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PROBLEM 13.

35
KNOWN: Long cylindrical heating element located a given distance above an insulated wall exposed to cool surroundings. FIND: Maximum temperature attained by the wall and temperature at location A. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Insulated wall, (3) Negligible conduction in wall, (4) All surfaces are black. ANALYSIS: Consider an elemental area at point x = 0; this is the location that will attain the maximum temperature. Since the wall is insulated and conduction is negligible, the net radiation leaving dAo is zero. From Eq. 13.13,

2 4 5 4 q = q + q o o,h o,sur = Fo,h To Th + Fo,sur To Tsur = 0

(1)

where Fo,sur = 1 Fo,h and Fo,h can be found from the relation for a cylinder and parallel rectangle, Table 13.1, with s1 = 2 mm, s2 = 0 mm, L = 40 mm, and r = R = 10 mm. r 1 s1 10 mm 1 2 1 s 2 1 (2) Fo,h = tan L tan L = 2 mm 0 tan 40 tan 0 = 0.25 s1 s 2 Rearranging Eq. (1) and substituting numerical values, find
4 4 To = Th +

(1 Fo,h ) T 4
Fo,h

1 Fo,h sur / 1 + Fo,h


To = 507 K.

(3)

1 0.25 4 1 0.25 4 To = ( 700 K ) + (300 K )4 / 1 + 0.25 0.25

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For the point A located at x = 40 mm, use the same relation of Table 13.1 to find FA,h (for this point, s1 = 41 mm, s2 = 39 mm, r = R = 10 mm, L = 40 mm), 10 mm 39 1 41 tan 1 = 0.125. FA,h = tan 40 40 ( 41 39 ) mm Substituting numerical values into Eq. (3), find 1 0.125 4 1 0.125 4 TA = ( 700 K ) + TA = 439 K. (300 K )4 / 1 + 0.125 0.125 COMMENTS: Note the importance of the assumptions that the wall is insulated and conduction is negligible. In calculating Fo,h and FA,h we are finding the view factor for a small area or point. Hence, we need only specify that s1 s2 is very small compared to L.

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PROBLEM 13.36
KNOWN: Diameter and pitch of in-line tubes occupying evacuated space between parallel plates of  prescribed temperature. Temperature and flowrate m of water through the tubes.
  FIND: (a) Tube surface temperature Ts for m = 0.20 kg/s, (b) Effect of m on Ts.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Surfaces behave as blackbodies, (2) Negligible tube wall conduction resistance, (3) Fully-developed tube flow. PROPERTIES: Table A-6, water (Tm = 300 K): = 855 10 Ns/m , k = 0.613 W/mK, Pr = 5.83. ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on a single tube, it follows that qps = qconv, or
4 A p Fps Tp Ts4 = hAs (Ts Tm )
-6 2

From Table 13.1 and D/S = 0.75, the view factor is

D 2 Fps = 1 1 S

1/ 2

2 2 D 1 S D + tan D2 S

1/ 2

= 0.881

 With Re D = 4m / D = 4 ( 0.20 kg / s ) / ( 0.015 m ) 855 106 N s / m 2 = 19,856, fully-developed turbulent flow may be assumed, in which case Eq. 8.60 yields k 0.613 W / m K h= 0.023 Re 4 / 5 Pr 0.4 = (0.023)(19,856 )4 / 5 (5.83)0.4 = 5220 W / m2 K D D 0.015 m

Hence, with (Ap/As) = 2S/D = 0.849,


Ts Tm = Fps A p h As

0.881 5.67 10 4 4 Tp Ts =

W / m K
2

5220 W / m K

(0.849 )

(T

4 4 p Ts

)
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With Tm = 300 K and Tp = 1000 K, a trial-and-error solution yields Ts = 308 K (b) Using the Correlations and Radiation Toolpads of IHT to evaluate the convection coefficient and view factor, respectively, the following results were obtained.

 The decrease in Ts with increasing m is due to an increase in h and hence a reduction in the convection resistance.

COMMENTS: Due to the large value of h, Ts << Tp.

PROBLEM 13.37
KNOWN: Insulated wall exposed to a row of regularly spaced cylindrical heating elements. FIND: Required operating temperature of the heating elements for the prescribed conditions. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Upper and lower walls are isothermal and infinite, (2) Lower wall is insulated, (3) All surfaces are black, (4) Steady-state conditions. ANALYSIS: Perform an energy balance on the insulated wall considering convection and radiation.
  conv = 0 E E = q1 q in out

where q1 is the net radiation leaving the insulated wall per unit area. From Eq. 13.13,
4 4 4 4 q1 = q1e + q12 = F T1 Te + F T1 T2 1e 12

where F12 = 1 F1e. Using Newtons law of cooling for q conv solve for Te,
4 4 Te = T1 +

(1 F1e )
F 1e

(T

4 4 1 T2

h ) + F1 (T T
1 1e

).

The view factor between the insulated wall and the tube row follows from the relation for an infinite plane and row of cylinders, Table 13.1,

D 2 F = 1 1 1e S

1/ 2

2 2 D 1 s D + tan D2 S

1/ 2

10 2 F = 1 1 1e 20

1/ 2

2 2 10 1 20 10 + tan 2 20 10

1/ 2

= 0.658.

Substituting numerical values, find 200 W / m 2 K 1 4 1 0.658 4 Te = (500 K ) + 5004 3004 K 4 + (500 450 ) K 0.658 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 0.658

Te = 774 K.

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COMMENTS: Always express temperatures in kelvins when considering convection and radiation terms in an energy balance. Why is F1e independent of the distance between the row of tubes and the wall: