrtas (moments)
thirty-two samkrntis.

In the forehead, there is a sixteen-petalled lotus. Therefore, it is said that there are sixteen samkrntis, according to the division of
praharas.

In the usnisa (the top of the head) is a four-petalled lotus. There by the division of samdhys (four junctures at the division of day and night), there are four samkrntis.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

179

Here at the external exhalation of the breath (prna), then (i.e.) at the time of the exhalation of the breath, the mandalas of the danda and ndi rise in the nasal cavity, in the Nirmna-cakra, in the two nasal cavities i.e. in the left (cavity) or right (cavity). If, at the beginning or at the end the space-mandala flows, then (it i.e. prna) flows centrally. When the wind mandala flows, then it touches the upper side of the nasal cavity. If rc-mandala flows then the nasal cavity is touched on the right. If water-mandalaflowsthen the water touches to the front, right or left of the nostril. If earth-mandalaflows,then the bottom i& touched. Thus the five places in both the nostrils should be known by a yogin. * "On the left or right according to the difference in the odd and even lagna etc." Now the explanation of this from the Hevajra of five lakh slokas is not given on account of its being lengthy; because the less learned feel harassed by lengthy explanations. This is the rule of the Lord. Thus from the words "This cycle containing the twelve junctions capricornus etc. should be as in the Catuhpitha (PTT 3.69), as it is said that the omen of evil should be known from various tantras? It is said in the symbolic language that, * "The Rohit, Mohit etc., ndis are the bearers of the odd and even junctions." There, by these ndis the good and bad is (fore)told as well as danger and death. Here on account of this, * "Lalan carries Aksobhya and in Rasan flows the blood; Prajn is said to carry the moon and she is said to be Avadhti." Here 'Aksobhya' means the element of water. So in the left nostril is Lalan carrying the element of water. Blood represents the fire element and Rasan carries the fire element in the right (nostril), thus, the lotus born in water is in the left and in the right, the gem born from fire is the chief deity. 'Prajn' Avadhti and 'the moon' means the drop of semen virile. That itself carries the fivefold Great Void, those deities of the Vajrakula carry the void; amongst them, Avadhti is said to be the chief deity. Thus when the breath begins to move gradually Lalan, Rasan and Avadhti carry Moon, Sun and Rhu respectively.

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At the time of exhalation the ndis below navel, carrying excreta, urine and semen virile, are discus, sword and one-pointed Vajras, having one face upward and one downward. Now the thirty-two ndis carrying water downwards will be enumerated. * "Indivisible etc." Here the vowels in the bright fortnight are fifteen and sixteenth is the semen virile. These ndis entwine the back part of the tongue from all sides. As a, i, u, ry / a r e the first day, second day, third day, fourth day and fifth day etc. respectively, the guna (the first gradation of vowel) of the same are a, e, ar, o, al etc. (correspond to) the sixth day etc. respectively. There the semi-vowels are ha, ya, ra, va, la axe the eleventh day etc. in order; the lambik (posterior part of the tongue or uvula?) in the centre of the bindu is the sixteenth. Thus in the upper part of the palate and at the forehead (i.e. at the juncture of pineal gland ?) nectar of the nature of the bright phase flows. Outside it is cold and inside sika (a little?). Thus every ndi * "Thus Abhedy (indivisible), Sksmarp (with fine body), Divy (Divine), Vm (Left), Vamini, Dwarfish etc." These are the first day etc. five. Then * "Krmaj (born of tortoise), Bhvakl (contemplator), Sek (one who has received initiations), Dos (having faults), Vist (fisces)." These are sixth day onwards. * ^Mtrik (Mother), Sarvari (Night), Sitada (Giver of cold), Usm (Heat), Lalan." These are the eleventh etc. in order. Lalan is the fifteenth day and Avadhti is the sixteenth day. Then the first day of dark fortnight; in Rasan with the nature of long vowels, there are fifteen dates by the process of destruction (samhrakrama). It is la, va, ra, ya, ha etc. first day, second day, third day, fourth day, fifth day respectively. Then by the difference between guna (the vowel gradation) and vrddhi (second gradation of vowels) l, au, r, ai, there are the sixth etc. respectively. Then by the difference of the long vowels I, it, f, i, here are eleventh day etc. respectively and at the tip of the tongue, the visarga is the sixteenth. 'Between these' etc. means amongst Rasan and the others. As is said,

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation) * "Rasan, Preman, Krsnavarni (Dark-complexioned), Smny (Ordinary), Hetudyik (Bestower of the purpose)" are the first day etc. So also, * (6) "Viyog (Separation), Premani (Loving), Siddh (Perfect one), Pavaki (Purifier), Suman (Good-rninded) etc. are the sixth day etc. * "Trvrtty (Thrice surrounded), Kmini (Desired), Geh (Householder), Cand (Terrific), Ktyyanl." etc. are the eleventh etc. fifteenth. In the middle of the tongue is the Mradrik (who) stays at the tip of the tongue in the form of Klastra (Thread of time?). Rasan drinks the discharge from the back part of the tongue. Again, * "Vajragarbha said, O Lord, what kind of ndis are these? Lord said, they are all evolved from the threefold world." This means developed from spheres, organs of senses and the organs of actions. * "Bereft of subject-object relationship". These ndis when they enter in the middle (i.e. Avadhti) they become bereft of subject-object relationship. * "Or as a means they are conceived as having all the characteristics of phenomenal things" (means) spheres, objects, actions and means. By means of elements, subject (sphere) and actions, the characteristics of consciousness are conceived. Colophon: Here ends the fourth chapter of the Hevajra-tik of 6000 slokas viz. determination of the ndis.

181

Now will be explained the different samvaras. Here in the commentary all that has been spoken in agreement and against will be unfolded in due order. Here * " 'Samvara of all Buddhas dwells in the syllables Evarn' in the secret lotus of 32 petals, in the four-petalled lotus in the top of the head. Samvara is the assemblage of the rest in the cakras (psychic centres
in the body) 36 of Nirmna, Dharma, Sambhoga and Sahaja."

182

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

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Satshasrik-hevajra-iik (English Translation)

183

Thus all are fourfold. The thirty-six qualities which are the constituents of enlightement. The thirty-six elements, as is said before, are classified in four parts. All above-mentioned items having divided into fours should be allotted to the four cakras according to the differences of kula. As is said according to the ur-tantra and the other tantras individually, the samvara is in six cakras and according to the differences in six kulas; by the differences in five kulas, the samvara is in six cakras and according to the differences in six kulas; by the differences in five kulas, the samvara is in five cakras; by the differences in three kulas, the samvara is in three cakras. That is the rule. (1) The tantra contains three, four or five or six kulas the distinction between the (object) pervaded and the pervader, the support and the supporter. Here the substratum is one family, so by its distinction the supporter has one face. The substratum is three families, so the supporter has three faces; by the distinction of four families, the supporter has four faces; by the distinction of five families, the supporter has five faces; by the distinction of six families, he has six faces; by the distinction of eight familiese he has eight faces. Here by the distincion of Klgni, (he) is said to be one face. By the distinction oiRhu, he is said to have two faces of the nature of Prajn and Upya; by the difference of moon, sun and Rhu, he is said to have three faces of the nature of body, speech and mind. By the difference of moon, sun and Rhu and Klgni he is said to have four faces (of the nature of) body, speech, mind and knowledge; by the distinction of five spheres, five faces and by the distinction of six spheres, six faces. Twice moon, twice sun and twice Rhu and twice Klgni by the eightfold difference make (him) eightfaced. Bheda moon
sun

Place forehead tongue heart navel

The nerve centres the back of tongue throat. the top of the head
guhya

rhu klgni

184

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

As is said, (2) "The sun stays on the head of Rhu; the moon is above the sun and above the sun is Rhuka and that is how the universe revolves. (3) Klgni is his liquifier and resides in two places i.e. at the navel and at the secret centre. He is said to be the Vajrasrya where Candll resides. (4) Where nectar is, Hamkra resides there. The Vajrendu showers bright light on the lotus at the top of the head. Thus is the rule about the distinction of samvara. Now CandB-yoga is explained. Candll etc. *(5) "Candll blazes at the navel and burns the five Tathgatas. She also burns the goddesses Locan and others. Having burnt Ham the moon trickles down." This is to be explained : The explanation of this statement is quoted from the ur-tantra. There the Lord said, (6-12) "Vajragarbha, listen to the secret of secrets, that I am explaining which is the cause of all perfections and the bestower of liberation on the yogins. (7) That Jnnakya which is explained by Vajrasatlvais inconceivable. At the three-peaked centre, the lord resides in navel and the inside of guhya. (8) His rays resembling the streak of lightening have gone up and down. They awaken the spheres of senses and perceptions residing in the body. (9) She, Bhuvanesvari, resides in the navel on the middle peak and in the guhya, on the right peak like the falling lightening. (10) She is called the self-effulgent wisdom and hence she is called Candll. There are three peaks above and 66 below her. (11) The peak of Brahma is at the centre and that of Visnu on the left; on the right is the peak of Rudra through which flows excreta, urine and semen virile. (12) The peak of Rhu is in the middle, the peak of moon is on the left and that of the Sun is on the right through which flow water, fire and space." (13-19) Lalan is said to be on the left and Rasan is on the right and in the middle is Avadhti. Dombinl is called Wind. (14) Having made three paths from the navel to the centre of the heart, it goes. Again having made three paths from the heart to the centre of the

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

185

throat, it goes. (15) Having made three paths in the forehead and the centre of the throat, it goes. Having made three paths in the centre of the forehead and the top of the head, it goes. (16) Having made three paths in the top of the head and the nose, it goes. Lalan resides in the left nostril. (17) In the right nostril resides Rasan and at the centre (resides), Avadhti. There are the navel etc. five cakras of five kinds and having three paths. (18) The coming and going of Avadhti takes place in every knot (pericarp). Lalan and Rasan are said to pass from petal to petal. (19) That ndi which penetrates through Rhu at the navel and then sun, moon and the moonlight and goes to the top of the head is Avadhti. (20-23) When a person is overcome by desire then at the union (samputayoga) of Lalan and Rasan, Candli blazes positively. (21) Having burnt at the centre of the navel she exits through the way of Dornbl and then having penetrated through Rhu and moon, she touches Ham. (22) From Harn touched by her, oozes out the white nectar, burning the spheres and elements bearing five mandalas. (23) Having suppressed the senses and their objects and the Bliss etc. being created, the bindu (semen virile) trickles from the moon, while Ham dwells in the head. (24-31) Then the Rhu goes in the moon from the forehead and in the sun from the throat. The Candlik, having entered the navel, goes to the guhya-cakra. (25) Having gone into the guhya-cakra, he (? She=CandlI) is called Great Beast and (this guhya-cakra) is located below the trisla where the opening of three ndis is described. (26) In seven births Pasu (animal) becomes the bestower of the perfection called khecari (the ability to move in the space). When swooning, it takes away all the diseases and when (it) dissolves, it removes the spheres and the elements. (27) At the annihilation of the senses and their objects, it bestows sovereignty. Being endowed with the qualities like anim (ability to reduce oneself to minute stuff like atom) etc., it bestows khecaratva (ability to move in space). (28) It bestows the buddhahood quickly following the states of wakefulness etc., just as the mercury is solidified from outside so also this essence of knowledge is solidified. (29) Thus (when) Brahma, Visnu and Pasu (animal) fall at the guhyacakra, (it) bestows long life just when (being) carried away by

186

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

Subversion (dissolution). (30) In the upper (part) Rhu is called the Pasu and sun and moon (are the) Great Animals (Pasavah). When they fall in the Brahmarandhra, it bestows the fruit of enjoyment and freedom. (31) (Therefore), blood as well as sinews and marrow should be made to fall with great effort. These should be known as animals and none others outside the individual. (32) The being born seven times in this body is the lord of animals. Now I narrate to you the manner in which the body undergoes seven births. Please listen. (33-35) All the food, drink and essences of six types, eaten and drunk, when they ripen turn into essences; that is the first birth. (34) From that they turn into blood and the second (birth) becomes evident. Then it is turned into flesh and in the forth it becomes skin. (35) In the fifth it becomes veins and in the sixth bones are formed. In the seventh it is turned into marrow of bones. Then it becomes one with seven rounds. (36-39)As its repository, the six sheaths are called kula (family). The kula is called the body and that which arises from the kula is called semen virile .(37) its power is said to be menstrual discharge which is said to be the cause of the creation of the body. The consciousness is the extensive knowledge which resides between these two. (38) Heruka, who is of the nature of the three worlds, the chief of the assembly of dkinis dwells above and below having united with the sun and moon. (39-41)The four ndis are said to make the cakra in the top of the head, thirty-two ndis are there in the cakra at the throat and the cakra at the forehead consists of sixteen ndis. (40) Eight ndis make the cakra at the heart, sixty-four ndis are said to make the cakra at the navel and thirty-two (ndis), that one at the guhyaka. (41) The spokes of cakra are called either ndis or the lotus-petals. The objects (to be received) are the yoginis, doing manifold actio#ns, the natures of the senses, their objects and sense-perceptions. (42-49)Then all the seats and minor seats are the ndis and the lotus petals. Mahmy is said to be in the cakra in the top of the head along with the four goddesses. (43) Its rise is at the navel centre in the first circle. At the forehead is the PicvajrcF1 with the eight ndis, (44)

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation)

187

in the pair of eyes, so also in the pair of ears and nostrils, tongue and the back of the tongue. Gauri and other goddesses are form etc. (spheres) and earth etc. (elements). (45) (By) these differences of the phases of the moon, in the form of Nairtmy is described in this (in the forehead) only. He (Picvajra) alone having three faces and six hands has thirty two ndis in the throat. (46) This great Visnu, born in the family of Aksobhya (according to Tib. trans.) having four hands, resides in the heart along with the eight goddesses. (47) The mover of three worlds resides in the navel along with sixty four yoginis. These are known as the five dkas and the five elements are known as dkinis. (48) They reside in the five cakras and in the sixth, in the Guhya-cakm, dwells the Lord. The Lord of the three worlds (dwells) accompanied by the thirty two dkinis. (49) The six cakras having 156 goddesses are called the Klacakra of the six-families, rolled into one. (50-54) Those twenty ndis which are at the forehead and in the head carry the nasal discharge and so also forty at the throat and heart carry bile. (51) Those sixteen ndis at the navel and the eight at the guhya are the carriers of wind. At the guhya-cakra there are ten ndis which by nature, descend. (52) The three ndis up and down are the stoppers of six-cakras.The minor ndis dwell in the body having filled it with many elements. (53) They are 72000 and there are as many goddesses in the body. The number of hair on the body is three and a half crores. (54) As outside so also in the body the number of hair is perfect. One pnipala (time-measure) is equivalent to the time required for six respirations and sixty pnipalas make one ghatik (equivalent to twenty-four minutes). (55-56) One muhrtais equivalent to twoghatiks and by three and 3/4 ghatiks is made 1/2 prahara and byfiveghatiks one lagna is calculated. (56) One and a half prahara is one lagna and two praharas make one samdhi. Four of that (i.e. samdhis) make a day and night for the creatures.38 (57-61) Thus 12 lagnas (make a day and night for the creatures) as also the breathings equivalent to 21,600 and solar dandas (measure of time); (58) 24 fortnights and also 12 months and six seasons which in turn are said to be equal to four yugas. (59) So also the three Kalos and two ayanas (solstice) make a day in the body.*9 So also 900 breathings

188

Satshasrik'hevajra-tik

make one fortnight (of the body) and a month by 1800 breathings. (60) A season is to be calculated by 3600 (breathings) and a yuga by 5400 (breathings). Kla is made of 7200 (breathings) and ayana of more than 10,800 (breathings); (61) 10,000 (breathings) or two ayanas make one year. In the twelve samkrntis there are medium breathings 5600 in number along with the pdas, numbering 67,500/10 (62*64) Thus if the wind blows through Avadhti by 100 breathings and for three fortnights; and three years, then the time {kla) becomes the bestower of death on the living creatures. (63) If the breath blows in Lalan day and night, then in three years death takes place on account of the moon's death. (64) When the breath of creatures flows for five nights in the sun-(ndi i.e. Rasan), the death takes place in three years, on account of the sun's death on the right. (65-73) When the breath blows in the left ndi for a period of three days, then the petal in the zodiac is abandoned and thus in three years there is a loss of ayana (i.e. 6 months). (When the breath blows) in the second for a period of six days, then in three months it certainly descends downwards. (66) Thus in every three months, three days will be increased. (In this way) this abandons the eleven petals in a period of three years gradually. (67) When the left (ndi) will flow continuously for 33 days then by the difference of three gunas, (it, i.e. breath) enters the sun-(ndi), (68) Then for a period of three days, it will enter into pericarp. Then in one night the prna (breath) discards respiration on account of death. (69) When the wind flows for ten nights in the right ndi and if it flows in the second petal of the rsi (the signs of Zodiac), then the death will take place in two years. (70) If in the third petal of the rsi, it flows for 15 days, (then the person will die) in a year. If it blows in the fourth petal for 20 days, then (the death will take place) in six months. (71) In the fifth if it blows for 25 days, (then the person will die) in three months. In the sixth petal, if it blows for twenty-six days, then (the person) will live for two months. (72) In the seventh, if it blows for twenty seven days, then the person will live for one month only. Then if from this it will blow continuously for thirty three days, (73) then eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh petals should be abandoned gradually multiplying the days, date and direction by five.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation) (74-76) The wind goes to the left-ndi abandoning the right. Then two days are spent in the left and one day in the middle path. (75) Then having destroyed the breath, this gets up from death. The expended semen virile goes downwards and the menstrual fluid goes upwards. (76) The consciousness united with the breath is bound to the propensities of one's deeds. After death rebirth takes place but not without that (i.e. prna) does his rebirth take place.

189

(77-80) Just as the learning passes from the teacher (to the student) or just as the lamp is lighted from a lamp or as the seal (is made) from another seal or as the face (as seen) from the face reflected in the mirror, (78) just as the re-echo is created from the echo and the fire (which can be lighted with the help of fire) in the srya-knta jewel (sun-crystal possessing fabulous qualities), just as the sun is not born without a sun, and just as the sallival secretions would not be coming forth without eating tamarind. (79) As the tamarind tree is not created without another tree, as a sprout (comes out) only from a seed and is not born without it, that is the nature of result and cause. (80) Neither from oneself, nor from others, nor from both nor without any cause, those things which are created exist somehow and somewhere. (81-94) The cause of the birth of the body is the white and red of the father and mother respectively, as also the pair of inhaling and exhaling (of breath) combined with consciousness. (82) Amitbhaand Ratnadhrk are inhaled breath and exhaled (breath) respectively. The attachments of body, speech and mind are the mouths of the one endowed with thunderbolt consciousness. (83) The moon is born from the semen virile; and the sun arises from the blood; Rhu is created from the prna (inhaled breath) and Klgni from apna (exhaled breath). (84) From the semen virile, the nerves are created and also the bones are produced from semen virile. From the menstrual blood, the blood is produced, as well as from blood, flesh is created. (85) The skin is created from flesh and marrow (is created) from the bones. The semen virile is Vajra; the menstrual blood is Ghant (bell) and the lotuses of the ndls is the precious jewel. (86) The blood is cakra and bones, and also flesh is called sword. The utpala (the blue) lotus and the white lotus are skin and marrow respectively of the embodied

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creatures. (87) These eight are in due order the eight mouths of one's mind. The faces to the east are the feet and the feet are sun, moon, darkness and fire. (88) From the blood arises the soft soil which is called the sphere of flesh. From the semen virile arises the hard earth equipped with stones and bones. (89) From the moon, the water is created and from the blood, fire is produced. The birth of prna is from Rhu and that of apna (exhaled breath) is said to be from fire. (90) By the semen virile is created the tongue and the posterior part of the tongue (lambik) of all the embodied creatures. The right and left eyes are created from the menstrual blood. (91) By life, indeed, are created the two cavities for inhalation and exhalation as by void are produced the two ears. (92) By exhalation are created the three channels of discharge in the lower portion. Those, which are produced from Rhu, are the two breaths. (93) The pair of testicles which are the body elements are produced from the exhalation. The three spheres are produced from semen virile as well as from menstrual blood. (94) (Therefore), the body is called satkausik (having six sheaths) and the bodily organs are of two types. The lefr-(ndi) is born from water, the right, from fire. (95-100) And from the prna (is born) the amrta-(ndi). Therefore, these are said to be the three upper ndis. From the wind is born the left ndi and from the earth (are born) the middle and the lower. (96) The right ndi is, no doubt, produced from exhalation. At the forehead, in the full lunar disc, resides the adamantine body (kyavajra). (97) At the throat in the complete solar disc resides the adamantine speech (vguajra). The adamantine consciousness (cittavajra) of all embodied creatures resides at the centre of Rhu-mandala. (98) The jewel (Ratnasambhava?) no doubt resides in the earth at the Rhupuccha (?). In the disc of Klgni, Amogha resides above the Visvavajra (four-peaked Vajra). (99) There are six families viz., Cakra (Disc), Padma (Lotus), Vajra (Thunderbolt), Ratna (Jewel), Khadga (Sword), these five and the sixth in the Vajramani of the men and on the heads of the Buddhas. (100) Thus these are the six kulas (families) of all the Buddhas who are very powerful. Earth produces odour; the heat of the fire produces liquid. (101 105) That which is produced from water is sprout; contact is born from

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wind. From the inhaled breath sound is created and from the exhaled breath, the sphere of Dharma (is created). (102) So also it should be known that the mental organ of all the embodied creatures is formed there only. Yamntaka is produced from bones. Prajnntaka is produced from blood. (103) Padmntaka is produced from veins. Vighnntaka is produced from flesh. Acala is produced from marrow. Tarkvirja is produced from skin. (104) Niladanda is produced from hair (on the body). Mahbala is produced from nails. snlsacakri is produced from hair (on the head). Sumbharja is produced from hair (on the lower portion?). (105) Those samdhis of hands and feet which are divided (on the basis of) three gunasaxe the rsis, and by the four (elements) earth etc. are said to be twelve. (106-118) These sixty seasonal days are the knots of the fingers with their divisions. The upper and the lower teeth of the creatures are here the constellations . (107) The polar star is the semen virile gone to the head and Agasti (Carnopus) who goes downwards is the menstrual blood. As outside so in the body, it always arises from the embryo. (108) Heruka becomes twelve-armed because of the suppression of twelve parts and (he becomes) four-faced on account of the states (avasths?). (109) The Lord has 16 hands just as the phases of the moon and as he is the knower of the reality with sixteen aspects. On account of the suppression of the eight apertures, the Lord has eight faces. (110) He has suppressed moon, sun, darkness and fire by his feet and after having suppressed them by means of his,twenty-four arms (111) and as before, with his four faces, Klacakra comes into being. And another (Heruka) having thirty-four arms arises on account of the suppression of k etc., consonants. (112) The feet are said to be sixteen on account of the suppression of sixteen vowels. Vajrabhairava has nine mouths because of the suppression of the nine openings. (113) Thus the Victorius One has preached the tantrashy the suppression of body, speech and mind, for the purification of the ignorant." In the ur-tantra it is described in details thereafter. In order to instruct the ignorant, a little is spoken (here). The free behaviour of the ndi of this same family should be understood from the short commentary often and a half verses on the Laghucakra-samvara-tantra. So is the rule of the Lord, to be known from tantra to tantra. Thus this

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is the abbreviated meaning of the chapter on the Hevajrakula spoken by the Lord in the ur4antra in 30 verses. Colophon : Here ends the fifth chapter in the Kulapatala which is occasioned by the samhra (destruction), utpatti (creation) and^ogvzof Candli in the Hevajra-k containing 6000 verses.

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(1) Having bowed down by my head to the sambhoga-kya, which has been described in many words concentrating on the meaning alone I explain the same mantrain this path in order to indicate the symbolical meaning of kula etc. (2-4) The Buddhas revealed the sign of mantra in two types in the tantras. First is the sign of Thatness (absolute speech) and second is the practical speech (ordinary speech). (3) The sign of Thatness is the sounds of speech of all creatures. The conch of Dharma sounds loudly. The dharmagandi (the bell of the Dharma) makes loud noise. (4) The all pervading speech is declared to be unestablished Nirvana and the same ordinary speech is as much as a mantra indicates, the meaning of sign. (5-12) A person taking his stand on the middle status (napumsaka pada) should recite mantra without voilating its parts (i.e. the syllables constituting the mantra) in a way which is excellent, signless and following its meaning. (6) The sdhaka should recite (the mantras) without break of respiration, taking his stand on the Avadhti-jfrada, 21,600 recitations during day and night.41 (7) In five days one lakh eight thousand recitations will be made. Starting with the first day of the dark fortnight three rounds of recitations should be completed. (8) Again beginning with the first day of the bright fortnight three rounds (of 5 days) of recitations should be completed. He will attain perfection at dawn on the full-moon day. (9) Having bowed down to the Vajrasattva, he should turn the wheel of Dharmaby reciting 48,000 times. (10) He will attain perfection in one month by means of 6 lakh recitations of prna-japa (inhaling and exhaling). Neither the rosary exists, nor the recitation exists as also fire-offerings and mantra. (11) For those ignorant followers of Mantraynawho are incapable of reciting this mantra worship and other rituals are destroyed, and (12) in order that those followers of Mantrayna desirous of outward enjoyment may obtain merit, this practice of rosary is revealed for them.

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(13-18) When the breath enters the middle during day and night, then it removes the diseases and when it is bound by date and day, it bestows the perfection of moving in space (khecaratva). (14) If killed, while in the heart for a month, it bestows immortality on the yogins. If it burns at the navel for six months then it gives omniscience. (15) It is that which is made unconscious, bound, killed, burnt at the centres of forehead, throat, heart and navel in order. (16) By the suppression of the inhalation and the exhalation freedom from attachment is desired. But by the two i.e. burning and killing, the mantrin attains the Buddhahood. (17) By the destruction of inhalation and exhalation, the twelve parts are destroyed. By the suppression of cause and effect, who will not be enlightened? (18) So long as the breath of the living creatures moves, there will be becoming again and again but when the breath ceases to move, there is no death and no becoming. Thus the sign of mantra the automatic (effortless) repetition (of mantrai.e. napumsakajpa)42 should be known by the sign of Thatness. Here the Lord says, * "Therefore now will be explained the chapter on mantra. Thus the mantra to be recited while offering oblations to all creatures." 'All and creatures' means all beings. His and their mantra accordingly Om Akro mukham sarvadharmnm dynutpannattvtiti. Here by

the syllable a is indicated the uncreated sound (anhata). (19) "The syllable a is the best syllable, is endowed with deep meaning and is the supreme letter. It is the great breath, is uncreated, devoid of gross utterance etc." By these words it is understood in the Myjla. All means omniscient. (20) "The highest Lord of knowledge is self-knower, the knower of others, the whole (equal to sarvajna) beneficial to all, the supreme person, going beyond all popular comparisons is to be known." This is the mantra of the omniscient. The speech, which is the being of all creatures, is the absolute meaning. 'Elemental' means those who are born from earth etc. elements, those whose natural state is of the essence of the five spheres. Their mantra is constituted of the five spheres, meaning five syllables :

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Translation) Mantra 1. Om 2. h Sphere State attained Result achieved Mudr

195

Form Kyavajra Solana (purification) Left hand Sense-percep- Vgvajra (Bodhana) (?) Right hand tion (Understanding) 3. Hum Consciousness Cittavajra .Pradipana Folded hands (Burning) 4. Sv Feeling Amrtikarana Garuda mudr (Changing into nectar) 5. Ha Past imprevhana Trailokyavissions (invitation) jaya mudr 6. Hum offering of sacrificial object; snapping of the fingers (thrice) thrice. 7. Phat offering of sacrificial object; snapping of the fingers (twice) twice Thus the method of performing mudrsis known according to the different tantras. Thus there are as many bija-mantras (seed-syllables) of the Tathgatas. Thus Bija-mantra 1. Bum 2. Am Taihgata Vairocana Ratnasambhava Amitabha Amogha Aksobhya Place in the psychic centre Head Navel Throat Guhya Heart

3. Jrim
4. Kham 5. Hum

Thus having made the nysa (ceremonially indicating the place on the body and imagining it to be established there) on the body of Picvajra43 the same should be done with those of other Vajradkas. That is the rule. Then the mantra of Hevajra with sixteen arms. Om deva Picvajra^ hum (3) phat svh. Here the absolute meaning: As by the syllable om is indicated the seat of the goddess, so by the initial syllable of mantra, the goddess emerges. The rest of the bija-mantra indicates the anga-nysa (to locate the various deities on the different limbs of the body) on the eyes etc. in order; by triple Hum is indicated the attraction of Jnnasattva, the

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suppression by phat, the gratification by sv and the equanimity by h. This is the heart of Hevajra. * "Thus, by rule, all the mantras begin with Om and conclude with svh; in the middle is put hum in order to unite." Thus everywhere as before. *"Sadbhuja (Hevajra) : Om kiti-kiti vajra hum (3) phat svh. Caturbhuja (Hevajra) : Omjvala-jvala-bhyo hum (3) phat svh. Dvibhuja (Hevajra) : Om trailokyksepa hum (3) phat svh." Here in the chapter on the selection of mantras the syllables hum and phat are to be understood from the instruction of the teacher. * "The mantra of bestowing blessings (literally, establishment) on the body, speech and mind of all." Blessing on 1. Body 2. Speech 3. Mind Bijamantra Om h Hum Tathgata Vairocana Amitbha Aksobhya The Planet Moon Sun Rhu

Now is explained the conventional meaning of the vowels of Nairtmy and the rest, for the sake of the collection of the mantras (mantroddhra). a, a9 i, I, u, , r, f, I, I, ai, o, au, am etc. In the absolute meaning, it should be read as a combination of a group of letters into one whole, a, z, u, r, I, ka, a, e, ar9 o, al, ca, ha, ya, ra, la, va, are the bija-mantras of the phases of the moon in the bright fortnight and are not spoken by the Lord for the sake of the ignorant as per conventional meaning. Thus is the rule of the ur-tantra. Thus Puraksobhamantra (mantra for harassing the city): Om, a, ka, ca, ta, ta, pa, ya, sa, svh. Thus the conventional meaning. In the absolute meaning a, ku, ha, and visarga are the gutturals; i, cu, ya, sa, are the palatals; r, tu, ra, sa are the cerebrals; u, pu, va and upadhmniya are the labials. /, tu, la, sa are the dentals. Om a, , ha beginning with this na, na, na, ma, na, ksa, svh. This is the Puraksobhamantra. In the chapter on the collection of mantras, it should be known according to the instruction of the teacher. In the ur-tantra, the absolute meaning of the instruction is the thirty muhrtas (Time measure equivalent to two ghatiks (i.e. 48 minutes) of

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li (vowels) according to the difference of the phases of the moon and in every day the sixty consonants according to the difference of the danda (time measure equivalent to 60 vikals) of the sun should be recited. A, ka, ca, ta, ta, pa, ya, sa represents the li-kli (vowels and consonants) in the absolute meaning. By reciting li-kli japa one lakh times the mantrin harasses the three worlds, then what to say of one city? li-kli are as follows : aiirful le ai ar r o au al l ha h ya y ra r va v la, l. Thus is the japa of li by the srstikrama (the process of creation) at the time of the inhalation of breath. At the time of exhalation, the recitation of kli ka k kha kh ga g gha gh na n; ca c cha chjajjhajh na n ta t tha th da da dha dh na n; pa p pha ph ba b bha bh ma m; ta t tha th da da dha dh na n sa s sa s sa s ksa ks.

The ksobhana mantra is initiated by the syllable Om. At the end of the mantra for attraction (krsti), the vausat should be given. Thus is the Puraksobhamantra which when recited, should be uttered in accompaniment of meditation of a goddess, japa by red flowers and the offerings to the fire. Thus, the mantra of Kurukull is described. The substratum is established through Om, which is the creation of the body. The syllable hrim produces speech, in the wind family (according to Tib. trans.). Kurukull bears the sign of Amitbha. The anganysa is as follows : At the forehead is placed Om. On the tongue is placed Hrih. At the throat is placed Ku. At the heart is placed Ru. At the navel is placed Ku. At the guhya is placed Ll Having inhaled fully one should recite one lakh times and at the time of exhalation one should not move the rosary. That is the Kurukull mantra. Now is explained the absolute meaning of Raks-mantra (mantra for protection). Om indicates the soft seat, as also the place on the scented earth is like the beautiful moon; Ra suggests the solar disc in front. The syllable ksa is the visvavajra (the crossed Vajra which the consort of the Dhyni Buddha bears in her hand). Then, having drawn a wheel with ten spokes indicating the directions upper, lower and all the rest,

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at the centre should be placed Vajrahurhkra Krodharja, at the eastern spoke should be placed Yamntaka, at the southern spoke should be placed Prajnntaka, at the western spoke should be placed Padmntaka, at the northern spoke should be placed Vighnntaka, at the south-eastern spoke should be placed Acala, at the south-western spoke should be placed Tarkvi, at the north-western spoke should be placed Niladanda, at the north-eastern spoke should be placed Mahbala, on the upper side should be placed Usnisa, and below should be placed Sumbharaja, Then the second recitation : The syllable Ra indicates the solar disc. The syllable ks indicates the visvavajra. Its mixture indicates the threefold Vajraprkra. The threefold hum indicates vajrabhmi (the adamantine ground), ktgra (the room on the top floor) and the Vajrapadmsana (the adamantine lotus posture). The syllable phat symbolises the destruction of the wicked. The syllable sv symbolises the awakening of the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas. The syllable h symbolises the explanation of all worship etc., and the confession of sins. This is the absolute meaning of this mantra. Now follows the explanation of the twenty four letters of the mantras described in the ur-tantra and which are the means of karma. In this shorter tantra everything is hidden by successive and reversed orders for the sake of the wicked ignorant teachers; it should be understood through the order of the line of succession of good teachers and not by reading the text. Seeing all the tantras, whatever is the consensus of many tantras, that speech of the Lord should be accepted and not merely on senseless faith. As is said by the Lord "my speech is beneficial in the beginning, beneficial in the middle and beneficial in the end." Thus again, not merely, beneficial in the beginning and not beneficial in the middle, beneficial in the beginning, middle and end, just as is imagined by the ignorant. In the beginning the meditation with ideation, in the middle, the meditation on the pleasure of two sense organs, and in the end the meditation on the void free from ideation and on the Great Bliss etc. are the evil words. (21-22) The cause and the similar effect arising from it is seen
everywhere. From the seeds of the kodrava (Paspalum scrobiculatum, a

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lower species of grain), paddy is not produced. If the seed emerges from false ideation, then result will be one with ideation and if it is a product of (a state) free from ideation, then the result is also free from ideation. (23-25) Hence from this cause which is beneficial in the beginning, beneficial in the middle and beneficial in the end, (beneficial) result will be produced. As is the seed, so is the tree; as is the tree, so is the fruit; this is seen all over this world and this is the dependent origination. (24) That mantra which is created for one (purpose) will not attain another action. Nowhere in the world does the sun bring comfort from the heat. (25) As is explained to me clearly by Hevajra in the ur-tantra only, its explanation is given by me in the short tantra. (26-31) By the seeds of the earth should be performed the rite of stambhana (stiffening), mohana (stupefying), kilana (killing) and by the seeds (grown) in water should always be performed the rites of sntika (pacification), paustika (nourishing?) and nirvisa (removal of the effects of poison). (27) With the seeds of fire should be performed krsti (attraction), vasya (bringing anybody under one's power) and ksobha (causing agitation). So also vidvesana (creating hatred), ucctana (uprooting), visasamkramana (the transference of poison) should be performed by the seeds of the wind. (28) By the seeds of void should be performed the rite of visaccheda (removal of poison), mrana (killing) and fivana (bringing to life) and by the seeds of knowledge should be attained life giving, bringing up and the delight. (29) The mantrin should bring about dumbness, deafness and impotence by the seeds of mind, speech and body respectively. (30) The best among aspirants should attain the stambhana etc. rites through the mandalas of earth, water, fire, wind, void and knowledge. (31) Impotence, blindness, suffocation, deafness, insanity can be achieved by the above (mentioned) seeds. (32-34) They should be practised in the mountain, in the hills, in a bower of trees or on the banks of ocean, or in the cemetary which is perfected from the beginning. (33) He should recite the mantra as well as meditate, burn the offerings in the fire, and draw mandala, each according to the nature of each rite; otherwise perfection will not be attained in any other ways. (34) In other places (too) the goddesses and the mantras are propitiated by men and women. Thus exhorted

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by the tantras and mantras, the goddesses do the deeds (i.e. bring about the desired result). (35-38) Therefore, the wise should recite the name and meditate on the body. The basic mantra will become the body and the hrdaya(mantra) (the core of the mantra) is of the nature of speech. (36) Thus the mantra uttered in mind is the innermost core (upahrdaya). It is called the seed of knowledge and is said to be the jnna-mantra (knowledge-mantra). (37) In the bija-mantras too, there is upahrdaya(mantrathe innermost core) and hrdaya-( mantra) is from the mlamantra (the basic mantra). Thus knowledge, mind, speech, and body should be meditated upon and their mantras should be recited in order. (38) They should be worshipped and recited with great effort, till the perfection is bestowed. Or else if done without proper ritual, it will not lead to the perfection of mantra. (39-43) If it is taken on fnith, this will only lead to bodily labour. These letters ya, ra, la, va are born from wind, fire, earth, water. (40) They should be appointed at the east, south, west and north and southeast, southwest, northwest, northeast respectively. (41) Ha, h should be placed above and below and am and ah should be worshipped at the centre. A mandala of all the Buddhas with the teacher at the forefront should be drawn. (42) Another (mandala) of the five Victorious Ones should be drawn for the recitation of the good dharma. to the east is the round Videha having the characteristics of the mandalas of wind. (43) By the nature of the mandala of fire the Jambudvipa is triangular; in the western corner is the square Aparagodna (a country westofMahmeru) having characteristics of the mandala of earth. (44) Uttara-kuru is of the shape of half-moon possessing the characteristics of the mandala ofwater. The egg of the universe (brahmnda) is of the nature of void and has characteristics of the lunar disc. (45) Below is the Klgni, the solar disc in the form of knowledge; and at the central point is the visarga and above and below is the mountain of gods. Thus having drawn the mandala worship it with mantra etc. (46-53) Then draw another mandala, like that of the mandala of dust, on the ground. The six spheres, the elements and the six senses and their objects, (forming in all) thirty-six, should always be worshipped. (47) Also the earth, water, fire, wind, semen virile and the

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menstrual blood is the sphere of form of the creatures and is now called as consisting of six elements. (48) The designations guttural, palatal, cerebral, labial, dental and nasals are also of six types suggesting the meaning of existence and non-existence. (49) Through eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind the sphere of knowledge is also said to be of six types as arising from eyes etc. (50) Thus the feeling is said to arise from the perception of form, sound, smell, taste, touch and that of the sphere of dharma. (51) Thus the promoter of knowledge through the six organs of senses is the predisposition which is said to be of six types and impelling the senses towards their objects. (52) The sphere of knowledge is also of six types which constantly carries the inhaled and exhaled breath in the six lotuses (i.e. centres) and ndis, in the three paths, above and below. (53-60) The yogin should worship the Great Mind surrounded by thirty six elements and thirty seven great elements by di and kdi (vowels and consonants). (54) Those six classes of letters by the difference of long and short are by the nature of di and kdi seventytwo elements. (55) They are said to be seventy two and the vowels are thirty six. The mantra with di and kdi should be recited on the rosary. (56) For the recitation of the mantra of the yogins, (consisting of di and kdi) the rosary is said to be with 108 letters. Another rosary consists of thirty six short consonants and eighteen vowels. (57) That rosary is said to be consisting of fifty four letters. The third (rosary) should be recited by the difference in the constellations (i.e. twenty seven). (58) By the use of half the constellations the fourth should be recited. The fifth should be recited by the differences in thirty six vowels. (59) The sixth, by the difference in naksatra-bhoga (?). By the difference of eighteen vowels the seventh is recited. (60) Then again by the difference in the thirty six consonants, the eighth should be recited. These are the eight types of rosaries of the ascetics. (61-65) An ascetic should perform the rite of pacification by the one made of eighteen crystals. The rite of nourishing should be performed by thirty six pearls representing the vowels. (62) By the twenty seven constellations and by human teeth should be performed the rite of killing. By the teeth of the ass should be performed the rite of creating hatred and wrath and the rite of driving out too. (63) By the thirty six pure consonants and the rosary ofPutrafivaka (the rosary made of Bodhi-tree) should be performed the rite of overpowering.

