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POLARISED MHO CHARACTERISTIC..... 2 OFFSET MHO CHARACTERISTIC ............ 3 QUADRILATERAL CHARACTERISTICS... 4 IMPEDANCE ZONES.................................. 6 POWER SWING CHARACTERISTICS....... 7 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER SUPERVISION (VTS) ........................................................... 9 SWITCH ON TO FAULT ........................... 10 FAULT LOCATOR .................................... 11

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It is fundamental to the requirements of discrimination that distance protection zone 1 and 2 measuring characteristics for direct tripping are directional since they are required to detect faults only in the forward direction. These directional impedance elements also can control the transmission of signalling equipment to give fast clearance over 100% of the feeder. To ensure correct directional response during close up unbalanced faults, cross polarising from a sound phase voltage is used, hence the name cross-polarised mho characteristic. The choice of polarising voltage will depend on a number of factors. In general, it will be a voltage which is unaffected by the fault and can be transformed to be in phase with the faulted phase voltage under normal operating conditions. This provides a reference phasor for the angular test, during fault conditions where the fault voltage term is small. Under fault conditions, the healthy phase voltage will be determined largely by the source impedance. The polarised mho characteristic is shown below in Figure 1.

For unbalanced faults, the characteristic becomes a circle of diameter Z F kZ S , lying between the source and replica impedance. Under balanced fault conditions with no polarising signal, the characteristic would be a circle of radius Z F . To provide polarising under these conditions and allow characteristic expansion to occur, the relay must use a feature known as Voltage Memory. This provides a polarising vector derived from the pre-fault voltage, it is applied for a limited time after which the protection is inhibited. Full details about voltage memory are provided under a separate heading. In addition to providing better security against close-up reverse faults, cross- and memory-polarising will also cause the characteristic to expand with increasing Source Impedance Ratio (SIR). This gives an increasing coverage of the resistive axis, and allows detection of higher resistance faults than the unpolarised mho characteristics.

Characteristic under balanced fault conditions ZF



Z F -kZS


Characteristic under unbalanced fault conditions Characteristic for forward power flow Characteristic for reverse power flow

Figure 1, Cross-Polarised Mho Characteristic

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The offset Mho characteristic is shown in Figure 2. Conventionally, the characteristic has a reverse offset by having

the currents IA and - I B in the phase compensation logic where the relay actually operates for system faults within the loop impedance 2Z. 2.1.2 Earth faults Figure 4 illustrates the general case of a phase/earth fault involving the A phase only.



in the reverse direction. This encloses the origin to give guaranteed operation for close-up faults.


Phase V Voltageto Earth



ZN Loop Impedance = Z +ZN L

Figure 4 The relay is actually presented with a loop impedance of ZL + ZN for a fault at the end of the positive phase sequence impedance setting. This can also be compensated for by using a combination of the current flowing in the line and neutral circuit but the problem is that the complex impedance ZN is not known and is not readily available by measurement.

Figure 2, Offset Mho Characteristic 2.1 FAULT CONFIGURATION

2.1.1 Phase Faults The major purpose of the OHMEGA distance protection is to detect any system fault which occurs within the zone setting of the relay. The normal practice is to set the Zone setting to the positive phase sequence of the amount of line to be covered and the relay should detect all types of system faults up to that positive phase sequence impedance setting.

ZL Voltage VPhase to Phase



ZL Loop Impedance = 2Z L
Figure 3


Figure 3 illustrates the general case of a phase/phase fault involving the phases A and B. The relay is actually presented with an impedance of 2Z for a fault at the end of the positive phase sequence impedance setting, Z. This is compensated for using

Zo = 3 x Measured loop Impedance Figure 5 Sequence impedance diagram for an earth fault

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS Conventionally the known parameter available for the line is the zero sequence impedance or it can be measured for any particular line. Figure 5 shows the method utilised to measure the zero sequence impedance of a line that gives the expression. where I = Phase current

