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PERSONALITY Personality: peoples characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.

. o Major theories about personality o Theorist and their lives o The parallels between each

Sigmund Freud Born in Moravia in 1856. Moved to Vienna at age 4 yrs. A very bright child and an avid reader. Doted on by his mother, but hated his father. As a Jew, many career options were not open to him. Decided to study medicine.

Victorian Era Its important to keep in mind the Zeitgeist that Freud was working in. o Zeitgeist [(Zeit = time / geist = ghost) / (spirit of time)]

Hysteria Freud saw many patients- mostly women- with illnesses for which there was no apparent physiological causes (hysterical symptoms). He was baffled by this, and amazed by the increasing frequency of these ailments.

Jean Martin Charcot Freud won a research grant to travel to Paris and work with Charcot. Charcot was using hypnotism to induce hysterical symptoms. Freud was impressed, and wondered whether the procedure could be used to rid a person of hysteria.

Freuds Theories To Freuds delight, hypnotism was very effective in treating his patients with hysteria. Apparent ability for peoples minds to possess thoughts, feelings, and memories that theyre not aware of.

This lead Freud to develop the ideas that would eventually become the theory of Psychoanalysis.

Methods of Hypnotism Dream Analysis Parapraxis Word Association

Levels of Consciousness Freud postulated that the mind is separated into 3 types of awareness he called Levels of Consciousness. o Preconscious Mind: all of the thoughts, feelings, memories, etc., that you are not currently aware of, but can be brought into conscious awareness relatively easily. o Conscious Mind: all of the thoughts, feelings, memories, etc., that you are currently aware of. o Unconscious Mind: all of the thoughts, feelings, memories, etc., that you are largely unaware of. (some are repressed)

The Structure of Personality Another component of Freuds theory involves the 3 components of the personality. o Id: the part of our personality that is concerned with immediate gratification of primitive needs. (Pleasure Principle) o Ego: that part of the personality that develops in response to the interaction between the Id and the Super Ego. (Reality Principle) o Super Ego: the part of the human personality that acts as a moral compass, seeking to control the Id by allowing gratification only in socially acceptable ways. (Morality Principle)

Psychoanalysis Psychological problems stem from not dealing with them. Pushing them into the Unconscious Mind (or disguising them) is not healthy.

Main goal of Psychoanalysis: Find the stuff and pull it into the Conscious Mind.

Defense Mechanisms One of the best indicators of the existence of the Unconscious mind Repressions: dealing with anxiety provoking thoughts, feelings, or memories by pushing them out of awareness and into the Unconscious Mind. Sublimation: channeling unwanted thoughts, feelings, or memories into something that is socially acceptable. Reaction Formation: dealing with anxiety provoking thoughts, feelings, or memories by behaving in a way that is the exact opposite of how one truly feels.

Psychosexual Stages of Development The most controversial component of Freuds Theory of Personality. o Libido: life energy the driving force behind all human behaviors. o Fixation: contributing too much libido energy on a particular stage, object, or individual. Libido energy focused on different area of the body in each stage Too much or too little libido stimulation will negatively affect the personality.

The Oral Stage (birth nearly 2 yrs) Libido energy is focused on the oral cavity o Too little oral stimulation will create a personality that is overly dependent upon others. o Too much oral stimulation will create a personality that is sarcastic and biting.

The Anal Stage (2-3 rs) Libido energy is focused on the anal cavity o Too little anal stimulation (potty training too early) will create a personality that is obsessed with neatness and hygiene (Anal Retentive) o Too much anal stimulation (potty training too late) will create a personality that is slobbish and disorderly. (Anal Expulsive)

The Phallic Stage (3-7 yrs) Libido energy is focused on the genitals.

o Little boys begin to fantasize about having sex with their mothers (Oedipal Complex) o They feel guilty about this, and begin to fear that their fathers are planning to castrate them to eliminate the competition. o Reaction Formation is triggered, and little boys begin to idolize their fathers, copying their behavior and developing a normal sexual orientation. o Little girls develop Penis Envy, and develop a demure personality.

The Latency Stage (7-11 yrs) Libido energy is largely repressed. o Having been through the most complex of the stages, the libido energy is now largely repressed. o Children spend their time learning the moral rule

The Genital Stage (12 yrs -adulthood) Libido energy is again focused on the genitals. o Now that the Super Ego has been formed, the person is capable of mixing maturity with lust to form LOVE. o If the person was not successful in any of the previous stages, personality issues will result, requiring psychotherapy.

Freuds Growing Popularity After many successes with his new Psychoanalysis, Freuds work became well respected. Many came to study under him, and he began an intellectual group, The Society for Free Psychoanalysis.

The Neo-Freudians Carl Jung (1865-1951). Studied under Freud, and became very close to him. Was considered Freuds heir apparent. Accepted the basic tenets of Freuds theories, but had his own ideas.

Collective Unconscious Evidence of its existence lies in the fact that all humans have archetypes for such things as god, hero, devil, etc. o Two important archetypes are Anima & Animus.

Alfred Adler 1870 1937 Born in Vienna, Austria. Very unhealthy as a child. (nearly died from pneumonia, had rickets, and was run over twice by a horse & carriage). Developed Individual Psychology, based upon the tenet of the Inferiority Complex.

Adlers Individual Psychology Adler stated that personality develops from an innate Inferiority Complex. Said that we are motivated by a sense of Striving for Superiority (not libido as Freud stated). This part of his theory best reflects his life history since he claims to have spent a good deal of his life competing with his brother. Was the first theorist to develop a theory that birth order affects

Birth Order Only Child: pampered, poor relations with others, very authoritarian. First-Born Child: being dethroned by the second child, they become either rebellious or sullen & withdrawn. Second-Borned/Middle Child: often the most successful child, but obsessed with competing with the older sibling. Youngest Child: most pampered, may become a big problem, or may compete due to feelings of inferiority.