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Thus vowels and consonants together with the lotuses more than four (64) or with the sandal-wood beads fifty in number should be performed the rite of attraction. Elsewhere the rite of charming is said to be performed with the soap-berries in number equivalent to half of the constellations (i.e. thirteen). (65) In the rite of causing stiffness is used the pure rudrksa (elaco arpusganitrus) the same in number as the vowels and consonants. Thus the pure and purer actions are narrated in eight different types. (66) Here the mixture of various types of seeds or precious stones or the metals varying in colours, whatever is available, should be used. (67-73) Now henceforth I will explain the characteristics of mantras for the yogins by which mantra arising in a particular family produces perfection quickly. Sounds of the Class of Mother Suggestive nature of vowels sounds elements syllable and consonants A, ku, ha, ksa gutturals Ma space Ya wind 7, cu, ya, sa palatals fire Ra R, tu, ra, sa cerebrals water Va uppadhmriiya labials earth La L, tu, la, sa dentals knowledge Anusvra and Visarga bereft of (vowels and consonants) Thus the family is composed of six elements. (74-76) The six families of elements earth, water, fire, wind, semen virile and the menstrual discharge make the great man with self. (75) He is the begetter (producer) of all mantras, the lord of di and kadi, he is of the nature of the spheres, elements and mantra and when acquired, bestows benefit. (76) Even he, one perfected in mantra and an omniscient, instructs through mantra for the attainment of all perfections and not by the recitation of the ignorant. (77-80) Those vowels and consonants which are mixed as in guttural-palatal, guttural-labial, and those others which rise from two places, are not pure by nature. (78) Those produced from one place like throat etc. are the naturally pure vowels; that is not the great mantra, if it is pronounced from two places. (79) That which is accompanied

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by the syllable a and which does not leave its place, which is naturally pure, that is the consonant, the visarga and the anusvra. (80) Those, which are accompanied by the syllable fand are produced in two places, are not naturally pure (as) the consonant may be doubled. (81-83) : The syllable of Direction Colour Origination La Eastern yellow Va white Western Ra red South-eastern Ya black North-western Ha blue Space all colours Visarga & anusvra Knowledge (84-89): Class of consonant to-class
jb-class

to-class ca-class
Krlass

sa-class ;ya-class so-class ia-class

te-class

Colour of the mandala yellow white red dark blue yellow white red dark blue

Arising from vowels I u


r i a

al
om e

e a

(89-90) a, i sa, u, /are the naturally pure sounds, a, e, ar, o, al are split in two with natural qualities. (90) Ha, ya, ra, va, la and ya, n, de, s are the other two groups. In these two main and secondary, the mandala-nyakas (the ruling god of the mandala who is always at the centre) are the chief. (91-93) Moreover, the nature of every class is said to be of five types : Letters Mother element 1. na, na, na, ma, na 2. gha,jha, dha, bha, dha 3. ga, ja, da, ba, da Void Wind Fire

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Water Earth (94-100) According to the major differences in the nature there are six families, due to the difference in the classes and by the difference in each letter, each family is five-fold. (96-97) :
Element 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Planet Colour Sphere Sense-organs

Bodily organs Puccha(?) Yellow Form White Sense-perception Tongue Moon Red Sun Feeling Eyes Dark Rhu Past-impressions Nose Black Mental perception Ears Dhruva Blue Knowledge Agasti Mind 6. Jnna (98) Thus spheres of smell, colour, taste, contact and sound and the sphere oiDharma are the six families respectively. (99-100) Thus anus, feet, hands, tongue and also the best organ, bhaga, arise from the earth etc. families. (100) Thus actions of speaking, talking, going as also excreta and discharge, and the fall of semen virile are all arising out of earth etc. families. (101) Thus there are proclaimed six elements, six spheres, six sense organs, six objects, six organs of actions and six actions of the organs of action. (102) By the difference of six spheres, there are thirty six elements and thirty seventh is the wisdom i.e. the realisation of the emptiness of the phenomenal world. (103) The elements are outside as well as in the body; as they are in the body, so they are elsewhere. By the pure earth stambhana is performed. By the pure water sntika is performed. (104) By the pure fire vasya is performed. By the pure wind vidvesa is performed. By the pure void jivana is performed. By the knowledge mrana is performed, (105-112) These are six actions (rites) with pure (elements) and others are with the mixed. Earth Water Fire Wind Space

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1. With the mixture of earth and water should be performed paustika of all creatures. 2. With the mixture of wind and fire should be performed kampana of all creatures. 3. With the mixture of wind and water should be performed karsana of all creatures. 4. With the mixture of earth knowledge should be performed patana of all creatures. 5. With the mixture of water and fire should be performed dravana of all creatures. 6. With the mixture of earth and wind should be performed mohanaand klana of all creatures. 7. With the mixture of void water should be performed apyyana of all creatures. 8. With the mixture of knowledge should be performed pratyujfivana of all creatures. 9. With the mixture of fire and earth should be performed samtpa of all creatures. 10. With the mixture of void should be performed jvara of all creatures. 11. With the mixture of knowledge should be performed stobhaof all creatures. 12. With the mixture of wind and void should be performed Visva-uccatana of all creatures. 13. With the mixture of knowledge should be performed trailokyaba-hana of all creatures. 14. With the mixture of void should be performed utpda of all creatures.

The rites of the intellectual are done through earth. (113) Knowledge alone performs all actions of the knowing ones. All the deeds of the yogins are achieved merely through meditation and not through recitation of mantra^ rosaries, fire-offering, mantra or worship. (114) Thus the mantras of three, four or six families, perform the endless actions ritually according to the nature of the elements. (115) Thus there are the mantras of six families which are pure and (also) mixed with each other. In the attainment of perfection, there are innumerable goddesses of the nature of mahsattva. (116-123) Now I explain the characteristics of the mantras according to the nature of five elements, (and also) for the sake of creatures. I will narrate their (i.e. of the elements) enmity, friendship and indifference. Mantra of elements Void & wind Wind Fire Water & fire Sound A, ku, ha,jna I, cu, ya, sa R, tu ra, sa
U, pu, va, sa

Their classes (guttaral) (palatal) (cerebral) (labial)

Relations friend enemy of those born of water enemy of those born of earth enemy of those born of fire

206

Satshasrik-hevajra-k l, tu, la, sa (dental) enemy of those born of wind friend indifferent friend indifferent friend indifferent friend indifferent

Earth Wind & void Wind & water Fire 8c wind Fire & earth Earth 8c water Earth 8c wind Water & earth Water &

(124-126) Having abandoned the sound om the initial letter of the mantra becomes the family; that is also the mind of the mantras and is the cause of the creation (appearance) of image. (125) Others accompanied by the consonants become initial letters of mantras. Then that which is grasped at beginning with a view to pronounce it first, (126) that same becomes two-fold by the difference of vowels and consonants. Then I will speak of enemies and friends of breath (prna) as well as of body. (127-132) The enemies, friends or indifferent of prnaare said to be vowels. And those who are enemies, friends and indifferent of body are consonants. (128) Undoubtedly an enemy vowel takes away the life of the sdhaka (one who is striving for Bodhi) and the characteristic of an inimical consonant is that it makes the body diseased. (129) Those kaetc. five (consonants) of the nature of consonants, even if in one class, their families should be known earth etc. in the practice of mantra. (130) Na, na, ma, na and na are friends and nothing else and gha,jha, dha, bha, dha are the enemies of those born of the element of water. (131) Ga, ja, da, ba, da are the enemies of those born of earth. Kha, cha, tha, pha, tha are the enemies of those born of element of wind. (132) Thus the friends and indifferent to each other should be known as before. The initial letter of the mantra is either of one's own class or of another. (133-134) The letters of the sdhakas are two-fold : obtained at birth and through the name. That should be shown as two-fold by the

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difference of consonant and vowel. (134) By the junction which is accomplished in the time equivalent to 5 dandas (i.e. 24 minutes), should be purified the consonants of men and women born on the capricornus etc., junctions. (135-138) At the capricornus k etc. should be purified by the difference of five (dandas?) At the aquarius n etc. should be purified by the difference in five voids. At the pisces c etc. (should be purified by the difference offivedandas). At the aries netc. (should be purified by the difference offivedandas). At the taurus t (from Tib.) etc. (should be purified by the difference
of five dandas).

At the gemini n etc. (should be purified by the difference of five


dandas).

At the cancer p etc. (should be purified by the difference of five


dandas).

At the leo m etc. (should be purified by the difference of five dandas). At the virgo t etc. (should be purified by the difference of five dandas). At the libra netc. (should be purified by the difference offivedandas). At the scorpio s etc. (should be purified by the difference of five
dandas).

At the Sagittarius ks etc. (should be purified by the difference of five


dandas).

Thus by the difference in the processes of creation and destruction, these sixty letters are purified in a day and night. (139-144) On each side left and right, they will carry five and by the difference in seasons and fortnights just as it is in the external world exactly likewise in the individual. (140) The vowels should be purified amongst the phases of the moon by the 30 divisions. Beginning with the first day of the bright fortnight upto the new moon day, there will be 30 goddesses. (141) The first etc. are said to be a, i, r, u, /etc., and the sixth etc. are a, e, ary o, al. (142) Ha, ya, ra, va, la etc. are said to be 11th etc.; la etc. five in reversed order are said to be dark first etc. (143) Al etc. five are the 6th etc. of the dark fortnight. Those /etc. five vowels are the 11th day etc. (of the dark fortnight). (144) At the full

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moon day is the dot (the anusvr) and on the 30th is the visarga. By the difference in moments each is said to be corresponding to the phases of the moon. (145-150) Whichever vowel is chief, it rises in that phase. (Those consonants of five qualities are the earth etc. families). That vowel which is at the first moment, becomes the vowel of the birth. (146) Then second of the second and so on respectively. By the division of thirty moments the vowel is spoken as (the vowel of) birth. (147) By the letter, by the vowel or consonant which is at the beginning of the mantra, the death or any great disease of the sdhaka can undoubtedly be brought about. (148) In case of the ignorance of birth vowel (janmasvara) and incomprehension of the birth consonant, the initial vowel in the name should be taken, as also the consonant that is at the beginning of the second (letter). (149) And for the propitiation of the initial consonants or vowels of mantras, sixfold meaning actions are spoken of, while attending on and reciting the japa. (150) First the mantrin should hit, inspiring, burning, then nourishing, increasing as well as gratifying. (151-156) If he subdues with the help of the mantra accompanied
by visarga and anusvr (=Snya?), then struck by the king of mantras,

he (?she) will attain the unconscious condition. (152) If he recites the mantra one lakh times then that unconscious goddess having abandoned her pride, will be under the power of the sdhaka. (153) Thus first she, subdued by the wind, enters the yogin. She burns when subdued by fire and waxes by the water. (154) The earth goddess residing on the head (of the earth), when recited (i.e. when her mantra is recited is nourished. When on the head, she who is marked by the phases of moon, is pleased and bestows boons. (155) Thus recitation of mantra six lakh times is said to form the preliminary worship. The Sugata has spoken this in all the basic tantras of the attainment of the desired aim. (156) The syllables phat, hum, vausat, om, svh as well as vdsat should be uttered by the ascetic at the end of the mantras of six rites. (157) Having placed Vairocana at the beginning, the recitation of mantra should start over again. Having recited the mantra one crore times, fire-offerings should be made in ten parts. (158-165) If, after the performance of all the rites explained in

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the tantras, the goddess manifests hereself and thus manifested, she will bestow a boon and whatever has been asked for by the mantrin. (159) If the type is different, if the action is different as also time and the family of the mantrin are different, if the place, direction and substratum are different then all the actions will be unfruitful. (160) Those men who practise sdhan through mantras, read from the books and devoid of tradition will come to grief in this world. (161) What type of tradition is it, if it can be obtained just by reading books as the obvious meaning is made manifest by reading what is written? (162) Those sdhakas who have rejected the existence of mantra and wishing to accomplish the goddesses through the mantras read from the books, wish, as if, to rule the space. (163) By strong effort of one's mind or by reciting the mantra, the sdhakas and those who pray for others, will attain the desired mundane perfection. (164) Those who do not perform the rites properly, do not succeed by the recitation of mantra, as also by the offerings to fire, bath, worship, etc. rites. These words are true. (165) The wise should accept what has been said by the teachers, the Bodhisattvas and the goddesses with all his efforts. Thus in the ur-tantra, the accomplishment of the mantrais spoken of by other means in order to accomplish the rites of stiffening (stambhana) etc. In this shorter tantra the meaning should be understood through the symbolic language. That is spoken presently. * "Om hum svh Stambhana"etc. By hum earth should be accomplished and stambhana performed. * "Om am svh Vasya"etc. By fire should be accomplished and by it vasya is performed. * "Om kham svh UcctancF etc. By kham the element of wind should be accomplished and also ucctana is performed. * "Omjrm svh Vidvesa" etc. By jrm the mixture of the fire and wind elements should be accomplished. And vidvesa is performed with their help. * "Om bum svh Abhicruka" etc. By bum fire and water are accomplished and abhicruka is performed with their help. * "Om hrim svh karsana" etc.

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By hrim the elements wind, fire and space are accomplished and krsti is performed with their help. *"Omghiihsvh'Mrana" etc. By ghh is accomplished the elements wind and water and mrana is performed with their help. (166-174) Now this will be spoken in the symbolic language. The perception through senses is the perception imagined by the mind. (Thus) the knowledge obtained in the utpatti-krama (the process of creation) does not lead to the Enlightenment. (167) The perception through yoga is the realisation in oneself. This perception in the utpannakrama (the process of complete production of Reality) is the ultimate (supreme) knowledge leading to the Buddhahood.45 (168) In the Dharmasamgraha, it is said to be of five different types at the beginning, middle and end and five are said to be the eyes of the protectors. (169) The physical eye, the divine eye, the eye of the Enlightened one9 the eye of wisdom and fifth, is the eye of knowledge. (170) First the yogins who are the beginners have the physical eye; then their eye as also that of the devas is the divine eye. (171) From that (arises) the Buddha-eye, the eye of the Enlightened Ones as also that of the monks. Then the Sugata's eye is that of knowledge etc. (172) The eye of Bodhisattva is the eye of wisdom. The knowledge obtained through this eye is of four types. (173) By the division, of the knower and knowledge, two things are indicated. The eye of Bodhisattva knowledge of the protectors is called the knower (only). (174) From the beginning the Enlightened One, the Tathgatawho is without end or beginning, is unrelated with the phenomena, is one with knowledge, is pure, and is knowledge incaranate. Thus according to the ways of this mundane conventional world and the dependent origination, i.e. having obtained this, this will arise, as in, red colour will rise through the combination of turmeric and quicklime like this should be known in the accomplishment of all rites; and again not by the pride of the yogins in the deeds of the Enlightened Ones. This is the rule for accomplishing actions. Colophon : (Here) ends the sixth chapter viz. the profound accomplishment of action in the chapter on mantra and families of
Hevajra-tik consisting 6000 slokas.

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211

(1) Having bowed down to Hum in Hevajra-(tantra) is spoken the accomplishment of varied actions (like) bringing showers on the earth in order to favour all creatures. * "Having made the image of Ananta, making the twofold sounds ah phh " 'To it' here means to the image of Ananta, made out of fragrant sandal wood; above the navel it has the human form and below, that of the cobratail; it has four hands, in the left hands, the human skull containing nectar and lotus, and in the right hands the nectar-fruit and jewel; above the head there are seven hoods (spread out) to the outer limits (circumference). So also on his left is the queen of nga, represented by the syllable am. She (i.e. the image) should be bathed by the pancamrta containing milk, curds, ghee, honey and sugar. Then * "she should be worshipped by the blue lotuses; her body should be anointed by the juice of ngadamanaka and her head, by the hastimada. Having made pair of cups into two equal bowls (samputa), they should be filled with the milk of a black cow. Four fingers at the forehead, nose and the end of chin should keep twelve and half fingers' measure. With the thread cut by a dark girl and dyed dark blue, cover (wrap round) the eight directions. Then, on the bank of a lake in the north-west direction, having drawn the mandala, place that Ananta, the king of cobras. Then again in the mandala draw Hevajra on the subdued Ananta. Now are explained the colours to be applied to this mandala. * "The black made out of coal found in the cemetery; the white made out of the powder of human bones; the yellow of the turmeric; the red obtained from the

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brick found in cemetery, and green from the leaves of caura, mixed with a little bit of the powder of human bones. Having drawn the mandala with these five powders. In the beginning by the thread from the cemetery etc. (means) having made the thread from the muscles of the dead body, having threaded the mandala three hands and three fingers in measure, it should be made by threading it criss-cross from centre to the circumference. The half of the mandala is the eight petalled lotus, in which are the three pericarps and in one pericarp is the seat of the sun and above it Ananta and the queen of Ananta. On the sole of the left and right feet of Hevajra should be dravvn Jay and Vijay. Hevajra is decorated with eight faces, four feet, and sixteen hands, and twenty four eyes and Nairtmy, embracing the neck who is said to be enriched by twenty four eyes. Then, the eight cobra-kings are in the lotus petals and have five hoods. The rest should be drawn like the image of Ananta. In the left petal is Ananta on the right Vsuki, on the west Taksaka, to the east Karkotaka, to the south-east Padma, to the north-west Mahpadma, to the south-west Sankhapla, to the north-east Kulika. In the midst of the seed of the mantras of these (should be written) phh and in the right and left petals phh (8). Having created eight cobras from these eight phiihs in the east and south-east, black, in the south and south-west, red, in the west and north-west, yellow and in the north and north-east, white, with the difference of body, speech, mind and knowledge. All of them should be drawn as subdued and supine. Thus on the right side the ground is black; Thus on the south side the ground is red; Thus on the west side the ground is yellow, Thus on the north side the ground is white up to five lines. Then the arch of the gateway having three qualities should be decorated by Pancarekh, Ratna-pattik, Bakuli and Sirs flowers. In the comer is the Visvavajra and outside is the burning garland of Vajras. Then having drawn the mandala in this fashion, having made offerings to fife in the round fire-altar for the sake of pacification, then having established ritually the mandala ceremonially having made the fire-offerings, by
pronouncing Inda yama jala jakha etc. mantra.

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213

* "The teacher with his mind hardened by meditation should recite this mantra." By the meditational mind means having exulted the mind slightly. In a lonely region having drawn the door-keepers at the gates of the mandala, having placed ten jars on which are placed cups full of milk and having set up blue banners outside, in ten directions, this mantra should be recited. * "Om ghuru (2) ghata (2) mas a (2), ghuta (2), ghotaya (2) anantn ksobhakarya, ngdhipataye he he ru ru kam saptaplla gatn ngn karsaya varsaya garjaya tarjaya, hm (8) phat svh. Thus it will rain. If it does not rain then the mantra should be recited in reversed order. hsvphat (3) hum (3) phuh (8) yarjatayarjaga, yarsaka (2) ngnntgalatpptasa kaka ruru hehe yetapadhignyarka bhaksonantnaa yatagho (2) tagha (2) sama (2) taghu (2) taghu (2) Om. If having recited the mantra thus, the ngs do not bring rain then their heads will burst, like the manjan (the pod of the blossom) of the arjaka tree." Arjaka is similar to krsnarnallik, with white stalks. As its manjari bursts open with the sun's heat like that. It is the rule. This is the rite for bringing rain. The preliminary recitation of this mantra is one lakh and with a crore recitations the mantra is perfected. If it is not perfected by ten lakh fire offerings, then if the sdhaka recites the balidna mantra, the ngas will bring rain. In that case there is no mandala-rite. In the mandala-rite the preliminary is of lakh recitations, fire-offerings accompanied by ten thousand recitations. Then only the ngs bring rain, not otherwise. This is the rule in the ur-tantra. Now the explanation of the bursting of clouds. Here if it rains voilently, then that Ananta should be bathed by cupfuls of the cemetery ashes. * "The mantrin, having seated himself on a piece of cloth from cemetery, should recite this mantra. Om ryasmasna priyya hm (3) phat svh." Thus it will split. The preliminary fire offerings and the japa are as before in the rite for splitting the clouds.

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Now the way of attaining the Vajrakartari is spoken. This is for the sake of disciplining the untameable creatures. The Vajrakartari is accomplished by a crore recitations vfjapa. By ten lakhs of fire-offerings the khatika (a type of conch shell) can be perfected. * "Having rubbed the conch shell it should be covered with pancdmrta and along with kuthdracchinna," The small balls of the size of eye-balls. Then having gone to the temple of Heruka and having thrown them i.e. (those balls) into the mouth of Heruka and till the image gives back those balls to the sdhaka, * "[the mantra] Om Vajrakartari Hevajra hmphat" should be recited one lakh times for the sake of perfection. It is accomplished in one sitting. Having acomplished that, a line should be drawn on the neck of the begging bowl (kamandalu). After seeing the line on the necks of the king accompanied by his retinue, if the begging bowl breaks at the neck, then all the enemies are deprived of their heads. Here ends Vajrakartari, Now the way of accomplishing the Vajra-kuthdra is spoken of. * "Here the mark of Vajrakuthdra is accomplished with a desire to split the heretical deities." Here too the perfection of the mantra is as before. Then * "On the full moon day in the Pusya constellation should be obtained a seed of the Brahma tree (?)" [Brahma tree] is also called Palsa (Butea Frondosa). Its seed * "mixed with the equal amount of kuthdrachinnd should be crushed with Aksobhya. Having powdered it make an axe (hatchet)" and dry it in the sun. * "Then stepping on it recite the mantra Om Vajrakuthdra pdtaya (2) hd (3) hum (3) phat svdhd. Thus having recited it crore times." Then, as before one should accomplish it on a day of solar eclipse, throughout the day and night and make a mark on the forehead with it. Then having done that, whichever goddess the sddhaka salutes, the axe breaks it into pieces. This is the rite of breaking the goddesses.

Satsahasrik-hevajra-tzk (English Translation) Now the way of creating burning fever is spoken of. Having perfected the mantra as before, * "the name of the enemy should be written with the juice of poisonous mustard on the petal ofarka, with a desire to create burning fever. Om Hevajra jvara (2)
satriin bhriim hum (3) phat svh."

215

Then having thrown the eight fingers on the ground and having lighted fire above, the mantra should be recited 10 thousand times. Then if accomplished, the person gets fever and (if it is i.e. the leaf) washed with the overflown milk of cow, it leaves. This is the burning fever rite. Now the way to accomplish vomiting forth wine. Having perfected the wine-vomiting-mantra, with a desire to vomit forth the wine imagine a wind mandala containing the syllable yamin the navel of the sdhaka. Above it imagine fullgrown man the stomach containing wine, with open hair and vomiting wine. If accomplished the object will vomit forth the wine. Om vajramudgiranam hum (3) phat svh. Thus recite the mantra more than 800 times. Now the rite of charming is spoken of. As before accomplish the mantra of Kurukull with the rite of one crore recitations, as spoken before. Then, * "with a desire to charm women, on the asokstami (i.e. the 8th day of the first half of the month Caitra) having gone to the Asoka tree wearing a red garment, a fruit of the madana tree should be eaten (there); having made a drop of kmcik juice the mantra should be
recited. Om Kurukull hnh amuk me vast bhavatu svh.

After ten thousand recitations, she comes." This is the rite of charming. Now the rite of stopping the sun and moon is spoken. As before, the mantra is accomplished by 7 crore recitations. Then, * "the mantrin, with a desire to stop the sun and moon should, make rice flour sun or moon, cook them in the perspiration (on the steam?), place them in a cup with four fingers deep Vo/ra-water

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Then the mantra should be recited. * "Om Vajrrka m cala (2) tistha (2) Hevajrya svh. " This for stopping the sun. For stopping the moon Om Vajra candra etc. When recited ten thousand times moon or sun stops. When held in urine, they will be free. This is the rite of stopping sun and moon. Now asking the question in Vo/Va-astrology. Having accomplished the mantra as before by ten lakh recitations and one lakh fire offerings of the red lotuses. There the mantra, * "Om Nagr (2) Kumrike divyalocane svh. In the evening having consecrated (cp. Snellgrove trans, as enchanted) the eyes of a maiden, by this mantra recited more than 108 times and having worshipped her with flowers, incense etc. five ingredients, should summon her. On the 14th or 8th day in the morning, having kept the jar, on the jar the leaves of the ksiravrksa, having kept the oil in the brass vessel and lac juice in another vessel the previous mantra should be recited more than 108 times and consecrated and having dipped the left hand toe in the lac, wash it with the sesamum oil. The mantrinshould recite the mantraand another asks, "Speak, who has taken my thing?" Should anything be done or how will it be seen? There, having seen the toe, (she) says this one has removed the thing (or) this work will be done. This is the rite for asking the questions in Vajra- astrology. Now the mantras in the heart of animals i.e. for repulsing animals. The syllable Om comes at the beginning and the letters of mantra in the middle and at the end comes Hevajrya svh. Having accomplished this by reciting ten lakh times, it should be used on animals. * "Having said, vedry (2), the elephant flees. Having said Marmm (2), the tigei* flees. Having said Tailliy (2), the rhinoceros flees. Having said Hi miliphuh (2), the serpent flees. Om sv tistha (2) Hevajrya svh. This is the rite to repulse animals" Thus the names of the tawny bear etc., should be put in the middle, syllable Om in the beginning and at the end Hevajrya svh. Thus propitiated by the recitation of mantra and fire offerings, it will be

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accomplished and not by reading the books. This is the rule of the Lord laid down in the ur-tantra. Now, the realization of the goddesses for the rites like stambhana etc. is spoken of. * Vajr etc. Here Vajr is the sphere of form and by it stambhana (stiffening) is performed. Gauri is the sphere of feeling and by it vasya (winning over) is performed. Vriyoginz is the sphere of consciousness, by it karsanam (attraction) is performed. Vajradkiniis the sphere of past impressions by it ucctana (driving off) is performed. Nairtm is the sphere of cognition by it vidvesana (hatred) is performed. Bhcari is the sphere of contact by it karsana (attraction) is performed. Khecari is the sphere of Dharma by it mrana (killing) is performed. Through Pukkasi is performed stambhana. Through Sabari is performed Sntika. Here through Candli is perfected the sphere of vasya. Here through Dombi is perfected the sphere of ucctana. Here through Vajradhatvlsvari is perfected the sphere of vidvesana. By the sphere of Jndna is performed mrana. Thus the yogins should know the inside and the outside. Stambhana etc. should be accomplished by recitation of the mantra, ceremonial offerings to the fire, by the realization of the goddesses and by the colours yellow, white, black, green, blue. This is the rule of the lord in
the ur-tantra.

Colophon: Here ends the seventh chapter viz. the insturction on the accomplishment of profound actions in the Hevajra-tik of 6000 slokas and also the second chapter on mantras.

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8
(1-3) Those people who see the Victorius One in his terrific form with attachment and with perfectly calm appearance, they (really) see only their own mind and that is the meditation mind which assumes all forms. (2) The state of mind at the beginning of sdhan is not of one type. This mind bereft of mental function becomes pure on account of three types of liberations, and experiences everywhere the three divisions of time; having bowed down to this Vajrasattva (in the form of the above-mentioned mind) by my head, (3) a commentary on Devat-patalabased on an understanding of the ur-tantra, is being written by me viz. Vajragarbha, in order that the creatures may find their path. The utpattikrama (process of creation) is one by having its support in the nature of being. The utpannakrama (the process of complete production of Reality) the way of supportless attainment is the second.46 Here in this shorter tantra, the Lord says, * "So, now is explained the chapter on goddesses." The initial words appearing before, * "First friendliness etc. should be meditated etc." are quoted below from the ur-tantra itself. Initial words, middle words and ending words. Here the lord said, (4-6) "Vajragarbha, I will narrate the rite of propitiating the goddesses by which a yogin, meditating by mantra and mudr attains perfection. (5) At dawn, having passed urine and excreta, and having purified himself, the mantrin should sit down on a soft and even seat. (6) Having made a small pill often different substances, he should put it in his mouth and in the front, should make a mandalawith pancmrta and cow-dung. (7-14) He should offer flowers, incense etc. to Gauri and others in order. In the direction of Indra i.e. east, stays Gauri. In the direction of Yama i.e. south, stays Gauri. In the direction of Varuna i.e. west, stays Vetli. (8) In the direction of Dhanad i.e. north, stays Dkinldevl.

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Below stays Bhcari and above, Khecari and they should be worshipped in order. (9) In the south-east is Pukkasi, in the north-east is Sabari, to the south west is Candll, to the north-west is Dombinl. (10) At the centre of the mandala should be worshipped Hevajra along with Nairtm. Then again one should recall friendship, mercy, etc. towards all creatures. (11) Then, after having worshipped them, that seed (bija) should be ceremonially placed in the body. The initial letter of the name is the seed, accompanied by the syllable and an anusvara. Gauri goes to the sphere of form. Caurl goes to the sphere of sound. Vetli goes to the sphere of smell. Ghasmari goes to the sphere of taste. (13) Bhcari goes to the sphere of contact. Khecari goes to the sphere of dharma. Pukkasi resides in the eyes. Sabari resides in the ears. (14) Candalini resides in the nose. Dombinl resides in the tongue. Hevajra resides in the body. Nairtmy resides in the mind. This is the first nysa as given in the ur-tantra. Again place the seed
syllables gam, cam, gham, bham kham, pant, gam, cam, tarn, ham, nam in

the spheres. Then think of the protection of the (chosen) place. * "One should imagine, in front of oneself a (solar disc) arising from Reph. In that sun a crossed Vajra arising from Hum. Further a balustrade and a canopy should be imagined to be (arising from) this Vajra." Here in the ur-tantra, the mantrin should first meditate upon raks-cakra in order to repulse the wicked and in order to destroy the dangers, he should make a piercing weapon with the idol of Krodharja (wrathful form of deity) and afterwards should propitiate the tutelary
deity. This Hevajra-tantra devoted to prajn and upyaw&s a yoga-tantra

but afterwards because of the association of the yoginzs, it is called yoginltantra, at the point of the way of attaining Nairtmy. Therefore according to the method of yogatantra, Yamntaka etc. wrathful kings7 should be meditated upon in raks-cakra. Vajrahmkra is the lord of the cakra: and he is Heruka with six arms. Having meditated upon the solar disc which is in front arising from ra and in it the Hum, perfected by the crossed- Vajra having fpur faces, the mantrin should imagine a Vo/ra-balustrade and a Vo/'ra-canopy (arising from) the same crossed Vajra and the solar disc and various terrific weapons of all the invincible Mras, of all quarters and intermediate quarters, outside, above and below the balustrade. Therefore, another quotation from the ur-tantra. There the lord said,

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(15-16) "As before I speak of the seats of the Krodharjas, as also their faces, complexion, the weapons in their hands, and the sitting postures. (16) Then a cakra with eight spokes should be placed in the Vajra-canopy and again it should be meditated upon. (17-18) So also above and below the canopy two spokes should be made and then solar discs arising from eleven ras (i.e. semi-circles of half ra) respectively. (18) As there are eleven solar discs so also there will be eleven feet to the sun. Then in each disc of the sun, the syllable hum should be placed ceremonially. (19-24) Then imagine Krodharja in the solar place arising from the hum and in the seat of the central solar disc, the chief of the Vajra-Hmkra should be meditated. (20) He has three faces, six hands, blue (complexion) and is sitting in a pratydha posture (with the left leg stretched). The main face is blue, having terrible tusks, terrible and terrifying. (21) The left and right (faces) are white and red as are the three veins and in his right hands he is holding a Vajra, a short sword and a trimla. (22) In the right hands are Vajra, bell and a human skull as also khatvnga (a club having a skull at the top) and a crossed- Vajra. The hair are matted and on the head, there is Aksobhya and half moon. (23) Round his neck (lit. on his shoulders) is the garland of heads and on the head too, the skulls; the waist is covered with the bones of five mudrs and the tiger hide. (24) He has nine eyes and a dangling tongue and is adorned with snake ornaments. Like this (is) the chief of the Vajra-Hmkras (and he) should be meditated upon. (25-28) Yamntaka dark and terrific arises from the black Hmkra and is sitting in the eastern solar disc in pratydlidha posture. (26) He has three faces, black, white and red, he is big-bellied; he has three eyes and he wears a tiger-skin round his waist (and) a garland of five skulls of mudrs. (27) On all the crowns are the Ngendras with the ensemble of crossed-t;z/<2ra. He has weapons of different colours and four feet. (28) In his right hands he holds a staff, a disc and a Vajra. He is holding a threatening whip near his breast and in his left hand are bell and small axe. (29-30) On his head is the Buddha Vairocana and Vajramauli is the other. In the southern solar disc arising from the white Hmkra (is Prajnntaka). (30) The wrathful Prajnntaka is white in complexion and has white, blue and red faces. In his right hands he has Prajn,

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khatvnga, Vajra and a staff. Near the breast he is holding the threatening whip and in the left hands are bell and small axe. (31-32) Padmntaka with Amita Buddha on his head, arising from the red Hmkra, having red, blue and white faces, should be placed in the western solar disc. (32) He is holding a pestle and a Vajra-sword in his right hands. Near his heart he holds the threatening whip and in his left hand, bell and small axe. (33-35) (Vighnntaka) arising from the blue Hmkra has Amoghasiddhi on his head. He has blue, red, and white faces, having tusks and quivering mouths. (34) In his right hand he has disc a crossedvajra and a pestle. In his left hand he has bell and the threatening whip and small axe. (35) Vighnntaka should be placed ceremonially. In the northern disc is Amrtakundall. In the south-eastern solar disc should be placed Acala arising from blue Hmkra. (36-48) He has blue, red and white faces and the Buddha Vairocana on his head. He is holding sword, Vajra and a disc in his right hands. (37) Near his breast (he is holding) the threatening whip as also in the left hand bell and small axe. Arising from the blue Hmkra and having blue, red and white faces is (38) the Tarkvlrja to the south-west, having Ratnasambhava Buddha on the head. He is making the trailokya-vijaya mudr with his two hands. (39) In the right hands, he is holding Vajra and khadga and in the left, whip and iron pin. The mantrin should place Niladanda who has arisen from blue Hmkra and (40) who has Amitbha on his head in the north-west. The main and the left faces are terrific and he has blue, red and white faces. (41) In his right hands there are staff, sword and disc. In the left hands he has threatening whip and lotus and a small axe. (42) The mantrin should place the mighty Nilavarna arisen from the blue Hmkra and having Amoghasiddhi on his head in the north-eastern solar disc. (43) He has blue, red and white faces and a big belly and he is terrifying. In his right hands he has staff, sword and disc respectively and (44) he is holding the threatening whip near his heart and in his left, the trisla and a small axe. Lambodara arisen from the dark blue Hmkra, with Aksobhya on the head (45) wears an usnisa on the head and the right and the left hands are folded in salutation. In his right hands he has Vajra and lotus and in others threatening (whip) and sword. (46-47) And he should be thought of as having subdued the sun in the sky and

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settled in the place of Brahma (brahma-randhra?). In the lower solar disc is Sumbharaja, arisen from the black Hmkra with Aksobhya on his head and with black, red and white faces. In his right hands he has Vajra, disc and trisla and in his left, there are sword and a small axe and (48) near his heart he is holding the threatening whip. Thus having imagined this wrathful, terrific host and (49) taking them all together he should place them on his own body, on the left arm Yamntaka, on the right arm Prajnntaka, (50) on the left hand Padmntaka, on the right hand Vighnntaka, on the left thigh Acala, on the right thigh Tarkvirja, (51) on the left foot Niladanda, on the right foot Mahbala, on the head Mahosnisa, on the anus Sumbharaja, at the heart Vajrahmkra and then should place ceremonially the initial letters of
one's own nameyam, ghram, pant, ram, am, darn, nam, mam, dram,

sam, vam. Then thus having performed the rites for protection the mantrin should imagine himself to be Vajrahmkra full of wrath. All the obstructions and sins should be pierced by ordering Sumbha. Om
gha (2) ghtaya sarvadustn phat kilaya (2). Om Sumbha nisumbha hum om grhnpaya (2) hum (2) naya/ He Bhagavn Vidyrja phat.

(52-54) An intelligent person, having attracted the chiefs of the obstructions by this wrathful form, should pierce them in the proper way through this yoga. (53) He should contemplate a form like the pointed staff above the navel and the greatly wrathful Vighnntaka having three eyes on the head and six hands. (54) And having seen these hosts of obstructions below, should utter that mantra and thrust that Vajra-needle steadily into the body of the obstruction. Omgh (2)
ghtaya sarvadustn phat (2) kilaya saruappn phat (2) hum hum Vajrakila Vajradhara jnpayati Sarvavighnnm kya-vk-ttam kilaya hum (2) phat

(55) The knower of mantra should imagine Sumbharaja with Vajramudgara in his hand and should threaten the Va/ra-needle with his mantra: Vajramudgaramkotaya (2) tistha (2). (56) Having thus pierced through the ten quarters and expelled the wicked, the Vajra-re blazing from all sides should be imagined, with the wicked being burnt, running here and there. Here in the shorter tantra the raksacakra is confused in the words 'yogi, after staying above it etc.' should meditate up to 'kila'. The rule of raksacakra through four verses.