Z1 = Positive phase sequence impedance of zone setting K0 = (Z0/Z - 1) IN = Earth fault current V = Phase-earth fault voltage Vp = Polarising voltage 3 QUADRILATERAL CHARACTERISTICS

or and the ratio

Z Zo = 3 1 + Z N 3 (Z Z1 ) ZN = O 3 Z N 1 ZO = Z 1 Z1 3 1

hence where

1 Z Z N = O 1 Z 1 3 Z1 Z N = KoZ1 1 Z K O = O 1 3 Z1

This is a convenient factor to use in the phase comparison logic as the actual value of Z0 is not required provided the ratio Z 0 / Z1 and the phase angles of Z0 and Z1 are available. The K0 factor described above must of course take into account the phase angles of Z1 and Z0 in the calculation for K0. The advantage of using the method described above is that the ratio Z0/Z1 is a relatively simple calculation and can be obtained using any convenient dimensions (eg Primary Ohms, Secondary Ohms, Ohms/Km etc) provided the zero phase sequence value and the positive phase sequence value are expressed in the same dimensions. When the settings Z1, the angle of Z1, Z0 / Z1, and the angle of Z0 are entered the relay calculates the composite value K0 = (ZO/Z1 -1) and this value is taken into account for a polarised mho characteristic using the complex expression. IZ + K0 IN Z1 - V within 90 of V + Vp

In addition to MHO characteristics the relay has the option of quadrilateral characteristics for earth fault coverage. The quadrilateral characteristic can be set according to resistive coverage, reactive coverage and the line angle. The resistive cut off blinder is set to the same angle as the line angle. A typical polarised quadrilateral characteristic, as would be used for zones 1 and 2, and the reverse looking zone 4 is shown below. This characteristic is constructed using two directional characteristics (hence the need for polarising), a reactance characteristic and a resistance characteristic.


Resistance Directional R Directional

Figure 6 Because of the polarising quantities, the directional lines will exhibit a shift toward the source during unbalanced faults, ensuring operation for close up forward faults, and stability for close up reverse faults. A self-polarised directional characteristic is given by the vector equation


Dividing through by I gives


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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS In other words, we compare the angle of the fault impedance with the angle of the forward replica impedance, as shown below. If the two angles are within 90, then the comparator operates.


In order to obtain more reliable operation for close up fault conditions, the directional characteristic is polarised from a source other than the fault voltage, which will allow accurate determination of the fault direction for close-up faults. The vector equation for the polarised characteristic is


No Operation

The magnitude and angle of VP will depend on a combination of factors, but for unbalanced fault conditions it will be related to the source impedance ZS . For convenience the vector equation is


The characteristic is shown below.

Figure 7


No Operation

Zf Z


Z Zs

No Operation

Characteristic for forward power flow

Characteristic for reverse power flow

Figure 8 Polarised Directional Characteristic As can be seen, the characteristic moves behind the origin for forward faults, and forward of it for reverse faults. In addition, as the SIR level increases ( ZS increases relative to Z) the characteristic moves further from the origin. This ensures operation for close-up forward faults and stability for reverse faults. the reactive component of the fault impedance is less than this value, the comparator operates. X will normally be set at about 87, so that the characteristic slopes in order to ensure that with increasing resistance, the relay will not overreach beyond setting.

The Reactance Characteristic is shown in Figure 9, and consists of a straight line which cuts the reactive axis at a value X F . This requires a replica impedance Z F of magnitude X F sin X and angle X . If

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No Operation



A typical offset quadrilateral characteristic is shown below. This is constructed using forward and reverse resistance characteristics, and forward and reverse reactance characteristics. This would be used for the offset zone 3 characteristic.
X Resistance



Figure 9 Reactance Characteristic


The vector equation for the reactance characteristic is



ZF Z ZF . If the angle between Z F and Z F Z is

less than 90, the comparator will operate. The Resistive Characteristic is shown below, and is identical in nature to the reactance characteristic, except for the choice of replica impedance. This gives a characteristic which is inclined at the line angle, but crosses the resistive axis at a value RF , giving increased resistive coverage over the entire line length. The vector equation is again

which becomes

Figure 11 Typical offset quadrilateral distance characteristic 4 IMPEDANCE ZONES


The relay has as standard three zones of protection. Zone 1 & 2 are polarised to operate in the forward direction while zone 3 can be set as either forward, reverse or as an offset zone. If the zone 3 is set as an offset zone then the minimum reverse reach is the same as the minimum forward reach. These are shown in the Table 1.
Zone Minimum Reach (secondary ohms) 1Amp Zone 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2Amp 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 5Amp 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Maximum Reach (secondary ohms) 1Amp 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 2Amp 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 5Amp 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

which becomes



Zone 2 Zone 3 Fwd/Rev Zone 3 Offset Fwd

No Operation

Rf R Zf

Zone 3 Offset Rev Zone 4 Fwd/Rev Zone 5 Fwd/Rev Table 1

Figure 10 Resistance Characteristic The replica impedance

RF cos( L 90) and angle L 90 .

Z F has magnitude

A further zone 4 is available as an option, this is a polarised characteristic that can be set to operate in the reverse direction it is commonly used in conjunction with a blocking scheme.

