Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

TRANSFER OF LEARNING It implies a carrying over and application of the knowledge, skills, habits, ideals, attitudes or values acquired

in one situation to another. THEORIES OF TRANSFER OF LEARNING The Theory of Mental Disciplines Based on the old faculty psychology which maintains that the various faculties of the mind can be developed through training and can become capable of effective performance in all areas in which they are involved. Thus the training of the faculty of memory for names, meaningful material and, in fact, for anything which calls for memory. THE THEORY OF IDENTICAL ELEMENTS This theory was formulated by Thorndike which maintains that the amount of transfer depends upon the identical elements or elements that are common in both situations. The identical elements, such as content, method, aim, or attitude present in both situations facilitate learning. Example: A study of Latin helps in interpreting many English words. Since many English words are derived from Latin, then the transfer is due to Identity of content. THE THEORY OF GENERALIZATION The Theory formulated by Charles H. Judd, which maintains that transfer is a form of generalization which can be encouraged by training. It means that experiences obtained in one situation are applicable to other situations. It puts emphasis upon the value to understand, organize, and generalize specific experiences. There is a need for the learner to interpret relationships and to be able to recognize and apply to other situations the previously acquired facts or principles. THE THEORY OF CONFIGURATION This theory is based on the Gestalt theory of learning. It holds that the transfer of training from one situation to another is the result of the application of certain principles of configuration. It means that the transfer of acquired patterns of response to a new situation depends upon the insight of the learner into the total situation to enable him to use those patterns. Transfer implies that what is learned in one situation can be shifted directly to another situation only when similarity (in content,

method, or attitude) of the two situations is perceived by the learner MOTIVATION IN LEARNING Motivation is a process in which the individuals attention and interest are aroused and directed toward definite goals. An individuals attention and interest can be aroused to the extent that his needs, whether basic or acquired, are involved. It is the job of the teacher to create an atmosphere which provides desirable outlets for needs in the direction of worthwhile incentives an atmosphere in which interests will as a consequence flourish. TYPES OF MOTIVATION IN LEARNING 1. Intrinsic Motivation

This type of motivation is an internal stimulus to learning. It is based on motives that every individual strives to satisfy. Motives are intrinsic, or within the person. They have their roots in needs and drives. Motive is a thought, feeling, or condition that causes one to act. The most common forms of intrinsic motivation are the desire for knowledge, the desire to explore, and the desire to construct.

2. Extrinsic Motivation This type of motivation is an external stimulus to learning activity. Praise and blame, rivalry, rewards and punishments are some of the more common types of extrinsic motivation. It is based on incentives. Incentive is the means employed to evoke attitude conducive to learning. In Extrinsic Motivation the pupil is encouraged to do good school work by such drives as marks, honors, prizes, scholarships, and privileges. Precious eve Dela Cruz

LEARNING THEORIES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CLASSROOM AND SCHOOL PRACTICES Association Theories of Learning Have explained and contributed to the present understanding of some learning processes.

Have influenced the development of such approaches to the teaching-learning processes as programmed learning. They have also influenced the use of reinforcement techniques.

Lewins View of Motivation A person is motivated by psychological tensions produced by the interaction of a psychological self with a psychological environment. Lewins Theory Applied To Teaching To understand the motivation of a particular learner, the teacher has to develop the ability to transcend the tensions of the learner, the learners abilities, and the properties of the learners perceived environment. (MORVA) Use of Motivation in Teaching-Learning Process

Programmed Learning Introduced by Skinner A system of learning in which preestablished subject matter is broken down into sequential steps.

Cognitive-Field Theories Imply the need for emphasis on looking at the total situation at the beginning. Imply teaching approaches which are childcentered, as well as problem-centered. Imply that the teacher has to select and provide appropriate learning experience. AND VECTOR THEORY

The learner must be motivated The phrase above is said to be the basic principle of teaching-learning process. One aspect of the teaching function that needs attention is motivation. What is motivation? According to Ruch, "motivation means complexes of internal conditions which serve to direct the organism toward specific goals." Hilgard defines motivation as "something that incites the organism has been aroused. Morgan gives the following words as synonyms of motivation-wants, strivings, desires, needs, motives, goals, aspiration, drive, wish, aims, etc. Motivation may also be defined as behavior instigated by needs within the individual and directed toward goals that can satisfy the needs. Motivation may also be regarded as explanation for action which influences behavior in many ways. All the definitions of motivation have certain things in common such as: (1) it comes from within the individual; (2) it directs toward a goal (3) it arouses interest in the activity. TYPES OF MOTIVATORS 1. Extrinsic motivation.

