Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology

Module: Textile Science


Lecture: Introduction to Fabric and Weaving

Md. Masud Rana Assistant Professor, Dpt. of Textile Engg

M.Rana

Textile Science

Content
Definition and classification fabrics Yarn Preparation For Weaving Process Weaving Principles Basic Mechanism of Warp & Cloth Control Weaving Structure Woven Fabric Analysis

M.Rana

Textile Science

Fabrics:
Fabric or cloth is a flexible artificial material which is made by weaving or knitting from yarn, although non-woven fabrics are made by bonding or felting fibres together. A fabric's appearance, properties and end use can be affected by the way it was constructed

Woven fabrics

Knitted fabrics

Non woven fabrics


3

M.Rana

Textile Science

Woven Fabric
A woven fabric consists of warp and weft yarns which are interlaced each other at right angle. The process of converting a set of yarns into fabric in a loom is called weaving.

M.Rana

Textile Science

Knitted Fabric
Weft-knitted fabric is made by interloping together long lengths of yarn. It can be made by hand or machine. The yarn runs in rows or column across the fabric. The fabric is stretchy and comfortable and is used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers.

Weft knitted Fabric


M.Rana

Warp knitted Fabric


Textile Science 5

Non-Woven Fabric
Nonwoven fabrics are made from webs of fibres (mostly long synthetic fibres) bonded together by heat, chemical, mechanical heat or adhesives. Non-woven fabrics are cheap to produce but not as strong as woven or knitted fabrics. They are easy to sew, crease resistant, do not fray and are stable when washing and dry cleaning Applications Hygiene Baby diapers Feminine hygiene Adult incontinence products Wipes Domestic Technical Filters Geotextiles Carpet backing Composites M.Rana Textile Science

Woven fabric:
On the basis of manufacturing process woven fabrics may be classified as: 1. Solid Dyed Fabric: It is woven with the greige yarn received from spinning. After weaving the fabric is dyed or printed and finished as required. 2. Yarn Dyed Fabric: The yarn received from spinning is dyed first in the yarn form.Then weaving is carried out with the colored yarn. Then the fabric is finished as required. It may be three types: a. Stripe Fabric: When colored pattern is found only warp direction b. Cross-Over Fabric: When colored pattern is found only weft direction c. Check Fabric: When colored pattern is found in both warp and direction

M.Rana

Textile Science

Woven fabric:

Check Fabric

Stripe Fabric

Cross-Over Fabric
M.Rana Textile Science 8

Weaving flow chart (Solid dyed fabric):

M.Rana

Textile Science

Weaving flow chart (Yarn dyed fabric):

M.Rana

Textile Science

10

Yarn Preparation Process Diagram


WARP YARN, WEFT YARN

1.0 WARPING

2.0 SIZING

3.0 DRAW-IN / TYING-IN

WEAVING

M.Rana

Textile Science

11

1.0 WARPING
The warping process transfers the yarn from multiple packages to a section beam.
To produce a quality beam suitable for weaving, the following must be accomplished: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)
M.Rana

no lint, fly, wild yarn no high or low selvage maintain warper speed maintain braking systems no crossed or loose ends uniform tension across beam uniform tension beam to beam smooth section beams, rollers
Textile Science 12

creel

M.Rana

warpers beam

Textile Science

13

M.Rana

Textile Science

14

M.Rana

Textile Science

15

2.0 SIZING

Application of sizing chemical to yarns


The purposes of sizing process are :

1) To reduce the yarn hairiness that would interfere with the weaving process.
2) To protect the yarn from various yarn-to-yarn and yarn-to-loom abrasion. 3) To increase the strength of the yarn

M.Rana

Textile Science

16

Schematic of a simple sizing configuration

M.Rana

Textile Science

17

3.0 DRAWING-IN
Entering of yarns from a new warp into the weaving elements of a weaving machine (drop wires, healds, and reed) when staring up a new fabric style.
Drop wires Healds Reed

M.Rana

Textile Science

18

The passage of the warp through a loom

M.Rana

Textile Science

19

3.0 TYING-IN
Tying-in the new warp ends to the depleted warp is done when a new pattern is not required.

M.Rana

Textile Science

20

Weaving Principles

Weaving means to make cloth and other objects. Threads or strands of material are passed under and over each other.

Like this M.Rana Textile Science 21

In order to interlace warp and weft threads to produce fabric on any type of weaving machine, three operations are necessary :

A) Shedding Separating the warp threads, which run down the fabric into two layers to form a tunnel known as the shed
B) Picking Passing the weft thread, which traverses across the fabric, through the shed C) Beating-up Pushing the newly inserted length of weft, known as the pick, into the already woven fabric at a point known as the fell

M.Rana

Textile Science

22

Shedding

M.Rana

Textile Science

23

A. Shedding occurs here Shedding is the lifting of some of the warp yarns, so that the warp is divided into 2 sheets. This creates an opening (a shed) between them for the weft carrier to pass through.

C. Beating-up
The inserted pick is consolidated or beaten-up into the fabric when the new pick is pushed into the cloth-fell by the reed.

B. Picking
The weft yarn taken from one side of the warp through the shed.
M.Rana Textile Science

24

Basic Mechanism of Warp & Weft Control

Cloth control (or take-up)


This motion withdraws fabric from the weaving area at the constant rate that will give the required pickspacing and then winds it onto a roller

Warp control (or let-off) This motion delivers warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at a suitable constant tension by unwinding it from a flanged tube known as the weavers beam
Textile Science

M.Rana

25

Methods of weft insertion :


M.Rana

Shuttle
single or multiple grippers or projectiles Rapiers Needles fluid jet, water jet, or air jet various other method
Textile Science 26

Shedding System Method:

Crank

Cam

Dobby

Jacquard

M.Rana

Textile Science

27

Common Weaving Structure


Plain Weave The simplest of the weaves and the most common Consists of interlacing warp and filling yarns in a pattern of over one and under one. Plain-weave is strong and hardwearing, so it's used for fashion and furnishing fabrics.

Balanced weave

Plain weave

Rib weaves

Basket weaves
M.Rana Textile Science 28

Twill Weave
In twill-weave fabric the crossings of weft and warp are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the fabric surface. It's strong, drapes well and is used for jeans, jackets and curtains.

M.Rana

Textile Science

29

Satin Weave
In satin-weave fabric there is a complex arrangement of warp and weft threads, which allows longer float threads either across the warp or the weft. The long floats mean the light falling on the yarn doesn't scatter and break up, like on a plain-weave. The reflected light creates a smooth, lustrous (shiny) surface commonly called satin. The reverse side is invariably dull and non-shiny.

Satin Weave
M.Rana Textile Science 30

Satin Weave

Warp faced satin weave

filling faced satin weave


M.Rana Textile Science 31