Offset Quadrilateral Characteristic

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circular shape of characteristic is recommended for the following reasons: phase mho power swing comparators are stable during power swings. the reactance element of a polygonal power swing characteristic cannot be polarised either by a negative or by a zero sequence current. Power swing is a symmetrical phenomena which does not produce negative and zero sequence quantities. Thus, its reactive measurement must be somewhat different than a reactance measurement of a distance element. Consequently, a power swing blocking function tends to maloperate during power swings see Figure 13 mho circles can be designed to be immune to any measuring distortions of the power swings due to a single pole auto-reclosing.

A power swing is the result of a change in angle between two power systems. Each system can be subjected to disturbances such as faults, loss of load, loss of large generation, etc. which in turn, may result in excursions of generator rotor angles. Assuming a two machine model, one generator working at local end of the line will rotate with different angular velocity with reference to the remote generator until reaching a new stability point. This phenomenon can result in oscillating power between two ends of the protected line. At the relaying point, a distance element measures these as impedance oscillations which may encroach a set protection impedance characteristics and trip a line. In order to prevent from maltripping, a power swing blocking function is implemented. There are various methods detecting power swings encroaching impedance measuring elements. The most common practice is to plot an impedance curve which encloses tripping impedance characteristics. Ohmega employs two independent shapes of characteristics for this purpose i.e. polygonal and circular Figure 12
X Blinder Reach Reverse

Im Tripping Impedance Element

Power Swing Locus


Power Swing Impedance Element

Impedance Reach Forward Blinder Reach Forward Blinder Reach Reverse

Impedance Reach Forward

Blinder Reach Forward

Figure 13 Power swing locus and quad measuring elements. In Figure 13 the reactance of quad distance element is polarised by a negative sequence current whereas the reactance of quad power swing element is polarised by a line current. An untransposed transmission system can produce as much as 14% of negative sequence current. Moreover, a negative sequence current oscillates proportionally to line currents oscillations which could result in exceeding a threshold magnitude necessary to prime a phase-to-earth comparators. The figure shows that use of those characteristics can cause maloperation.

R Impedance Reach Reverse Impedance Reach Reverse

Figure 12 Circular and polygonal power swing detectors. The mho circle contains forward and reverse resistance blinders to separate it from the load impedance if necessary. The user can enable or disable these blinders to achieve the best tailored shape with reference to load and tripping zones. The choice of the characteristic is available in the power swing menu of the relay. However, for most applications a

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS 5.2 Theory of design


Multiplier k

To obtain either circular or polygonal characteristics, a phase angle comparator is implemented. The polygonal shape contains four superimposed independent comparators whereas a circular shape only one comparator with two additional blinders on both sides of the line impedance is needed. The power swing detector measures the rate z of an oscillating impedance by means of two concentric characteristics surrounding all distance tripping zones. If an oscillating impedance lies between inner and outer zones for duration of time longer than a pre-set time, the power swing blocking signal is generated. The outer characteristic is a replica of the inner characteristic multiplied by a predetermined factor k set on the relay (Figure 14). Usually, the outer characteristic is enlarged by the factor 1.3. In other words, all reaches are higher by 30% with reference to inner characteristic to complete the design of a power swing detector.

Outer Zone Multiplier k Inner Zone

Figure 14 Inner and outer characteristics. Since a fault can occur during power oscillations, it is necessary to facilitate another means to distinguish between a power swing and a genuine fault condition. The well established principle of the summation transformer is used to distinguish the optimum of the sequence quantities. Therefore, a distance relay adopts some design concepts of a current differential relay. The PS blocking signal is cancelled instantaneously after a symmetrical component detector is active. Subsequently, all distance elements are primed to operate. Each distance zone can be selected individually to be blocked by a PSB signal. The access and settings of PSB functions are self-explanatory in the menu. Precautions must be taken to separate the maximum reach of a PSB element from load. 5.3 Commissioning.

All comparators use a phase type polarisation technique. However, the Ohmega relay employs two variants of a power swing detector depending upon the type of tripping. If a three phase tripping is selected, a single BC comparator is implemented. In the case of a single pole tripping, three phase comparators are activated to assure a correct measurement during single pole auto-reclosing.