LEWINS TOPOLOGICAL (FIELD THEORY) Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)

In 1890, he was born in modern Poland. He was one of four children born into a middleclass family. His father owned a small general store and a farm. In 1909, he entered the University of Freiburg to study medicine, but transferred to University of Munich to study biology. Lewin had originally been involved with schools of behavioral psychology before changing directions in research and undertaking work with psychologists of the Gestalt school of psychology, including Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Kohler. Lewin often associated with the early Frankfurt School, originated by an influential group of largely Jewish Marxists at the Institute for Social Research in Germany. Lewin immigrated to the United States in August 1933 and became a naturalized citizen in 1940. Lewin died in Newtown Ville, Massachusetts of a heart-attack in 1947. He was buried in his home town.

Extrinsic motivators are forces that arise from outside the individual such as honors, monetary rewards, medals and the like. These are external stimulus to action. This type of motivation is based on incentive. The motivation comes from outside the individual, that is, from the external environment. Extrinsic motivation comes in the forms of praise and other forms of social approval, high grades, medals, scholarships, rivalry and competition, cooperation, helpfulness of the teacher. 2. Intrinsic motivation

Lewins Basic Premise Every object exists in a field of forces that moves to change it, define it, or give it a degree of stability and substance.

Arise from the individuals genuine desire to learn because he realizes the benefits he will derive from what he will learn. An intrinsically motivated individual is said to be selfmotivated.is an internal stimulus that a arouse one to action. It is based on motive, which is always intrinsic. A motive arouses one to do something. In this type of motivation, the learners work, not for medals or anything tangible, but for the personal satisfaction for accomplishing their work and attaining their goals. For instance, a student works on a very

difficult mathematical problem. If he solves the problem correctly, the feels elation and self-fulfillment not because of the high grade he will receive but for the readiness he has acquired to solve similarly difficult problems. Intrinsic motivation may stay in the individual for a long time depending upon the goal. One who wants to take a four-year course maintains his intrinsic motivation for an equal number of years. CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES 1. Biological and physiological drives. These are innate or inborn stimuli such as the desire for food, water, shelter, and other comforts of the body. In the hierarchy of motives, biological drives are the lowest but the most important. 2. Psychological drives. These are social drives which are acquired, learned or derived. These are the need for social approval, security, safety, belongingness, love, esteem, prestige, power, and the like. In the hierarchy of motives, these are the second. 3. Creativity or self-actualization drives. These are general or unconscious drives or motives. The desire to do something not out of necessity but simply the urge to achieve something exceptional for the good of humanity is self-actualization. The drive is very strong, almost compulsive, and for some, even risking their lives. To this class belong the inventors, explorers, authors, scientists, composers, artists, performers, heroes, and the like. In the hierarchy of motives, this is the highest class or level. MOTIVATION PRINCIPLES It is an established fact that applying motivation principles in the classroom will result in effective learning. Some of these principles culled from various studies in educational psychology and which are significant for teachers are briefly presented below: Learning under intrinsic motivation is better than learning under extrinsic motivation. Goal-setting is an important motivational aspect of learning. Successful experiences re important motivations for all students. Feedback about the progress being made by the students can be an effective motivator. Using learner interest as a motive is important in classroom learning. Learning under control of reward is better than learning under the control of punishment.

Meaningful materials and tasks are more successful motivators than tasks the learner does not understand. Success generally increases the level of aspiration and achievement of the learner, whereas failure tends to lower the level of aspiration. The teachers expectation of the learners performance influence the latters achievement. Group competition, cooperation, and support are more effective motivators than individual competition.