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(57) By the absolute truth, the three worlds should be meditated upon as devoid of character. In non-existence meditation is without ideation (thought) and thought also is no longer thought. Thus the existence has no substance and there is no support for meditation. * "First realization of the void, secondly the seed in which all is (concentrated) united, third is 'production of the image (of the goddess) and fourthly the nysa of the letters." Thus having made the rakscakra according to the yogatantras, then as if the whole space is full of the rays of light emitted by the Humkra in his own heart, the mantrin should contemplate on the Illustrious Lord surrounded by the eight mothers and embraced by his Prajn along with the teacher, the Buddha, and the Bodhisatlva. Then having turned back the rays of light cause them to enter his own heart, Hmkra should give out the eight goddesses for worshipping the lord. Here too, in the reversed order by one sloka streaks of bright light are emitted from the body, pervading the whole space. (58-63) Having collected it together in his own heart the yogi should become of the nature of anger and having seen the Illustrious Lord born from Vajrdand having great compassion (59) worshipped by the eight goddesses adorned by all the ornaments. Gauri holds the moon. Cauri holds the vessel of sun. (60) Vetli holds water and Ghasmari holds medicine; Pukkasi holds Vajrain her hand and Savari is the mistress of tastes. (61) Candli is sounding the damaru and Dombi is dancing passionately. Moon is called semen virile, sun is called menstrual discharge, and water is said to be urine. (62)Marrow and flesh are the medicine and Vajrais called Vairocana. Taste means the six flavours. Goksdyaetc, balas (intoxicating drinks) are said to be the damaruka. (63) The dance means drinking the wine etc. These are said to be the eight samayas. The mantrin should worship by these and take refuge in the three jewels and (64-65) confer his sins and rejoice in the meritorious deeds. He should present his body, by support of the path itself. (65) Having created the thought of Bodhi, he should ask the Enlighetned One. For the sake of a substratum in the void he should think of a support in the intense devotion. (66-72) The void is naturally substanceless, causeless, and without

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any characteristics. On account of impermanence there is no aspiration free from origination and aspiration is meaningless in the absence of production and cessation. In reality there is no being and no Enlightenment and no phenomenal and non-phenomenal. (68) As is the illusion so is the dream. So also is the city of Gandharvas. Those who meditate upon Reality should percieve the beings and the Buddhas alike. (69) As is the echo so is the teaching of the Buddhas. Having contemplated in this manner, the condition of the being in the whole of this world, (70) in order to favour the creatures, the Bodhisattvas perform the rite of killing, equanimity and the obscuration of the object of knowledge. (71) Not a particle has been retained (for themselves) by the Bodhisattvas and the heroic who have compassion for all creatures and who have totally burnt down their great defilements. (72) So having thoroughly contemplated on Buddhahood and Bodhisattvahood one should have support in the void and should utter this mantra:
Om Snyatvajra-svabhvtmako'ham etc.

This is the aspiration of the teachers which should then be remembered. By that aspiring mind, he should contemplate in this mind the pride of the deity in order to enjoy the three worlds. As is explained here : (73-74) Having meditated upon the mandala which is decorated with eight cemeteries at the centre of which there is eight-petalled lotus and the solar disc (74) he should imagine a sun of the nature of corpse of the sphere ofDharma. There are thirty-two vowels in the moon caused by the characteristics of the Buddha and (75-79) in the sun there are eighty minor -characteristics and the syllable hiimis at their centre. That is called the being which is of the nature of Innate Joy and (76) it is the knowledge, mirrorlike knowledge, knowledge of the equanimity of things and knowledge of distinguishing respectively. This performance is one and also the production of the image (reflection?). (77) This is said to be the sphere ofDharma and the fifth supreme knowledge. Hevajra with fivefold enlightenment has two arms, (78) complexion blue and bright red and red eyes like vandu (?) should be contemplated. He is adorned with a garland of skulls, and has Aksobhya on his head. (79) He wears a cakra, rings in ears and a necklace, bracelet and also a girdle. By the purification of the five Buddhas the five mudrs are described....

English Summaries
(of the remaining portion from the Tibetan version)
I. iv, Devatbhisekapatala

The salutary verses are followed by a lengthy quotation from the mlatantra in order to explain the meaning of the chapter. The quotation is introduced with the meaning of utpattikrama (bskyed.rim) in which the commentator divides all the creatures in two categories - born of egg (sgon.skyes = andaja) and born of womb (mnal.skyes =jaryuja). The description of the evolution of the human personality that follows is rather obscure. After the conception the life is in a sort of dream state which becomes conscious after coming out of the mother's womb. The next stage is the attainment of awareness and the contact established between the five senses and their objects. Next point is the creation of a thing by an active cause which leaves an impression on the result. Thus the trunk of the tree is of the nature of seed and again fruit becomes the seed. In the absence of seed there is no trunk and in the absence of the trunk there is no seed. That pleasure which brings into existence the skandhas, by those skandhas again pleasure is experienced. Because of death and transmigration, the skandhas are born. In the absence of pleasure, the skandhas are also absent and in the absence of skandhas, there is no pleasure. If the cause does not exist, then result is also absent and vice versa. In this world only the cause of the phenomena of death and birth exists. By the cessation of cause and effect there will be no birth and death too. Likewise without the complete purification of mind, Bodhi will not be attained. It is like the five stages of the quicksilver. As the iron touched by the quicksilver will not remain iron but will become gold, likewise the mind will be purified by the Bodhi.
I. v. Tattva patala

The chapter is introduced by a discussion of the Tathgatajnna

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(de.bzin.gsegs.pahi.ye.ses) which is devoid of the eighteen spheres of the grasper and grasped and the action of grasping. For the yogin too, form, eyes and the perception of the form etc. do not exist. He should contemplate on this reality devoid of the eighteen spheres. This is supported by a quotation from the mlatantra which also explains the way of attaining reality i.e. through the understanding of cause and effect which is the doctrine of dependent origination. By the cessation of bhtvidy (hgyur.bahi.ma.rig), samskra ceases. By the cessation of samskra, Vijnna ceases. By the cessation of vijnna, Nmarpa ceases. By the cessation of nmarpa, Sadyatana ceases. By the cessation of sadyatana, Vitti ceases. By the cessation of vitti, Vedan ceases. By the cessation of vedan, Trsn ceases. By the cessation of trsn, Updna ceases. By the cessation of updna, Bhava ceases. By the cessation of bhava, Jti ceases. By the cessation of jti, Jarmarana cesases. By the cessation of skandhadhtu, Upasnti is attained. Also By the control of kya, prnavyu is controlled. By the control of prnavyu, bodhicittais controlled. By the control of bodhicitta, vahana (hdzag.pa) is controlled. By the control of vahana, Enlightenment is attained. Again in order to attain this, the shorter tantra explains the samvrtimudr. In this is included the discussion about the mudrs of the five Tathgata families. I.v.3. This is one of the most important verses and occurs in many a tan trie text. The yogin should worship mother, sister, daughter, sister's daughter while maintaining his inward attitude, in which grhya and grhaka, subject and object are one, Lalan and Rasan are one, Candli and the semen virile are one. But while worshipping them with that attitude he should do it in such a way "so as not to make it fall" which in absolute meaning indicates the non-transference of semen virile and in the conventional meaning, the slandering by the people.

Satsahasrik-hevajra-iik (English Summaries) Tathgata kula 1. Janani Tathgata 2. Bhaginz Vajra 3. Duhit Padm 4. Bhgine- Karma yik Ratna 5. Jy Mudra Devata represented Psychic centre Navel lotus Heart lotus Throat lotus Forehead lotus Usnisa

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Locan
Mmaki

Caste of the mudra selected Brahmani CandU Na Rajaki Candlini

Guhyapadma Antyaj vajra sattva These are the five kulas in brief. Another division in six which is mentioned is as follows : Psychic centre Name of the kula Usnisa Lalta Kantha Hrdaya Nbhi Guhya Aksadhtukula Vyudhtukula Agnidhtukula Abdhtukula Prthivzdhtukula Jnnadhtukula

Vajradhtvlsvari Jnadhtu

The meaning of Tathgata is explained thus : tathat means in the stages of apratisthita nirvnain the guhyapadma from the vajramani, the Vajrayosit is in the form of the elements of space, wind, earth, water, fire and knowledge, in the forehead, throat, heart, navel and guhya and the Lord resides in the bhaga of this Vajrayosit. Thus the Bodhicitta goes to Vajra. So also it comes. How? As it travels down through all the psychic centres so it goes upwards from navel to heart, from heart to throat, from throat to forehead, from forehead to the top of the head by being the wrdhvareta (rgyen.du.khu.ba, the upward flow of semen virile) and this can be attained through the stoppage of the twelve parts. As in the conventional world the four joys descend from forehead, so by reversal nisyanda (rgyu.mthun), vipka (rnam.par.smin.pa), purusakra (skyes.buhi.byed.pa) and vimala (dri.ma.med.pa), phalas (results) ascend from guhyacakra to lalta. These four are the four stages in the inner development of the practicantfrom samayasattvahood to Vajrasattvahood, from jgrtvasth* ksaya to tryvasth-ksaya. (See HTL chap. 2). As is said "In nbhicakra, nisyanda-phala is attained, in the dharma-cakra,

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vipkaphala, in the sambhogacakra, purusakra-phala and in the mahsukha, vimala" By the downward flow 'semen virile the jndnacitta (ye.ses.kyi.sems) descends from the top of the head to the guhyapadma. This happens in the conventional world by the difference of one to fifteen phases of the moon. When this process is reversed, it ascends from guhyapadma to the forehead by being itrdhvaretas, this happens by the force of the yogic practice. Finally, when it reaches the top of the head (usnisa) it is of the nature of 16th phase. In the absolute truth the Bodhicittabecom.es the moon having'fifteen phases and the bliss in the form of li (vowels), While commenting on I.v.2. the governing deities of the elemental centres are given as below :
Vairocana Aksobhya Amitbha Ratnasambhava Siddhdrtha Sdttvika Prthivicakra ksacakra Abcakra Teja-cakra Vdyu-cakra Jnnacakra

All the Hindu goddesses are identified with the Reality and the commentary says : In the conventional world all the creatures are adhoretas (hog.du.khu.ba, with the downward flow of semen virile) and in the absolute truth the Buddhas are iirdhvaretas. Now follows the enumeration of the godhood attained through the stoppage of the downward flow of the discharges of the body. The buddhattva attained by stopping the downward flow of excreta is called Brahma. The buddhattva attained by making the urine enter ones body is called Visnu. The buddhattva attaind by not discharging the semen virile is called Siva. The Buddha is the state devoid of ideation and of Supreme Bliss. This Supreme Bliss itself is inexhaustible void
(andsravasnyat).

The explanation of I.v.16 onwards sounds rather artificial and elaborate as the commentator brings together the different male and female relatives, e.g. When Prajnd is called mother she is so called because of her being the matrix of the world and hence she is represented by the menstrual discharge and Updya is father and is represented by the semen virile.

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229

I. vL Carypatala The chapter opens with the emphasis on the necessity of having a mode of living in order to reach perfection and with this aim in view, one should follow a particular mode of life. A person who performs all the rites but is without a mode of life will not be able to attain perfection. This mode of living (cary= spyod.pa) is described hereunder. The yogin should wear a cakri on his head as it represents Aksobhya and implies the setting in motion of the Dharmacakra by the yogin for the sake of beings. Amitbha is represented by the earrings and the yogin should be attached to the three worlds (bhavas) for the sake of world. Ratnasambhava is represented by necklace and the yogin having disciplined this world through taste should grasp the fact that the world is like water. The bracelets adorning the two arms will represent Vairocana. Siddhrtha is represented by the girdle which adorns the waist. With ashes of the nature of Bodhicitta, body should be adorned. The nitrtha (absolute meaning) of this cary is as follows : The cary that is practised consists of cessation and origination of the six essences (sukras = khu.ba) and six airs having support in the six cakras of the nature of earth, water, fire, wind, space and knowledge. This meaning is given in the mlatantra. Further he should take a girl belonging to his own caste, young and pretty and purify her with the bodhibija. If he chooses, he can even sing and dance; however, it may be done with the aim to attain Enlightenment. The meaning of this as given in the mlatantra is as follows : Woman is the void, the unborn peace. Having united the sixteen knots of the ndis, the sixteenfold pleasure arises and hence the girl should be of sixteen years. Pancabuddhakaplam (v. 15) is explained as follows: The supreme Enlightenment is of five types. The five vowels a, i, u, r, /correspond to the nature of five elements, earth, water, fire, wind and space. For disciplining persons, proud of gods of this world, he should wear the string made out of hair of a dead body. In order to follow the vow of Mahesvara he should smear his body with ashes; for the fulfilment of the vow of Brahma he should wear a sacred thread made of the hair of dead body. He should play damant in order to delight the gods,
khatvnga as an emblem of Mahesvara and Vajra-kapla to fulfil the vow

of kaplakhanda. The absolute meaning of this : The hair-string

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represents the identity of Snyat and Karun. The ashes are the Bodhicitta, the semen virile is the effortless practice of purified mode of life. The mantrin must abandon all sense of fear, shame etc. while following this mode of living, otherwise he may be ridiculed. About the rules for eating, drinking etc., he can eat whatever he can procure. He can drink wine brewed from various corns without getting intoxicated and the other types of intoxicating wines, brewed from grapes, rice etc. should not be taken even in very small quantities. I. vii. Chompatala The signs are of two types - physical (lus.gi.brda) and vocal (nag.gi.brda). Every yogin who practises the Hevajra-yoga must learn both these types. He should not speak with the uncultivated and he should speak with the messengers from other families (with the help of these signs). Whatever the great secret if not conveyed through signs, the messengers from other families are deluded. So that one who does not convey the great secrets through signs goes to hell by destroying this and other worldly perfections. Then the physical signs are obvious and are followed by vocal signs. In this chapter only physical signs are explained and in some other the vocal. Again the physical signs bear twofold significance, conventional and absolute. In the shorter tantra (i.e. the present version of Hevajra-tantra) is given the conventional meaning and the miilatantra gives the absolute meaning. Brother and sister no doubt mean Prajna and Upya. If suddenly some one comes to the front and shows a finger then that signifies permission for asking a question. In answer should be shown two fingers indicating pleasure in his arrival. If the left thumb is held, then it indicates ksema-mudr (bsnun.gyi.phyag.rgya) or the welbeing of body, speech and mind. This is the role played by the Upya. Now that of the Prajn : If he shows the middle finger then he should be shown the middle finger. If the middle finger is shown, then in return one should show one's neck. The meaning of the question asked being "is the knowledge of doctrine like the space?" The meaning of the answer i.e. showing the neck that the neck centre is the path where are tasted the six
flavours (ro. drug, la. Ions, spyod.pahi. la. mgrin.pahi. hkhor. lo). By its force the:

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231

ndis develop and so by this one indicates the truth that is like the sky. To one who shows cloth should be shown trisla. The meaning of the question being do you know the characteristics of the guardian divinity? The answer is "I know the trisla of the nature of body, speech and mind." To one who shows the breast should be shown the parting of the hair. The meaning of the question is "Do you know if the reality can be attained by means of dance?" The answer being "Yes, I know and I know the bliss that arises from the union of two senses." To one who points to earth should be shown the face. The question means whether the nature of Prajn is known or not, the answer of which is "Yes, it is known". It is endowed with Prajn and Upya. One who shows brow to him should be shown the loosened tuft The question is whether you and I shall perform (rtsod.pa) the parts of Prajn and Upya, The answer given means it can be done without any fears. If the forehead is shown, then the back should be pointed out. The question means whether he knows that the seat of the yoginis is the head. The answer i.e. showing the back, means he knows and that besides the head there are other parts which are the seats of the yoginis. If one shows the sole of the foot, then in reply one may dance with joy. The meaning of the question is how to arrive at the place and the answer is "First the treatise on dancing and then by entering into complete tranquility with one's mind dispossessed of attachment, in this way we will go to those places." If he shows a hand holding a garland, then he should be asked to meet. Then the meeting-places of Hevajra: There are pithaand upapztha, ksetra, upaksetra etc. i.e. The ten bhmis (stages) are the basic places of all kulas having three cakras, four cakras or six cakras. Having three cakras means according to the Cakra-samvara-tantra, through the difference of body, speech and mind and the three stages (bhumi=sa) above, below and supreme (bid). Having six cakras means by the difference of earth, water, fire, wind, sky and knowledge or the five skandhas and vijnna as the sixth, or as said in the ParamdiBuddha-tantra, by the difference of six letters. Then the signification of four is by the four psychic centres i.e. the sixty four petalled Nirmna, the eight petalled Dharma, sixteen petalled Sambhoga, and thirty-two petalled Mahsukha. In the Hevajra-tantraaxe taught differences in four

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cakras, four kyas, four abhisekas, four nandas, four ksanas, four results etc. These 12 places are taken to be equivalent to the ten bhiimis (stages). (But this does not seem to be very logical as these places refer to powerful spiritual centres (Jgrtadaivata sthnas) or places where there had been a long spiritual tradition which has surcharged atmosphere by its spiritual tradition and hence the places gain in importance). Externally these places are in the outside world where dwell those goddesses who run after flesh and blood; but internally they are in the body itself in the form of nerves and hence there is no need to look for them anywhere else. The days of Hevajra: The days of Hevajra are of two types: internal and external. Externally they are the dark half of the month. The fourteenth and the eighth days are the days of Hevajra on which those above-mentioned deities residing in the outside world become the cause of robbing the beings of their lustre. Internally they are the meeting of
the semen virile, wind etc. svsa (dbugs), lipta (chu. sran), danda (chu.tshed)

at different junctions. So also yogin should know the two types of perfections differentiated as internal and external. For the attainment of ordinary perfections on the fourteenth night of the dark fortnight one should go to the cemetery and should bring together the female preachers of the Lord. The 14th day of dark fortnight is 29tlvand the 8th day of dark fortnight is 23rd. The absolute meaning of this as given in the mulatantra : This Bodhicitta is the moon undergoing bright and dark (days). By the bright he establishes the mother, by the dark, the killer. By the fourteenth day of the dark fortnight the Bodhicitta-dkinl is united with mah sukhacakra. Then the interpretations of dhvaja and saptdvarta. The dhvaja is the corpse of any man or woman punished by the king the body being torn open by the weapon and is left hanging on a tree. (cp. Snellgrove, HT, Vol. I, p. 71). The saptdvartais the person either man or woman born as human being in seven consecutive births. His characteristics are as follows : He is born with seven shadows, his eyes do not close, on the forehead there is a third wrinkle, and his body gives out sweet smell. If one meets such a person he should offer him a flower, encircle him, address him as "Oh, Lord of yogins, now is the time to act for the good of (people) like us". He will give up his body, when he gives it up, out of his flesh make small balls of the size of a berry and (saying to) we all will eat these and should be apportioned

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to all the creatures (in the same) proportion, as yours. Then he will attain the power of moving in the space. Also having performed, purified and mixed the minor animal flesh (sa.phal) as opposed to (sa, chen) the human flesh and the flesh of the one killed with weapon and having made it into small pellets and having partaken it, the wrinkles and the white hair will be destroyed. This is the rule. The absolute meaning of saptvarta is as follows : That body which is the body of all embodied beings is the seven born. From the eating and drinking, the food and drinks with six flavours are digested and the body is nourished. That is the first birth. Then the blood is formed and that is the second birth. The formation of the flesh is the third. The formation of the skin is the fourth and the formation of veins is the fifth. From it come the bones which is the sixth and the formation of fat and marrow is the seventh. By all efforts the yogin should create compassion and should practise the act of slaying. One without compassion will not succeed. According to some by the difference of external and internal are the five expatiable sins. The teachings of the Buddhas leading to ksobha are to be pacified by the meditation of the family of the wrathful and in some cases by the act of slaying the destruction should not be allround. In the external and internal the life pervades two parts. In the external it is obstructed by the meditation of the krodhakula and internally the great void is hindered, (v. 23) The meaning of dinastu bhagavn ... etc. Prajn is absence of existence and Upya means existence. The absolute meaning of this given in the mlatantra is as follows : That which makes the duality like right and left, moon and sun, heat and cold, blemish and virtue that is Prajn and Upya. Sri is the non-dual knowledge, that in the sense that there are no two divisions in the glory of I and You. 'He' is the snyat which is the cause of the beginning. This means the causeless meditation of the action, knowledge, making the mudrs, ball etc. and that is the supreme Bliss. 'Rv? is the absence of accumulation and means the Bliss arising out of the freedom from characterised ideation. 'Ka' is not fixed anywhere, the accumulation and the nature of abstraction which is without action and not mutually dependent are said to be sdhan and hence the name Heruka.

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The yoginis are the fifteen dates of the nature of the dark fortnight creating the dark colour; varied colours are destroyed and cakra is the Bodhicitta which is seen coming down the mouth. As is said in the mulatantra: The mandala should be characterised by the differences of body, speech and mind. First is Hevajra and is called the kyamandala, second is called Nairtmy and is said to be citta-mandala and third is that of Kurukull which is the vgmandala. Khadhtau etc. The meaning of this should be known the same as before in the rakscakra preached at the time of the creation of Heruka. Here only the essence is explained. Having worshipped one's lord as before and having purified the ptra (snod) and rasa (bead) by the method
of orn snyat-vajra- svabhvtmakoham, all the phenomenal world should

be venerated as the mandala in space. The mandala in space is characterised by the body, speech and mind of all Tathgatas and in it should be meditated Amitbha one mile in size like the form of the letter E. This mandala is divided in two putas (hphar.ma). Thus the two (putas) are made on the basis of the goddesses symbolising subject and object. Kinjalka (anthers of flower) is the one i.e. it is the internal mandalain which reside the goddesses purifying the five skandhas, which are, as is said above, of the nature of five snyats. The other is in the triangle. In order that the prnavyu should rise above all the spheres (khams), one should imagine a corpse in the outer puta. Above it there will be moon and above moon seed (sukram). As is said in the mulatantra: first the sukra is created from the father and then the consciousness endowed with life enters. This is united with the blood of mother. The utpattikrama (process of creation) is taught in this sense. The corpse, moon and seed are suppressed by solar disc. The mahsukha is produced by the union (or congregation) of the two. Here the union of two means the process of entrance of the nature of sukra and rakta and the prna, the union of Lalan and Rasan, and the union of lower and upper. Ali is of the form of moon and kli, that of the sun. This is the external utpailikrama means, in neyrtha (conventional meaning) all is the lunar disc and in the nitrtha she is the inhalation of breath; kali, in conventional sense means solar disc and in nitrtha stands for exhalation of breath. The meeting of moon and sun means the coming j

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together of the nature of moon and sun and three perceptions. Gauri etc, means in the outer puta is created the essence of transmigratory existence and the inner puta the ultimate (dam.pa) existence and that is the creation of the fifteen goddesses Gauri etc. (v. 8ab) The Bodhi is said to consist of five perceptions and hence of five types. Then for the understanding of neyrtha and riitrtha. The meeting place of ali and kali is the seat of Vajrasattva, for the understanding of the ignorant, the li and kali i.e. sun and moon will be wholly changed. If this is correct then the ball of hum and phat is not required to arise from the aksara (letter). Then the chief of the mandalas arisen from the manifestation of being may be meditated upon. Here meditation on the nairtmy cakra is the riitrtha. The meaning of this as explained in Paramdi-Buddha-tantra : "O King, the hmkra is not required to arise from the meeting of Ali and Kali " So also as is said in the 5th chapter of the shorter tantra, by Manjuvajra: "kra and Kakra are the seats of the moon and the sun but it is not Vajrin. Here the absence of the characteristics like figure, colour etc. of the hmkra are not asserted. Some others think that the origination from non-existence endows it with good powers. The Victorious One endowed with all the excellent forms is the holder of the various illusions." In the inner puta are the five yoginisof the nature offiveskandhas. (w. 15) "These two goddesses" means the breath of two types, one going up and the other coming down. From these two arise the
upya-tantras like Guhyasamj etc. and yogini-tantras like Hevajra etc.

The upyatantra springs from the above and the prajn-tantra from below. Thus by the nature of existence and liberation, compassion resides in these. All the goddesses are dark coloured indicate the sign of Prajn
and Snyat.

(v. 20, 21) The nitrtha according to the mlatantra: "The lotus is one's own body, destruction is in the form of the.four meditations. Thus the knower of yoga should always drink the blood and flesh of the four Mras and he will suppress birth and old age." The four states of the chief of the cakra is the Mara. The four embodiments of Mra are at the nirmna (cakra), Skandhamra, at the heart, Yama at the throat, Klesamra and at the head, Devaputramra. Each Mra is killed in four

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days. So also all the doubts about the existence and non-existence are vanquished. (v. 22ab) If one meditates on the mandala after fully comprehending the meaning then one will attain perfection quickly. This is the nitrtha. Again the meaning of this as explained in the mlatantra : "One who is enmeshed in the net of doubts, having regarded the world, should be taught the means which will release him gradually. One who is bound by the propensities of doubts, to him should first be taught the method of deliberation. Then having known the nature of doubt, he will be without doubt. The meditation on the mandala, the creation of gods, inviting the god symbolising knowledge, and bestowal of power, also, the psychic centres and veins, semen virile as well as breathall this is preached by the Buddha for the sake of the ignorant. There is no other nitrtha : whoever has seen the rite of the mandala, purification of the god, invitation to the ye.ses.pa, abhiseka, semen virile and breath, has not known Hevajra." Thus is taught the utpatti and utpanna of the yoginis of all tantras in the six parts through neyrtha and nitrtha. That instruction which is imparted in the state of utpannakrama is the absolute meaning and that in the utpattikrama, is the conventional meaning. (w. 23,24) The six parts are Aksobhya, Amitbha, Ratnasambhava, Vajrasattva and Vairocana. These are also the elements earth, water, fire, wind, space and knowledge. These six are the parts of utpattikrama and Viramnanda etc. explains the six parts of utpanna-krama. These according to the 18th chapter of Guhyasamja, (GOS, p. 163) are pratyhra (so.sor.bsdud), dhyna (bsam.gtari), prnyma (srog.rtsol), dhran (hdziri), anusmrfi(rjes.su.drari) and samdhi (tin.ne.hdziri).The meaning of this is explained in detail in the Paramdi-buddha-tantra (dan. pohi.mchoggi.sans.rgyas). (v.20) It is not correct that Prajn and Upya indicate woman and man. The correct meaning by the difference of samvrti and vivrti is as follows: Samvrti-sukha which is of the nature of flow by the subject-object relationship is Upya and the absence of Ultimate-Bliss should be understood as Prajn. In the case of both man and woman the sukra (khu.ba) is Upya and bliss (bde.ba) is Prajn. (v.33) Thus the abhisekas, ghata, guhya and prajn-jnna are of the nature of destruction and the fourth meditation is meditation. Even in

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the Paramdi-buddha-tantra it is said that the three are the samvrti and the fourth is the paramrtha. All the existence should be looked upon as one devoid of any differentiation like lower, middle and best. The Sahaja is the uni-flavouredness (samarasa) of all things. All the existence is Hevajra, Herka, Nairtmy. The svasamvit is the mahdsukha, and from it the Bodhi arises. The meaning of this (v. 46) from the mlatantra: This existence is of the nature of sufferingas it will cause no trouble to describe the space as multi-coloured so also a yogin desirous of attaining the Hevajra^frada should speak like that. (v. 47) In this, both meaning and illustration are spoken openly, as at the time of illustration the viramnanda came first and paramnanda at the end. Having made it manifest by his intellect, he should meditate upon svasamvit (v. 49) From the bliss of meeting (sprod.pa) the three worlds are born and the knowledge of the non- existence (mi.hgyur.ba) originates in it. After this, specification like father and mother or Prajn and Upya is not made. In this state of the greatest secret it is separated, as the support and supported and then named accordingly. (v. 50) Sukra is father and sukha (bliss) is the mother. She is so called because of the absence of existence, Upyais the existence. Bliss is rending asunder the net of cognition. (v. 58) By the difference of the internal and external one who is dwelling in the dhyna beyond any comparison will not be hurt by any place in the three heavenly worlds, as well as the under worlds. But he will be hurt by the bondage of this iron chain of my and mine.
L ix. Visuddhipatala

In the introductory sentences he explains that the existence of impure things like poison etc. should, indeed, be destroyed (lit slain). So an intelligent person should purify his body, speech and mind through the threefold method. The verses 1 to 11 are devoted to the explanation of utpatti-krama which is to be taught to the beginner. All the existing matter should be purified. The skandhas, dhtus, sadyatanas are naturally pure. The

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causeless spheres should be thought of as empty (gzalyas) and those having cause should be meditated as goddesses and this is purification. All this purification is necessary because without it liberation is not attained. This purification is the self-experience. The knowledge that form etc. are uncreated is itself purification. This is the absolute meaning. After the explanation of utpatti-krama follows the explanation of the subject-object relationship. Then the skandhas and their ruling deities are explained (w. 13,14). The commentator adds : the ignorant perceive the four substances as well as crave for them. From the practice, they attain the miraculous powers like slaying etc. in this world. The nitrtha (absolute meaning) of this as given in the mlatantra is as follows : The rite of pacification is the pacification of the desire for defilements by the water of the Bodhicitta, born in one's own body. In order to make the body, speech and mind fuller (richer) in its capacities, the rite of abundance (paustika) should be performed. The rite of vasyais used to reverse the pain from body, speech and mind and to bring them under control in a pleasant way. So also, Sdntikais the meditation on the element of water at the forehead. Vasya is the meditation on the element of fire at the throat Mrana is the meditation on the element of wind at the heart. Paustika is the meditation on the element of earth at the navel. Then the modes of the inner and outer vijndna are symbolised by space which means one should exert to keep the breath on the upper side which is a principle of the yogatantras and is taught in Guhyasamja etc.; also it is called pitrcitta (phahi.sems). Here again Bhcari is the element of supreme knowledge of non-existence. The principle of the yogim-tantra is the pleasure, the embodied creatures derive from the downward flow of the semen virile. This is preached in Hevajra-tantra
and is known as mdtrcitta. It is said in the Paramdi-buddha-tantra: The

upper and lower ndis of the mind are the conductor of semen virile and the other is dark which is explained as the mind of Upyais of dark colour and Prajn conducts the semen virile. (v. 16-18) All this symbolisation is for the ignorant; but actually ; what is meant is that anger etc. should be abandoned.

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This chapter is devoted to the detailed explanation of the rites of drawing the mandala and bestowing the abhiseka. The commentator mainly explains the internal (symbolic) meaning of the ritual and thus the whole rite becomes comprehensive. The mandala-pravesa is symbolic of the removal of the obstructions created by doubts. This rite should be performed on an auspicious day under the auspicious constellations, junctions etc., in order to be fruitful and this is the rule of the Tathgatas. Then the rakscakra rite should be performed, the purpose being the driving away of all the forces which may create obstructions. He should create Hevajraoi the nature of three krodhas (wrathful aspects). The nitrtha of this is that through meditation he himself should enter the cakra. While selecting the place for drawing the mandala one should select a place which has auspicious signs, which is delightful and which will bestow perfection quickly. The material to draw the mandala is either the colours, powders of jewels or various corns. The measurement is three hands and three thumbs (i.e. 4' x 4'). The number three stands for the differentiation like body, speech and mind or for the three gunas - rajas, tamas and
sattva.

Then starts the rite of abhiseka. The acrybhiseka is for attracting the ignorant to the doctrine. Then in order to instruct the ignorant in the path of passion one should act as is given below. He should obtain a girl endowed with all the good qualities and born in a good family.
The sryavars, rjavars and vimsati-vars are differentiated on the basis of kyavarsa, vgvarsa, cittavarsa. If a girl having sryavars can be

obtained then she can enter the mandala. Sryavarsa-mudr is the best, rjavars is of the middle class and of twenty years is ordinary. (v. 6cd.) The meaning of this is two-fold : Only at the advent of sryavars the woman's cause of pleasure comes, not before that. And after twenty it is destroyed. The covering of the mouth of mudr and upya serves as a symbolic armour. (v. 10) Thus whatever is the unchangeable bliss that is the guhya of the body, speech and mind of all the Buddhas. So also the chief of the mandala is the sukra residing in the body. If it is devoid of sukra

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then it may not exist inside. This support in sukra is the method of the rga-dharma, doctrine of passion. Also from the consideration of the existence and non-existence and from the essence of the sukra or Bodhicitta father is born. Thus from the sukra going downward, by the clinging to I and mine the root emerges, and by the same sukra going upward the doctrine is understood. Thus from the downward flow of the sukra many things like Siddhnta (grub.mthah) etc. all schools of philosophy, history and so on originate. Therefore, the bodily support should be protected through all efforts. (v. 13) Thus the sukra residing in the body obtains the illusionary form by having support in the mode of the inner joys and this is preached in the method of the doctrine of passion. (v. 15) The first three joys are corresponding to the first three abhisekas and hence can be compared to the pleasure of this world. Having abandoned the joys of this world, the joy of Nirvana in all the four should be contemplated. Thus when one of one's own accord abandons the worldly pleasure, then he transcends the stage of beginner. (v. 19) First there arises the joy in meditation, of the manifest and unmanifest. Then comes the great meditation of the manifest by which the unmanifest is eliminated. Then after that he reaches the stage of opposite of sleep (gnid.log.pa) and wakeful state in which all the phenomenal world appears like an illusion. This is the indestructible space having all forms of the characteristics of doubt and it itself constitutes the sign of firm establishment. As is said in the miilatantra "one which is beyond the first stage and which is the stage of the yogic meditation, has three characteristics."These three characteristics mean the sign of the absorption in the Bodhi (v. 32) There is no difference between samsra and Nirvana. All the phenomena are like the dream or the moon reflected in water as all the phenomena are naturally solitary. So also here the intoduction to the yogatantra and kriytantra is preached to the mantrin by its difference in the meaning of the spoken word. In the mahyoga it is preached through various meditations of the Sahaja. So whatever is said to be the Sahaja should be understood in two-fold manner. How? First is spoken for the understanding of fools, i.e. to be in the moment of the joy derived from the two senses

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and the other is that Sahaja-stege which comes after the abandonment of the moment of the pleasure of two senses. This is the Vidydhara Mahcrya stage. (w. 33, 34) These verses explain the speciality of meaning of the mahyoga. The sukra gone to the jewel of the meditation having the characteristics supreme etc. is only joy and not the Sahaja (Innate). This is for the sake of the ignorant. That is the Vidydharapada where the yogin has turned away from the grasping and grasper (subject and object), conceptions like body etc.; at this stage blood and flesh cannot be hurt neither excreta, urine etc. are created, nor do vomit, blood clot, puss, nasal discharge are produced, his speech becomes all penetrating; and he does not enter into the idea of the six Buddhakulas, of attachment etc. That is the nitrtha of Vidydhara. Then Vajragarbha asks how these skandhas etc. which are naturally pure are produced again as devat, actions and organs of action and if all the skandhas are pure, then wherein lies the necessity for the instruction of Mantracary ? No doubt the dharmas are pure from the beginning; but the substance of the samvrtiis enticing. The water springs from the earth. So also the water of Bodhicitta. Then by friction and application of heat, fire is created and by the movement of fire and sukra, wind is produced. That is the bliss of solitude which is space. Also Bodhicitta is the knowledge of Sahaja. The japa is that in which is the destruction of all moments of the reality of the Buddhas. The tapais the abandonment of non-application and non-abadonment of the eight covers of this world. The homa is the burning of all the words and mental impressions (sems.kyi.rgya.ba). The mandala and its chief are the places in the heart of movable and immovable objects. Thus mind is the union, collecting together and that is the Sahaja. Lxi This chapter deals with the sat-kriys like the drstykrsti etc. The text describes the drsti (gazes) which the practicant is supposed to maintain while performing these kriys. They are to be performed as a symbolic representation of certain deities. Every kriy required a particular drsti, svsa (breathing-rhythm), sitting posture, the rosary, the fire-altar, the fire offerings and the time (auspicious moment). One who strives to subjugate a wicked person he should make his

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chief deity in appearance like Aksobhya and while meditating should direct his eyes towards the forehead at different times. He should make sacrifice and then bring about the fall. Here the gazeis directed upwards because he has entered the form of wrathful family. In order to bring the three worlds under his control he should change himself into a form like Padmarga. Both the eyes should look in the right direction at the time of meditation. In order to bring under control the three worlds, he should have look like that of taptasuvarna (molten gold) and should direct the eyes towards the tip of the nose and he will attain the siddhi.
Rite The deity The direction whose gaze of eyes is invited Looking at the forehead at different times The reason Manner of Object of breathing testing the siddhi

Ptana (moral fall) Aksobhya

Aksobhya exhalation Snigdhavrksa belongs to krodha (recaka) kula Padmarga retention Puspa (flower) Padmarga looking to the Vasya (kumbhaka) right, both eyes at one time Sryodaya looking to the This is the inhalation Vajravrksa krsti (praka) left and upwards mode of Sryodaya This is the prasntaka Trna gazing at the Stambhana Tapta(steady) suvarna top of the nose mode of taptawith both eyes sometimes suvarna

(See Snellgrove, HT, Vol. I, p. 85 for complete translation). (v. 8.) Ndi, gdi etc., ndi means nara, na being the initial letter. Gdi is gau,ga being the initial letter and in this manner hdi represents elephant (hastin). Svnta represents horse (asva, sva being at the end) and Svdi represents svna. The aspirant should put these materials (? flesh of these animals) together and make small pelets of the size of the thumb and purify them. Then mix them, burn them and make a drink (since it is obtained from five creatures, it is pancmrta) and if he drinks it, he will obtain the siddhi.
Pancmrta (v. 9) means a portion ofvit, mtra, mmsa, rakta, sukra. Kurukull sdhana : It is said in the mlatantra that the world is

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Summaries) deluded by passion. So in order to bring it under control Hevajra has created this female form.