Commissioning has to be carried out depending upon the type of relay, i.e. three phase and single phase tripping systems. The following refers to a three phase tripping system. Generally, a power swing is a symmetrical disturbance. Hence, a three phase type of fault should be selected on a testing equipment. As mentioned previously, although the three phase tripping scheme employs only one BC comparator, phase fault BC is not adequate to simulate a PSB feature because of the sequence network fault detector which stops this feature being activated. In other words, the relay sees it as a fault condition and tries to trip instantaneously. Therefore, the testing

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS equipment must include some means to simulate a three phase fault. All relays are subjected to comprehensive tests at the factory. Therefore, on-site tests should be limited to prove all functions used in the particular application. The appropriate output contact must be programmed in the Rey-Logic matrix prior to the test. Connect the output contact from the relay to a testing equipment in order to plot power swing characteristics. Select all zones to be blocked by a PSB. Switch on the test set into auto-test and plot an outer PSB characteristic. While simulating a power swing, reduce the voltage in all three phases further to encroach a tripping characteristics of all zones. Relay should remain stable. If a digital test kit is available, write a programme of sequence events to simulate a single phase-to-earth or phase fault after encroaching tripping zones. This time the relay should operate after a set per zone time delay. Disable the blocking function of the lowest impedance reach zone 1. Repeat test 4 proving the correct operating and indication. Check all distance zones applied to the relay one at the time. Range of relay settings. Inner Forward Impedance Inner Reverse Impedance Inner Blinder Forward Inner Blinder Reverse Multiple (Outer Impedance) PS Timer 0.1-250 ohm in 0.1 ohm step 0.1-250 ohm in 0.1 ohm step 0.1-250 ohm in 0.1 ohm step 0.1-250 ohm in 0.1 ohm step 1.05-250% in 0.01% step 0-1000ms in 5ms step


A protection voltage transformer (V.T.) would normally be connected to the protection relay terminals via a fuse or a miniature circuit breaker. Operation of these would remove the voltage source for one or more phases. With load current flowing in the circuit this could then appear to the relay that a fault had occurred, possibly causing a healthy system to be tripped out. The V.T.S. is used to prevent this occurring by blocking the operation of the impedance elements. 6.1 Description of Operation.

A residual voltage system is used to detect VT fuse failure. In the event that one or two VT fuses fail a residual voltage will be developed across the relay terminals, without a corresponding residual current being present. The relay incorporates a zero sequence overvoltage detector and a zero sequence undercurrent detector. The operation of both of these detectors indicates a fuse failure. This generates a signal that gives an alarm and may be used to inhibit the distance protection. In the event of an earth fault the zero sequence undercurrent detector will reset and the relay will be able to trip, but with possibly incorrect indication. A phase fault does not generate any zero sequence current and so cannot reset the undercurrent detector. This can prevent the relay from operating so it is possible to inhibit only the earth fault distance elements from the VTS. Figure 15 shows the VTS logic used in Ohmega relays.



100 / 0





On the completion of functional test, set on the test kit an impedance between outer and inner zone. Switch on the test kit and measure an operating time delay of the PSB timer. Change the value on the timer and do a few more tests.



Figure 15 VTS logic This arrangement is relatively simple and readily lends itself to application assessment in terms of its effect, if any, on the earth fault protection coverage. The minimum time response is arranged to be

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS approximately 2/3 of the minimum operating time of the zone 1 to ensure an adequate time margin for blocking. The inhibit signal is available immediately whereas the alarm signal has a minimum of 100ms time delay. This is to prevent nuisance alarms occurring during circuit breaker switching. The above principle is recommended in applications for the transmission and subtransmission system where the maximum residual current is 5% or less of the load current. VTS contacts can be selected from the OUTPUT MENU. 7 SWITCH ON TO FAULT 7.1 Description of Operation

There are two types of switch on to fault schemes employed in Ohmega designated as: AC line check DC line check. AC line check utilises three-phase pole dead logica 3 phase voltage detector element to determine when the breaker is open or closed. The DC line check uses an auxiliary contact on the CB closing handle to determine when the CB is being closed. The Ohmega relay contains both types of line check and both can be employed simultaneously or independently as required. (a) AC line check Under normal circumstances when the CB is open, then for each phase the line VT's give zero output and there is no current flowing. Hence each phase of the poledead logic will have an undervoltage detector signal (ACSOTFUV A, B, C) fed to the AND gate, and a low output signal from the lowset overcurrent detector (SOTF_OC_A, B, C), inverted and fed and henceto the AND gate via a PD timer, with 0ms pickup and 200ms dropoff. All three phases of the pole dead logic are fed to an AND.hence the under voltage detector signals (ACLCUV A, B, C) feed into the AND gate. This primes the output ready for an operation of any lowsetfrom the Low set overcurrent ,elements (LSOC A, B, C) or any Zone 3 instantaneous (Z3G) element. A variable time delay (T1) is set typically to 10s pick-up and it has a fixed 200ms drop off time. Thus the AC signal has to be zero for 10 or more seconds before the line check feature is allowed to be re-activated. When the CB closes onto a healthy line, the relay is primed for instantaneous operation for a short time delay of 200ms. After this time, the priming signal to the output is removed at which point the protection reverts to normal delayed Z3 and delayed HSOC tripping. Also, the pole dead logic timers prevent resetting of the pole dead logic for 200ms on tripping. operation of the lowset overcurrent detectors. If the CB closes on to a faulty line, the CB will be tripped instantaneously via the