MOTIVATIONAL CYCLE Motivation goes through a cycle. The first stage starts with a need which turns into a motive. Then tension or stress arises. The second stage is action. The motive spurs the individual into action and the activity continues until the motive has been satisfied and the goal achieved. Then the third stage starts, which is the satisfaction of the individual. Tension vanishes and stability or equilibrium takes its place. This is called homeostasis, which is the absence of tension and satisfaction, stability and equilibrium characterize the individual. If there is another need or motive arising, the motivational cycle starts all over again. A teacher announces a forthcoming examination. Motive arise the desire to pass the examination. Tension follows. This is the first stage. The second stage is action. The students study their lessons very seriously. Tension persists until the examination is over. The third stage is homeostasis. After passing the examination, the students would be in a state of satisfaction, elation, stability, and equilibrium. Another examination will mean another motivational cycle. Evaluation of Learning Learning is facilitated by feedback The phrase above is an accepted fact of the learning principle. Feedback aids learning because it focuses the learners attention of certain important aspects of the learning task and raises the learners level of interest. What is the difference between evaluation and measurement? Are they synonymous to each other? Evaluation and measurement are often used synonymously; these two terms are closely related, but different. . Measurement is a process of utilizing an instrument, such as a test, to obtain objective and quantified appraisal of a single trait or characteristic. For instance, through the use of test, the learners subject knowledge or motor skill is measured. Measurement is the process of determining the quantitative achievement of a learner in the subject he studied. Evaluation, on the other hand, means bringing together from different sources all forms of information on student performance. Evaluation is the process of determining the worth or value of the result of measurement.

Although tests, particularly teacher-made tests, are probably the most commonly utilized technique in classroom evaluation, this technique actually measures only small part of students achievement. Achievement of some significant learning objectives cannot be measured by tests but must be identified by other means, such as observation of behavior in various situations. But because of their advantaged, however, tests continue to play an important role in evaluation. It is important, therefore, for a teacher to be proficient in testing. This calls for knowledge and understanding of principles of test construction and interpretation of test results.

Assessment or evaluation of student learning should allow teachers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of students. Evaluation will also allow for the restructuring of learning activities as well as of the curriculum program. Evaluation is not only for the benefit of the learner but the teachers as well. (Christine G.)

Based on recent literature, there are two ways of measuring student achievement- criterion-referenced and normreferenced measurement. In criterion-referenced measurement, grades are based on preset standards and goal for each learner is mastery. This type of measurement is said to encourage cooperative learning among students. In norm-referenced measurement grading is based on relative achievement within the group, thus, ranking and comparing student performance is encouraged.

Psychological and Sociological Foundations of Education The Learning Situation Gagnes Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne enumerated 8 conditions of learning where there is a progression from developing simple stimulus-response associations to concepts and principles, and eventually to problem-solving. Thus, there is increasing complexity in learning. The 8 conditions of learning are arranged in a hierarchy beginning from the most basic condition to the most complex one. 1) Signal Learning The stage where involuntary responses are learned. This condition is similar to classical conditioning (e.g., flinching when a hot iron is touched). 2) Stimulus-Response Learning The stage where voluntary responses are learned. This is similar to operant conditioning. 3) Chaining In this condition, a series of stimulusresponse connections are linked. 4) Verbal Association This stage entails labeling certain responses. 5) Discrimination Learning This is the condition where the learner selects a response which applies to certain stimuli. 6) Concept Learning involves classifying and organizing perceptions to gain meaningful concepts. 7) Principle Learning involves combining and relating concepts already learned to form rules. 8) Problem-solving which is the most complex condition involves applying rules to appropriate problem situations.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR TEST CONSTRUCTION In general, teacher should be aware of basic guidelines in constructing test items. These guiding principles include: Using several kinds of test items (e.g., multiple choice, essay, recall). A test should measure the objectives of a course or subject, and should cover most of the content taken in class. The test should be reliable such that it measures the objective it intended to measure. Test item should be clear and unambiguous, leaving no room for misunderstanding.

The test is difficult enough for poorly prepared student, but easy enough for those who prepare well for it. Hence, the level of difficulty should be carefully evaluated. Teachers should take time to prepare tests. There is a need to review, revise and reexamine test items before finalizing these.

PURPOSES OF EVALUATING STUDENT LEARNING The purposes of evaluation should always be kept in mind even in the process of developing an educational program or even a simple lesson.