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Il.i Homanirnaya-pratisthpatala This chapter explains the rite of pratisth (establishing an idol or any other holy object with all the rites like purification of the ground, raksvidhi, pj, homa etc.) of the mandala drawn for initiating the disciple. The guru having performed the paustika homa etc. should draw the mandala. Then having placed the Buddhas etc. in the residence of space, he should purify the basis of pratisth. The nitrtha of this as spoken in the mulatantra is as follows : The body is the central place of the mandala. Having made an offering of the five spheres, the Buddhas in the form of sukra should be introduced. Then the five goddesses in the form of five skandhas should be purified. The pratisth is the supreme blessing. The great establishment is in the spheres and that is the supreme pratisth. Il.ii Siddhinirnayapatala Vajragarbha asks 'Oh, Lord, although the dharmas are like the space or like a gourd in the sea then how do the beings attain perfection through their tutelary deities?" All the phenomenal world is, in the beginning, middle and end like the space. The world is a creation of one's own thoughts. If an empty gourd is thrown in the ocean, it will flow down with the current without any direction; likewise how will one be able to attain liberation with the help of an object created in one's own thoughts? If the beginner, after being introduced in the cakra etc., continues to practise Nairtmy-yoga, then he will soon attain perfection. (w. 4-6) The actions of the yogins which are the support should be considered as being in Hevajra. If an aspirant practises the Nairtmy-yoga or Hevajra-^ogvs with all his might, he is sure to succeed. Then the commentator proceeds to describe the actual practices. The practicant will doubtlessly attain perfection through the constant practice of yoga. First, he must receive the explicit instruction of the yoginzs to select a mudr with whom he will undergo certain practices. He will receive this instruction in dream or through the guru. She should be twelve or sixteen years old, with big eyes and endowed with beauty and youth. She should be given

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instruction in Dharma; also samaya should be bestowed on her. And she should be taught concentration of mind as well as mental creation of form of the goddess, (i.e. She should be acquainted with the utpannaand utpatti-krama). If she is not trained in this manner, then the contemplation of the convention of Hevajra may be broken. He can practise with four types of females : A goddess, a devil's daughter, a yaksi or a woman. (v. 22) Whichever woman is endowed with Nairtmy-yogawith her the mudr-sukha may be attained; but it arises from the woman herself. Then will it lead to the perfection of the UpyafThe woman partner of the beginner should give up the idea of her womanhood and have faith in the existence of Hevajra. That woman should transform herself into a man like Hevajra. So at the time of the Bliss that one who is having a male body is endowed with kakkola. Thus the remaining dhtu, yatanas etc. are mutually unified and transformation of masculinity is not necessary. Heruka is not separate. Thus the woman will attain perfection through the transformation. One who is a yogini, having absorbed the female body in thought, will attain man's form in this life. The vajrcryam order to avoid the worldly sin should make a girl who is transformed into a man, his companion in the practices. By this he will attain the mudrd-siddhi. Thus the yogin who has made clear the nondual nature of prajn and Upya will not be hurt even at the time of the final dissolution of the world. (v. 34) How can Bodhi be attained through the sensual bliss? The utpanna-bhvan (meditation leading to complete production of reality) is nothing else. Then what is the necessity of another mantra, mudr etc.? The absence of the essence of existence of conventional body (samvrtisarira) is the* mahsukha. Therefore, on account of the lack of senses how can bliss be experienced? Thus in the absence of the body, pleasure will not exist. If the body exists, pleasure also exists. (v. 41) The nitrthaas given in the mlatantra: The lord described sukra as adorned by the 80 minor signs, endowed with the four dhydnas, the fully blossomed flower of mind, one gone beyond the bondage. Thus if in the absence of body, the sukra will also be absent, then in the absence of sukra what is the substratum of pleasure? Thus they are mutually dependent. So even the name of the Buddha does not exist. For those persons difficult to discipline the Buddha has preached

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the pleasure of two senses. Even if the Buddhas are of the nature of the Sahaja, sukra is not Sahaja. The Buddha is the one who is the Sahaja residing in all the nature. (v. 43) This statement is made because the Bliss pervades everything and all places and because the Sahaja also has pervaded everything. These forms exist on account of the perceptions and no other means exist to disregard them. So the conventional form is eulogised as the best. Therefore, the pleasure arising out of the effort is unaccompanied by anything because of the suddenness, like that of the autumn flowers. Therefore, nature is said to be the Sahaja. Again another simile for the sake of the ignorant. The nature is the Nirvana when the mind is in a purified state. This is the utpatti because of the naturally pure state from the beginning. HQW will the utpatti-sthna help in attaining the Sahaja? (because the utpattikrama is a meditation on the deity endowed with some definite form). Even though the concrete form of the deity is devoid of essence from the beginning, it is preached for the sake of the ignorant. (w. 46-50) The nitrtha of this from the mlatantra : The passion etc. defilements create bondage for men. Whatever is endowed with means, will attain liberation. The bliss which is one but because of the five different elements becomes fivefold. The great Bliss, which is one, like the space, emerges in five states in the conventional world. There are five main kulas, the minor kulas being innumerable. The five kulas bear the nature of the five classes (vargas) of consonants
kanthya, tlavya, mrdhanya, osthya and dantya. As a, i, u, ry I are produced

from five places, so are the five kulas. As the role of the Updya is the suppression of the bindu (semen virile) in five places so are the five kulas. As important principle underlying thefive-fettfasof the tathgatas that they are differentiated according to the five mental defilements. This has far-reaching relations as on this very basis the types of disciples also can be determined which will help to find out a suitable class of tantra for his practice.
II. iii. Hevajrasarvatantra-nidnapatala

Now the chapter on the origin of all tantras. The tantras are of
four types - crya, guhya, prajnd-jndna and caturtha. Nidna (origin)

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Satshasrik-hevajra-ttk

means the history, place and cary (mode of life) all taken together. Upyas (means) are those spoken by the Lord and this is the relation. The Samvaraoi all the Buddhas is to be known to reside in evamkra. The meaning of this according to the mlatantra is this : After the Nirvana, the Dharma was preached for the understanding of srvakas, ignorant etc. in Vajrapni etc. stras, beginning with Evam. This is the neyrtha. The discussion of the neyrtha - The Nirvana is really absent. I am the Vajrakya and I exist at all times and have preached the different injunctions to the ignorant Evamis father and mother, moon and sun, semen and blood, right and left, the phallus and yoni, Upya and Pmjn. Evamis the mahguhya ofall the Buddhas and the yoginisreside in the triangular puta and then in the midst of it is a place in which all the pleasures of three worlds are brought together. And it is adorned by divine ghata, kalpavrksa, tmbula, clear water, etc. (v. 5) The meaning of this as given in the mlatantra is as follows: cakra ksana ananda No. of sthnas (petals of the lotus) 32 16 8 64 element on the physical plane

earth lingana Lalta vicitra nanda water cumbana Kantha vipka paramnanda fire sukhajnna Hrd vimarda viramnanda wind Nbhi vilaksana sahajnanda By the reverse order the above table is also reversed. For the entrance of the ignorant crya is bestowed. By obtaining the guhya, one experiences joy. The touch of Prajnis the prajnbhiseka, fourth is different from these three. Then follows the detailed description of the abhisekas. But the commentator gives no more information than the text itself. The Lord has already spoken about six senses and their objects, and now imparts instruction about their definite number. The presiding deity The seed syllable Sense Eye Ear Mohavajra Krodhavajra a am

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Summaries) Nose Mouth Body Mind Mtsaryavajra Rgavajra Irsyvajra Nairtmya-yogini e u

247

This is the armour of the great being. The meaning of the four types of tantras : The four types are characterised by the conventions (signs) of pleasure expressed through smile, gaze, holding the hands and union. These four types are explained in a symbolic conventional language which is explained below: Madanais the madya (wine) and bala is the flesh and they are connected by the internal and external difference. Sukra is the experience of pleasure and hence madya and the cessation of the outgoing movement of the above-mentioned senses is the flesh. The gathering is called malayaja. The kulaand that which is not arisen from kula is of the nature of four cakras. Gati is the khetara and means going downwards from the place of klgni. The ray of light moving like a lightening is the kotara and asthi means without clothes. Niramsu (cha.sa.med?) means beyond speech. That which is gone beyond the sphere of speech is the bliss of semen and that is said to be niramsu. The path of the moon is on the left. That which inspires is the going. The perfection of gods and men is said to be the prenkhana; damaru is the kripida. The breath is the sound of damaru and stays in the ykamrga (?) .One who has attained the union is called kripida. Dunduru is the misfortune and union becomes devoid of compassion. One who destroys the sixteen phases is devoid of compassion and is called dunduru. Kaliiijara is called good luck. That which is the pleasure of oneself which is not destroyed even by Brahma, Visnu, Mahesa, Kmadeva. Dindima is called untouchable, Nairtmy etc. yoginis are by nature sixteen. Food (bhaksya) is that which satisfies. As is already mentioned it is not the gross eating that brings the satisfaction but the supreme flavour of the dhyna. Hence it is called trptlkara (that which brings contentment). Catuhsama is like excreta. It is like coming together of moon, sun, Rhu and Klgni, the four dhynas and hence called catuhsama. Mtra is called kastri. The body is like the perfect

248

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

one and support in it is like the smell of navel of deer and hence called musk (kastri). Svayambh is called silha. It is the menstrual blood. The yogin should consider candana (sandal) like silha. Sukra is said to be karpiira. Mahmmsa is slija. Slija bestows power of moving in the space. Kunduru is the union of two sense organs. In a purified place, by homa etc. gazes, the two stick together and that is called kunduru. Vajra is bola - it is supported by the water of meditation (?). Jnnakara is born by the equal amount of strength and prabhva and therefore called bola. Padma is called kakkola. The support ofpadma is three worlds and its temperament is pleasure for attaining the body of vajrakya (?). The hulas are five and are as follows : Kula Vajrakula Padmakula Ratnakula Tathgatakula Karmakula Chief of the kula Aksobhya Amitbha Ratnasambhava Mahavairocana Siddhrtha Mudr of the kula Dombi NatI Candli Dvij Rajaki Element ksa Teja

Ap
Prthivi Vyu

In the neyrtha these hulas indicate the girls born in those families. By purification, by the mode of blissful life and the drinking of the elixir collected from the Bodhicitta, the body will become firm like Vajra. The nitrtha is as follows : Whatever kula the practicant belongs to, by the meditation on the seed syllable (of that kula), through the observation of strict control, his body will become like Vajra. It i absolutely essential to use the esoteric language. Otherwise the practicant will not attain Buddhahood. So every beginner should learn this. But when he obtains the convention then he may not use this language as the yoginls of the four pzthas will be full of wrath. II* iv. Hevajra-sarvatantra-mudrana-pindrth-patala This chapter is mainly devoted to the clarification of certain points already mentioned in Carypatata (I. vii.) First is the definition of music and dance. According to the mlatantra the song (w. 6,7,8) symbolises the ten bhmis or stages and

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Summaries)

249

knowing thus one who sings the music will be bestowed the perfection. The ten 'bhiimis' are as follows : Kollaire symbolises pitha and upapitha; mummunire kakkola symbolises ksetra and upaksetra; ghanakivida symbolises chanda; tahimpa symbolises upachanda; halinkala symbolises melpakasthna; caus symbolises upamelpakasthna; mlaindhana symbolises smasna; niramsu symbolises upasmasna; prenkhana symbolises pilava;. malayaja symbolises upapilava One may dance with the form of Heruka> with the mind uncontaminated by passion; detachment means the meditation by passionate mind. Vajradharma indicates their nature as speech, the .Buddha indicates their nature as body, and by its force one should know the mind. Thus the unificatioin of body, mind and speech is taught. Thus the music and dance are for the internal and external development of the vows and perfections. By understanding the nature of this, all the three worlds can be empowered and that itself becomes mantra. Then the problem connected with mudrana. Mudrana means to indicate the kula by the help of characteristics and signs of mudrs. Unless the practicant finds out his kula through meditation, he will not attain perfection. Whatever kula he belongs to, he should be marked by the sign of that kula* This is the rule of tathgatas. The meaning of this from the mlatantra: Krodha-mudr Nairtmy Aksobhya Moha-mudr Vajr Vairocana Pndar Mtsarya-mudr Ratnasambhava Vrini Rga-mudr Amitabha Dkinl Irsy-mudr Amogha The bya-mantras of the fifteen deities in the Nairtmy-mandala are given as follows :

250 Adhytmaputa

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

Nairtmy first of the li i.e. a Vajr second of the li i.e. Pndar third of the ali i.e. i Variyoginl fourth of the li i.e. i Vajradkinl fifth of the li i.e. u Pukkasi sixth of the ali Leu Sabarl seventh of the ali i.e. r Dombini eighth of the li i.e. f Dombi ninth of the li i.e. / Pndar tenth of the ali i.e. / Cauri eleventh of the ali i.e. e Vetli twelfth of the ali i.e. ai Ghasmari thirteenth of the li i.e. o Bhcari forteenth of the li i.e. au Khechari fifteenth of the li i.e. am (v. 28) How should the Bodhicitta be created? As is said before by following the ordinary vows, by drawing mandala and taking crya etc. seven abhisekas; the svdhisthna is white in the samvrti (?) and from the pleasure arising from it one should create thoughts. In the samvrti the semen virile is the Bodhicitta and the Bliss which is in it is the vivrti. The nitartha is : Even if it is not transformed in the reality of Bliss, it is of the nature of vivrti. (v. 37) Here pyayet has two meanings : According to neyrtha it means the flavoured matter should be taken and in nitartha it means that flavoured phallus should be taken. (v. 49) The meaning of this as follows: To hold in the body wrapped outwardly in the shawl etc. a host of impurities, also the four cardinal sins, and all, the uncertain phenomena is preached for the attraction of the fools; but in the supreme path of mantras, the neyrtha and nitartha is preached. In the external (exoteric) samvaras the vows about the cardinal sins etc. unworthy acts are to be observed. In the esoteric samvara, non-voilence etc. as well as the mode of purity etc. are made bounden and this is the nitartha. Guhyasampatti (v. 50) is explained as the state at the time of the

Safshasrik-hevajra-iik (English Summaries)

251

absorption of the paths of the sun and the moon in the immovable path (mi.gsigs.pahi.lam) and having abandoned the karma, jnna etc. mudrs and by the further development of the sukhasamvara all the nerves become like Vajra and that is the guhyasampatti. The three kyas are said to be in the body itself in the form of the cakras as in the mahsukhacakra etc. the ndis in the form of dharma, sambhoga, nirmna pervading all the knowledge are in the three bodies. This is because Lalan is body, Rasan is speech and Avadhti resides in the middle having abandoned subject-object relation and hence is the dharmakya. Thus mahsukha has pervaded everything. As is said by someone else also, 'How are all the creatures born?' From that which is the firm place of creation and hence it is nirmnakya. Hence the firm place is the navel which is also the nirmna-cakra. Dharmakya is at the heart centre. It is said 'pleasure and pain should be grasped and non-characterised state will arise from characterised one. The noncharacterised state cannot be an assemblage of different parts; therefore dharmakya is at the heart centre. The enjoyment of six flavours is the sambhoga and sambhoga-cakra is at the throat and at the head is the place of Great Bliss as it is the root of all pleasures. All the beings are actually the Buddhas, only that state is covered with impurities, and when that is made manifest, the beings no doubt are the Buddhas. If one purifies (v. 78) the senses according to the methods of the supreme path, he will certainly attain the supreme Enlightenment. The four nandas are corresponding to the four actions. (v. 80) The body is imprinted by the sign of mind because as Upya without Prajn and Prajn without Upya can not achieve any action so body separated from mind and vice versa, will not be of any use.
II. vi. Hevajrapatavidhnapatala

The mode of life is already described in cary-patala. But here a few details are added. The nltrtha according to the mlatantra : The disc indicates the salutation to the guru, and tutelary deity residing in the twelve cakras. The earrings indicate his participation in the improper and abusive talk. The necklace indicates the meeting of the regulated breath in the place. The bracelet indicates the slaying of the Bodhicitta. The girdle indicates the passing beyond the 64 roots of pleasure.

252

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

The drawing of the mandala and pata of Hevajra even though of very minor importance should be done with great faith.
II. vii. Bhojanapatala

The chapter deals with the ritual to be followed while writing the book. It should be written with the purified elixir of sun and moon using the pen made out of human bone. The book is twelve fingers in length. It should be guarded from the sight of unworthy people. This is followed by the rules about eating. It is not the eating of the flesh of cow etc., drinking wine and having intercourse with women, that one can attain the desired perfection. By such things even the eightyfour thousandfold sphere of dharma is useless. Only the effort of the yogin helps him to destroy the three vibhavas. So the statement that eating, drinking etc. helps one to attain the desired perfection is for the attraction of the ignorant. Whoever wishes to make a ganacakra should do it as follows : The monks and the nuns, the householder, yogis and sthaviras etc. should make separate lines and should protect the cakra from, rough people. Then out of Gauri etc. nine yoginis one should be put on the left of the chief and the rest of the six yoginis should be put in the quarters and subquarters. Then on the human hide one's own form should be written and seats should be offered. Then seated there the available eatables should be eatenthis is the worship of the mothers.
II. viii. Vineya-patala

This chapter describes the mah-mudr who is the womancompanion of the sdhaka in the esoteric practices. The last paragraph deals with the syllabus to be followed while disciplining the wicked people and we find that Hevajra constitutes the last stage of these studies.
II. ix. Mantroddhrapatala

This chapter can be divided in three parts: First part 1-6 describes the rite of the splitting of human complex. The second part deals with the description of Herka's personal aspect and the third describes a collection of mantras by the help of which the beings can achieve all the desired ends. A lengthy passage from the mlatantra is quoted in connection with the third point, mentioned above. It is as follows :

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (English Summaries)

253

Having drawn the mandala of Hevajra containing eight petals, ali should be written on the first petal; kali should be written on the second petal; cadi should be written on the third petal; tdi should be written on the fourth petal; tdi should be written on the fifth petal; pdi should be written on the sixth petal; antastha should be written on the seventh petal; usmasukha should be written on the eighth petal. Then he should draw amkusa etc., at the four entrances and perform the worship and then the mantras are explained. The system followed in the mantras is as follows: The initial syllable of the mantra is almost invariably Om and that is indicated by various names, e.g. Vairocana, Aksardhipati (the chief of the letters), Vednm dinam. The next syllable is a consonant complete with a vowel. These consonants are described mechanically by indicating their position in the aksara-varnamla. The vowels are indicated by the goddesses e.g. Nairtmy and Vajr indicates a indicates i Gauri indicates Vajradkinl u e indicates Cauri > indicates Ghasmari o, and so on. indicates Vairocana om Usmanm caturtham indicates ha Pukkasisobhanam u Snyatakrntam 'head is adorned with the white drop, i.e. am and at the end is attached svh. So the mantra becomes om ha urn and this is the trailokya stambhana mantra. II. xi. Sahajrthapatala The type of sdhakas and their kulas: Kula Aksobhya Sign Nine pointed Vajra at the bottom of the ring finger Cakra with eight spokes Siddhi to be attained marana Complexion Adhisthna dark Aksobhya

Vairocana

sntika

fair

Vairocana

254

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik Red lotus with krsti eight petals ucctana Jewel Sword
red

Amitbha Ratnasambhava Karmakula Cittakula

Amitabha

yellow blue yellowish

ucctana all rites

Siddhrtha Vajrasattva

II. xii. The chapter on four abhisekas According to the mlatantra, the abhisekas are divided in two types by the difference of samsra and Nirvana and the result arising from them is also said to be of two types. By the difference of body, speech and mind, these abhisekas viz. kalasa, guhya, prajnjnna are preached and by the difference of body, speech, mind and knowledge, they are said to be four, viz kalasa, guhya, prajnjnna and caturtha.

Text-notes

Sanskrit Text
N.B. N = Nor monastery ms. B = Bir Library ms. 1 1, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. N Hemavajrya N nirdvanda cf. Tib. bdud.rtsi (= nectar) B-sta N vimokso B snyatsu B pancsyata B varnavittaratit cf. Tib. zla.phyed.rdo.rjehi.phren points to ardha-candra-kulisa-ml? B kapallikam; Tib. adds mnah mss yogamurag B dhipinah B ca naram B tsatvncanoN Hemavajra N Bhasyanti B -asminnsanmlaB-dyatah H-dhrina B sitavastrvayavandhyh; N sitavastravadvandhh. The emendation is suggested on the basis of Tib. Trans, which reads bdag.phyag. hos. zer. 21. Ettevih(?) 22. B -vanijm 23. B sdrm; N

256 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

SaUhasrik-hevajra-k

P vikriy B abhegaparibhogenah; N abhogaparibhogenah N bhasyanti Cp. Tib. zol.ba = false, cunning N gapiyitv N asiddham vai; B asidhi vai; asiddhyaih (sie.) N nnusamsayah mss niskrpa kuram B stabdha .... ; mss -yata mss sotkarsanancai N kuyt mss guruh sisyanca N adds 5a before buddhimn mss desayisyanti B-foirtra mss sotkarsana N - lokatusthaih mss triskla mss samdhybhsajnanto N ysyanti N mastak N pubhisekgralayah mss -tathgatah N pancobhih B klametyavandyate; klamevbhivandyate, cp. Tib. trans. & v. 19. mss-mayamss tatrasthairyo vandyate B casekah prvparona sah; N ;ya/i stffcaA prvparona sah. No Tib. trans, for ;ya and saA but adds de.bzin (= tath) 53. B Nitrthatranna tanneyam; N nitrthatvatannaneyam; cp. Tib. trans. 54. N

Satshasrik-hevajra-fik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 55. N vyahrena 56. mss vajrasattvagunam tena 57. N vinito 58. B ajeyo;T\h. trans, drag.po (dran.po?) 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. mss krplu B karmani N krtcryah; B krpcryah B prasantm mss ebhiruktmss tofra rfasa bhiksuh N padaiyuta B mfe tantre mss prokta NpaksoB param mss tatrah R-pradvya B pancasikssat-pde Epodhdi B-tyg*z B -upsakah B srvaneram mss ro N nidyta N ^?torn-; B-pade-, but Tib. trans, hbras.bu N srvaka N bauddhnmscaiva B pancapancamunermatam N snyate mss -plam mssparrtha N krayeyah N svasya-

257

258 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

B sampattim B -keranoB -phalthiBphala N nirahetorbhasyanti N visrmayat tattvatah mss bhavisyanti N nirlambo N karunnta N jagakari Bphalana mss jyante mss mama; Tib. trans, points to muneh N sarvakalpam Tib. gtogs.las.min (rtogs.las.min?) =akalpatah;N kalpatah B slidhanyasya vopanam B paramrthavemya (?) bhmijam; N mnusoB susuddha R-didese'thakari which is actually a part of some other line which in turn is a part of a verse which appears earlier i.e. v. 47 both in N & Tib. trans. 107. N anvalambani 108. N cittita 109. N mantradyam desitam maypi; B mantrdyam dasatam 110. B angatah 111. B crya 112. N ato bhirmahyne 113. B ynatrataya; N ynataya 114. N isvaravdebhih 115. B mdhtm nasa 116. B -dakhiln 117. B mant (?); HT t;a/ra 118. mss prabhu; cp. HT I. viii. 47cd.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. Bsivi B nztdharme, N gitdharmo mss add ca B glnibhavati N Bhratah cp. Bhagavad-git which reads abhyutthnam adharmasya B pjmyaham N duskrtn B samsthpanrtha N yug adhun; see Bhagavad-git 4.7, 9 N dharmadesan N -mahitarh N svbhvika N vicitrasya N myendrajlopam B nitantamB vustineyam B irft (7J N omits sahasragunitair B anyasminnapi B -tantraniye mss gupta Brnocp. Tib. trans. N -masabhya N drtam mss omit this. B neyasattva; sattva not incorrect and may mean 'essence'. N devath B sarikalpitau; N sakalpit B bhltam (?) N traikla B

259

260 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. lib. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180.

Satshasrik'hevajra-k N-tathai Ny B kimvhah Tib. adds son.pa. (gat ?) N tbhi nena N vajrasya mss fatfra B arthdyasaranam B rutakaih; N bhtakaih but Tib. trans, omits as well as it is hypermetrical. B samdesaki B saddharmam yugavacca cp. Tib. trans. -rsaiti reconstructed from Tib. trans, as the letters are hidden under the pin. B saiti B tarendra; N narendra and no equivalent in Tib. trans, cp. Tib, which reads mkhas.pa (= vita ?) B racitahsa B salaksanai B male mss nsyotpda mss add ca B darsith N kescidblata, B kascid battaro but Tib. points to naro N pragarna; B pragaka; Tib. suggests pracra No Tib. trans. B catuspithakeh; N -ke mss punamdi cp. Tib. reading brtan B -thenaknksibhih B -shasrikam

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

261

2
1. cp. Tib. trans, rgyud.bstan.pa 2. B idam 3. B tvadabhibhidhnasambandhaprayojanaprayoja-pryojaprayojanarabhisamiksya; N tvadabhi.... prayaja...ryebhi samviksya 4. Tib. trans, hdinid.la points to ihaiva 5. B vajrarbh 6. mss nairtmypi... etc. 7. Tib. trans, adds rdo.rje.sems.dpas 8. N samdesimi 9. B fatfra 10. B nairtman 11. B <my<2 12. N -samha 14. N mandaldipravesyabhiseka; B mandalapravesdibhiseka ... 15. Tib. trans, razfc dbah.bskur.nas pointing to abhisekt 16. N praksanana 17. B -abhisamiksya 18. B -janme 19. B -?mto 20. B -janma 21. mss-surdi 22. N evamk 23. B tattvasthitena; no Tib. trans. 24. N -kandha25. B -smyuktena 26. B -dhesitena 27. B nairtma-prajn-pramit 28. B -jlnaksanam 29. B saptasata 30. B vajrasattve 31. B adds laukika-

262

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

32. B ut 33. B vcakah 34. B vacyevocaka35. N -ythitah 36. B -kulapatalatay 37. mss mantrakulapatala 38. N -svabhvah avasthitah 39. N -patalatay 40. B omits avasthitah abhisambodhikalparja 41. N visudhe42. B omits t/iias 43. N omits -svabhava44. N mantroddhrapatasvabhva 45. N -patalatay 46. N sajrtha .... didna 47. B vajram 48. HT 11,1.1.1 49. Ibid. 50. -bhvanratebhyah ? 51.Bato 52. N mahkr 53. B mahbodhisattvasya vajrasattvasya mahsamayasttvasya54. B srnuti; loc. cit. and reads .... mahkrpa mahbodhisattva (bodhisattvatsya) vajrasattvasya ... samayasattvasya (jnnasattvasya) hrdayam hevajrasamkhyam srnu 55. loc.cit. 56. B srutamekosmin 57. P desikasya 58. B ubhayathpindoso 59. B bhavisyakla 60. N paratasruta 61. N ekkrde 62. N vajrasattvan

Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 63. N hltrtha 64. HT, II.iii.4 65. Tib. points to mahsukham 66. ISjnnam 67. N adds -tm 68. N samdhyay 69. N paiicaskandha 70. B vajrayosito 71. N kesdi72. N omits this. cp. Tib. trans, bye. brag = gunabheda? 73. B avasthith 74. B bodhicittam tesu 75. N visayaksaye 76. N amoghasiddheh 77. B dharmavajra 78. & dfcra 79. B malini 80. N -aft'ftY 81. B sitkro vajrksi 82. B prajnopytmako 83. B vajrasattvayadhitih 84. B yathkramena 85. mss visayah 86. B sadkamendriya 87. N turyaksayt 88. N bhvati 89. B srutam mna; Bhagavad-git, srutimalloke 90. Bhagavad-git, xiii.13. 91. N bvjamnsravah 92. B omits t^'ra/o 93. cp. Tib. trans.; tshulhchan.ba = rpadrk ? 94. B nirmuktah

263

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Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

3
la. Mss Vajragarbhha 1. Tib. trans, ci.yis.zes.pa perhaps corresponding to the beginning of the Tib. trans, of the verse. 2. cp. HT Li.3 reads vajrasattvo bhavet kasmt .... samayasattvo bhavet kasmt kathayatu bhagavan mayi 3. Mss adhyesen 4. N vajrasaltvamiti 5. N bodhisattvasya 6. This line not found in HT. One ms of HT only reads bodhicarysamsena bodhisattvo nigadyate 7. B mahsattvo iti; N mahsattva iti but Tib. trans, does not support this reading. Moreover it is hypermetrical. 8. HT I. 1. 3 reads nitya samayapravrttatvt; N samayasamsthito 9. N omits samaya, B -abhihyate 10. N evvayate 11. N yata evam-krah, B yata vamkrah 12. cp. Tib. trans rab.tu.bgrags points to prakirtitah 13. N abhedyah 14. B sattva 15. Mss ekra 16. B evoktah 17. B satajnanda 18. N savoktah 19. B ddhavih (?) 20. N paramksayah 21. B pasya; N yadya 22. N evokto 23. N savokto 24. N adds ya 25. mss bhu (?) yadrk; Tib. tshul.hchan.ba 26. N amitbhidhiyate 27. B padmahastastathgatah

Satshasrik-hevajra-k (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

265

28. B omits syt 29. B kiti-vajra 30. N samasamsthity 31. B mahsukhe 32. B paragiyate 33. N ^o&ta 34. N kyam 35. mss caturthe 36. mss dharma 37. B buddhanmbhasin 38. B )?0fry .... sarnjnyah 39. B samjnya na 40. B grhyo 41. N grhyn 42. B omits from grhyah to samjn 43. B reads )?m^ 44. B tantidibhih 45. B samjny 46. N omits jfrr 47. N saitvdi 48. B dharmesa49. B omits -mrttikeva50. B nivamah 51. HT idrsam 52. mss add 5a which is hypermetrical; moreover no Tibetan Translation. 53. mss omit az; 54. HT vajram prajn ca bhanyate. 55. Ibid. I. 1.6,7 56. N mlamantre 57. N Kaneyam 58. B adds ca 59. B sarvkrnca 60. N nnayoryy B anuyory 61. B sanpattih

266

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

62. B tana but Tib. ces. bva points to nma. 63. N nirnvayam 64. B reads tantrt instead of sarvni 64a. prajnopyayor? 65. N yogininm tu 66. B blnm bhanitam may 67. B prajnopyasya 68. B upyamevo'ham instead of upyatantram evoktam 69. N karunadvayam 70. vapran-ihit 71. B omits punah 72. N caturthike; B vacaturthik 73. B prajnopyatmakam tattvam and omits f dtf 74. B cdvayam 75. B reads -suddha instead of tadvat 76. B visay 77. B pratisthitam; cp. HT II.ii.2 78. B pascd traikulabhedena 79. B saAtf 80. Tib. skye.ba.dan.gnas.pahlrgyu points to utpatti-sthitih-kranam 81. Bi 82. N pancaskandh 83. N sadyanni 84. Mss drstkrste 85. B crukdyam 86. HT I.i.8 87. N vaksyamnam 88. N f/^a/r* 89. N 5rit/a 90. B -sthityh 91. B -dekamiti; HT Ii. 10 92. B -ganm; Tib. sbyor.ba.yis points to yogena.

9$.Nprkprk 94.HTL i.ll

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 95. loc.cit 96. loc.cit. 97. B -visaylokenena 98. N -vijfnnam 99. Bhagavad-git reads srutimalloke 100. cp. Bhagavad-git, xiii. 13 101. N prajnopyayau 102. loc.cit. 103. B ihkse104. B pratipas; N paribhsTib. snan.brhan 105. B kalpanpodhe 106. Dharmakirti, Nyyabindu-k, 1.4.4. 107. B caturvidh 108. N -pratyaksa 109. N omits this. 110. B pratibhse 111. N navardrsantaih 112. Bpratibhsah 113. B svapnah, N svapna 114. B tadvad 115. loc.cit. 116. B bhvam; N bhvah bhvyah 117. Nadds na 118. B prajnopytmako 119. N dehasthe 120. HTLi.12 121. N ^ r f ^ 122. B-rafcram 123. N omits -jnnarn 124. B svbhvikah 125. N vypyarkah 126. loc.cit. 127. N vastn

267

268

Satshasrika-hevajra-tik

128. N jnnak 129. B dehajam; loc.cit 130. N dvitiye; Tib. points to dkinijlasamvare dviyakalpe siddhinirnayapatale 131. mss Vajragarbhha 132. B yatsukham 133. HTILii.34 134. B srddh 135. B bodhisattvo vinasto 136. B-saukhya 137. HTILiL35-37 138. B pratisedhe; N prasedhau 139. B itthabhiitam 140. N kausidyapatanscata 141. N prvaparam 142. mss traidhtukamacarcaram 143. N buddhajnnajam 144. N tadbhve 145. B gandhbhvo 146. N tasybhvo 147. N sa 148. N satvargatrimsatvyanjannm hi tadvat

4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. mss Vajragarbhha N katim N -cittavah HTl.L13;HTsraT;ante N omits ucyate and adds samvedanm mahsukha ityocyate B trimsatvynjandi tadvat laksanam N tatf/m N kantya Siddhnta-kaumudi, under chap. 1.10 though there is some difference in readings.

Satshasrik-hevajra-fika (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

269

10. Paribhsendu-sekhara, Ngojibhatta Paribhs 89, ed. K.V. Abhyarikar, PartI, Poona, 1962, p. 171. 11. Siddhnta-kaumudly loc. cit 12. loc.cit. 13. loc.cit. 14. loc.cit. 15. B omits sastho 16. Tib. omits svabhv 17. N evam-kradayo IS.Nuktah 19. mss sravantya 20. HT omits adhah rdhvam 21.HTI.U3 22. N omits prajn 23.HTI.L14 24. B rupancamandala 25. cp. Tib. spoh.bahi.rim.pas 26. B makaralagna 27. B vilome 28. N daksino'pyeca 29. Tib. lus.dan.bsam.pahi.dbye.bas poin ts to kyacintanabhedena 30. B nlnodaye 31. B mithune 32. B karkate 33. B simhe 34. B kanyaym 35.B ia5# 36. N ts 37. N ucyate; B ^yate 38. N -tmaka 39. B adds vypini mandalni 40. B milanagnah 41. B omits prthivydini

270

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

42. N omits vm 43. mss samdhi 44. B dvitiye ayane 45. mss jnsandhau 46. B -parva- instead oipada47. mss omit jfrada 48. N adds evam 49. N adds y 50. N omits uktam ca and the following first half of the verse quoted. 51. N karniky 52. B te; (th ?) 53. B -mandala54. mss -jntakh 55. B lalan and adds upari 56. mss sambhogi 57. N -padma 58. N guropadesata 59. N proktah 60. N caturdalapadma; B caturdalam padmam 61. N catusrah 62. B prnavilame 63. B omits totoA .... Aafe; cp. Tib. trans. 64. B srandhre 65. B nrandhra66. N yadsamandalam 67. B sambahutvt 68. N omits raiz 69. N wftto; B 70. N 71. mss 72. B 73. B lalam 74. B. candravah

75.HTI.L15.

Satsahasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 76. N -dhtu 77. B vmanm 78. N -dhtu 79. B sukra 80. cp. Tib. lhahi.bdag.nid.can points to devattmakam 81. B -vhinyeti 82. mss rdhvamukhVdhomukhi 83.HTLi.16 84. N pancdasa 85. B ndiky-; B ndiknambik 86. B omits 1. 87. N ekdasday 88. N adds ta; sravati ? 89. B Adhytmini 90. N hrasvasvabhvena srstikrameneti 91.HTI.L 16 92. N rfo^o 93. HT loc.cit. 94.HTI.L17. 95. N -syday 96. N -dasatmikh 97. B adds bindu esu rasandayo ndyah 98. B pramn 99. loc.cit. 100. HTI.i.18. 101. N trvrtty; B trurtt 102. HT, loc.cit. 103. N lambiy srva iti ca ran iti 104. N kidrsoh; 105.N5ar;HTI.U9, 20 106. B atha; N agrhya etc. 107. loc.cit. 108. R-kalpit

271

272 109. Tib. omits upyena 110. Nlaksa

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

5
1. mss tiky 2. N pratisthantam; HT II.ii.2ab 3. B -kamane4. B khli 5. N dharmakye 6. B susupta 7. B makrah 8. N-tattva 9. N-tattva 10. N ahamkra 11. N -vedanm 12. cp. Tib. kun.gyis.bkur.ba points to smmitiya 13. B mahsnhikh 14. B adds ta 15. N pruoktam 16. N -samdhy 17. N -purvokt 18. N catur vibhga; vibhgh ? 19. B 20. N 21. N prayojanzy 22. mss tantram 23. B -roktam 24. N cakukresu 25. N tricakukresu 26. B omits layah 27. N i 28. B rhupradbhedenaikena 29. B sanmukhah 30. B omits this.

Satshasrik'hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 31. B adds dvidh. 32. B candramh 33. cp.Tib. de.yis.hjug.byed points to tenapravartakah (?) 34. N sthitih 35. B samsthita 36. B varsat 37. B adds atra 38. HT locandih 39. HT I.i.31 40. N tyuddesa 4L cp. Tib. rgyud ? (=rgyu?) 42. N maykhyto 43. B varata ntho 44. B sarirasth 45. B madhyameka 46. B5) 47. B trisuk; B adds rad and N adds hypermetrical t;a 48. N -vhakah 49. B madhyamam 50. B s)w; Nvyuh 51. nbhau ? 52. N nargath 53. cp. Tib. rna.ba points to karna 54. N -sthith 55. B adds &/m 56. B nsdi 57. B tripathah 58. B to* 59. mss srya 60. N candrnkakameva ca 61. N kmogndo 62. N pumse 63. Bjvalati

273

274 64. cp. Tib. dbyun.mo 65. N nisrt 66. B sprstesu 67. B evtra cmrtam tatah 68. B -ruddhe 69. N cnanddo 70. B samusthite 71. B binduknado 72. N lalta 73. B vistam-; N vistm 74. B gatam 75. B guhyacakresmi 76. B jrita; N jaritah 77. N animdo 78. mss -)wta 79. B anusritah 80. mss -pasuvisnuguhya 81. B hyyum 82. N yvata dhyata 83. B samplavam 84. B mahpasuh 85. N brahmrandhrena 86. B ptantyarn 87. N jnennye 88. B bhyastu 89. cp. Tib. yuican ? 90. B tosya ft/ 91. N adds hypermetrical 92. N -vdheyogena 93. N kauyata 94. N f o/a/* 95. B prokth; N 96. B vijnna

Satshasrik'hevajra-tlk

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

275

97. B trikultmakah 98. cp. Tib. sbyi.pvr points to rnrdhni 99. N -rastabhiscakram 100. B ndicakra -; N nbhicakra 101. N dikro 102. B ndik 103. pzthdye 104. N tatah 105. N pratyhate 106. N samanvitah 107. cp. Tib. mlbskyod.pa.ylrigs.las.byunpoints to aksobhyakula-sambhtah 108. N guhyesa v 109. pancsadadhikam ? mss pancdasa110. mss catvarintath 111. B-vhikh 112.B yh 113 cp. Tib. rkan.nas points to pdebhyo 114. N -trayni 115. mss -sthith 116. B pnipalam 117. N pnipapalair118. sandhyek ? 119. N tatrbhi120. N hinahi121.Nlagna 122. Nsamh 123. B pancsatir-; pancsadbhih ? 124. N ra tatf 125. B omits sa 126. B 5tfia 127. B dvadasesu 128. N divrtra 129. Nvati

2 76

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

130. B aristato 131. B trivarst 132. N nbhy cdidvayam tato madhye karnikcal samvisesi dalatyegah trivasdayanaksayah. Actually a line is transposed which in B appears in v. 68 as also in Tib. trans. 133. B -pyevam instead of nyevam 134. B omits -sai 135. N -nyetha 136. N sryah 137. cp. Tib. nin.zag.gnis points to dinadvayam 138. mss prna svs na 139. B mssca 140. B trimsprva 141. N samevyuh 142. N saptvimsat143. Tib. Appoints to esa; mss vahatyetha 144. N nde 145. B yathnalah 146.Bjh 147. -aulatra 148. B -vim 149. N tasmtpratityasarnbhavam 150. Mlamadhyamakakrik 1. 1 151. mss rakta 152. mss -vajrinh 153. B -sambhavah 154. mss -raktammsa 155. N mmsntrasca-; B mmsetrasca156. B smrtah 157. N -tamognyah 158. N-bhmim 159. B-nisrtah 160. B mnyaiva

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

277

161. N rhunotptam 162. cp. Tib. thur.du.rgyu.las points to apnahetutah 163. B omits 164. N prnenaiva 165. B-vmrti 166. B vyum 167. B adds tu 168. B rpam 169. B samprne 170. B vguajrah 171. B ekam vadmam 172. B sthitam 173. N mahbal 174. N mana indriyam 175. N majjapyacalah ; B majjatpyacalah 176. N tarkvirjasca 111, B tesadu178. B hastandesu y; N hastapdeyo H9.N-vibhedath 180. R-strka 181. B caturn 182. B dvdasah 183. The portion from dinnyete.... dvdasbhyarthaoiv. 108 is missing inB. 184. defective line; Tib. trans, not helpful. 185. Tib. trans, hgog.pa.yis. points to nirodhena. 186. mss srya187. B pdairyena 188. No Tib. trans, for pascd189. B omits catu190. N catubhih 191. N pvat 192. B klacakram

278 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. Esamusthitah B caturvimsat B bhujoranyah B vyanjanarodhatah B-nidhena B gannm Npunndi N i bhagavato etc. B-foto Ekulapata

Satehasrik-hevajra-tik

6
1. E-desakam 2. B omits -<zra 3. N mantra 4. mss tatht 5. N tatht 6. cp. Tib. trans, skad.can.tsig = rafam 7. B sanw infa vnirucyate 8. cp. Tib. trans. 9. N prhsakapade 10. N maskrtya 11. N omits caturbhir 12. N coccrana 13. B viviscnye; N 14. B grhya15. B -bhilnsm 16. N prnh 17. mss tithihinair 18. B hyusthah 19. B nnyam 20. B nnym Zl.Ryam 22.N dehito

Stshasrik-hevajrartik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 23. N prnapne24. N vuktam 25.BA 26. N mudghbhym; B omits mrta 27. B omits 28. N yvantotpunarbhavah 29. B tath 30.HTI.ii. 1 3Llocxit 32. N paramksah 33. cp. Tib. trans, adds an extra line kun.mkhyen.kun.rigs.dam.pa 34. cp. Tib. trans, kun.la.phan.pa = sarvyo? 35. mss mantra 36. mss pancaskandhmakh 37. N -skandha 38. N vijnskandha 39. N krena 40. N visarpana 4L Tib. trans, rgyas.par.byed.pa points to vardhanam 42. N hamkra 43. N ajalinsihitasya 44. B trailokyavijayena and omits mudr 45.B-prste 46. B chotriytrayena 47. B krena 48.Bjrihkrena 49. N sadasabhujas 50.HTI.iL3 51. N caksurdau 52. cp. Tib. trans, gzusxin = nirodhanam? 53. N svhkrena 54. N madhyakti 55.HTI..4

279

280

Satshasrik-hevajra'k

56. N adds evam 57. N omits 58.HTI.ii.7-9 59. Ibid I.ii. 10 60. N amitbham sryam 61. N aksobhya 62. N vajrtmdinm 63. B grnto 64. N air 65. B uppyadhniy; N Upuvadhy 66. mss muhrtyni 67. N omits sasti 68. mss jpatavyni 69. N -noktni 70. N punamekamtrami 71. Bjpena 72. N vaktavyah 73. B tw, Tib. trans, points to vyu 74. N madvit 75.Nhh 76. N hrayitv 77. N-agratrah 78. B ksakarkrena 79. N -rf^a 80. mss krodharjendra 81. N ntlamandala 82. N dvitiyoccrana 83. N ktgra 84. cp. Tib. trans, rab.tu.spyan.hdren.pa =prabodhanam ? 85. Tib. trans, omits sakala 86. N pjdika 87. N dustacorynm;Tib. trans. tMsyom.su.mi.ses.pa.rnams.lawhichmay be rendered as aparijntesu. j

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 88. mss obscure and Tib. reads rigs.pas.hthad.pa. 89. N tavikfya 90. N bhavato 91. N mama vkyam paryavasne kalynam 92. Tib. trans, omits evam napunah 93. B omits this. 94. B adds madhye dau kalynam paryavasno kalynam. 95. N mavilpa96. B omits snya-; N omits mahsukhabhvan 97'. N hetusadrsam 98. N tajjaphala 99. N nadidrava100. Nsavilpa 101 .ms&jti 102. N adds hata 103. B dhyopasama104. B samasphutam 105. B tadevaham 106. B niruisayantaih 107. N sadkrstim 108. B omits foo 109. mss visaccheda 110. B pvanocchpannandam 111. B prnanirodhanam 112. Tib. trans, adds iin 113. B anyath 114. mss karma 115. cp. Tib. trans, omits tantra. 116. mssjapya 117. cp. Tib. trans, mthun.ldan ^svarupavn ? 118. mss upahrdaya 119. Nm* 120. mss hrdaya

281

282

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

121. mss add ca 122. Btatah 123. N yaravastu-; B -stai 124. cp. Tib. trans, nes.sbyar.bya points to niyojayet 125. mss dirghvanhai 126. N Nairatye 127. B vyavyo 128. mss hahdayh 129. B-pthanrtham 130. Brpena 131. Njambudvia 132. Ryomodnt 133. Nf 134. N klgni 135. B sakhyacitta 136. B ca parvatah instead of devaparuatah 137. Here ends B Fol. 28b followed by a big gap. N continues. 138. ms prthvi 139. ms vahni 140. ms tlavyam 141. ms anunsika 142. ms vindvedan smrth 143. Tib. trans, drag* points to sdtf. 144. ms rfayo 145. ms dik 146. ms astottasatair147. ms mantra 148. ms-satasatrdhaih 149. cp. Tib trans, snags.hdas.pa = mantmtitam ? 150. ms caturthataddhedevevahi 151. ms-bhena 152. cp. Tib. trans. bo.dhe.tses=putrajivakaih 153. ms ristkemohano

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

283

154. ms rudrksa 155. ms -caprasukra 156. msjanaka 157. ms-tmakam 158. cp. Tib. trans, sgra.grub.pa points to svarasiddhi which is more correct in the context. 159. ms mantrasiddhau 160. sa eva ca (sic) 161. ms suddham 162. ms suddhah 163. ms -vyanjana 164. ms ikri 165. ms drops bha 166. msprater167. ms yasuklam 168. ms vyu rhu 169. ms jnna manah smrtah 170. ms pyustapada171. ms saptatrirnsatim 172. ms dhotavo 173. ms -parnya ca 174. Tib. trans, bskyod.par.hgyur points to ksobhanam 175. ms pratyujivana 176. ms V,; ivam 177. ms utpda 178. ms trikala179. ms drops panca 180. ms satkul181. ms saevah 182. ms udsya 183. ms agnemitram 184. Tib. trans, omits -saktitah 185. ms pranavantu varjitv tu

284

Saphasrik-hevajra-tikc

186. ms tvadeta mantrnam 187. ms -nispattekranam 188. Tib. omits -samyuktam 189. ms grhyam 190. ms samghra191. Tib. trans, points to candrakal; ms -catukal192. ms -amyanth 193. ms adds 194. ms a-e-al-o-al 195. Tib. trans, rim.zlog.pas vilomena? 196. ms -prabhena 197. ms candrah 198. ms sdhakanm 199. This line is transposed in Tib. 200. ms satrun 201. ms vyanjana 202. Tib. trans, gnis.kyi.dan.po means first of the second 203. ms knto 204. Tib. trans, mhon.du (shon.du?) =prvakah 205. cp. Tib. trans, mtshon.gyis.rgyalpos = mantrarjena? 206. ms ahamkro 207. ms parityakto 208. cp. Tib. trans, dbye.ba. (bye.ba?) =krtv? 209. Tib. omits but adds de.bzin 210. HTpustakna 211. Tib. gnas.dan.mchod.pahi points to sthnapj etc. 212. ms -nnopdyena 213. HTI.ii.12. 214. Tib. rdo.rjehi.sa.gzi points to vajrabhmi 215. HTUi.13 216. HTI.ii.14 217. HTI.ii.15 218. ms omits this.

Satshasrik-hevajra-k (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. Tib. bu HTI.16 HTI.ii.17 ms omits. HTI.ii.18 ms kavyam ms pratyaksmi ms pratyaksam ttakalpit cp. Tib. sn (Ina ?) =panca ? Tib. ye.ses.ran.bzin points to jnnamayam Tib. points to jnnavijnnabhedatah ms jnnaika ca ms -tpnyyena ms krtvam hakra

285

7
1. ms varspananiya 2. HTI.ii.20 3. ms ananantasya 4. ms ngapucchkr 5. ms cakravhm 6. H T I . ii. 20 7. ms -vibuknta8. HTloc. cit. 9. ms pitah 10. ms etyebhih ll.HTloc.cit. 12. ms karniky 13. ms pdamole 14. ms pancapalayukth 15. ms sos 16. ms ptre17. ms prvabhmim 18. ms adds a letter looking like 1 but making no sense

286 19. ms vajreva 20. HT loc.cit 21. ms-dttatti 22. ms -sorsa23. HT loc.cit 24. ms aryaka 25. ms prua only 26. ms varsni 27. ms ngnyathati 28. HT Lii.21 29. ms ghrst; HT 30. HT I.ii.22. 31. loc.cit. 32. mss ekdasanatah 33. HT loc.cit 34. HT I.ii.23. 35. loc.cit 36. ms omits this. 37. HT loc.cit 38. loc.cit 39. HT omits this. 40. Ibid., I.ii.24. 41. ms omits patra42. ms sdhanocyate 43. ms sdhasya 44. ms jpe 45. HT vandya 46. Ibid. I.ii.26 47. ms jaiptva 48. HT I.ii.27 49. ms sarvi 50. ms vajrodakena 51. HT locxit.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text) 52. Tib. adds gnas 53. Tib. dehi.sten.du points to tasyopari 54. tmrabhjane ? 55. ms tilatailam 56. Tib. adds de. nas.gzon. nu. ma. la. bstan. la 57. HT I.ii.28 58. ms drstam 59. ms kathati 60. ms ucya 61.HTI..29-33 62. ms inim 63.HTI.ii.34 64. ms pukksy 65. ms yogi 66. ms saptamasya

287

8
1 . na omitted in Tib. trans. 2. ms tryathagatam 3. HTI.iii.l 4. padnmtipadni 5. Tib. omits dipadni 6. Tib. rnam.dbyes points to vibhedena 7. Tib. omits sama 8. ms -mayi 9. ms tatastranstu 10. ms nmskaram 11. ms ghsmari 12. msfom;HT reads nbhau and ravau 13.HTI.iii. 3 14. ms-paytma 15. ms -tantra 16. ms -tantra 17. cp. Tib. no. bos -prati ?

288

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

18. ms vidhina 19. ms te 20. ms kraksa21. Tib. drops this line but adds bhum.yig.yons.su.gyur.pa.yis which points to bhumkra parinatam. 22. ms -bhtu23. ms visvavajrnka 24. Tib. omits adhipam; hypermetrical too! 25. ms sthitahrhkra 26. Tib. adds dgod.de.rin.chen.cod.pan.can 27. Tib. reads rdo.rje.hkhor.lo.dbyug.pa.nl 28. Tib. omits yathkramam and adds bsgom.par.bya, which points to vibhvayet 29. ms riilahm 30. Tib. gyon.pa points to vmatah 31. Tib. adds hog.tu.ni.mar.gnod.mdses.rgyal/gnagdan.dmar.dkar.bahi.ia which forms a part of v.49 32. ms savyabhyam 33. Tib. gyon.na points to vmatah 34. ms akrta35. Here B F29b restarts. 36. Tib. padma.ral.gd points to padmam khadgam 37. B vibhvayitv tu 38. N krodhevyaham 39. mss svakryo 40. B vame'ndau 41. B omits mah 42. B eva 43. B -vidhne 44. B omits from om to kilaya 45 B omits 46. B n 47. N yogenanena

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to Sanskrit Text)

289

48. Tib. hog.gi. char points to adhobhga 49. End of B Fol. 29b. Then follows repetition of 29ab. After this comes Fol. 44a though the matter is continuous. 50. N dasadik-palyitv 51. B chdayetetah 52. B samantbha 53. N dahamn 54. Tib. omits 55. B yantih 56. B dihsvabhvam 57. N bhvanm 58. Guhyasamjatantra, p. 12 59. B samgrahah 60. HT I.iii.2 61. B reads pudgalam tadeva devatrpam pranipatya jagatprabhum abhiseka-patale tiksarvasattvahitya tve likhyate vajragarbhena mlatantrntareneti atra laghutantre abhiseka pata. Here ends B. 62. Tib. reads rdo.rje 63. ms -devibhih 64. Tib. adds a line h e r e rnaLhbyor.pa.yis.hdi.rnams.kyis/ kye.rdor.grtso.bo.hkhor.bcas.mchod //which may be rendered as ebhih piijayetyogi sacakram Hevajranyakam/ 65. Tib. omits this. 66. Tib. rtag.tu.med.pa=atavyt ?cp. Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford, 1951, p. 12.1 67. ms svadttam 68. ms madhyatah tapih 69. ms satt jnnam 70. ms pratyaksanakam 71. Tib. bsgoms points to bhvayet 72. Here N adds a folio which reads samvatsara 210 mghamse sriraudharmavihrasthne tasmin varse sanghabhattrakaih panc-satam suddhadhnyamnikh pradatth / ankato'pi dhanyamni 50 // dvitiyavarse sivak tandula-dhrye pancasan mnikh / ankato'pi dhanyamni 50 // trtiyavarse rdtadhnyamnikhsrdhadasajattalagrmasya bh pamusanjingrmasya dhryamnisapta(dasa)// ankato'pi dhanyamni 17// caturthejattala gramasya dhnyamnik dasa//

Notes to English Translation


1. The Mahvyutpatti mentions the eight vimoksas which are counted as follows: (i) Rpi rpni pasyati ayam prathamo vimoksah/ (ii) Adhytmam arpa-samjni bahirdh rpni pasyaty ayam dvitiyo vimoksah/ (iii) Subham vimoksam kyena skstkrtvopasampadyaviharaty ayam trtiyo vimoksah/ (iv) Sa saruaso rpasamjnnm samatikramt pratigha (prathama)samjnnm a-manasi-krd anantam ksam ityksanantyyatanaupasampadya viharatyayam caturtho vimoksah/ (v)

Sa sarvasa ksnantyyatanam samatikramynantam vijnnam iti vijnnantyyatanam upasampadya viharaty ayam pancanrio vimoksah/ (vi) Sa sarvasa vijnnantyyatanam samatikramya nsti kimcidityakincanyyatanam upasampadya viharaty ayam sasto vimoksah/ (vii) Sa sarvasa akincanyyatanam samatikramya naiv a sarhjn nsamjnyatanm upasampadya viharaty ayam saptamo vimoksah/ (viii) Sarvasa naiva-samjn-nsamjnyatanam samatikramya samjnvedayita-nirodham kyena skstkrtopasampadya viharaty ayam astamo vimoksah/ These are actually the eight stages of emancipation and are considered as such in theraavda Buddhism. 2. Sixteen voids : Mahvyutpatti mentions eighteen voids which are as follows : (i) Adhytma-snyat (ii) Bahirdh- snyat (iii) Adhytma-bahirdh snyat (iv) Snyata-snyat

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to English Text) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) Mah-snyat Paramrtha-snyat Samskrta-sitnyat Asamskrtarsnyat tyanta-snyat Anavargra-snyat Anavakra-snyat

291

(xii) Prakrti-snyat (xiii) Sarua-dharma-snyat (xiv) Svalaksana-snyat (xv) Anupalambha-snyat (xvi) Abhva-snyat (xvii) Svabhva-snyat (xviii) Abhva-svbhva-snyat 3. See Appendix IV 4. The five kasyas referred to here are : (i) yuh-kasya (ii.) Drsti-kasya (iii) Kksa-kasya (iv) Sattva-kasya (v) Kalpa-kasya 5. cp. v. 72. Also Vajra-jnana-samuccaya-tantra-raja ( P I T Vol. 3. 84) refers to this in the following passage : foow. dfltt. MS. rgyan. rnam.pa. bdun.ji. Itar. lags/ bcom. Idan. hdas. kyL bkah> stsaLpa/ glen. bslan.pa.rnam.pa. Ina. dan. mthah. drug.gis. bzad.pa. dan. rig.pa. mam pa. Hi. dan/ bsad.pa. rnam.pa. bit. dan. dJye.ba.rnam.pa.gn.dan.gan.7Mg.rnam.pa.ln^ bden.pa. rnam.pa.gnis. kyi dgons.pa. rnams. so/ glen, bslan.pa. rnam. pa. Ina. ni/hdi. ha. ste. min. dan.gan.gis. don. du. byas.pa. dan. byed. pa.po.dan. tshad. dan. dgons.pa. rnams. so// mthah. drug. tu. bsad.pa. ni. hdi. Ita. ste. dgons.pas. bsad.pa. dan. dgons.pa. ma.yin.pas. bsad.pa. dan.dran.bahi.don.dan.nes.pahi. dm*dan.sgra.ji.bzin.pa.dan.sgra.ji. bzin.pa.ma.yin.rnams.so/ etc.

292

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

6.

7.

8. 9.

Oh Lord, what are the seven types of adornments? The Lord said : 1. the subject divided in five parts; 2. the explanation is divided in six parts; 3. the learning (knowledge) is divided in four parts; 4. the commentary in four parts; 5. the differences in two parts, 6. the examination of the disciples is divided in five parts and, 7. the meaning of two types of truths. The five parts of the subject are like this : designation, for whose sake it is composed, the composer, the extent and the purpose. The six parts of explanation are like this : the explanation through symbolic (language samdhybhs); the explanation through non-symbolic language; the conventional meaning (neyrth) and the absolute meaning (nitrtha), the expressed and the unexpressed etc. Here the commentator is referring to a tradition which supported the existence of five ynas. Without mentioning the supporters of such a tradition he refutes it. cp Soothill and Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, London, 1937, p. 112b. Mantra : Mantra may be literally translated as 'syllabic formulas', said to possess, when bestowed by a guru, a mystic power. 'Charm' or 'spell' will not be a precise translation of the word mantra as it would put limits on the function of mantra. Mantra is a more comprehensive term than charm or spell. Mantra has dual aspect: First, it is used as an lambana for meditation and secondly, it is used to bring about particular results of, more or less, mundane nature. This latter type can be translated as charm, cp. HT Vol. I, London, 1959, p. 136; Tucci, Notes on Lankvatra, Indian Historical Quarterly, 1928. This might refer to the author of Smkhya-Kriks but there is no clear proof as to the identity. This tantra is not available in bkah.hgyur but a tik (on its
laghutantra) viz. Laksbhidhnd-uddhrta-laghu-tantra pindrtha-

vivarananma (PTT 48. 2117) is found. 10. cp. v. 27. 11. These verses indicating the interrelation of various tantras give us a clue to the study of the tantras. 12. Here as well as at the end of this paragraph, the author refers to
the 2 kalpas and 22 patalas of the laghu-Hevajra. However, the

Satshasrik-hevajra-k (Notes to English Text) published edn. of HT contains 2 kalpas and 23 patalas. A scrutiny of the titles of the patalas as quoted in the present work will show that the last patala i.e. the 23rd patala of HT, is not counted amongst the patalas and hence the mention of only 22 patalas. Now, what might be the probable explanation of this omission? This reference is found in two places and moreover the Sanskrit text and the Tib. trans, agree and hence it cannot be a scribal error. Actually in the body of the text of the commentary, the text of the 23rd patalais present. How can these two facts, i.e. the omission of the 23rd patala in the earlier part of the tik and the inclusion of the same in the latter part be reconciled ? For all appearances these two facts seem to be contradictory but the contradiction could be explained by assuming the 23rd chapter a later addition. That is, the original HT coir .prised of the 22 patalas only. This addition might have taken place during the time that elapsed between the writing of the first nine chapters and the latter part. I say the first nine chapters because as I have said earlier, (see Introduction pp. 3-5) only these nine chapters are composed by Vajragarbha and the part subsequent to them has been completed by somebody else. Had Vajragarbha completed the tik himself, he would certainly have been consistent enough. This seems to be supported first by the change in the plan of the tik (which is discussed in greater details in Introduction) and by the fragmentary mss. now available. This will also throw light on the date of the successor of Vajragarbha, who completed the work. The upper limit of the date of HT fixed by Snellgrove is the end of 8th century A.D. whereas I have shown (see Appendix I) that Vajragarbha might have lived around the end of 7th century A.D. or early 8th century A.D. So his successor might obviously have lived after Vajragarbha but not later than the end of 8th centruy A.D. and this will incidentally fix up the date of the additional patala. 13. See Appendix II. 14. Dkini= skini? In the beliefs of a Hindu, dkinis are wicked and wayward beings having supernatural powers and have malevolent influence, whereas.in Buddhism they are benign powers. See HT Vol.1, p. 135.

293

294

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

15. Pratisth: The word 'pratisth9 refers to the rites performed at the time of establishing an image or any other sacred object in its place. The rites are, more or less, of purificatory and invocatory nature and are accompanied by pj and recitation of the mantras, etc. The term may be translated as 'consecration'. 16. Seente 12. 17. This is one of the oft-recurrent sentences in Buddhist Tantrism and hence the necessity of its thorough understanding. All the words are used symbolically which symbolism is explained subsequently by the commentator. All the Buddhas are explained subsequently as referring to the five skandhas. Their body, speech and mind is the Vajrayosit i.e. the actions of the body, speech and mind are the Vajrayosit. The word bhaga (most often misinterpreted!) is explained as follows : In ndiyoga the breath is said to pass through the psychic centres in the body which, in the upper part of the body, are in navel, heart, throat, forehead and top of the head; bhaga from the words of the commentator may be the collective name given to the three centres in the lower part of the body i.e. in the navel, guhya, and vajramanl (vajramani may refer to the centre below navel in which are the 72000 ndis). Thus the intrpretation of the word bhaga as "bliss** given by Snellgrove, HT Vol. I. p. 47 seems to be far-fetched and signifies nothing. 18. Try or Turiya or the caturtha is the fourth avasth or the fourth
pda of the tman as described in the Mridkyopanisad. The omkra

is everything and is constituted of three padasa, u, m and om. a is the state of wakefulness (Jgrta), u is the dream-state (swapna), mis the state of deep-sleep (susupta) and om is the fourth plane (turiya) which pervades everything. According to the Upanisads, caturtha is the state in which one realises the non-dual state but here not the realisation of the caturthvasth is spoken of but its gradual destruction and this destruction of the fourth state moreover is a constituent of the Enlightenment. Does it mean that the stage which is described in Buddhist literature as the Enlightenment is a step further than the non-dual knowledge of the Upanisads ?

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik (Notes to English Text) 19. cp.HTVol.I,p.47,n.3. 20. cp. Ibid. p. 47, n.4. It is hard to agree with Snellgrove's translation. Here the word Vajrasattva is being defined and Snellgrove's translation of the definition of sattva does not seem to do justice to Sanskrit text as it fails to include the translation of an important word viz. bhava in tribhava. Moreover the translation of anay prajnay yukty is also not very expressive. The verse attempts to describe the word Vajrasattva, not etymologically but in terms of metaphysical experience and as such it symbolises the ultimate experience of the Reality.

295

21. These four i.e. Vajrar, Mah-, Bodhi-, and Samaya-sattva are, as will be evident from the subsequent verses, the four planes of the being for they are equated with the four states (avasths). 22. See note 24. 23. See note 24. 24. Picvajra : The term is mostly transliterated in Tib. trans, and in one place alone a translation is offered. There it is translated as thig.le.rdo.rje (chap. 5, v. 42). The literal meaning of the word pic is cotton which is hardly meaningful in the context. Here picvajra indicates the lowest state in the sdhan and is equivalent to the state of wakefulness. In the second case (chap. 5.42) it occurs in connection with the ndiyoga and is translated as thig.le.rdo. rje which may be taken to refer to ham when residing in the lalta as the text reads lalte picvajram syt dandandi samanvitah. In the third case i.e. in chap. 6 it occurs in the sarvabhautikabalimantra. There the context indicates that the word refers either to the sdhaka or the image of Hevajra. The next reference to picvajra is found in the hevajra-hrdayaom deva picvajra hm (S)phat svh. Here it occupies the place where is generally found the name of the deity whose mantra it is. Could it be another name of Hevajra? As in chap. 3, v. 20 also it refers to Heruka and Hevajra is an emanation of Heruka. Likewise kitikiti vajra and jvala-jvalabhyo also appear to refer to other emanations of Hevajra. Are these words meaningful or just their onomotopoetic quality is utilised ?

296

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

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Satshasrik-hevajra~k (Notes to English Text)

297

26. cp. HT pp. 47-8, v. 6-7. 27. cp. Hti 1 chap. I, v. 46. 28. There is another description of upya-tantra and yogini-tantra which are made a subdivision of yogatantra. Yoga is defined as the harmony or balance of Prajnand Upya. I wonder if this yoga-tantra coincides with the later yogatantra but its sub-division into yogini and upyatantra points more to its being of the nature of mahyoga or anuttaratantra class. 29. The three vimoksas in the Theravda viz. snyat, anirnitta, apranihita

are expanded into four by the addition of anabhisamskra vimoksa i.e. the liberation through the absence of accumulation of the results of good or bad deeds. 30. cp. HT. Vol. I, p. 48. 31. Snellgrove (loc. cit. n. 2) seems to consider this verse as an explanation of v. 9, especially that of the phrase jiinavijnna. But actually Vajragarbha has already completed his comment on v. 9 and this verse is the beginning of his comment on the next verse i.e. v. 10 and in this verse he is giving the explanation of the Herukotpatti. 32. This is a part of HT I. i. 11 which, when paraphrased will read
prjna bhvam bhvyam bkavet, parijnay ca abhvam (bhavet)' and

33. 34.

35. 36.

37.

may be translated as *O wise one, the existence becomes the object of meditation and by its thorough knowledge it becomes nonexistence', cp. Snellgrove's translation, Vol. I, p. 48, v. 11. Also the later part of v. 11 may be translated as 'Likewise he should meditate on Heruka and through thorough knowledge, meditate on his non-existence'. HT, pp. 91-2, v.34. Here Snellgrove seems to have misconstrued the import of the text. See Ibid p. 92, fn. 1. This line which constitutes the reply of Hevajra to the objection of Vajragarbha is doubtlessly connected with the preceding and following remarks. It is of the nature of a general remark which is followed by the actual reply of Hevajra. Moreover, though the Sanskrit text ends with iti, Tib. trans, does not give any indication as to its being a quotation. This is a reference to CandaJi-yoga. Samvara : Samvara is defined here as union, a congregation. Primarily the term is taken from ndiyoga and indicates the union of the ndis in the cakras. The difference in the samvara would be indicated by the number of the cakras in the body. See note 24.

298 38. Six Svsas 60 pnipalas 2 ghatls 3 ghati 5 ghati VAprahara 2 praharas 4 samdhis = = = = = = = 1 pnipala
1 gfl

Satshasrik-hevajra-fik

1 muhrta Vi prahara
1 fcgTia

1 fang-a (?)

1 samdhi

39.

day and night 12 lagaas (1 day and night) = 21,600 svsas 24 fortnights "" 12 months 6 seasons = 1 day
3 klas 2 ayanas

4 )WgYZS

40.

1 fortnight 1 month 1 season


1 yuga 1 MZa

= =
= =

1 ayana 1 f arsa

= =

900 svsas 1800 svsas 3600 svsas 5400 svsas 7200 imsfls 10800 i t ; a ^ 21600 izttZ5

41. This is the ajapjpa i.e. the automatic recitation of mantra on the rhythm of breathing. A person is said to breath 21,600 times in a day and a night. This japa here is called the prna-jpa (see v. 10) as also Tathat-jpa which is also called the napmsaka-jpa. The other type is the pravyhra-jpa which is recited with the accompaniment of rosary and is the lesser type. 42. See note 41. 43. See note 24. 44. See note 24. 45. See Apendix II. 46. See Appendix II.

Appendix I
The colophons of the patalas of the Hti
(a.) From the Sanskrit text:

1. Satshasrikym hevajratikym istadevatstavah tantrvatrah prathamah paricchedah / (Tib. trans, kyehi.rdo.rjehi.hgrel. pa.ston.phrag.drug.par. hdod.pahi. lha. la. bstod. ein. rgyud. la. hjug.pa.ste. yons. su. bcad.pa. dan.poho. 2. Satshasrikym hevajra-tikym desakdhyesakbhidhribhidheyasambandha vijahrasthnaniyamah dvitiyah paricchedah/ (Tib. trans, kyehi.rdo.rjehi.hgrelpa.ston.phrag. drug.par.ston.pa.po. dan.gsol. ba. hdebs.pa.po. dan. rjod.par. byed.pa. dan/brjod.par. by a. ba. dan/hbrel.pa. dan/biugs.pahi.gnas. ties.pa. ste.yons. su. bead, pa.ghis.paho). 3. Satshasrikym hevajratikym prajnopydvaya niyamah trtiyah paricchedah/(Tib. tr2ins.kyehi.rdo.7jehi.hgrel.pa.ston.phrag.dnig.par. ses. rab. dan. thabs.ghis. su. med.pahi.ye. ses. nes.pa. ste.yons. su. bcad.pa. gsum.paho). 4. Satshasrikym ndik-nirnayaparicchedah caturthah/ (Tib. trans. kyehi.rdo.rjehi.hgrelpa.drug.ston.par. (ston.phrag.drug.pa (sic ?) rdo. rjehi. lus. la. rtsa. rnams. gtan. la. dbab.pa. ste.yons. su. bcad,pa. bii.paho 5. Satshasrikym hevajra-tikym candliyoga samhrotpattikranabhtah.kulapatalepancamah paricchedah/ (Tib. version gives verbal trans, as above). 6. Satshasrikym hevajra-tikym mantrakulapatale karmaprasarasdhana paricchedah sasthah/ (Tib. version gives verbal trans, as above). 7. Satshasrikym hevarjratikym karmaprasarasdhanopadesah saptamah paricchedah/ (Tib. version gives verbal trans.). 8. Kyehi. rdo. rjehi. hgrel.pa. drug, ston.par. lhahi. sgrub. thabs. bstan. pa.ste.yons.su.bcad.pa.brgyad.paho/lhahi.lehu.rdsog.so/(Here) ends the 8th chapter viz. the instruction for the propitiation of the goddess, in the Hevajratik or 6000 slokas.

300 9.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

Kyehi.rdo.rjehi.hgrel.pa.ston.phrag.drug.par.lha.dban.bskur.bahi. lehu.bstan.pa.ste.yons.su.bcad.pa.dgu.paho / (Here) ends the 9th chapter viz. instruction for devatbhiseka in the Hevajratik of 6000 slokas. 10. Kyehi. rdo. rjehi. hgrel.pa.stbn.ffhrag.drug.par. de.kho. na. nid. nes. pa.mdof.bstan.pahi.mdor.bsdus.chen.poho / de.ltar.de.kho.na.nid. kyi. lehn, rdsogs. so/ dpal. kyehi. rdo. rjehi. bsdus.pahi. don.gyis. hgrel. pa. rdsogs. so/rje. btsun. by an. chub. sems. dpah. sems. dpah. chert, po. rdo. rje. snin.pos. mdsad.paho/ rgya.gar.gyi. mkhan.po. da. na. sih. la. dan/ lo.tsa.ba.slar.gyis.rgya.gar.gyi.mkhan.po.su.bhu.ti.sri.s. nti.dan/ lo.tsa.ba.cog.gru.tin.ne.hdsin.bzan.pos.zus.so/yan.slar.kyis. rgya.gar.gyi. mkhan.po. rgyal.po. sras/ dpal. hjig. med. lhahi. zal. snar. lo. tsa. ba. snol. cor. dge. shn.pra.jn. ktr. tis.yul. dims, hgyur.gyi. dpeg gtan. la.phab.po/ slar.yan. dpal. Idan. sod. ston. rdo. rje. rgyal. mtsan.gyis. legs.par. bsad.pa. la. sogs.pahi. mthu. las. / brda. spros.pahi. tshul. rig.pahi. dban. lo. tsa. ba. dpal. Idan. bio.gros, brtan.pas.byan. chub, sems. dpahi. hgrel.pa. bskor.gsum.gyi. tshul. la. sin. tu. dad. ein. blohi. snan. ba. rgyas.pahi. dge. bahi. bses.gnen. ra. lun.pa. chos.grags. dpal. bzan.pos/slob. dpon. chen.po. si. ba. htshohi. zabs. dpon.slob. kyis. mdsad.pahi/ dbu. mahi.gzun. lugs, chen.po. de. kho, na. nid. bsdus.pa. rtsa. hgrel. gyi. glegs. bam. bris, te.yon. du.gnan. nas.yan. dan.yan. du. bskuL bahi. nor. kgs.par. bcos. ie. bsgyur. dn.zus. nas.gran. la.phab.pahi.yi.ge.pa. n mdsas.ston.kun.dgah.rgyal.mtshan. ses.byaho// The abridged instruction of the tattvaniyama in the Hevjra-tikoi six thousand slokas is greatly epitomized. Thus ends the chapter of Tattva. (Thus) ends the Hevajra pindrthatik. It is the work of the illustrious Bodhisattva Mahsattva Vajragarbha. The Indian pandita Dnasila and Tibetan /o^teBros.sen.dkra.s.skya.ho have translated it and it is revised by the Indian pandita Subhti Srisnti and lotsaba Cog. gru.tin.ne.hdsin.bzan.po. Again the pattern was set by the Indian panditaFrince Sri-Abhayadevaand Zo^aasnol.cor.dge.slon.pra.jn.kirti according to the version of central India. Again as a result of the thorough explanation given by the Pal.Idan.sod.ston.rdo.rje.rgyal. mtsan, dban lotsaba bLo.gros.bstan.pa who is an expert in Sanskrit grammar translated and set it up after proper revision on the request and repeated reminders along with the offering of fees in the form of the book on madhyamakasstra viz. Tattvasamgrahamiilatik written by crya (Sntaraksita and his disciple (Kamalaslla), which (i.e. the

Appendix I

301

requests) were made by dge.bahi.bses.ghen.ra.lun.paChos.grags.dpal. bzari.po who had great faith and understanding in the three aspects of the tik of the Bodhisattva. 11. Kyehi. rdo. rjehi. nes.pahi. don.gyi. rgya. eher, bsad.pa. las. spyod. pahiAehuhLrgya.cher.bsad.pa.ste.drug.paho/ (At this point the colophon undergoes a thorough change and this form is maintained in the subsequent colophons. This may be rendered into Sanskrit as Hevajra-riitrthatikym cary patala-tik sasthamah/Here ends the sixth (chapter) i.e. the commentary on the carypatala, of the Hevajra-nitrtha-tik (a commentary giving the absolute meaning of Hevajra-tantra). The subsequent colophons maintain this same form and it is not necessary to give them in detail. Only point to be noted is that the colophon follows every chapter of Hevajra-tantra independently and the earlier numbering is not continued as, had it continued, this chapter would have been tenth in order.

The last colophon is interesting in that the authour expresses his own views. Kyehi. rdor. hbum. Inahi. bdag. nid. dan/ mchog.gi. dan.pohi. rgyud. chen. dan/ rgyud. hbum. mnon. brjod. la. sogs.pahi/ don. bsad. rdo. rje. snin. pos. bri/ hdi. bsad.pa. la. eher. rtsa. bayi/so. sor. bsad.pas. rgyud. hdi.yan. / brtag.pa. gan. dan. gan. bstan.pa/ de. dan. de.yis. gsal. bar. bstan/ nan. thos. skye. bo. rnams. la. nas. hdi.yons. ma. bstan/ de. bzin. ran. rgyal.phyir. min. mu.tegs.can. lahan.min/ ma.runs.rgyal.po.nan.dan.gsan.chen.smod. lahan. min/ rgyal. sras. bla. ma. smod. la. hdi. ma. bstan/ gsan. ba. mchog. la. rab. mos. sin/ mnah. bdag. bla. ma. la. gas. la/ran, gi. de. nid. spas. ses. na.gan. yin. de. la. bstan.gyis. bstan/sa. bcu.pa.yi. dban.phyug. mchog. dpal. Idan. rdo. rje.snin.po.pa/dpah.bo.dpah.mos.legs.bskul.nas/ rnal.hbyor.lam.blan. phyir. hdi. bsad rned. dkah. dpal. Idan. kye.yi. rdo. rje. rin.po. ehe/ hbum.phrag. Ina.pa. rtsa. rgyud. las. hdi. legs.par. bsdus/ de. hgrel. nes.pahi. don. rgya. eher. bsad. pa. zes. by a. ba/legs. bris. dge. ba. dri. med.gan. (hob. de.yis. n kye.rdor.gsan. ba. legs.rtogs. dam. tshig.yons. Idan.zin/hdi.ston. bla.mahi. rjes. hbrans. rdo. rje. sbun. la. sogs/ phen. tshun. legs.par. smra. zin. khon. du. mi.hdsin.dan/ dam. tshig. rdo. rje.glen, sIon. dal.gyis.gnas. par. sog/ ma. runs. dam. hdral. nan.pahi. las. byed. ein /mal. hbyor. ched. du. mi.gner. skye. bo. gan/ de. dag. mi. hgrogs. de.yis. mi. mthon. dan/ ran.sdug. bla. ma. rdo.rje. mchod.par. sog/rtsod. Idan. dus. su.gsan.

302

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik chen.ston.by ed.dan.mu.Stegs.sky e.bo.nan.pahi.lta.hjom^sin/ gan.dehi.lta.ba. dbyins.nas.hdon.byed.pahi.de.dag. hdul.bahi.de.dpon.de. by ed. sog/ rnam.par.bsad.pa.hdi.las.gzan.pahi/ bsad.pa.de.kho.na.ma. mthon. bahi. skye. bo. hdod. rgyal. rnams. kyis/byas. ba. la.yid. brtan.par. mi. bya.yi/hdi. dan. hdi. Ita. buhi. hbrel.pa. rtsa. bahi. rgyud. mthah. dag. gi. nes.pa. dan/ dran. ba. legs.par. btan. la. hbibs.pa. la/yid. brtan. de. la.gnas. par.byaho/ kyehi.rdo.rjehi.nes.pahi.don. gyi.rgya.cher.bsad.pa. las./ sa. bcuhi. dban.phyug. chen.po. by an. chub. sems. dpah. rdo. rje. snin. pos. mdzad. rdzogs. so/ rgya.gar.gi. mkhan. po. bla. ma. chen.po. me. tri. iabs. la/ bod.kyi.lo.rtsa.ba.hbro.dge.slon.ses.rab. grags.pas.man.du.gsol.ba. btab. nas/legs.par. bsnen. te. bsgyur. baho/ kyehi. rdo.jehi. bsdus.pahi. rgyud. kyi.rgya.cher.bsad.pa/ byan.chub.sems. dpah.rdo.rje.snn.pos.mdzad.pa/ rned.par. dkah. ba. hdi. snon. de. kho. na. nid. kyi. lehu.yan. chad, kyi.hgrel.pa. las.ma. hgyur.ba.las/ slad. kyi. bal.pohi.yul. gyi.gron. khyer. chen.po. rol.pa. zes. bya. ba. nas/ hbro. dge. slon. lo. rtsa. bas/ pa. ndit. ta. mai. tri. iabs. la. rhed. do/ bod.yul. du. dbe. sbyan. drans. nas/ dge.slon.rnal.hbyor.spoyd.pa.dan.dban.phyug. grags.pas.gsol.ba. btab.ste.bsgyur.baho/ rgya.gar.yul.dkah.las.eher.mdzad/ dge.ses.lo. tsa. ba. la/yul. dbus. su. byin. nas/ bdag.gis.gsol. ba. btab. nas/ dkah. las. bgyis. te. by an. chub. sems. dpahi. hgrel. ba. bsgyur/ zal. no. chen. nas. la. brdzans.ba.lags.te.dgyes.dgyes.par.dgons/'PTT Vol. 53.2310, p. 58-59, Fol. 129.