Gagnes Task Analysis Model is an attempt to apply his theory to educational practice. This model proposes that instruction should be systematic and well-planned. In this model, learning is assumed to be cumulative. Gagne proposed 9 phases of learning: attending, expectancy, retrieval to working memory, selective perception of stimulus, semantic encoding, retrieval and responding, reinforcement, cueing retrieval, and generalizability. These phases can be further divided into 3 categories: preparation for learning, acquisition and performance, and transfer of learning. (MARLA) Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner After almost 80 years after the first intelligence tests were developed, a Harvard psychologist named Howard Gardner challenged this commonly held belief that there was something called intelligence which could be objectively measured and reduced to a single number or IQ score. In his theory of multiple intelligences (MI Theory), Gardner sought to broaden the scope of human potential beyond the confines of the IQ score. He seriously questioned the validity of determining intelligence through the practice of taking individuals out of their natural learning environment and asking them to do isolated tasks they had never done before.

4.

5.

6.

1.

2.

3.

Linguistic Intelligence- is the capacity to use words effectively, whether orally (e.g. as a storyteller, orator) or in writing (e.g. as an editor, journalist). This intelligence includes the ability to manipulate the syntax or structure of language, and the pragmatic dimensions or practical uses of language. Logical-mathematical Intelligence- is the capacity to reason well (e.g. as a scientist or logician) and use numbers effectively (e.g. as a mathematician or an accountant). This intelligence includes sensitivity to logical patterns and relationships, statements and propositions, functions, and other related abstractions. The kinds of processes used in the service of the logical-mathematical intelligence include categorization, classification, inference, generalization, calculation, and hypothesis testing. Spatial Intelligence- is the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (e.g. as a hunter, a scout or a guide) and to perform transformations upon those perceptions (e.g. as an interior decorator, architect, or inventor). This intelligence involves sensitivity to color, line, shape, form, space, and the relationships that exist

7.

8.

between these elements. This includes the capacity to visualize, to graphically represent visual or spatial ideas, and to orient oneself appropriately in a special matrix. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligenceis having an expertise in using ones whole body to express ideas and feelings (e.g. as an actor, an athlete or a dancer) and facility in using ones hands to produce or transform things (e.g. as a sculptor, mechanic or surgeon). This intelligence includes specific physical skills such as coordination, balance, dexterity, strength, flexibility, and speed. Musical Intelligence- is the capacity to perceive (e.g. as a music aficionado), discriminate (e.g. as a music critic), transform (e.g. as a composer), and express (e.g. as a performer) musical reforms. This intelligence includes sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch or melody, and timbre or tone color of a musical piece. One can have figural of top-down understanding of music (global, intuitive), a formal of bottomup understanding (analytic, technical), or both. Interpersonal Intelligence- is the ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people. This can include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice, and gestures; the capacity for discriminating among many different kinds of interpersonal cues; and the ability to respond effectively to those cues in some pragmatic way (e.g. to influence a group of people to follow a certain line of action). Intrapersonal Intelligence- is about self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge. This intelligence includes having an accurate picture of oneself (ones strengths and limitations); awareness of inner moods, intentions, motivations, temperaments, and desires; and the capacity for self-discipline, selfunderstanding, and self-esteem. Naturalist Intelligence- is the expertise in the recognition and classification of the numerous species- the flora and the fauna- of an individuals environment. This also includes sensitivity to other natural phenomena (e.g. cloud formations, mountains, etc.) and in the case of those growing up in an urban environment, the capacity to discriminate among inanimate objects such as cars, sneakers, etc.

Existential as the Ninth Intelligence Existential intelligence has been valued in every known human culture. Cultures devise religious, mystique or metaphysical systems for dealing with existential issues; and in modern times or in secular settings, aesthetic philosophic and scientific hours and systems also speak to this ensemble of human needs Howard Gardner. He has written about the possibility of the ninth intelligence- the existential. He defined it as a concern with ultimate life issues. He describes the core ability of this intelligence as the capacity to locate oneself with respect to the furthest reaches of the cosmos- the infinite and the infinitesimal the related capacity to locate oneself with respect to such existential features of the human condition as the significance of life, the meaning of death, the ultimate fate of the physical and the psychological worlds and such profound experiences as love of another person or total immersion in a world of art. Learning Styles Dunn and Dunn suggest that learning style is based on an individuals response to five categories of elements: environmental, emotional, sociological, physical, and psychological. An individuals needs or preferences in each category add up to his or her learning style. The Dunns model is a complex, comprehensive picture of the needs and preferences that influence how-or whether- we learn something. It acknowledges that learners differ in their reliance on auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic perception processes; in their orientations of self, peers, and authorities; in the power of their motivation to learn. (ANNE GELYN) COGNITIVE THEORIES

Kohler held that animals and human beings are capable of seeing relationships between objects and events and act accordingly to achieve their ends.They have the power of looking into relationships involved in a problem and in coming up with a solution. Gaining insight is a gradual process of exploring, analyzing, and restructuring perceptions until a solution is arrived at.