Vajragarbha has written the critical expositions of Hevajra-tantra of 6 lakh slokas, Paramdi-tantra. Laksbhidhnatantra etc. In this commentary mostly whatever ideas are preached in this tantra, these same are clarified through the separate comments of the extensive mla(tantra). I have not preached this to monks nor to the pratyekabuddhas nor to the heretics. It is neither preached to slander the great esoteric secret nor the tyrannical king, nor is it taught to those who slander the bodhisattva or the teacher. Having had great faith in the supreme secret and respect for the teacher who is the lord, if one knows how to keep secret that itself, to him this is definitely preached. I, SriVajragarbha, the master of the ten stages having been inspired by the viras and virs, am explaining this in order to show the way to the yogins; this jewel of Hevajra difficult to obtain has been abridged from the mlatantra of five lakhs. Through whatever merit I obtain here by (composing) a commentary ofthat (Hevajra) which is called nitrthatik and which is written, I may be able to thoroughly understand the

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secret of Hevajra and may be able to fulfil the samayas (vows); those codisciples who follow the teacher who showed the path, they may speak in good terms to one another and may be devoid of envy and hatred. The samayavajras (disciples) may discuss and live in peace. Those barbaric people who act in an inappropriate hypocritical manner and those people who do not search for yoga genuinely should not be associated with and without being seen by them, one should worship ones own (lit. desired) vajrcrya. In the kaliyuga, this great secret should be preached and having completely refuted the bad views of the heretics and having expelled them from their roots, they (the followers of Vajrayna) may become the leaders to these heretics who are to be taught the Vajrayna. Those selfish and arrogant people who have not seen this detailed commentary or any other commentary of the tattva will not appreciate whatever has been done here. This and other commentary like this which thoroughly establishes the difference between the nita and neya of the principle of mlatantra must be appreciated and grasped firmly. Here ends the work viz. nltrtha-ttk
composed by the Bodhisattva Dasabhmisvara Vajragarbha.

The Indian pandita mahcrya Maitripda and Tibetan


lotsaba.hBro.dge.slon.ses.rab.grags.pa. translated it aftere repeated requests

and after having been attended upon. The composition of the bodhisattva Vajragarbha, difficult to obtain was translated upto the commentary of tattvapatala. Afterwards it was obtained by hBro.dge.slon.lotsaba for pandita Maitripda in the town called Lila Nagara in Nepal. Having taken the book to Tibet, (it) was translated on the request of ^rya-rNal.hbyor.spyod.pa and dBan.phyug.grags.pa. Having given this difficult work to dGe.ses.lotsaba in India in the Madhyapradesa and having requested him to translate it this difficult task of translating the tika of the Bodhisattva was performed (by him).

Appendix II SRISAHAJASIDDHI
INTRODUCTION As said in the preface to my edition ofthe Advayasiddhi (M.S. University Oriental Series, No. 8, Baroda, 1964), in this edition too I have tried to reconstruct the philosophical background of the Tan trie practices of utpatti- and utpanna-krama. In the preparation of the critical edition of the Sfisahajasiddhi I used two MSS: the photograph of the ms available in the Library of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, and a microfilm, of the MS from the Bir Library, Nepal. The Oriental Institute Ms is written in Newari, the date of which may be the latter half of the 14th century A.D. (from the date
given by Bendall, in the Cambridge Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS).

The Bir Library MS is written in modern Devangari; the first page bears on the left the number ^bu.pra. tan. 1 "(Bauddha.prcina.tantra?) and on the right "guru 1". The material used for writing seems to be modern paper. It may have been copied from an older MS. The date occurring on the last page, i.e. 'sri.sam 197T, corresponding to 1914 A.D., may refer to this fact. Both MSS. are corrupt beyond understanding and in many places the text is unintelligible. The Tibetan translation in PTT, vol. 68, No. 3067 is collated and occasional scribal errors are corrected with the help of the sDe.dge. edition, but this translation is not of much use in correcting the obscure passages. The emendations, mostly based on the Tibetan translation, are suggested in the footnotes. The additions to the MS in cases where the readings contain lacunae are based on the Tibetan translation and marked by square brackets. The italicized words indicate the unintelligible parts of the texts, the reconstruction of the same from the Tibetan translation being given in the footnotes. The asterisks in III. 11 indicate a lacuna in the text. The chapter and verse numbers are used in order to facilitate references. The author Dombl Heruka, according to Trantha, preceded Saroruha and Kampala and is also said to have received the quintes-

Appendix II

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sence of the HT} Again Tranth attributes to him a Nairtmyasdhana which is included in the Sdhanaml (no. 228). This Nairtmyasdhana is drawn from the HT. Dombi Heruka was a contemporary of Vilasyavajr who was one generation senior to both Saroruha and Kampala. The date of the present HT fixed by Snellgrove is the end of the 8th century A.D. which thus becomes the date of Kampala and Saroruha, as both were closely associated with the compilation of the present HT. But the material out of which the present HT was compiled could have easily existed even before that; as Dombi Heruka was also closely associated with Hevajra, it is not unreasonable to assume that he might have had the material for HT including the present SSS. Thus Dombi Heruka may have lived around the middle of the 8th century A.D. The text of SSS is older than that of the HT and, though it is available only in a very corrupt form, some readings make better sense than
those of HT, e.g. SSS 11,4 tad evaikarasam smrtam, HTI, viii, 40 tasya cakra rasah smrtah; SSS loc. dt. samarasam ekabhvyam, HT loc. at samarasdm ekabhvam.

A hitherto unrecorded word sphaVi (meaning sphullinga) may be noted. II As is said in the Introduction to the Advayasiddhi,2 this work forms a part of the 'seven classes of realization' (sgrub.pa.sde.bduri)? These seven works are preserved in a photographic collection of Buddhist Tan trie MSS. kept in the Library of the Oriental Institute, Baroda. There are in all three works in the bsTan.hgyur bearing the title
'Sahajasiddhi.H

(i) Sahajasiddhi by Indrabhti, PIT, vol. 69, No. 3107. (ii) Sahajasiddhi by Samayavajra, ibid., vol. 82, No. 4694. (iii) Srisahajasiddhi by Dombi Heruka, ibid., Vol. 68, No. 3067. All three works are related to the HTin general and the Utpannakrama in particular. The major part of Indrabhti's work is devoted to the description of Sahaja.5 The colophon to the Tibetan translation of Sahajasiddhi by Samayavajra gives clear indication as to the connection between the two works, the HT and Sahajasiddhi. It also deals with the
Utpannakrama of the HT.6

The Srisahajasiddhi of Dombi Heruka, which is edited in the fol-

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lowing pages, explains the meditation of the HTcalled Utpannakrama. The verses, with a few exceptions (e.g. II.5-16; III. 1-4 etc.) can be traced back to the HT7 Curiously enough no clear indication as to the relation between the /fTand these verses appearing in the 555 is anywhere to be found. In the beginning of chapter III of the 555 it is said : "The Vira (i.e. Hevajra) has said as follows in the Hevajra-Yogim-Tantra." The following three verses, nos. 2-4, cannot be traced back to the present HT. Also, the text of the verses is extremely corrupt and the meaning doubtful. This only supports the hypothesis of the possibility of the existence of a lot of floating material about Hevajra in the form of a large mlatantra which may have contained the present HTas well as much other relevant material. The two meditations, Utpatti- and Utpanna-krama form a set of basic meditations in the practice of Tantrism. They are said to form the nucleus of the esoteric teachings of the Buddhas and the tantric literature contains several references to the effect.8 Sraddhkaravarman (11th century) in his Yognuttaratantrrthvatra-samgraha refers to a controversy about the number of kramas.9 The terms are well-known and are translated into Tibetan as bskyed.pahi.rim.pa and rdzogs.pahi.rim.pa respectively. Utpattikrama is usually referred to as such, but Utpannakrama is synonymous with Nispannakrama or Sampannkrama. These two meditations are mainly connected with the anuttaratantras, to which class belong the Guhyasamjatantra, the HT, the Cakrasamvara and so on. These meditations are different in detail in the case of each tantra, but their general nature, discussed in the following pages, may not differ much. The word krama is explained in the Yogaratnamala-nqma-hevajrapanjikas kramahprakrah kasyakramahsamdhes/*0 "Order means mode. Order of what? that of samdhi (meditation)." Further candracihnafnjdiparinmena devatkranispattir utpattih s yasmin samdhau asti sa utpattikramah/11 'The creation means production of the form of the deity through the maturing of candra (moon), cihna (the marks) and bija (seed) and that samdhi in which this is created is the utpattikramah The utpattikrama-samdhi of Hevajra is described in the HT I.viii, v. 1-25. It can be analysed as follows : v. 1-4 Plan of the mandala which is in front of the bhvaka (practicant). v. 5-6 Ndiyoga (breath control and concentration).

Appendix II v. 7-10

307

Production of the image of the mandalanyaka in the mandala. v. 11-13 Enumeration of the goddesses in the inner mandala (adhytmaputa) v. 14-15 Enumeration of the goddesses in the outer mandala (bhyaputa). v. 16-21 Description of the goddesses. v. 22-24 Six stages of the realisation of the utpattikrama-samdhi. The chief elements in the utpattikrama are thus as follows : (i) Concentration of the mandala (ii) Regulation of the prna (breath); (iii) Production of the image of the mandalanyaka in the above mandala. Furthermore, the utpannakrama-samdhi is described in the Yogaratnaml-nma-hevajrapanjik as follows: Utpannam svbhvikam eva rupam/tad eva tattvarpendhimucyate bhvyate yasmin yoge utpannakramah/12 The accomplished (form) is the inherent form. That yoga, in which it (the inherent form) is believed and contemplated as the reality, is the utpannakrama." The utpannakrama- samdhi is described in the HT I. viii. 26-36, w. 37-56, being a description of Sahaja. The analysis may be follows : (i) w. 26-29 The esoteric meaning of the mandala (ii) w. 30-36 The four nandas, i.e. the four stages in the realisation of Sahaja, the Innate, (iii) w. 37-56 Description of Sahaja. The two samadhis represent symbolically the dual nature of the outer phenomenon and the inner reality, the samvrti and the paramrtha, upya and prajn. Again, HT II. ii. 26-31 describes the real nature and the philosophical background of the utpattikrama-samdhi. The tan trie practicant contemplates the mandala representing existence and realises its dreamlike nature, thereby destroying all clinging. Nothing is created and nothing is destroyed. So whatever the practicant creates by way of utpattikrama is really not created. He realises non-existence through existence, that is through the contemplation of existence.14 The nature of the two meditations suggests a different philosophical background. They may be based on the famous trisvabhva-theovy of the Yogcra. In brief, the theory runs as follows: The dharmas have

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three aspects: parikalpita (tib. kun.brtags.pa), paratantra (tib. gzan.gyi.dban) and parinispanna (tib. yons.su.grub.pa) ,15 The paratantra aspect is the manifestation, appearance. It owes its existence to something else, is dependent on something else, and hence is relative, conditioned.16 When we perceive this appearance, the relation ofgrhya and grdhaka, known and knower, perceived and perceiver, is established. Moreover, when we perceive a thing, not only is it perceived by the senses, but also we project our ideas on the appearance or manifestation. The form of the manifestation thus perceived is the parikalpita.17 When we perceive the appearance without any projection of our ideas, without the dual relation of the subject and object, we realise the Absolute. This aspect of things is complete, finished, is always the same, never becoming something else and hence Perfected, Absolute (parinispanna). This aspect is the Sahaja which is always existing in the creature but is covered with the dust of ignorance and other impurities. This Trisvabhva-thtory can be applied in two ways. On the one hand it analyses the phenomenal world and on the other it describes the experience of the person, who perceives this outward existence. The paratantra aspect is the nature of the phenomenal world and forms the fundamental doctrine of Buddhism as stated in the pmtityasamutpda. Parikalpita is the external appearance of things which is really a projection of the mind. Parinispanna is the nature of things which is always fully developed, finished, and is called Tathat, Sahaja, Paramrtha or Absolute. From the point of view of experience the theory may be analysed as follows; in the first moment of perception, the world is perceived, the subject-object relationship is established. But before its picture is reflected in the mind completely, that is immediately after or during the moment of perception, the mind adds its own ideas, images, forms etc. to the manifestation of the thing that is perceived. This is the parikalpita imagery^ a projection and hence doubly unreal. When this happens, rather than the outside form, our idea fulfills the expectation and creates a pleasant sensation, which produces the thirst for more and more of it and hence becomes a clinging and a fetter. But only if we realise the vanity of things through the intellect and by following the three kinds of knowledge, is salvation achieved without any effort.18

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The philosophical background of the utpattikrama lies in the understanding of the paratantra and parikalpita aspects : if the paratantra is realised through the parikalpita, that is in the utpattikrama, the dreamlike nature of existence is also realised, firstly by creating and later by contemplating the image of the mandalanyaka. The dreamlike nature of the phenomenal world is the paratantra, which is realised through the parikalpita, the created image. Utpannakrama is the realisation of the paratantra without producing the parikalpita, which amounts to the non-existence of clinging. Hence, what is realised is the ultimate nature, the pure nature, the parinispanna aspect. In fact, another name
of utpannakrama is nispanna- or sampanna-krama.

Now to analyse these two samdhis as experiences. In the Satshasrik-Hevajra-k we find the following comment:
pratyaksam indriynm yat pratyaksam cittakalpitam/ utpattikrame jnnam buddhakaram na tat// pratyaksam yogino yanca svasamvedanakam ca yat (MS. tat)/ utpannakrame jnnam buddhatvakaram param//19

"The knowledge obtained in the utpattikrama through the preception of senses and mental constructions does not lead one towards Buddhahood. The knowldege gained in utpannakrama through mystic intuition and self-consciousness is the highest (knowledge) leading to Buddhahood." As is clear, the theory of direct perception, as put forth by the Buddhist logician Dharmakirti and commented upon by the subsequent logicians, is applied to the experiences represented by the kramas. The sense perception is defined by Dharmakirti in the Nyyabindu as indriyajnnam, "sense knowledge" and commented upon by Dharmottara as indriyasya jnnam indriyajnnam "congnition, as far as it depends (on the activity) of the senses (alone) is sensation".20 Mental
perception is defined as : svavisayntaravisayasahakrinendriyajnnena samanantara-pratyayena janitam tan manovijnnam.21 "Mental sensation

follows (the first moment of every) sense-congnition (which is thus) its immediately preceding homogeneous cause. (The latter) is cooperating with (the corresponding moment of) the object (i.e. with that momentary object) which immediately follows the proper (momentary) object (of sensation). 22 Self-conscious-perception is defined as
saruadttacaittnm tmasamvedanam}3 "Every consciousness and every

mental phenomenon are self-conscious."24 Mystic intuition is defined

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as : bhtrthabhvan-prakarsaparyantajam yogvjnnam ceti.25 "The (mys-

tic) intuition of the saint (the Yogi) is produced from the subculminational state of deep meditation on transcendental reality."26 Utpattikrama, according to the commentator's view, is the same category as all our empirical knowledge. When the practicant looks at the mandala this can be compared to the first moment of senseperception and in the subsequent moments "the operations of our intellect, which thereupon constructs the image of the object, are subjective".27 Utpattikrama may be called sensuous intuition as far as the meditation on the phenomenal world with a view to realise its dream nature is concerned. The production of the image of the mandalanyaka is subjective creation and hence the utpattikrama consists of both sense-perceptions and mental constructions. Utpannakrama is the knowledge gained through the svasamvedanapratyaksa and the yogi-pratyaksa. The former is "the awareness of awareness" and is a source of direct knowledge. From this self-awarness comes perfection. That is the nature of the Great Bliss.28 The direct intuition or "the intelligible intuition"29 of the yogin is that faculty which will give us immediate knowledge of reality, as directly as is felt in the first moment of sense-perception. It is said to have three stages :
"(i) punah punas cetasi vinivesanam/ (ii) bhvanyh prakarso bhvyamnrthbhsasya sphutbhatvrambhah/ jnnasya

(iii) prakarsasya paryanto yad sphutbhatvam isad asamptirnam bhavati/90

"There are indeed here (three stages of transic absorption, the first) is that when the image begins to be clear, contemplation is in progress; (the second) is the subculminational degree when the saint contemplates the (ideal) reality as though it were veiled by a thin cloud; in (the third) the object is perceived just as clearly as though it were a small grain on the palm of one's hand; this latter is the saint's direct knowledge.31 (This direct knowledge is non-constructive, as vivid as sensuous perception, and timeless. This is the knowledge one realises in the
utpannakrama-samdhi.)

Now that the thought-world behind these two kramas is understood to a certain extent, it may be easier to translate them into English.

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Utpattikrama may be translated as the meditation on the process of creation and utpannakrama as the meditation on the process of the perfected or fully developed nature. NOTES TO INTRODUCTION Thanks are due to the authorities of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, and of the Bir Library, Kathamandu, Nepal, for generously permitting the use of their manuscripts of the Snsahajasiddhi through the Department of Buddhist Studies of the University of Delhi, Delhi. I am deeply indebted to Professor Dr. V. V. Gokhale and to Professor A. Hirakawa for their suggestions and discussion. The work was first published in the Indo-Iranian Journal X, 2/3, 1967. The following abbreviations are used B=Srisahajasiddhi MS. kept in the Bir Library, Kathmandu, Nepal; HT=The Hevajra tantra, a critical study (London Oriental Series, Vol. 6), by D.L. Snellgrove (London, 1959); MS. manuscript; O = Snsahajasiddhi MS. kept in Oriental Institute, Baroda; PTT-Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking edition, Photographic reprint, Kyoto-Tokyo; SSS=Srisahajasiddhi. 1. See A. Schiefner, Trantha 's Geschichte des Buddhismus in Indien (St. Petersburg, 1869), p. 192. Could this so-called quintessence (sra) of the HThave relation with the SrisahajasiddhifThis does not seem altogether impossible, as the contents of SSS deal with the utpannakrama meditation which is of highest importance in the practice of Buddhist Tantrism.

2. Malati J. Shendge Advayasiddhi, a study, Baroda : Oriental Institute, M.S. University series, no. 8, 1964. 3. Blue Annals, vol. II, p, 856. English translation of the Deb.ther. snon.po. by gZon.nu.dpal, G. Roerich (trans.), Calcutta, 1949. 4. The colophon to the Tibetan translation of the SSS runs as follows : dpal.dgyes.pdhi.rdor.jehi.rgyud.kyi.lhan.cig.skyes. pa. grab.pa. las/lhan. cig. skyes.pa. bstan.pa. shb. dpon. chen.po. dpal. do bhi.he.ru.kahi. zalmnah.nas.mdzad.pa.rdzogs.so/'/ "Here ends from amongst the sahajsiddhi(s) of Hevajratantra the one composed by Sahajcrya Dombi Heruka." The words "dpal.dgyes.pahi.rdo. rjehi.rgyud.kyi.lhan.cig.skyes.pa.grub.pa"suggested the hypothesis that perhaps the cycle of every anuttara-tantra contained this type of literature, devoted solely to the description and way of

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attaining the reality preached in that particular tantra. This was supported by Tibetan bla.mas in an oral communication, but no literary evidence has been found to that effect. 5. Actually the realation is not very clear, as the work is not yet thoroughly investigated. A cursory glance through the Sahajasiddhipaddhati, a. commentary on the ^bove-mentioned work by Laksmlrikar, revealed some quotations (PTT, vol. 69, No. 3108, p. 79, f. 17a) from the Pancalaksa-hevajm (Tibetan
hhim.phragMa.pahLkyehi.rdo.rje) the later mlatantra of the HTy

now extinct and found only in the form of quotations in various workSflike the Sat-shasrik-Hevajra-tik,, PTT, vol. 53, No. 2310. Rhula Snkrtyyana found the Sanskrit MS. of the Sat-shasrikHevajra4ik in Tibet. He brought back with him the photographs of the MS. which are preserved in the collection of ILP.Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna, Bihar, together with other MSS. brought by him. See his report in the Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society (Patna), vol. 21, part 1 (March 1935), under the title, "Sanskrit palm-leaf MSS. in Tibet". The abovementioned MS. is mentioned as XVII. 2.92 Hevajratik, etc. Though it is described there as complete, in fact it is incomplete. Another MS. of the same work is to be found in Nepal in the Bir Library (No. c 93 or M.L. 250). The Tibetan translation of this Sanskrit work is found in the bsTan.hgyur under the title
Hevajra-pindrtha-tik (Tibetan translation : kyehi.rdo.rje.bsdus. pahi.don.gyi. rgya.cher.hgrel.pa). We do not know the reasons for

the change in the title of the work but the colophons of the Sanskrit text bear the title Sat-shasrik-Hevajra-tik, the Tibetan translation of which also tallies. But there is a sudden change after the 10th chapter, the reasons of which are unknown. The title of the Tibetan translation cannot be traced to the colophons of any part (i.e. to those before or after the 10th chapter). See Appendix I.

6. gzun.hdi. rje. btsun.grags.pahi. kye. rdor.gyi. dkar. chag. na. nag. pohi.skor.la.rdozogs.rim.gyi.giun.gcig.yod.gsun.ba.de.ka.yin// snar. bstan. hgyur. du. ma. chud. nor. chen. sogs. sa. skya.pa.phyi. ma. rnams. kyis. ma. rned.gsuns.pa.yin// hdihi. dpe. rnin.pa. kun. dgah. rnin.pohi. lag. du. by on/gdams. nag. sa. lugs. ni. da. Ita. med/gzan.yod

Appendix II

313

7.

8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

P I T Vol. 82, No. 4694, p. 165, f. 152a. "This is the same text of the utpannakrama as that which is said to be included (lit. exist) in the black-section in rje.btsun.grags.pa's catalogue of the Hevajra(tantra). [Cp.Grags.pa.rgyal.mtshan.gsun.hbum, kye.rdo.rje.chos.skor.gyi.dkar.chag. Ja 205b-206b5?] It was said that it was not included in the bsTan.hgyur and the later Sa-skya-pas like Nor. chert i.e. Kun.dgah.bzan.po and others could not obtain it. The old manuscripts of the (text) had reached the hands of Kun.dgah.snin.po. (That) upadesa is not found now in the Saskya-pa sect but (there) is another." 1.3 = HTI. viii. 1; 1.4-8 = HTI. viii. 26-30; 1.9-10 = HTI. viii. 3233; 1.12 = HTU.31; 1.14a-c = //7TI.iii.32a-c; 1.15 = HTlrtii. 36; II. 1-4 = HTI.viil 37-40; III. 5 = i/TI.vi.22; III. 6-9 = HTl.yiii. 4447. Cp. Guhyasamja (GOS, No. LIII) (Baroda, 1931), p. 157; HT I.viii. 25; Yogaratnaml by Knha, included in HT part 2, p. 104; etc. PTT, Vol. 81, No. 4536, pp. 157-158, f. 124-126. Ibid., p. 125. Tibetan translation rim.pa.ies.pa.ni.rnam.paho// gan.gi.rim.pa.ze.na.tin.ne.hdzin.gyis.te//TTT, Vol. 53. No. 2313, p. 139, f. 27a. sa.bon.dan.zla.ba.dan.phyag.mtshan.dan.sa.bon.yons.su.gyur. pa. las. lhahi. rnam.par.yons. su. rdzogs.pa. ni.bskyed.paho// dehi. tin. ne. hdzin.gan. la.yod.pa. de. ni.bskyed.pahi. rim.paho// loc. at. Loc. at. Tibetan translation: rdzogs.pa.ni.no.bo.nid.kyi.gzugs. can. te/ de. nid. la. de. kho.na. nid. du. mos.par. by as. nas. mal. hbyor.gan. gis. sgom.par. byed.pa.de. ni. rdzogs.pahi. rim.paho// loc. cit. Smvrtam devatkram utpattikramapaksatah// vivrtisukharpam tu nispannakramapaksatah// satyadvayam samsntya buddhnm dharmadesan//'Ibid., p. 104. Yogaratnaml-nmahevajra-panjik, p. 138. Cp. Snellgrove's description of the kramas, i/TPart 1, pp. 139-140. Snellgrove's fundamental mistake is the identification of utpatti and utpanna with utpda and pralaya respectively. A study of the philosophical background, which is explained later, will clarify this. Secondly, there is no "absorption of forms" in utpannakrama as described in HTl.vil 26-36.

314

Satshasrik-hevajra-ttk

15. Et. Lamotte (ed.) Sandhinirmocanastra, (Louvain, 1935), p. 60; Vasubandhu, Trisvabhvanirdesa, S. Mukhopadhyaya (ed), Calcutta : Visva-Bhqrati Series, No. 4, 1939. 16. Sandhinirmocanastra, p. 60. 17. Itrid., p.61. 18. Trisvabhvanirdesa, v. 35. 19. f.23b. Tib. translation: dban.po.rnams.kyis.mnon.sum.gan// sems. kyis. brtags.pa. mnon. sum. ste//bskyed.pahi.rim.pahi.ye.ses. de// sans, rgyas. byed.pahi. mnon. sum. min//mal. hbyor.pa.yi. mnon. sum.gan//ran.rig.byed.pa.gan.yin.pa// rdzog.pahi.ri.rn.pahi.ye. ses.ni// sans.rgyas.bya.ba.byed.pahi.mchog// PTT, vol. 53, No. 2310, f.34b M . 20. Nyyabindu and Nyyabindu-tik 1.8. English translation : Stcherbatsky's Buddhist Logic, vol. II, Leningrad, 1930, p. 26. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Ibid., 1.9. Loc.cit. Ibid., 1. 10. Ibid., p. 29. Ibid., l.U. Ibid., p. 30. Stcherbatsky, Buddhist Logic, vol. I, Leningrad, 1932, p. 154. See HTl.vl 46. Stcherbatsky's translation of yogi-pratyaksa. Dharmottara, Nyyabindutik, I. 11. English translation ifo'd., p. 31.

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Appendix II

Sri-Sahajasiddhi English Translation


Chapter I

1-2. In order to favour the creatures I will explain the accomplishment of the Sahaja (Innate); the nature of the Sahaja Reality is beyond the fire offerings or difficult practices and (also) is not to be practised by the beginners and that is designated as the Ultimate Reality. Hence it is (called) the attachment of the Sahaja. The Sahaja is inexpressible. 3. Having imagined a bhaga in the midst of space, meditate at its centre upon devats with their cakra at the beginning, and according to (the) order and appearance. 4. "In the space" is known as "in the lotus" and "in the knowledge" means "in the bhaga". "Meditation" means concentration and "its bliss" is called "the cakra". 5. "In order" means "self-experiencing"; "the goddesses" are "the Bodhicitta". "The gradual manifestation" is "the Snya". Thus the Sahaja is of two types. 6. Prajn (wisdom) is the woman and man is called Upya (means). Thereafter, these two become twofold by the difference of absolute and relative. 7. In the man it (i.e. the Sahaja) is of two types i.e. sukra (semen virile) and its pleasure. Likewise in the case of Prajn (wisdom) too it is like man, sukra (semen virile) and its pleasure. 8. From this, from the fourfold distinction of the nanda (joy) the perfectly enlightened one has explained the four types of Sahaja, 9. The nanda (joy) is somewhat pleasurable; the paramnanda, (the Ultimate Bliss) is more than that; viramnanda (extreme Bliss) is without attachment and the remaining is the Sahajnanda (Bliss Innate).

Appendix II

325

10. First comes the desire, for contact; second brings the knowledge of bliss; third signifies the destruction of passion; and the fourth is meditated upon. 11. First Prajn becomes warmed up; secondly, she is endowed with smoke. In the third stage she emits sparks and while in the fourth (stage) she burns. 12. Candtiblazes in the navel and burns the five Tathgatas. She burns Locan and the others; while ham is burnt up, the moon oozes. 13. As before, the Bodhicitta is said to be of two types by the Victorious Ones and it may be considered as the union of Prajn and Vajra. 14. While one enjoys form, sound, smell, contact and the nature of the Dharmadhtu, nanda is restricted to any one yatana and should be considered fourfold. 15. The Sahaja can neither be explained by anybody nor can it be received from anybody. It is to be comprehended as a result of serving the teacher possessing merit. Here ends the first chapter viz. sahajanirdesa (the instruction about the Sahaja, of the Sahajasiddhi written by Dombi Heruka, Chapter II 1. Inferiors middle, excellent and whatever other (categories of existence) are there, they should all be considered equal through the meditation on the Tattva (Snyat). 2. 'The inferior' is the fine matter and 'the excellent1 is the Existence. Both these cannot be applied to the middle category and 'the other' refers to the six senses. 3. Those objects which are stationary and moving are all neither existing nor without self2. Those having the same type of activities considered as equal and of the same flavour in the meditation on the Tattva. 4. The equal is said to be the same and it is known to have the same flavour. In this sense it has been taught that the same flavour should be contemplated as one.

326

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

5. In the world the kulas which are five in number are worshipped. The worship of the families leads to the beneficial perfection fulfilling all the desires. 6. With the purpose that all beings may attain perfection Aksobhya, Amitbha, Ratnasambhava, Bhpati (Vairocana ?) and Amogha are spoken of. 7. Aksobhya belongs to the Vajra family, Amitbha to the Padma family, Ratnasambhava to the jewel family, Vairocana belongs to the Tathgata family. 8. Amogha belongs to the karma family. These are the kulas in . brief. It is said by the perfectly Enlightened One that the worship of the family leads to perfection. 9. Out of fear, the world does not like the na etc. families. The instruction to the ignprant leads to annoyance and not to peac6. 10. Heyajra can be known either through faith or by listening. It is hidden from all those unfortunate ones and is preached to the fortunate ones. 11. The sarnayas, ten in number, are to be followed and because they are the Sahaja (the Innate), they are divided into two and separated in five each. 12. They are sakra, hakra, antasva, disva and nakra alone is hidden out of fear or because of the slander of the people. 13. By the external difference of five colours black, white, red, blue and yellow, the Tathgatas are known. 14. The whole universe, that is to say, the three worlds, is endowed with Sahaja (Innate). That universe which is of no other nature is pervaded by it (i.e. the Sahaja) alone. 15. The yogin, endowed with great wisdom, having known firmly, 'I am like this' considers the sexual bliss as the Sahajnanda (the Bliss of the Innate). 16. If one contemplates while eating or drinking or bathing, in wakefulness or in dream. Then they who are desirous of Sukhvati attains it permanently. Here ends the second chapter viz. samayatattvanirdesa (the instruction in the principle of samaya) in the Sahajasiddhi of Dombi Heruka.

Appendix II

327

1.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

Chapter III In the Hevajra-yogini'tantra, whatever is said openly, whatever is endowed with power of Bliss and (whatever) is eminent, is being spoken here after (the manner) of the Heroic one. One may be a pupil or a follower of the pupil's mode of life, or a pure brahmin, he should always observe purity in body, mind and speech. The merit and knowledge or the Bliss of self-experience is purifying. The purification which is self-experienced, is liberating; no other purification liberates. It is said that by prescribing medicine to the doctor is shown the mode of life. That is said to be the mode of life which consists in the service of the servants (themselves) (Trans, according to Tib.). If a disciple, who has attained perfection, does not bow down with respect, he instantaneously falls into the hells avid etc. by the transgression of the guru's words.1 The whole existence (lit. world) should be contemplated as (that which) is not contemplated by the mind. Through the contemplation (on the object) that cannot be contemplated upon is attained the thorough understanding of all the phenomenal existence.2

1. Tib. points to 'he is instantaneously calumniated*. 2. The verse presupposes two types of contemplation and as such the word bhvan has two meanings. First type is to contempate in the ordinary manner in which the mind establishes the subject-object (grhya-grhaka) relationship and perceives the external phenomena through the medium of senses. This may amount to perceiving. Second is a contemplation in which this subject-object relationship is absent The first line of the verse refers to the first type of contemplation but in a negative manner which the mind ordinarily does not adopt and the grhya-grhaka sambandha being the ordinary mode of mind's grasping of the external phenomenal world, it is to be eliminated from contemplation. Having eliminated this, whatever processes of mind are left is the contemplation leading to the complete knowledge of the external phenomena. The second line can be interpreted in two ways : 1. The contemplation on the complete knowledge of the phenomenal existence is not really the contemplation i.e. conceiving in the ordinary sense. 2. But Tibetan trans, interprets it differently which may read if it is reconstructed in Skt. as bhvanyh bhvanay eva sarvadharmaparijnnam bhavati. The complete knowledge of the external phenomena can be attained through trie uncontemplative contemplation i.e. the contemplation which is devoid of the subject-object relationship. Again the first line describes the mode of contemplation (through which one is to attain the complete understanding of the phenomenal existence). The second line states the reason i.e. the external existence is contemplated in the above-mentioned manner as the processes of contemplation involved in the complete understanding of the external phenomena are not really the contemplation (i.e. it is not conceiving through the subjectobject relationship). This is the interpretation given in the Tibetan version.

328

Satihasrik-hevajra-ttk 7. Whatever substances there are fixed or moving, creepers, thickets, grass etc. they are conceived of having the Ultimate Reality which is of the nature of one's own self. 8. There is nothing else in them, the great only Bliss of selfexperience. The self-knowledge is the perfection and the selfknowledge is the contemplation. 9. The action consists of this self-knowledge and contemplation gives birth to the action. He himself is the doer, the depriver, the king and the lord. 10. The five defilements, attachment, hatred, envy, mental confusion as also egoism are perceived through the great Bliss
of the Vidyrja.

11-12. (When old age and thirst do not affect, when urine and excreta are not discharged), then the heroic one who is perfect and is the Great Bliss, goes to the Sukhvafi (the Land of Bliss). The Great Bliss resides in all forms having taken refuge in the absolute truth. At the time of perfection the five superhuman powers viz. the divine eye, the divine ear, the divine nose, the divine contact, the divine taste and the divine consciousness and all the enjoyments residing in other places are bestowed. Thus ends the third chapter viz. Sahajasiddhinirnaya (the determination of perfection of the samaya) of the Shajasiddhi composed by Sri Dombi Heruka. The end of the Sahaja-siddhi, a work composed by Sri Dombi Heruka.

Notes to the Sanskrit Text of Srisahajasiddhi


O= Photographs form Oriental Institute, Baroda, forming a part of a tan tra collection, Bauddha-tantra-samgraha. B=Microfilm of the ms. in the possession of Bir Library, Nepal.

Chapter I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. O -nthnya; B -sattvya MSS sahajasiddhi MSS sattvnugrahahetunh O -yogataponita, B -tapotita B snt, cp. Tib. trans, rtag.nid points to statyam MSS vsa sahajah smrtah is meaningless in the context MSS khadhtv 8c omit ca O vikrvita MSS cakraprva MSS nsam reading suggested on the basis of v. 5; also see HTI.viii.1 loc. cit. MSS khadhtvveti padmeti iti? Prakrtism! MSS bhagavamiti HTI.viii. 26. O sasamvedy; B svayamvedy Tib. trans, dagphyir points to iuddham and HT I. viii. 28. reads sukram MSS dvividh sahajasthitam. Tib. trans, omits -sthitam. HT I. viii. 27. MSS yosata tu tavet prjna: B -prajno

330 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik MSS upya purusa O pascdanayovidham; B pascacadanayovidvam, MSS nivrtisamprabhedatah, HT. I. viii. 28. O Devavidhm; B dvevidham O sukhamtasyasukhambhavh MSS prajnopya MSS sasukham tu sukhancaivah; HT I. viii. 29. MSS nadam MSS catasrnm HTI.viii.30. MSS paramnanda Tib. trans, points to tato'dhikam which is supported by HT. MSS viramnanda MSSmraga MSS sahajnanda HTI.viii.32 O karsa; B f <zrsa O rgansatva; Tib. points to -to which agrees with HT. Prkrtism for tatra as Tib. reads Tib. bsgom.bya points to bhvyate which agrees with HT, cp. Ibid I. viii. 33. MSS caturtha MSS mrsyate MSS dvitiya MSS dhmati MSS sphaU = sphullinga MSS caturtha MSS jvalite

47. Tib. trans, reads sbyaror sbyor which may be corrupt for hbarM; as in HT. 48. MSS pancataihgatqh

Appendix II 49. MSS dahanti 50. MSS lohanandinm 51. MSS dumveha 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

331

HTLL31 MSS prva yatavat MSS devevidham MSS bodhicittehetu MSS jine and omit bhsitam MSS tadadtpi MSS drastavyam MSS gand/ia MSS rpasabda MSS samsparsaMSS svabhvanca MSS cajyate; HT II.iii.32. O ekekayatane MSS mw/a na MSS drastavyam and omit catuscatuh O anena; B ane Tib. pints t guroh punyasamcayasevay cp. HT I.viii. 36. dombikrtaherukapdkrtyam which B omts.

Chapter II 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. MSS hinamadhorukrastni MSS fnt B savelni MSS smini; HT I.viii.37. MSS rustavyam MSS madhyam MSS sadendriyam; HT I.viii.38. MSS sthiracan; grammatically incorrect but preserved for metrical exigencies.

332 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Satsahasrika-hevajra-tika MSS lanlti Tib. trans, points to na saruam npyantmakam MSS nitula Tib. points to samih HTI.viii.39. MSS samatulamityuktam MSS tasyaveksamtasyveksarasamrtah MSS ekabhve MSS anthena cp. HT I.viii.40. MSS kulla MSS krtnila MSS aksobhyasmitbhasya MSS ratnasambhsa bhpati^Vairocana? MSS a5o%a O ratnasambh bhvaratnah; B ratnasambho O tathgata; B tathgat MSS amogha O kammamityukatam; B karmamityuktam MSS kulanetni MSS ns* O sukhnamupadesa; B sukhonmupadeso MSS prajnopya na santaye MSS hevajre O mugdhy y ste O sahbspa dvisay bhad% B sahvkya dvesayo bhadt Tib. trans, points to antasvam disvam ca v O nakndeka

38. Bbhydy 39. O -pravdakah

Appendix II 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

333

MSS bhyena O jnsyanti; B jnsyate MSS sahaja-samgat O yedta O bhavatuvatrayam B santhnasa yah jagat, Tib. trans, hgro.bahi.ran.bzin.gzan.mi. snan. points to bhsate nnyarupam jagat MSS evamavca tu yogi MSS fa instead of dhruvam MSS vicryyasye MSS strata MSSfoan* N adds sywm and MSS omit snne Tib. trans, points to gamane MSS statvan tu O sukhavabhyakanksinah; B sukhavatyakanksinh B omits from in to siddhau, MSS nirdesa

Chapter III 1. 2. 3. Skt. Text unintelligible; Tib. points to sukhabalavat varam Tib. trans, dan.po.dpah.bos points to divirena ? Skt. text unintelligible. Tib. trans, slob.spoyd.slob.spoyd. spoyd.pa.danpoints to chtrahsyt chtracaryahsyt (?) Also the latter part in Tibetan reads bratn.ze.na.yan.gtsan.sbra.nidpoints to brhmano sucireva.ca. MSS sadsocantu Tib. sems. la.gnod.pa. mi byaho point to na ghtayet sattvn MSS socintah MSS -siddhih; cp. HT I.ix. 3ab. Skt. text unintelligible; Tib. points to vaidyausadhipravrty tu O sati

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

334 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik O nidarsayet, B ninadarsayet caryeti so? B careno parayati MSS yasisya MSS guruvandenbhivandayet MSS avicyryavisesasya; B -syw O ksanata; B ksarata O gurutalpam; B gurumalpe cp. HT I.vi. 22. MSS f atsarvam MSS ma instead of yanna MSS parijnna cp.HTI.viii.44. MSS svabhvayante O panatu; B paratu B adds svbhva- after tmabhva; cp. HT I.viii. 45. MSS tesmeva MSS /?ara fantae svasamvedhya cp. HT I.viii. 46. svasamvedmayam cp. Tib. trans, gnod.pa.las. points to bdhand which agrees with HT I.viii. 47. O prabhu; cp. loc.cit. MSS -tathivesamha MSS mna MSS pancasuklam saiva MSS drastavyam MSS vidyrajni B mahsukham

38. MSS defective. Tib. reads bgres.pa.dan.ni.skom.pa.yi(s)//gnod. par. ma.gyur.gan. de. tshen. // bsan. dan.gci. sogs. hjug.pa. med// bde. tshes.grub.pa. dag. tu. bsgrags.

Appendix II 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

335

MSS yanti MSS sukhvatyamidveviro MSS panamartham MSS satyartya Tib. points to siddhyati. Tib. omits this. MSS pancabhijnatv abhinnavati MSS -manomayasceti MSS stitnah prabhusaktissaB omits from in to siddhau; O Sri-Dombi-Hemka-pd-krti-rcryasahaja-siddho. 49. O mamaya 50. MSS omit trtiyah

Appendix III
The Literary forms of Tantras

Besides the different classes of tantras, there are certain literary forms in the tan trie literature and they are : mlatantra (rtsa.bahi.rgyud), laghutantra (bsdus.pahi.rgyud) or alpatantra (nun.nuhirgyud) and khytatantra (bsad.pahi.rgyud). These three are interconnected and much depends on the proper understanding of the internal relation between these three. The meaning of the word mla is "original, basic" and is translated into Tibetan as rtsa.ba. This meaning when applied to a form of tan trie literature does not refer to the nucleus or essence of the text but the original form in which the tantras once existed and this is clearly brought out by a similar usage found in the Hti, 1.5 where the author CcJls it mahtantra (Tib. rgyud.chen) and also in 1.68 he calls it ditantra (Tib. dan.pohi.rgyud). This is the interpretation and may be translated into
English as % ur-tantra'.

No doubt these mlatantras existed and were distinct from the laghutantras. Mlatantra is defined in the Sekoddesa-tzk as follows : "In all the yogi-yogiriitantras etc., uddesa (enumeration) is of three types as also nirdesa (explanation). Here the meaning of uddesais clear from its own name; pratyuddesa is the second; mahoddesa is the third. Also the meaning of nirdesais clear from its own name; pratinirdesais the second and the other, the mahdnirdesais the third. The tantra system comprises of both uddesa and nirdesa. There the uddesa system is the whole of laghutantra, as for example the Guhyasamja of 8000 si. The nirdesa system is the whole of instruction of mlatantra-rja as in the case of Guhyasamja of 25000 si Thus the pratyuddesa means the panjik of laghutantra. Then on the side of nirdesa, pratinirdesa is the panjik of the mlatantra. Similarly mahoddesa means the tik of the laghutantra and correspondingly the mahnirdesa is the tik of the mlatantra, that again is the samgitz, panjik and tik all three."1

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This can be tabularised as follows :


uddesa laghutantra nirdesa mulatantra pratyuddesa laghutantra-pank pratinirdesa mlatantra-panfik mahnirdesa mlatantra-tik mahoddesa laghutantra-tik

Thus from the above it will be clear that laghutantra is the uddesa i.e. the enumeration of the subject matter and mulatantra is the nirdesa i.e. the explanation of the uddesa. So naturally the mulatantrawill be larger in extent than the laghutantra. The subsequent two divisions of uddesa and nirdesa are the commentaries, though of different nature, on both laghutantra and mulatantra. Thus it is clear from this that laghutantra and mulatantra are two separate tantras related by the relation of subject and its explanation. This is supported in turn by the actual findings from the Satshasrik-Hevajra-tik. Here the commentator quotes the mulatantra in a number of places and he does so in order t explain some obscure points of the laghutantra. So doubtlessly laghutantra was the nucleus and mlatantrawas the nucleus plus its explanation. Thus naturally its extent will be quite large. Now it seems only yogatantras and mahyogatantras in their subdivisions in upyaand prajnhad such mulatantra, though it appears that the application of this term in the case of yogatantras only indicates the importance of a particular tantra in the whole class but not the same connotation as explained above. The upya- and prajn-tantras have the cycles of tantras devoted to particular tathgatakula and in that the mulatantra seems to be the main source of information, the nucleus of which is the laghutantra which is in turn explained with the help of so many other forms of tantras. The point of view of the Sa.skya.pas is represented by bSod.nams.rtse.mo. In his explanation of the method of tantras in general he says "whatever is produced first and is the cause of the commentary is the mulatantra and whatever comes after it and is expository is the commentarial tantra (khyta, Tib. bsad.rgud)11. Again the mulatantra is said to be of two types - larger mulatantra and shorter mulatantra. This larger mulatantra is spoken mainly for the disciples of the present and shorter for those of the future who would be dull, of short life and unable to grasp the larger tantra. The larger mulatantra is frequently preached in the circumstance of the dharmacakra-pravartana. The khyta - tantras axe also of two types : ordinary (Tib. thun.mon.pa) and

338

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

extraordinary (Tib. thun.mon.ma.yin.pa). The characteristic of the former is based on its not mainfesting the clauses of tantras and the latter is characterised by its manifesting the peculiar classes of tantras.2 Sa.skya tradition seems to differ from Indian tradition in its assumption of two mulas of which actually the larger can be legitimately called mla whereas the latter corresponds to the laghu from its description. (We do not know his sources.) And actually this becomes clear from the terminology he uses in connection with the mlatantra of Hevajrawhere he says: "The short mlatantrahas two kalpas"3 i.e. he is referring to the present Hevajra which contains two kalpas. Again Vajragarbha, author of Hevajratik time and again refers to this tantra as laghutantra. From this it can be concluded that this shorter mlatantra is nothing but laghutantra. Thus the larger mlatantra corresponds with the mlatantra mentioned in Sekoddesatik. I think that in order to avoid any confusion it is better to designate larger mlatantra as 'mlatantra1 and the shorter mlatantra as the 'laghutantra!. Again here is another point of controversy which is raised by Bu.ston's classification of tantras.4 In this classification he has mentioned the mlatantra and khytatantras in most of the cases but he deals with
Hevajra cycle in detail and mentions mlatantra, laghutantra, uttaratantra, uttarottaratantra, bsad.snin.po and hbras bu.5 Under the name mlatantra

is given the first kalpa of laghu-HT whereas the second kalpa along with DVP is called the laghutantra. I wonder how far this is correct as most of the commentaries refer to the HT of two kalpas as the laghutantra and the DVP is the extraordinary khytatantra of HT. In the case of HT, I feel Sa.skya.pa tradition could claim greater valid consideration. Hevajratantra being their main scripture they must have preserved ancient traditions of Hevajra and of course it is an older tradition i.e. older than dGe.lugs.pa which is represented by Bu.ston. Following the view taken by Bu.ston some modern scholars seem to think that the larger mlatantra did not exist at all and they would prefer to call laghutantras as mlatantras which does not seem to be supported by the tradition and literature discussed above. Though we do not have any of the mlatantras, so many quotations are found e.g. in Sekoddesatik and in Hti the mlatantra of Hevajra is quoted and that is ample proof of its existence at one time. It is not impossible that these mlatantras, which consisted amongst other things the nitrtha

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of the practices, must have been circulated at the secret gatherings of the Buddhist tan tries and were not circulated at large. This perhaps is one of the causes which led to extinction and among others may be counted, the oral tradition. The laghutantraswhich formed the nucleus, i.e. the bare outlihe, might have been circulated at large, but as is obvious it is not very easy to understand a laghutantra without explanations. So it may be that Bu.ston not finding any translations of mlatantras may have left them out of consideration. But that does not mean they did not exist at all. The last point in connection with the mla- and laghu-tantra is their chronological relationship. It appears that mla must be older and from it a shortened form might have been compiled for some reason or other. Moreover we have ample proof to say this as in the beginning of the Hti it is said that this shorter tantra has been abridged from the larger tantra (1.5) and also Tibetan tradition holds that the largertantra existed earlier and the shorter was compiled from it (See the Tibetan colophon of HT). We know nothing about the contents of the mlatantra and it is difficult to say anything about it as no indication to the effect is found in my investigation. The extent of all these tantras is unimaginably large and that makes it all the more difficult to say anything about the contents. From the nature of the quotations found in Hti and Sekoddesak from the mlatantra of Hevajra, it may be said that the mlatantra consisted at least the neyrtha and nitrtha of the laghutantra. But it is difficult to convince oneself that this nitrtha can be as extensive as 5 lakh si. in the case of Hevajra as stated in the Hti (Chap. I). It is not impossible that besides the nitrtha etc. these mlatantras also contained a mass of floating literature available on a particular subject. The khyta-tantras are of two types, ordinary and extraordinary, as is explained above, but there are six methods of explanation, found in the khyta-tantras. (i) The manifestation of the unmanifest (ii) Completing the incomplete (iii) Dissimilar method (iv) The brief meaning

340

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

(v) Infallible results of the harmonious parts (vi) The separation of words and meaning (i) The manifestation of the unmanifest : The explanation of something unexplained in a tantra makes the tantra, which explains it the khy-tatantra of the former e.g. If there are two tantras A & B, B will become an khyta-tantra of A, if a point mentioned in A is explained inB. (ii) The completion of the incomplete: Whatever is left incomplete in a tantra is completed in another tantra, then that other tantra becomes the khyta-tantra of the former. (iii) The method of dissimilar parts : When some parts which are explained in a tantra in detail are explained in another tantra briefly in a different context, then the latter tantra becomes the khyta-tantra of the former. (iv) The brief meaning: Whatever is spoken in detail in a tantra, if the same is given in brief in another tantra, then that tantra becomes the khyta-tantra of the former. (v) Infallibility owing to harmonious parts: Whatever is spoken in a tantra, if the same or harmonious statement is given in another tantra, then that becomes the khyta-tantra of the former. (vi) The separation of words and meaning: Whatever is spoken in a tantravery briefly, if that same is clarified in another tantra then that becomes the khyta-tantra of the former.6 One interesting point raised by bSod.nams.rtse.mo is that if a tantra has various khyta-tantras, then all the tantras will become khytatantras of each other. His reply to this is that it is not so. The khytatantras of a tantra can be distinguished from the dissimilar method, the completion of the incomplete, etc. which are distinct.8 The other two forms of tantras are uttaratantra (Tib. phylmahi. rgyud) and uttarottaratantra (Tib. phyi.mahi.phyi.ma). Uttaratantra is also a commentarial tantra. What does the word uttara suggest? Does it refer to the latter part of the tantra or its place in time? It perhaps suggests both. The best known example of uttaratantra is the 18th chapter of Guhyasamja which is always referred to as the uttaratantra of Guhyasamjaand from the close scrutiny of the nature of the contents of this chapter, it is evident that it was an addition which served the purpose

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341

of explaining so many terms which, in those days of the infancy of Vajrayna, were perhaps not known. Uttarottara (Tib. phyi.mahi.phyi.ma) is palced after uttara-tantraand is also commentarial. Thus a complete cycle of a tantra may consist of the following forms of tantras which will be of great use in the study of any particular tantra. Thus can be easily formulated the system of studying a tantra in the traditional manner. (i) Mulatantra (ii) Laghutantra with its commentaries (iii) khyta-tantras with their commentaries (iv) Uttaratantra with its commentaries (v) Uttarottaratantra with its commentaries Thus studying one cycle means studying a number of texts connected with the tantras. In order to understand the tantras it is necessary to understand their mutual relations and a comparative study of the contents is also necessary. The modern method of treating individual tantras as isolated texts, read perhaps with the help of commentaries, is not a thorough method. Notes 1. Sarvasminneva yogiyoginyditantrauddesastrividhah/ nirdeso'pi/ tatroddesah svanmnaiva kathitah/pratyuddeso dvitiyah/mahoddesa strtiyah/ evam nirdeso'pi svanmnaiva vykhytah/ pratinirdeso dvitiyah/ apara iti mahnirdesastrtlyah/ uddesanirdesau dvveva/ tantras amgitih tatroddesena samgitih samastalaghutantrarn/ yathy stadasasatagrantha samjdik / nirdesena samgitih sakalamlatantrarjadesan/ yath pancavimsatisahasrasamjdik/ evam pratyuddesena laghutantre panjik/ iha nirdesah pratinirdeso'bhimatah/ tena mlatantra panjik/tath mahoddesena laghutantre tik sapunah samgitih panjik tik ca tisro9pi/ Sekoddesatik, ed. M.E. Carelli, pp. 4-5. G.O.S. no. 90, Baroda, 1941 2. Then in these there are three distinctions. 1. The peculiarity of the words of the Sam^tikraka. 2. The peculiarity of the meaning of the subject commented upon.

342

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

3. The peculiarity of the questioner or disciple. Therefore, the first: As is said by the slob.dpon (Nag.po) sPyod.pa
in the gSan.bahi.de.kho.na.nid.rab.tu.gsal.ba.ies.bya.ba. (Skt. Guhya-tattvapraksa-nmaby Krsna, PTT Vol. 51. 2167). In the yogatantras, tathgata

thus etc. is said and in the yoginitantra (the tathgata) always dwelt in the supreme secret joy of the nature of all. Following this precept the Guyasamja etc. tantras beginning with evam etc. forty letters (i.e. evam
may srutam ekasamin samaye bhagavn, sarvatathgata kyavccittahrdaya vajrayositbhagesu vijahra) are the yogatantras and Cakra-samvara etc.

beginning with the joy in the supreme secret bliss etc. are the yoginitantras. But the mtoanfra of Hevajra begins with evam etc. likewise the Vajrapanjara begins with the supreme secret joy. From the Samputaaxe derived both and hence it (i.e. Hevajra) is prajnopydvaya-tantra. In the second i.e. the peculiarity of the meaning of the subject are three parts : (a) The peculiarity of utpatti-krama (b) The peculiarity of utpanna-krama (c) The peculiarity of the purifying mode of life. (a) The peculiarity of utpattikrama: From the Vajrapanjara (=DVP). The dkinis of all the Buddhas is the holy group and because of the attainment of the five dkinis the tantra is called dakini-tantra. Following these words it is said that the tantra in which the gods are predominating, it is upya-tantra and (whenever) the goddesses are very predominating, it is yogint-tantra. By the word the dakini of the Buddhas is indicated in the body of tathgatadkini, and hence it is the dkinitantra. Also by the body of the gods is indicated the Buddha and hence the Guhyasamja etc. are the upyatantras. Those tantras like Hevajra in which even though the gods are predominating the dkinis are also there, such tantras are advayatantras. (b) The peculiarity of the utpanna-krama: From DVP : The upya of the prajn-pramit is called yogini and wherever that is preached is the yogatantra. Following this, the prajntantra is that in which is preached the utpanna-krama through the mandala of prajn and upya; upya-tantra is that which preached the suksma bindu etc. kramas and advayatantra is that which preaches both. (c) The peculiarity of the purification : That {tantra) which

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preaches the purification of the skandha, dhtu, yatana is sthe yogatantra. As is said in Guhyasamja: Briefly the rules of five skandhas are all Tathgatas. From the Cakrasamvara: In this place stay the yogiriis in the charming form oinadis. In Hevajra both are spoken. 'The sphere of form is Vajr' etc. and 'Every two nddis are presided over by a yogini' (see HT. H.iv. 24). The third is the peculiarity of the questioner or the disciple. From the DVP : In order to discipline the male (disciples) the yoga-tantra is spoken of. In order to control the ladies, the yogirii-tantra is spoken of. Following this in the Guhyasamja etc. tantras it is said Maitri etc. Bodhisattvas request (the Lord) and hence it is upya-tantra. From Vajra-dkini etc. it is said : 'The Lord, having been worshipped and bowed down by the goddesses, was thus requested.1 Hence it is the
mother-tantra. Hevajra is a prajnopydvaya tantra as it is said First Hevajra

(tantra) as spoken by the Victorious Ones was the yogatantra, but later in order to favour the ladies it was made yogirii-tantra. If Hevajra is yoginitantra then it is spoken of as yogini-tantra-Hevajra and Hevajra is also included in the fourteen mtr-tantras mentioned in DVP. If it is said that in DVP also it is called dkini-tantra then it is true that it is also dkiriitantra and therefore there is no contradiction in its being
prajnopydvaya-tantra as a prajn-tantra is necessary in the advaya-tantra

(i.e. it is necessary for an advaya-tantra to possess the qualities of yogirii(tantra). Again it is said, 'Do thou listen to the tantra of the nature of prajna and upya. And it can be understood from the above quoted (words of the) scriptures 'Hevajra is yogatantra, etc. bSod.nams.rtse.mo,rGyud.sde.spyihi.rnams.par.g'zag.pa, Sa.skya.bkah.hbum, ga. Fol. 34b-36a. 3. (In the third i.e. determining the prajnopydvaya class). There are two parts (in this). The general system of the tantras and determining the Hevajram particular. In the first there are four points : a. The peculiarities of the mlatantra and khyta-tantra, b. The method of vijahra, c. Vaipulyasutra, d. estimation of the extent a. In this there are two (parts) : characteristics and differences, a: Whatever, is created first and is the cause of the exposition is the mlatantra and whatever is created subsequently and is expository is the khyta-tantra. b. There are two differences: in the mlatantra there are two : extensive and abridged. In the khyta-tantra there are two ordinary, and extra-ordinary. From that the extensive mlatantra is

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Satshasrik-hevajra-k

frequently preached in the state of dharma-cakra-pravantana and is chiefly preached for the disciples of the present. The abridged is mainly spoken for the disciples of the future who will be of short lives and by being dull will be unable to grasp the extensive tantra. Ibid. Fol. 36a 4. Burston's classification of tantras Tantra
i i

1. Rriy-tantra

2. Cary-tantra

3. Yoga-tantra 1. Kriy

4. Anuttara-yoga-lantra

Tathgatakula

Padmakula

Vajrakula

Ratnakula

Inas-rigs loka-kula (pancakula ?)

2. Carytantra Tathgatakula Padmakula 3. Yogatantra rtsa.rgyud (rnlatantra)


1
I

Vajrakula

bsad.rgyud (khyta-tantra) 4. Anuttarayogatantra

cha. mthun. rgyud (bhgiya-tantra)

1 Upyatantra Aksobhya Vairoa. mxilatantra cana b. bsad.rgyud (khyta-tantra) connected with


the six families

1
Advayatantra Siddhrtha Vajradhara

Prajntantra Ratna- Amitbha sambhava

Heruka Vairocana
A. Cakra

Vajrasrya

Padmanartesvara tta.mdio.grub.pa\
rdor.je.hcha '

mentioned above

samvara i. mla-tantra ii. khyta-tantra a. thun.mon.ma.yin. b. thun.mon.pahi.bsad. c. tantras about which there's discussion whether they are pure or not.

Appendix III
a. thugs, rguyud b. gsan.rgyud c. sku.rgyud d. hphrod.pahi.rgyud B. Hevajra i. mlatantra ii. laghu (samhsipta) iii. rgyud.phyi.ma (uttara) iv. phyi.mahi.phyi.ma (uttarottara) v. bsad (khyta) vi. snin.po (hrdaya) vii. hbras.bu (phala) C. Buddhakapla D. Mahmy E. Arali

345

5. In the khyta-tantra there are two parts : ordinary and extraordinary. Also that is the ordinary khyta-tantra which clarifies many classes of tantras. That is the extraordinary khyta-tantra which clarifies mainly its own class of tantras. In general for a tantra to be an khyta-tantra there are six methods : a, clarifying that which is not clear, b. completing the incomplete, c. the dissimilar method, d. The condensed meaning, e. creation of the positive similarity in parts, f. by separating the meaning of words. Then how is the first type of khyta-tantra which clarifies that which is not clear? From Hevajra: whichever type ofseka is given it should be given through one's own mandalavidhi. (In this) the meaning of seka which is not clear is explained clearly in DVP. Similarly the blessing of krodha-rja, the kulas are partly described separately as also in the condensed way. As far as the method of completing the incomplete is concerned, the incomplete in Dvikalpa is spoken in Panjara (DVP) in the fa/Va-names. So far as the similar parts are concerned Nairtmy and other 15 goddesses are described similarly. So far as the dissimilar method is concerned, the signs and mantra of Gaurl etc. are stated in a slightly dissimilar way. So far as the khyta-tantra of the condensed meaning is concerned, the cary-patala in Hevajra-tantra is described in details whereas the same is given in brief in the DVP. Similarly the words and meaning of Vajragarbhbhisambodhi etc. has also been

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Satshasrik-hevajra-k

Condensed. As far as the separation of meaning and words is concerned, the ne.rgyu (secondary cause?) in the 8th chapter of the 2nd kalpa is spoken in brief whereas in the 15th chapter of DVP, the time etc. are also explained, and in the mlatantra indivisible etc. only the names of the ndis, pitha and upapitha are mentioned and nothing more. As is said in Samputa: Indivisible is the place on the head etc. refers to the place wherever it stays and this is clarified by saying the pramudit-bhmi etc. Whatever tantra has these forms, it is the khyta-tantra. If the khyta-tantra explains that which is not clear and separates the words and meaning then how the methods of similar and dissimilar parts and the brief exposition and the completion of the incomplete are included in the khyta-tantra? If it is assumed that the tantras are dissimilar to one another and what is found in one is not found in another and all are like that, then all will become the expository tantras of each other. That is not correct as these similar (explanations) create a distinct confirmation of the meaning of tantras. In the dissimilar method the deity is the same in the same rite but the complexion of the body and the signs are different in the brief and detailed descriptions and this is the tantra of dissimilar method and stand in need of completion, then by the completion of the incomplete the tantra is called an khyta-tantra. Also the condensed meaning is (like this) : As it is spoken in the mlatantra in great detail, the same is easily understood from the khyta-tantra, then that becomes the khytatantra. Ibid, Fol. 36b. 6. In the second general meaning i.e. determining the speciality of the Hevajra(tantra) there are four parts : .a. mla-tantra, khyta-tantra, b. the method of vijahra, c. the vaipulya-stra and the extent. In the first i.e. (a) there are two parts : the mlatantra is extensive and short and the khyta-tantra is ordinary and extraordinary. From this the first : The extensive mla-tantra consists of 32 kalpas 30,000 chapters and five lakh slokas. Thus it is said in DVP : The tantra like an ocean, consisting of five lakh slokas is preached in detail and also by its having 30,000 chapters it is called an ocean of five lakhs. And also Vajragarbhbhisambodhikalpa-rja is the first (kalpa) and following this 30 kalpas are quoted. This is quoted from DVP. Also it is said in the dvikalpa (i.e. Hevajra-tantra) derived from the 32 kalpas, also the shorter mlatantra consists of 2 kalpas, 23 patalasand 750 gths. There if it is asked whether the laghutantra of the wtoanZra is selected from the extensive {tantra)

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or it is additional then some like in Pal.pha.mthin etc. hold that it is additional tantra. The extensive tantra consists of 32 kalpas: next to it is the one consisting twelve kalpas, and next to that is one with nine kalpas and this is the shorter having two kalpas. This is correct. So from the (i.e. HT. Tib. colophon) mykalpa of mahtan-trarja is derived the tantra of thirty two kalpas is contradictory. Also Narotapa and others maintain that this (shorter tantra) is derived from the first two kalpas of the larger-tanfrvz. As is said in DVP : Vajragarbhbhisambodhi-kalparja is the first kalpa and mykalpa is the second kalpa. This is maintained (on the basis of what) is said in the HT the Vajragarbhbhisambodhirjanma and my-kalpa-nma because of the similarity in

names and because of its having the subject arisen from the beginning of the tantra. This also is not correct. As it is said the eleventh patala (whatever is spoken) in details in the above 12 kalpas is abridged and also it is said according to the tantra-vidhi the pj, daksin, the water for cooling the feet is as before. These words are improper. To make the similarity in name, the cause, is not correct. In the first kalpa of this the fourth and tenth chapters both are called 'abhiseka-patala1 but if they are examined (it will be found that) they are not the same. Therefore the first two do not exist (i.e. Hevajra of thirty two and (9 kalpas) but the latter two exist. Therefore, that also by (its being) abridged meaning of the previous ones, it is also the shorter-tantra and hence it is also derived tantra. How is it known to be like that? It is said in this only it is derived from the tantra of 32 kalpas. As is said in the khyta-tantra DVP : It is spoken in 30 kalpas; and thus having spoken the names of the thirty kalpas it is said after that: 'the pure essence of every dkini is condensed and is explained by Vajradkint. This is the rule of the tantra. The first above of the two is this. This (statement of) DVP the Dvikalpa forms the first kalpa of the larger tantra and then there is fault. If it is taken to represent the latter then both are indicated. Therefore, it is said in the beginning of the DVP, the clear sphere of space etc. Having thus begun, and having condensed the meaning of the larger tantra without leaving anything, it is said at the end of the 15th chapter : Thus have I heard once upon a time. In front of me, the Lord having dwelt in the yosiddharma; the attraction of the gaze, the language of physical signs, the power to do good and the varspanavidhi etc (are spoken). By this is condensed the second kalpa. Also in the DVP is expalined the necessity to abridge the larger tantra and

348

Satshasrik-hevajra-k

therefore, the Dvikalpa is known to be the later. Here some hold the opinion that the shorter tantra is the Vajra-panjara (i.e. DVP). As is said in the DVP: the Victorious Ones had spoken the first (kalpa) Hevajra as yogatantra; later it becomes yoginitantra in order to favour women. Thus by this it is said that there are two kalpas in the laghutantra. Its first (kalpa) was spoken for the male-disciples and latter for the women disciples. This characteristic spoken does not appear in the Vajrapanjara and as it appears in the Dvikalpa, the meaning arisen from the larger tantra of Dvikalpa is the shorter tantra. Also some maintain the view that the Vajrapanjaraand the Dvikalpaboth do not exist and the shorter tantra is another which is a false assertion on account of the absence of proof. Therefore this is the shorter tantra. The fault of similar names is abandoned and the uncertain reason of the existence of the subject is spoken above. Secondly, the khyta-tantras of Hevajra: extraordinary khyta-tantra is the Vajrapanjara, as only the Pancalaksa Hevajra and the Dvikalpa are clarified. The ordinary khyta-tantra is the Samputa on account of its having clarified many classes of tantras. Here king Indrabhti has explained in the khyta-tantra of the tantra of 36 lakh the classes of tantras. Now in order to benefit directly the classes of tantras are made 16 or 17. This Vajrapanjara had been held to be the shorter tantra by crya Mahmati and others. Some cryas consider the Dvikalpa and (DVP) to be mutually related tantras. It is not contradictory as the Dvikalpais the abridged meaning of the deep clear understanding of the meaning of the larger tantra and it is abridged completely; DVP is the abridgement from all the parts of the words and meanings of the 5 lakh slokas and having changed, it becomes the shorter and hence there is no contradiction. But the clear understnding is not at all abridged. Also these two being mutually related it is the khyta-tantra as one is clarified by the other. Ibid, Fol. 37b-39a. 7. See note 6.

Appendix IV
The Place of Hevajra-tantra in the Tibetan canonical literature It seems that in ancient days some controversies revolved round this problem. The Indian tradition has been followed by Sa.skya.pas but dGe.lugs.pa tradition differs. According to the Indian tradition as reflected in the Hevajra-tantra itself (1.1.7) it belongs to the advaya-class as it is described as "prajnopytmakam tantram". The DVP says : "In the beginning, the Hevajra-tantra was spoken by the Victorious Ones as the yogatantra but later on in order to favour women, it was made yoginztantra.wl Does it mean that in the beginning the tantrawas yoga-tantra and by the addition of the female deities it became yoginitantra? If it is so, then this will throw light on the composition of the Hevajra-tantra in the sense that the second kalpa was a later addition. But this same verse is interpreted differently in the Sa.skya.pa tradition. bSod.nams.rtse.mo quotes this verse2 and comments on it. He inerprets it to mean that there are two kalpas in the laghutantra of HT, out of which, the first is spoken for the sake of the male-disciples and the latter, for female disciples. This interpreation, he says, is not made manifest in DVP. In the determination of the class of the prajnopydvaya, three points are taken into consideration by bSod.nams.rtse.mo : I The peculiarity of the words of the samgitikraka II The peculiarity of the meaning III The peculiarity of the disciple or interlocutor I. The peculiarity of the words of samgitikraka In this are to be considered the initial words of the tantra. If it begins with evam may etc., then it is an upaya-tantra but if with "(the Lord) dwelt in the supreme bliss of the nature of all" then it is yoginitantra. In the case of Hevajra the miilatantra begins with evam may but DVP, its akhyata-tantra, opens with "(the Lord dwelt) in the supreme bliss of the nature of all", and Samputa has both. Therefore, Hevajra is the
prajnop-ydvaya-tantra.

350 II. The peculiarity of the meaning

Sat'shasrik-hevajra-Uk

There are three parts of this : (a) utpattikramavisesa: Those tantras in which devas are chief are upyatantras and those in which devats are chief are yoginitantras. In Hevajra even though devas are chief, devats are also there. This makes it advayatantra. (b) Utpannakramavisesa: That tantra in which the uptannakrama instruction is imparted through the mandala of Prajnopya, is prajntantra; but if instruction about sksmabindu etc. is given, then it is npyatantra. So in Hevajra both are preached and hence it is advayatantra. (c) Visuddhi-visesa: If the instruction about the purification of skandha, dhtu etc. is imparted, then it is yogatantra; but if it speaks about ndis etc. psychic yoga, then it is yoginitantra. But the tantra in which both are connected is advaya-tantra. e.g. in Hevajra it is said "riipaskandha is ruled by Vajr" and also "a ndi is presided over by two yoginis." III. The peculiarity of the disciple or interlocutor Those tantras in which the interlocutors are Bodhisattvas are yogatantras. e.g. Guhyasamja etc. But those in which it is said "the Lord having been worshipped by the devats said this" are the mother tantras. But in Hevajratantra in the first kalpa, Bodhisattva Vajragarbha is the interlocutor and in the second Nairtmy and other goddesses seek information from him. Thus the presence of the interlocutors of both sexes makes it advaya class.3 Although, apparently this description of the peculiarities oiadyayar class may look superficial, a consideration of all the processes underlying the various rituals like utpattikrama, utpannakramaetc, will reveal most complicated psychological states. And these complex states, rather than anything else, give it its advaya character. Advaya also represents the highest stage. The mlatantra of Hevajra (a) Mulatantraswere perhaps that mass of floating literature written by various outstanding personalities living at different times and in different places. It was referred to as one work because all the subject

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matter revolved round a central subject integrated by an organised tradition in which it was transmitted orally and as such many recensions might have been in circulation. Thus the composition of mlatantra might have continued for centuries at the end of which it became an accumulated mass of literature neither easy to remember nor to refer to and thus perhaps arose the necessity for an abridged version or a handy nucleus. At this stage were perhaps introduced the shorter versions or laghutantras. This work of abridging might be attributed to an individual or a team of workers and for this we have to depend solely on the tradition. These laghutantras were fortunately enough documented, which good fortune the mlatantras did not have. It is difficult to indicate the reasons of the non-existence of any mlatantras but it is not impossible that the mlatantras of various cycles have never been documented and they became extinct as the tradition through oral transmission was for some reason or other broken. Another possible reason was the very secret use and transmission of these tantras as they contained not only the neyrtha but nitartha also and as such they must have been used only at those secret gathering of tantrics. They must have been guarded from all publicity and transmission to unfit persons which in turn reduced the number of persons who knew their existence and contents. Perhaps the nonexistence in documentary form might be of deliberate doing and in reality meant to protect it from misuse but it has affected the tantras adversely. (b) Authorship of mlatantra : Now to turn to the authorship of mlatantra of Hevajra. As is stated above, the composition of mlatantra cannot be attributed to an individual author; but our aim here would be to find out the last link in the tradition in which it was transmitted. In the case of Hevajra, it seems that Vajragarbha, the composer of Satshasrik-hevajra-tikvtdLS the last person in this link. He refers to the mlatantra in his tik and also calls himself the compiler of laghutantra which formed the essence of the mlatantra consisting of five lakh slokas. Moreover other commentators do not refer to the mlatantra which might suggest, that it was not available to them, because had it been accessible they would certainly have availed themselves of it. In this respect my observations do not seem to agree with those of Snellgrove.

352

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

He says: "I remain persuaded that this particular 'basic text' is in any case later than the tantra itself and the early commentators Saroruha, Knha, Bhadrapda and Dharmakirti are unknown to Tankdsa and Ratnkarasnti" (HT, vol. I, p. 18). First I do not quite agree that the mlatantra came to be composed later than the laghutantra. Here the traditions must be taken into consideration as such traditions are connected with many great works and in most of the cases the shorter version is prepared from the longer version and this case cannot be the only exception to such a tradition. Morevoer, it is quite reasonable that a shorter version will spring from a longer one instead of viceversa. The concept of mlatantra itself will not allow us to attribute it to a particular writer, living at a particular time. For these very reasons we cannot attribute that work to Vajragarbha. But Vajragarbha might perhaps be the last one to whom it was available and could make use of it. But all the other commentators who do not refer to it, either had no access to it or they did not agree with certain ideas expressed in the mlatantra and hence did not make use of it in their commentaries on the HT. This would amount to conscious neglect of mlatantra and gives rise to a new problem. Tson.kha.pa in his zin.bris on Hevajratantra states that Vajragarbha was the founder of an important school of criticism of Hevajra and the other school was followed by Saroruha, Dombi Heruka etc.4 So here it will be obvious why Saroruha, Knha, Bhadrapda etc. commentators do not refer to the mlatantra. It is perhaps because they did not agree with the mlatantra in the interpretation of certain practices. An investigation of the differences of these rival scholars will be an interesting study which would amount to a comparative study of the Satshasrik-hevajra-tik on the one hand and the rest of the commentators with the exception of Nrop (guru of Atisa, who lived in the 11th c. A.D. hence Nrop might have lived in the last decades of the 10th c. A.D.) on the other. But here to hazard a guess, the main point of difference might have been based on the nitrtha of the tantra because what is obvious from Vajragarbha's commentary is that his interpretation of the laghutantra was based mainly on the nitrtha. In fact in the colophon of the commentary he has laid down the method of studying the tantra, i.e. the nitrtha should be learnt and not the

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neyrtha.5 rom this point of view alone, he condemns all the esoteric practices. Perhaps this might have been the speciality of his school. It might be that Nrop another commentator to quote miilatantra in his commentary and Maitrp who had a manuscript of the commentary were the last ones of this school. Again as Snellgrove understands it, Saroruha and Kampala had played some important role in the preparation of the laghu-Hevajra and might be that, after the actual preparation, they documented it or supervised it and it was no doubt an important thing but the actual compilation of the laghu-Hevajra may be attributed to Vajragarbha. There is evidence to show that the Hevajra-tantra existed even before Saroruha and Kampala, and Dombi Heruka who is said to have received the essence of Hevajratantra from the dkinzsmid who had written the works : Nairtmysdhana, Sahajasiddhi, etc., makes use of this version in his Sri-Sahajasiddhi (See Appendix II). Sahajasiddhi is a short work and the contents, with the exception of a few slokas can be traced to the present Hevajra. Those slokas which are not found in HT are said to be quoted from HT and those ones which are found in HT are not acknowledged as quotations. This means that he used some version of HT which contained present HT plus something more. And the conclusion that he used the mlatantra could have been drawn; but as it stands, this conclusion cannot be arrived at for some reasons : The first is that he does not mention the mlatantra either directly or indirectly i.e. he neither mentions the word mlatantra nor the
Pancalaksa-Hevajra, as can be seen from Satshasrik-hevajra-tik or from

the references by the Sa.skya.pa. Instead he speaks of "Hevajrayoginitantra".6 That means he may perhaps be referring to the laghu-Hevajra. This is turn indicates that laghutantra existed even before Saroruha and Kampala. If we take Vajragarbha at his words and attribute the compilation of laghu-Hevajra to him, then he must become a predecessor of Dombi Heruka. And Dombi Heruka in turn was senior to Saroruha and Kampala at least by half a century. Snellgrove has fixed the date of present HT as the end of 8th c. A.D. and Vajragarbha is the compiler, then by reasonable datingit will still go back by a century or 75 years i.e. the present Hevajra might be existing by the beginning of 8th century or the late 7th c. A.D. This will incidentally fix up the date of Vajragarbha and that is the last quarter of 7th century and the beginning of 8th c. A.D.