Gestalt Laws This school of psychology upon which most of cognitive psychology is based was developed by Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Koffka in 1921.In their studies led to the principles or laws that govern how people assign meanings to visual stimuli. 1. Law of Continuity This law states the perceptual organization tends to preserve smooth continuities rather than abrupt changes. 2. Law of Closure This law states that incomplete tend to be incomplete. 3. Law of Proximity This law holds that things close together are grouped together in perception. 4. Law of Similarity This law refers to the perception of similar objects that tend to be related. 5. Law of Pragnanz It states that of all the possible organizations that could be perceived from a visual stimulus, the one that will most likely occur is the one that possesses the best, simplest, and most stable form. Jerome Bruners Theory This theory focused in the problem of what people do with information to achieve generalized insights or understanding. He sees learning as a cognitive process that involves 3 simultaneous processes: Acquisition Transformation

The modern cognitive field theories of learning in psychology are extensions of the principles formulated by the Gestalt school of psychology. Deriving from the associationist perspective, the cognitive field theorists or cognitivists, place emphasis upon the concept that learning is a process of discovering and understanding relationships, and of organizing and finding significance in the sensory experiences around by the external situation.

Evaluation

Acquisition -is the process of obtaining new information that can either replace or refine something previously known. Transformation -is the manipulation of information to fit new situations. Evaluation -is checking whether or not the learned material has be manipulated appropriately. 4 Significant Concerns Applicable to Any Leaning Situation. 1. Understanding of Basic Relationships in the structure of a Subject Matter. -this involves understanding relationships and relating knowledge structures to one another. 2. Readiness -Bruner believes that there is no need to defer instruction in certain subjects until a child has reached the appropriate maturation level for it. 3. Development of the Independent Learner -Instruction must have as its object to help the learner to be a self-sufficient problem-solver. 4. Motivation -Bruner has placed a premium on the ability of teachers to motivate the learner. The rich tradition offered by Bruners research contributes to the understanding of how concepts are formed and retained as knowledge structures. (DIANE F.) LEARNING - XAXA Why? teachers are the facilitator They are the manager inside the classroom They are the one who mostly affects or influence the classroom learning of school learners. They are the one who motivate and evaluate students learnings. Good classroom management. Know how to handle the whole class. Proper management of the room.

Discover the difficulty of the students and find solutions to it. Sets as the model inside the classroom. Acts as the motivator and sets the moods of the learners. Teachers evaluate the students learning which feedbacks set as a guide of the facilitator in creating or making strategies.

Emulation or imitation. Where the teachers should always maintain his dignity and self-respect when dealing with his/her students. They should portray desirable pattern of behavior and values. Teachers, for instance, serve as models in their attitudes toward the subject they teach and toward learning itself. Studies have shown that the teachers who are enthusiastic about teaching and learning are likely to in reinforce similar attitudes in their students. No lesson but being brief by the professor. Sitting arrangement. Give the dos and donts inside the classroom. The rules are being given. Teachers are the responsible for the effective management of the various activities inside the classroom. The teacher also plays an important role in determining the kind of psycho-social climate that will prevail in the classroom. Setting the mood of the classroom. Atmosphere along with all that it encompasses such as mindset, behaviors and core values. Having a good classroom management can greatly affect the learning process. Dictatorial. Controlling Passive where you do not take action but instead let things happen to them. Or being submissive . Freedom of the students. Teachers will act as guidance, give supervision to the students. Freeway conversation among the facilitator and learners. Whichever the teachers may adopt will have an effect to the learning situation.

Assist students learnings, making it easier and smoother in the part of the learners. Have different strategies and various method when teaching because there is no single perfect approach in teaching that will help every student to learn everything in every way so it is important to be knowledgeable alternative approaches in teaching and also to maximize the learning's of your students. Psychological principles underlying relationship between teaching approaches and student performance. Evaluating the achievement of students is an integral part of teaching learning process. Through evaluation you will determine the progress of your students knowledge.