354

Satshasrik-hevajra-tika

Another point which may be referred to here is the composition of the Hevajratantra, already referred to in Section II. 1. It may be noted that since Vajragarbha and Dombi Heruka both speak of the HT as yoginztantra, the transformation of HT from a yogatantra into a yoginitantra must have taken place even before Vajragarbha.
(c) The extent and contents of the mlatantra ofHevajra : There is no

doubt that the mlatantras of the various cycles of tantras existed. The mlatantra of Hevajra is said to be of five lakhs and indications about this are found in various places, particularly the HT and DVP are very much explicit in this respect. The present text of HT does not directly mention the mlatantra but some indications of it are found e.g. HT I.xi.12, a sdhana of Kurukull consisting of 12 kalpas is mentioned.
This is explained in Yogaratnaml-nma-Hevajra-panjik by Krsna as

'in the vistirnahevajra and by Bhavabhattapda as 'the 12th kalpa of Hevajra' (which I think is not correct). The list of the kalpas given below furnished by DVP mentions a Kurukulla kalpa; but its serial number is nine. Another mention of mlatantra is found in the colophon of the Tibetan version of the HT but Sanskrit colophon does not contain that reference.7 But actually I find that the colophon of the Sanskrit text of HT is not complete as it is in fact the colophon for the second kalpa and not the whole of HT. Whereas the colophon to the Tibetan version seems to be for the whole of HT and hence complete. It says "Here ends the mahtantrarjamykalpa of the Hevajra-dkinijlasamvaramahtantra-rja-nma containing two kalpas selected out of the 33 kalpas."* In the introductory verses of the Hti the following stanza is found :
pancalakstmahtantrdalpatantre samuddhrte/ srdhasaptasatepyasmin bahuvajrapadnvite//

Hti. 1.5 Besides this the author of the Hti every now and then quotes the
pancalaksa Hevajra (hbum.phrag.lna.pa) or the mlatantra (rtsa.bahirgyud)

in order to explain the nitrtha of the esoteric practices and actually he says in the introductory verses of the commentary on chap. 1.7: "From this short version just as it is taught, one learns the conventional meaning (neyrtha); the absolute meaning is to be learnt from the
mlatantra.^

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The mlatantra of Hevajra contained 32 kalpas - this tradition is fairly well confirmed by the Chinese tradition where the mlatantra is said to have 31 kalpas. DVP has counted 30 kalpas and the names are also furnished. They are as follows : 1. rdo. rje. snin.po. mnon. chub, brtag.pahi. rgyal.po. dan.po (Vajragarbhbhisambodhikalparja prathamam) 2. sgyu.mahiMagpa.ghis.pa (Mykalpam dvitiyam) 3. rdo. rje.gar. ni.gsum.pa (Vajranrtyam trtiyam) 4. sna.tshogs.brtag.paMi.pa (Visvakalpam caturtham) 5. rdo. rje. brtag.pa. Ina.pa (Vajrakalpam pancamam) 6. rt.ag.pa. drug.po. stobs.po. ehe (Mahbalakalpam sastham) 7. brtag.pa.dbun.pa.mi.gyo.mgon (Acalandthakalpam saptam) 8. brgyad.pa.gzuns.kyi.rtag.pa.ste (Dhdranikalpam astamam) 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. mkhah.hgro.kurukulle.dgu (Ddkini-kurukulld-kalpam navamam) bcu.pa.hdul.bahi.brtag.pa (Vineyakalpam dasamam) rnam.par. snan. mdzad (Vairocana-kalpam ekdasam) dnos.grub. brtag.pa. bcu.gnis.pa (Siddhikalpam dvdasam) Sgrol. mahi.rtag.pa. bcu.gsum.pa (Tdrdkalpam trayodasamam) rdo. rje.phag. mo. bcu. bzi.pa (Vajravrhi-kalpam caturdasam) gzi. brjid. ehe. bcu. Ina.pa (Mahprabhva-kalpam pancadasam) hdag. med. rtag.pa. bcu. drug.pa (Nairtmy-kalpam sodasam) gsin. rje.gsed. kyi. bcu. bdun.pa (Yamntakakalpam saptadasam)

18. Hum. mdzad. la. bcu. brgyad.pa (Hmkra astadasamam) 19. dbyans. can.gyi. bcu. dgu.pa (Sarasvati-ekonavimsatitamam) 20. sbyin.bsreg.rtag.pa.ni.su.pa (Homa-kalpam vimsatitamam) 21. rab.gnas. rtag.pa. nl. su.gcig (Pratisth-kalpam ekavimsatitamam) 22. dkyil. hkhor. chen.pohi. brtag.pa. ni.su.gnis.pa (Mahmandalakalpam dvvimsatitamam) 23. gtor. mahi. brtag.pa. ni.su.gsum.pa (Balikalpam trayovimsatitamam) 24. sta.gon.gnas.rtag.pa.ni.su.bzLpa (Adhivdsanakalpam caturvimsatimam)

356

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik 25. mnon.par.rtogs.pa.rtag.pa.ni.su. Ina.pa (Abhisamayakalpam pahcavimsatitamam) 2 6. phyag. rgya. rtagpa. hi. su. drug.pa (Mudr-kalpam satvimsatitamam) 2 7. bked.pa. rtag.pa. hi. su. bdun.pa. (Krakakalpam saptavimsatitamam) 28. gar.gyi.dbari.phyug.brtag.pa.ni.su.brgyad.pa (Nartesvara kalparn astavimsatitamam) 29. (not mentioned) 30. brtag.pa.gsum.cu.pa (Trimsatitamam kalpam)

This establishes the fact that mlatantra had at least 30 kalpas.Sa. skya.pa tradition maintains that there were 32 kalpas, three thousand chapters and five lakh slokas.n The source of this detailed information is unknown. As far as the titles of the kalpas indicate, the subject matter was an all-sided instruction of Hevajra. It seems that besides these two versions there had been some others too, which tradition is maintained by the Sa.skya.pa sect. According to this school there were in all four versions oiHevajrai.e. one of 33 kalpas, second of 12 kalpas, third of 3 kalpas, fourth of 2 kalpas.12 We have already discussed (in the earlier part of this section) the two i.e. the longest and the shortest versions but the mention of the other two is not found anywhere else. Tsori.kha.pa in his zin.brisrefers to two versions - the large and short version.13 Bu.ston mentions a version of Hevajra containing 100,000 slokas. I wonder to which of the abovementioned recension it may correspond to. It seems that some controversies were revolving around the relation between the mlatantra and laghutantra i.e. whether the laghutantra was an essence of mlatantra or it was an essence of some part of the mlatantra ox the laghutantra was additional. Na.ro.ta.pa (?) and others thought that the tantra has arisen from the first two kalpas of the longer tantras, the reason stated being the similarity in the names and their being at the beginning of the tantra. bSod.nams.rtse.mo refutes this point of view by saying that it is wrong to make the similarity in names a cause for such a statement. dPal.pha.mthih, etc. thought that this laghutantra was additional i.e. additional to the three other versions referred to above and

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bSod.nams.rtse.mo calls this correct.14 Tsoh.kha.pa also refers to this controversy but he explains it away by tracing the origin of laghutantra in mlatantra}0 We do not know who were the supporters of the view of the laghutantra being the essence of mlatantra. But this appears to be the most reasonable and logical view to hold. Another controversial point connected with HT is whether the Dkini-vajra-panjara is also the laghutantra of HT, as is later indicated by Bu.ston in his classification.16 bSod.nams.rtse.mo resolutely refutes this and on the basis of a quotation from Dkini-vajra-panjara itself. It is said there : 'The first kalpa of Hevajra was spoken by the Victorious Ones as yogatantra and in order to favour the ladies, he explained the latter part which is yoginitantra. '17 This is a correct description of Hevajra and not of Dkini-vajra-panjara, the structural plan of which is quite different. It will really not be justifiable to include Dkini-vajra-panjara in the laghu-Hevajratantra. No doubt it is closely connected with Hevajra as both the traditions Sa.skya.pa and dGe.lugs.pa place it next to Hevajratantra. 3. Extant literature on Hevajra: (Numbers refer to PTT volumes) A Commentarial literature on Hevajra

a. Available in Sanskrit MSS. 1. Yogaratnaml-nma-Hevajra-panjik- Krsna, D.L. Snellgrove, (ed.), London : OUP, 1959. 2. Hevajra-pindrtha-tik- Vajragarbha available in the collection of K.PJ.R.I, Patna. 3. Hevajra-tik-ratnvali-mliknma- Yogi Kelikulisa. Available in the above-mentioned collection. 4. Hevajra-panjik- Srikamalanth (Field Marshal Raisher Samsher's Library).

b. Available in Tibetan sources 1. Hevajra-pindartha-tika-Wajragarbha, 53.2310 2. Hevajratantra-panjik padmini-nma- Saroruha, 53.2311 3. Sn-Hevajrasya-vyakhya-vivarana-nama-TShadrapada, 53.2312

358

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik 4. Yogaratnaml-nma-Hevajra-panjik - Krsna, 53.2313 5. Sri-Hevajm4antrarja-tik-suvisadasarnputanma - Tankdsa, 53.2314 6. Kaumudi-nma^panjik Sri-Dhtadurjayacandra, 53.2315 7. Vajra-pda-srasamgraha-panjik- Nrop, 53.2316 8. Hevajm-nma-mahtantrarja-dvikalpa-myasya panjik (?) smrti nipada-nma-Krsna, 54.2317 9. Hevajra-nma-tantrarja-tik - Padmahi.myu.gu.rdo.rje, 54.2318 10. Sri-Hevajra^anjik-muktikvali nma -RatnkarasntI, 54.2319 11. Sn-Hevajra-mahatantrarajasya^anjikanetra-vibhanga-nama Dharmakirti, 54.2320 12. Suvisadasamputa-tik-nma - Vrddhakyastha, 54.2321 13. Sri-Hevajrasya^anjik-vajrapadoddharan-nma- Kamadhenupda, 54.2322 14. Sri-Hevajrasya-tantrrtha-samgraha - author unknown, 54.2323 15. Sn-Hevajrapradipa'Slopamvavdaka-nma - Saroruhavajra, 56.2349 16. Hevajra-tattva-vibhanga *- author unknown, 56.2341 17. Sn-Hevajra-panjikyogaratnaml-nma - Samayavajra, 82.4687 18. Hevajra-pindrtha-praksa-nma - Santigupta, 82.4697 19. Hevajra-pindrtha-kalpa, rgyud. LXXIV.32 (mentioned in Mile. Lalou's Repertoire du Tanjur d'apres le catalogue de P. Cordier, Paris, 1933)

II. Conmentaries by Tibetan authors a. Sa-skya: 1. brTag.gnis.tshig.hgrel - bla.ma.lna.ris.pa (Sa.skya.kum.Ka) 2. brTag.gnis.dkah.hgrel - sGyu.chu.pa (Sa.skya kum.Ka) 3. brTag.gnis.dkah.hgrel-Kun.dg3h.snin.po. (Sa.skya kum.Ka) 4. 6rTag-.gni5.niam.6iarf-bSod.nams.rtse.mo (Sa.skya kum. Ga) 5. brTag.gnis.bsdus.don -bSod.nams.rtse.mo. (Sa.skya kum. Ga) 6. brTag.gnis.rnam.hgrel.dag.ldan - Grags.pal.rgyal.mtshan (Sa.skya.kum.Cha).

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7. brTag.gnis.bsdus.don - Kun.dgah.rgyal.mtshan (Sa.skya. kum.Cha) (Sa.skya kum.Na) 8. brTag.gnis.hgrel.ba.dag.chun - bLo.gros.rgyal.mtshan. (Sa.skya.kum.Pa) b. dGe.lugs.pa 1. dPal. brtag.pa.gnis.pahi. hgrel.par. mdo. rgyud. kyi. luh. drans. pahi.hgrel.pa.ni.mahLhod.zer- Bu.ston.rin.chen.grub(Bu.ston gsuris Na) 2. brTag.gnis.hgrel.barJun.drans.pahi.bsad -Bu.ston.gsuri.Na 3. rGyud.brtag.pa.gnis.pahi.zin.bris- Tosn.kha.pa (Tson.kha.pa. gsunsDa) 4. Kye.rdo.rjehi.rgyud.kyi.zin.bris-Tson.kha.pa (Tson.kha.pa gsuns Da) 5. dPal. brtag. ,pa.ghis.pahi. rnam.pa. bsad.pa. rdo. rje. mkhah. hgro. ma. rnams. kyi.gsan. bahi. mdsod. ces. bya. bamKh as. grub. dge. legs, dpal.bzari.po (mKhas.grub gsuris Ja) B. Literature pertaining to rituals 1. a. Sdhanas ofHevajra I. By Indian writers a Available in Sanskrit Mss. 1. Hevajrasdhana author unknown. Available in the collection of K.P.J. Res. Instt, Patna. b. Available in Tibetan sources 1. Sri-Hevajrasya-sdhana - Padma, 56.2347 2. Sri-Hevajra-nma-sdhana - Bodhigarbha, 56.2356 3. Sn-Hevajra.sdhana -Domblpda, 56.2361 4. Praksa-nma-sri Hevajrasdhana - Rhuguptapda, 56.2367 5. Hevajra-nma-sdhana - Avadhta Advayavajra, 56.2372 6. Bhagvaddhevajrasdhana-tattvacatiirkramanma 56.2377. - Kampala, :

360 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik Sn-Hevajra-sdhana - Anarigavajra, 56.3378 Sri-Hevajra-sdhana - Sukhavajra, 56, 2379 Hevajrasdhana-tattvodyotakaranma - Krsnapda, 56.2382 Sfi-Hevajra-sdhana - Nadapda, 56.2415 Hevajrasdhana - Anarigavajra, 57.2420 Sri-Hevajra-sadhana-Ratnapradipa nma - Sri Diparikara jnna, 57.2424

13. Sri-Hevajm-sdhana-Ratnlokanma - (Padmrikuravajra?), 57.2431 (?) (PTT,Sanskritindexonly,57.2431?)Thissdhana is found mentioned in the Sanskrit index of the PTT, Tokyo, 1957. Other indexes do not record it Moreover the number given is also not correct. 14. Hevajrasdhana-Mdinjusnjnnapda, 57.2431 (?) 15. Hevajrasdhana - Author unknown, 80.4115 16. Sn-Hevajra-nma-sdhanopyik - Sri nandavajra, 57.2432 17. Hevajrasdhanopadesasthnanma - Kalahampakumra, 87.5160 18. Hevajradvipnisdhana - Vajrlala, 56.2364 19. Hevajradvibhujasdhana -Trasri, 56.2393 20. Hevajrasodasabhujasdhana -Krsna, 57.2427 II. By Tibetan writers 1. Kyehlrdo.rjehi.sgrub.thabs - bsTan.pahi.fii ma (gsuris ca) 2. Kyehi.rdo.rjehi.sgrub.thabs - dPal.ldan.yes.ses (gsuris ca) a2. Commentaries on the Sdhanas I. Written by Indian writers : a. Available in Sanskrit Mss,

(i)

Hevajrasdhanasya-tippani-suddhi-vajrapradipanmaJlandharapda (Available in the collection of K.P.J.R.I., Patna).

b. Available in Tibetan sources (i) Hevajrasdhanapanjik - Rpyakalasa, 56.2362

Appendix IV

361

(ii) Hevajrasdhanasya-tippani-suddhivajrapradipanma
Jlandharapda, 56.2366 a3. The Sdhanas of other deities related to Hevajra and his tantra Written by Indian writers a. Available in Sanskrit Mss.

1. Hevajrakramakurukull-sdhana - author unknown, 81.4390 2. Hevajratantrakramena-Svdhisthna-Kurukullsdhana Sahajalalita, 57.2444 3. Hevajroddhrtam-Kurukullsdhanam - Karunbhidhna. 4. Hevajratantroddhrta-amrtaprabh-nma-sdhanopyik - Dombi Herukapda. (not found in bsTan.hgyur). All published in Sdhanamla Volume II, B. Bhattacarya, GOS, Baroda, 1928. b. Available in Tibetan sources 1. Sn-Hevajra'tantrakramena'Svadhisthana-Kurukulla'Sadhana Sahajalalita, 57.2444. 2. Hevajrodbhava-Kurukullyhsdhana - Sahaja-vilsa, 57.2446 3. Hevajrodbhava-Kurukullyh^ancamahopadesa - Sntiraksita, 57.2447 4. Hevajrakrama-Kumkullsdhana - author unknown, 81.4390 5. Sri-HevajratantroMhrta-Kumkullyfa 81.4391 6. Hevajraikavirsdhana - Krsna, 56.2381 2. Hevajramandalavidhi I. By Indian writers available in Tibetan sources 1. Hevajramandalakarmakramavidhi - Padmavajra, 56.2348 2. Hevajramandalavidhi - Saroruha, 56.2350 3. Sri-Hevajrapaddhatimandalavidhi -Krsna, 56.2383 4. Hevajra-mandalakarmakrama-vidhi - Saroruhavajra, 56.2419 5. Sri-Hevajramandala 57.2426 vidhinma - Jnna-dkinl-Ni.ga.ma,

362 3. Hevaraja Balividhi

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

I. By Indian writers available in Tibetan sources 1. Sri-Hevajrabalividhinma - Author unknown, 56.2410 2. Hevajranmabalividhi - Author unknown, 56.2411 3. Sri-Hevajrabalikrama -Author unknown, 57.2428 4. Sri-Hevajrabalividhinma - Sri nandavajra, 83.4689 II. By Tibetan writers 1. Kyehi.rdo.rjehi.gtorxhogKunAgahri^ 4. Hevajrahomavidhi I. By Indian writers available in Tibetan sources 1. Hevajra-homa-vidhi-Bodhigarbha, 56.2357 2. Hevajra-homa-vidhir-liodhigarbhay 56.2385 II. By Tibetan writers 1. Kyehi.rdo rjehi.sbyin.sreg-bsTan.pahi.ni.ma (gsuris.Ca) 5. Miscellaneous I. By Indian writers 1. Sri-hevajrbhisamayatilakanma - Skyaraksita-pda, 56.2399 2. Sri-Hevajra-bhattrakastotranma - Saroruhavajra, 56.2354 3. Hevajra-stotra - Author unknown, 56.2351 4. Hevajraikasmrti - Garvaripda, 56.2365 5. Hevajropadesa - Kusala, 82.4701 6. Hevajrasya sekaniscayanma -Jetari, 56.2394 already published. II. By Tibetan writers : (from gSun.hbum in Patna collection) 1. Kyehirdor.gyi.rim.pa.dan.po. - bsTan.pahlni.ma (gsuris.Gha) 2. Kyehi.rdor.tshogs.hkhor - bsTan.pahi.ni.ma (gsuns.Cha) 3. Kyehi.rdor.bsnen pa - bsTan.pahi.ni.ma (gsuns.Cha) 4. Kyehi.rdor.dban.chog. -bLo.bzan.bstan.hdzin (gsuris Ga) (sna.tshogs I)

Appendix TV Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

363

PTT, vol. I, p. 225, Fol. 268b. The same view is expressed its Htl V., 14ff. See Appendix II, note 6 Loc.cit. rGyud.brtag.pa.gnis.pahi.zin.bris, PTT, vol. 160, 6200, p. 177, fol. 3-4a See Appendix I Srisahajasiddhi HI. 1 Mahtantrarjamykalpo dvitiyah, HT vol. II, p. 100. HT I, vol. I, p. 101. HT I, p. 17. Snellgrove's translation. PTT, vol. 1.11, p. 225, fol. 268a. bSod.nams.rtsemo, Sa'skya.bkah.hbum, ga. fol 37b-39a. Loc.cit. See supra note 4. See Appendix III, note 4.

15. Dakinl-vajra-panjara, PTT, vol. I, fol. lb. 16. Appendix III, note 4. 17. Ibid., note 6.

INDEX
Abcakra 228 Abdhtukula 227 Abhicruka 209 abhicruka 209 abhijns 154, 174 abhiseka 154, 155, 239 abhisekas 236, 254 Acala 198 Adhikra 182 adhytmaputa 307 di 202 ditantra 158 Advayasiddhi 304, 305, 311 Agasti 191,204 Agnidhtukula 227 h 195, 196 Aharhkra 182 ajapjpa 298 karsana 209 ksa 248 ksacakra 228 ksadhtukula 227 Aksobhya 153, 155, 164, 168, 179,195,196,221,224,236, 242,248,249,253, Ali 182 li-kli 197 li-kli japa 197 Am 195 Amitbha 155, 164, 168, 189, 195,196,197,236,248,249, 254, Amogha 190, 195, 249 Amoghasiddhi 164 Amrtakundall 221 nanda182 nanda 246, nandagarbha 4 Ananta211 andaja 225 ariga-nysa 195 anim 186 Antyaj 227 Anusvra 202 anusvra 5, 208 apna 190 Aparagodna 200 apyyana 205 Arjaka213 arka 215 asokstami 215 Astashasrikprajnpramit 2 asthi 247 atavyt 5 Atinila 165 Ativlrya 164 tma 182 Avadhti 176, 178, 179, 180, 181, 185, 188 Avadhti-pada 193 avasths 295 ayana 188 yatana 161 yatanas 244

Index

365

bhyaputa 307 Bakuli 212 balidna mantra 213 Bauddha.prcina.tantra 304 Bendall's Catalogue 2 Bhcari 217 Bhcari 219, 250 bhmls 157 bhmis 248 bhtvidy 226 bhaga 204, bhagas 163 Bharata 158 Bhsavajra 164 Bhattraka 162 Bhava 226 bhvaka 306 Bhvakl 180 Bhoga182 Bhojanapatala 252 Bhuvanesvari 184 blja-mantra 195 bindu 180,185, 245 Bir library 2 bkah.hgyur 292 Bodhi 159, 167, 223, 225, 240, 295 Bodhi tree 155 bodhibija 229 Bodhicitta 163, 175, 229, 230, 238,241,248,250, bodhicitta 226 Bodhi-mla 155 Bodhipksik-dharm 165 Bodhisattva 153, 155, 167, 210, 223, 300, 301, 302, 303 Bodhisattva Dasabhmisvara

Vajragarbha 303 Bodhisattvas 157, 209, 224 Bodhi-tree 201 Brahma 185,186, 214, 222, 247 brahmnda 200 Brhmani 227 Brahmarandhra 186 brahma-randhra 222 brahmavihras 170 Buddha 223, 236 Buddha-eye 210 Buddhahood 161,194 Buddhajnna 174 Buddhas 153 buddhattva 228 Burn 195 cakra 173, 186, 187, 220, 239, 252, Cakra 190 cakras 183, 297 Cakrasamvara 160, 306 Cambridge 2 Cand181 Candli 184,185,226,227,248, 320 Candlini 227 Candll-yoga 184, 297 candana 248 Candra 182 cary 246 Carypatala 229, 248 carypatala 301 Catuhpithaka 160 Caturbhuja 196 caturtha 254, 294 Caurl 250 celuka 155

366

Satshasrik-hevajra-tlk dravana 205 drstl 241 Duhkha182 Dvibhuja 196 Dvij 248 earth-mandala 179 Ekra 182 etka 5 Evam 169,171,175, 246 evamkra 161 fire-mandala 179 Gdi 242' Gandharvas 224 Gandhavajra 164 garuda 159 Gati 247 Gauri 218, 253 Ghant 189 Ghasmari 223, 250, 253 ghata 236 Glt-dharma 158 Goksdya 223 grhaka 308 grhya 308 guhya 159, 184, 236, 239, 245, 254 Guhyacakra 175 guhya-cakra 185, 187 guhyaka 186 Guhyapadma 227, 228 Guhyasamja 236, 313 Guhyasamjatantra 159, 306 Guhyasampatti 250 guhyasampatti 251 guna 180, 239 guru 251 guttaral 205 H 195

cerebral 205 chanda 249 cihna 306 cittavajra 168,169,190 Cittavajra 182,195 cittavarsa 239 dkinis 187, 337 daksinyana 177 dna 156 dandas 178, 207 danda-samkrntayah 178 dantya 245 Dasabhmlsvara Vajragarbha 3 Dasashasrik Hevajra-tik 1 dbu.med 1 devangarl 2 Devangari 304 Devat 182 Devatbhisekapatala 225 devats Dharma 165,182,191,193,204, 224, 244 dharma 170, 252 Dharma-cakra 178 Dharmadhtuvajra 164 dharmakya 165,168, 251 Dharmakya 251 Dharmaklrti 309 dharmas 170 dhtu 161 dhtus 237 Dhruva 204 dhyna 237 dhynas 244, 247 Dhyni Buddha 197 Dombi 248, 250 DombI Heruka 305 Dombinl 250

Index

367

Hamkra 184 hastimada 211 hastin 242 Hemacandra 5 Herka 237, 252, 295 Heruka 168,171,172,186, 233, 249 Herukotpatti 297 Hevajra, 6,153,155,158,160, 161,162,165,195,199,211, 212,217,219,235,239,244, 302,303,306,313 Hevajra tantra 311 Hevajra(tantra) 156 Hevajra-mtrtha-Gk 301 Hevajrapatavidhnapatala 251 Hevajra-pindrtha-tik 312 Hevajratantra 160 Hevajra-tantra 230 Hevajra-tantra 301 Hevajra-tik 1, 4 Hevajra-tlk 174,181,192, 210 Hevajra-tik-Vajragarbhasya 1 Hevajra-yoga 244 homa 243 homakundakarma-prasara 162 Homanirnaya-pratisthpatala 243 Hrdaya 182 Hrih 197 Hm 168, 169, 171, 195, 196, 208 Hmkra 220, 221 Indriya-pratyaksa 172 Indrabhti 305 Irsy-mudr 249 Irsyvajra 247 jgrta 294

Jgrtadaivata sthnas 232 Jgrtvasth 182 jgrtvasth-ksaya 227 Jambhi 164 Janrdana 158 janmsvara 208 japa 208, 213 Jarmarana 226 jaryuja 225 Jti 226 jivana 204 Jnna 182, 217 Jnnacakra 228 jnnacitta 228 Jnnadhtukula 227 jnnamudr 173 Jnnasattva 195 Jnnavajra 167, 182 Jriml95 jvalabhyo 295 jvalajvalabhyo 168 jvara 205 kdi 202 kakkola 244, 248 Kala 188 Klacakra 187 Kalgni 182,183,184,189,190, 247 klgni 184, 247 Klastra 181 kalsa 254 Kali 182 kli 253 kaliyuga 303 kmcik 215 kamandalu 214 Kampala 304, 305 kampana 205

368

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

Knha313 Kantha 182 kanthya 245 kany-lagna 176 kaplakhanda 229 karkata-lagna 176 Karmakula 248 karmamudr 173 karsana 205 Karun 170, 230 Katyyani 181 kyavajra 169, 190 Kayavajra 182, 195 Khadga 190 Khadhtau 234 Khagarbha 164 Kham195 khatvnga 221 khecaratva 186, 194 khecari 185, 217, 219, 250 kitikiti 5 Kitikiti-vajra 168 kodrava 198 krama 244 kramas306, 309, 313 kriys 241 Krodha-mudr 249 Krodharjas 220 Krodhavajra 246 krsnamallik213 Krsnavarni 181 ksl98 ksema-mudr 230 kslravrksa 216 Ksitigarbha 164 kula 186, 248 kulas 183, 245, 248, 321 kumbha-lagna 176

Kurukull 197, 215 Kurukull mantra 197 Kurukull sdhana 242 Krmaj 180 kuthracchinna 214 labial 205 lagria 179 lagnas 176,188 Laksbhidhna 158 Laksbhidhnatantra 4, 302 Laksmlrikar 312 Lalan 176, 178, 179, 180, 185, 188 Lalta 182 lalta 227 lambik 180,190 Lankvatra 292 Laya 182 Locan 164,182 Lokesvara 164 Lord Hevajra 161,162 lotsabah 300 madana 215 Madhyamaka 156 Madhyapradesa 303 madya 247 mgadha 159 Mahbalal91,198, 222 Mahbodhisattva 173 Mahmeru 200 mah-mudr 252 Mahsnghika 182 Mahsattva 167, 300 mahsattva 205 Mahsukha 231 mahsukha 244, 251 mahsukha-cakra 159 mahsukhacakra 251

Index

369

Mahvairocana 248 Mahyna 156,157 mahyoga 240, 241 Mahesa 247 Mahesvara 229 mahoddesa 332 Maitripda 303 Makra 182 malayaja 247 Mmaki 164,182 mmsa 242 mnasa-pratyaksa 172 mandala 155,159,161,173,199, 200,211,212,213,215,234, 236,239,243,252,253,307, 310 mandalanyaka 307, 309, 310 mandala-nyakas 203 mandala-pravesa 239 mandates 155, 177, 178 Mandalavidhi 239 Mnini 164 Manjuvajra 235 mantra 157, 206, 208, 218, 222 Mantra 182 mantras 217, 253 mantrasiddha 202 Mantrayna 193 mantrin 208 Mantroddhrapatala 252 Mra 154, 235 Mradrik 181 mrana 199, 204, 217, 253 Mrana 210, 238 Mras 153, 235 Mrga 182 Mtsaryavajra 247 myjla 194

melpakasthna 249 mesa-lagna 176 mina-lagna 176 mithuna-lagna 176 mohana 199, 205 Mohita 179 mudr 153,157, 218, 239, 244 Mudr-kalpam 351 mudrs 220, 233 mudr-siddhi 244 muhrta 187 muhrtas 196 mlatantra 6,153,155,226,229, 236,238,242,244,245,254, 302, 303, 306, 312 mrdhanya 245 mtra 242 Nbhi 182 ndi 175,178,179,185-190,238, 251 Ndi 242 Ndiyoga 306 ngadamanaka 211 Nagara 303 Ngendras 220 Nairtm 217 Nairtmy 155, 171, 237, 247 249, 250, 253 Nairtmysdhana 305 Nairtmy-yoga 243, 244 Nairtmya-yoginI 247 naksatra-bhoga 201 Nmarpa 226 napurnsakajpa 194 napumsaka pada 193 nara 242 Nartesvara kalpam 351

370

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

NatI 227, 248 Nepal 1,2 Newrl 2 neyrtha 4, 235, 248 NTladanda 198 Nilavarna 221 nirlamb-karun 170 nirdesa 160 nirdvandva 255 Nirmna 165, 182 Nirmna cakra 178,179 nirmnakya 158, 251 Nirodha 182 Nirvna 240, 245, 254 nispanna 309 Nispannakrama 306 nisyandaphala 167 nltrtha 4, 229, 234, 239, 241, 243, 244, 248, 250, 251 nltrtha-tik 302, 303 Norms 2 nysa 195 Nyyabindu 309 Om 168, 169, 195, 196, 197 osthya 245 pdas 188 Padma 190, 248 Padmakula 248 Padmntaka 165, 191, 198 Padmarga 242 PadminI 162 Palsa 214 palatal 205 Paricabuddhakaplam 229 pancalaksa Hevajra 312 Pncalaksa-hevajra 312 pancmrta 211, 214, 242 Pancarekh212

Pndar 164,182, 250 pandita 300 pandita mahcrya 303 pandita Maitripda 303 pnlpala 5, 187 Paramdibuddha 160 Paramdi-Buddha-tantra 235, 236 Paramdi-tantra 4, 302 Paramnanda 182 paramnanda 237, 246 paramrtha 307, 308 pramits 156 parikalpita 308, 309 parinispanna 308 Pasu 186 pata 162, 252 patala 293 patalas 293, 341 patana 205 Ptana 242 paustika 199, 205, 238 paustika homa 243 Pvaki 181 phh 212 phatl96, 208 pic 5, 295 Picvajra 168, 187 pilava 249 pindrthatlk 300 pithas 248 posadha 156 Prabhuttva 182 Prajn 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 179,182,183,220,228,230, 235,236,244,246,251,297, 307 prajn-jnna 236, 254

Index

371

Prajnntaka 165, 198, 222 prajntantra 235 Prajnpramit 156, 164 Prajiiopytmaka 165 pralaya 313 prna 188, 189, 307 prna-japa 193 prnavyu 226, 234 prasntaka 242 pratisth 243 Pratisth 294 pratltya-samutpda 159, 308 pratylldha 220 pratyekabuddhas 302 Pratyekabuddhayna 156 pratyujjlvana 205 pravyhra-jpa 298 preman 181 Premani 181 prthivlcakra 228 prthivldhtukula 227 pj 243, 244 Pukkasi 250 praka 242 Puraksobhamantra 196 purusakra-phala 168, 228 prvasarhdhy 182 Putrajivaka 201 rga-dharma 240 Rgavajra 247 Rhu 182, 183, 184, 185, 189, 190, 204, 247 Rhuka184 Rhu-mandala 190 Rajaki 227 rajas 239 l javars 239

rakscakra 222 Raks-mantra 197 raksvidhi 243 rakta242 Rasan 176, 178, 179, 180, 181, 185,234 Rasavajra 164 rsi 188 Ratnal90 Ratnadhrk 189 Ratnakula 248 Ratna-pattik 212 Ratnasambhava 164, 195, 236, 248, 249 Raudrksl 165 recaka 242 Reph 219 Rohit 179 rudrksa 202 rpakya 168 Sabarl 250 Sabdavajra 164 sabdoccra 182 Sadyatana 226 sadyatanas 237 Sadbhuja 196 sdhaka 193, 208, 213, 215, 252 sdhakas 206, 209 sdhana 209 sdhan218 Sdhanaml 305 Sahaja 182, 237, 240, 241, 245, 305, 307, 308, Sahajnanda 167, 182 sahajnanda 246 sahajasiddhi 305 Sahajasiddhi 305 Saivasiddhnta 158

372

Satshasrik-hevajra-tik

slija 248 samdhi 306 samdhis 309 Samja 170 Samantabhadra 164 Smny 181 samaya 155,167, 168, 244 Samayasattva 167 Samaya-sattva 295 Samayavajra 305, 353 samayavajras 303 Sambhoga 165, 182, 231 sambhoga-cakra 168, 178, 228, 251 sambhogakya 158, 169, 193 samdhis 187 samdhybhs 162 samdhys 178, 182 samhra 192 samhrakrama 180 Samkara 168 Smkhya-kriks 292 samkrntis 178, 188 sampanna-krama 306, 309 samputa 211 samputayoga 185 samsra 240 samtpa 205 Samudaya 182 samvara 171, 184 Samvara 246 samvaras 183, 250 Samvidy 182 samvrti 307; -mudr 226 samvrtisarira 244 Samvrti-sukha 236 Snkrtyyana R. 1 Sankhapla212

sntika 204, 253 Sntika 238 saptvarta 233 Saroruha 304 Sarvacint 182 sarvajfia 194 Sarvanivaranaviskambhin 164 Sarvstivda 182 satkausik 190 sat-kriys 241 Satshasrik-Hevajra-tik 309, 312 sattva 295 Sek 180 Siddh 181 Siddhnta 157, 240 Siddhrtha 248, 254 Siddhas 157 siddhi 242 Siddhinirnayapatala 243 simhalagna 176 Sirs212 skandha161 skandhas 176, 225, 235, 237, 238, 241, 243 smasna 249 Snigdhavrksa 242 Sodhana195 space-mandala 179 Sparsavajra 164 sphali 305 sphullinga 305 Sraddhkaravarrrln 306 srmanera 156 Srvakayna 156 Sri Raudharmamahvihra 1 Sri-Vajragarbha 302 Srisahajasiddhi 311

Index

373

srsti-krama 176 stambhana 204, 209 Stambhana 209, 242 Stambhi 164 Sthavartlya 182 sthaviras 252 stobha 205 sdr 255 Sugata 157, 208, 210 sukhasamvara 251 Sukhavedan 182 sukra 229, 237, 240, 242, 244 Sksmarp 180 Suman 181 Sumbha 165 Sumbharja 222 snyasthnas 178 Snyat 157, 233 Snyatkrntam 253 Srya 182 srya-knta 189 sryavars 239 Sryavarsa-mudr 239 Sryodaya 242 susupta 294 Susuptvasth 182 Strnta 156 Sv 195 svbhvika 168 svbhvika-kya 167, 169, 173 Svdi 242 svh 196, 208 svna 242 Svapnvasth 182 svsa 241 svasamvedana-pratyaksa 172 svasamvit 237 Svayambh 248

tlavya 245 tamas 239 tmbula 246 tantral61,302 tantrarjas 158 tantras 247, 292 taptasuvarna 242 Trantha 304, 311 Trini 164, 182 Tarkvi 198 Tarkvirja 191, 221 Tathgata210, 226 Tathgatakula 248 Tathgatas 154, 234, 239 Tathat 308 Tathat-jpa 298 tattvapatala 303 Tattvasamgrahamlatik 300 Teja248 Teja-cakra 228 Theravda 297 Theravda pftaka 159 Tibetan Tripitaka 2 trailokyabandhana 205 trisla 231 trisvabhva 307 Trisvabhva-theory 308 trptikara 247 Trsn 226 Tsori.kha.pa 347 tl-lagna 177 try 165, 209 Turiya 294 Tryvasth 182 tryvasth-ksaya 227 ucctana 209, 254 uddesa 160, 332

374

Satsahtisrika-hevajra-tika

upachandam 249 updna 226


upadesa313 upadhmniya 196 upaksetra 231 upamelpakasthna 249 Upanisads 294 upapllava 249 upapitha 249 upsaka 156 upasnti 226 upasmasna 249 upya 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 182,183,228,231,236,237, 239, 246, 297, 307 upyas 170 upyatantra 170 uppadhmniya 202 rdhvareta 228 ur-tantra 183,184,192,196,198, 199, 209, 213, 219 usmasukha 253 Usnisa 165,178,198 utpda 205 utpala 189 ' utpanna-bhvan 244 utpannakrama 162, 173, 236, 304,305,306,307,309, 310, 311,313 utpannakrama-samdhi 307, 310 utpatti 304, 306 utpatti-krama 162,218,238,306, 307, 309, 310 utpattikrama-samdhi 306, 307 utpatti-sthna 245

utpatti-sthiti 171 uttaryana 177 Vcaspatyam 5 vgmandala 234 vgvajra 169,182,195 Vaibhsikas 156 Vairocana 155, 164, 168, 195, 196, 220, 249, 253 Vajra 155, 167, 170, 175, 189, 190, 219, 220, 221 Vajr2l7,250,253 vajra-body 175 vajrcrya 4, 154, 155, 244, 303 Vajradkas 195 Vajradkinl 250, 253 Vajradhara 154, 155 Vajradharma 249 Vajradhtvesvan 164 Vajradhrk 157 Vajragarbha 1, 3, 4, 153, 159, 162,163,167,169,171,175, 181,241,243,302,303 Vajrahmkra 220, 222 Vajrahmkra Krodharja 198 Vajra-kapla 229 Vajrakartari 214 Vajrakula 179, 248 Vajrakuthra 214 vajramani 190, 294 Vajramauli 220 Vajramudgara 222 Vajramudgaramkotaya 222 vajrapadas 5 Vajrapni 164, 246 Vajrasl70,212 Vajrasrya 184 Vajrasattva 155, 161, 163, 164,

Index

375

165,167,169,173,218,235, 254, 295 Vajravrksa 242 Vajrayna 153, 303 Vajrayosit 294, 227 Vajrendu 184 vakra 175 Vmini 180 Vamkra 182 vandka 5 vanijm 255 varataka 5 Vriyoginl 250 vasya 199, 204, 209, 238 vausat 197, 208 Vyu-cakra 228 Vyudhtukula 227 Vedan 226 Vetll 219, 250 Vetli 223 vibhavas 252 Vicitra 182 vidvesa 204, 209 vidvesana 199, 217 Vidydhara 241 Vidydharapada 241 Vighnntaka 165,191,198,221 Vijay 212 Vijnna 226, 238 vikals 197 Vilaksana 182 Vilasyavajr 305 vimala 227 Vimarda 182 ***

Vimokss 170 vimokso 255 vimsati-vars 239 Vineya-patala 252 Vipka 182, 227 vira 167 viramnanda 168,182, 246 viras 302 visaccheda 199 visamalagna 178 visarga 5, 200, 202, 208 Visnu 168,186, 247 Visuddhipatala 237 Visva-ucctana 205 visvavajra 190,197,198 vit 242 Vittl 226 Viyog 181 vrscika-lagna 177 water-mandala 179 wind maridala 179 ya-kra 175 ykra 182 yaksa 159 Yamntaka 165,191,198 yoga 157,169,170, 210, 303 Yogcra 154, 307 Yogaratnaml 313 yogatantra 170,171 yogin 201, 218, 230, 233 yogini 171,187, 231, 246 Yoginl-cakra 234 yogins 184, 210, 232, 302 yogi-pratyaksa 310

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