The zone 1 instantaneous elements of the OHMEGA distance protection are directional and rely upon polarisation from either the faulted phase and/or a healthy phase. When closing on to a bolted fault where all three-phase voltages are extremely low, the zone 1 instantaneous elements may not operate. Time delayed operation would occur from either the zone 3 offset element or the high set overcurrent. This is not acceptable and special precautions are necessary to ensure high-speed clearance for this condition. The switch on to fault feature ensures that for a short period of time after a CB is closed, the offset zone 3 elements and the overcurrent elements are allowed to trip at high speed.

T 1

T 2
2 /0 5





T 3
0/ 4 0 0

Figure 16 Switch on to fault logic

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS zone 3 detectors or after a time delay of 25ms via the LSOC detectors. If the CB is closed on to a healthy line and any fault occurs during the 200ms period provided by the timer, the CB will be tripped instantaneously from zone 3 and in the case of a 3-phase fault, this is backed up after 25ms by the LSOC. The 25ms delay on the LSOC is provided for stability when closing on to heavily charged feeders. As the AC line check relies upon AC voltage detectors it cannot be effective when busbar VT's are fitted and DC line check must be utilised. (b) DC line check The DC line check relies upon an auxiliary contact on the CB closing switch. This signal is fed through pulse generation logic to give a single pulse (TRIG_DC_SOTF), which primes the output gate via a 400ms timer. This is to ensure that a consistent time is obtained even when a long manual close signal is in use. When the CB is closed on to a healthy line the output gate is primed for high speed tripping for the period of 400ms. High speed tripping does not occur if the system remains healthy during this period. If the CB is closed on to a faulty line, the CB will be tripped instantaneously via the zone 3 detectors or after a time delay of 25ms by the LSOC detectors. If the CB is closed on to a healthy line, and any fault occurs during the 400ms period, the CB will be tripped instantaneously from zone 3. In the case of 3 phase fault this is backed up after 25ms by the LSOC. As for the AC line check the 25ms delay time prevents incorrect tripping when closing on to heavily charged feeders. 7.2 (a) Settings 7.2.1 AC line check fixed setting fixed setting fixed setting fixed setting fixed setting fixed setting variable setting VA - 20 Volts rms VB - 20 Volts rms VC - 20 Volts rms LSOCA - 0.2xIN LSOCB - 0.2xIN LSOCC - 0.2xIN T1 10s PU Tripping and alarm

T1 200ms DO fixed setting T2 25ms PU fixed setting Pole dead timers 0ms pickup (fixed), 200ms dropoff (fixed) (b) DC line check fixed setting

T3 - 400ms PU

Other settings (where applicable) are identical to AC line check settings The settings menu for the SOTF function is contained in the AUX PROTECTION and contains the following setting:
AC Line Check DC Line Check Enable / Disable Enable / Disable Enable Enable

The DC Line check function is permanently enabled and to operate this a dc signal must be applied to the relevant status input. The Time delay setting for the SOTF is found in the REYLOGIC CONFIG menu ACLC Pick Up Delay Application (a) AC Line check The AC line check relies upon the under voltage detectors determining the status of the CB and can therefore only be specified when line VT's are fitted. (b) DC Line check If busbar VTs are fitted then there is a voltage connected to the relay when the circuit breaker is open in this case the AC line check feature will not work correctly therefore the DC version should be used. The signal is taken from a fleeting contact from the circuit breaker closing circuits and applied to one of the status inputs. The chosen input can then be programmed for DC line check operation. 0 60 sec 10s

The Line check output is automatically configured to operate a three phase trip condition. The LCTRIP can be mapped to one of the LEDs and to any of the output contacts to give an alarm. 8 FAULT LOCATOR

The fault locator gives the operator an indication of the location of the fault. This

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IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS information can be presented in three different formats which are a percentage of line length, or the distance in either miles or kilometres. This is selected in the menu function. The fault locator must be programmed with the Positive Sequence Line Impedance. It is important that this value must be for the total length of the feeder and not the Zone 1 reach. The values must be in terms of secondary impedance. The secondary impedance per unit must also be entered. For example a 20km line may have a secondary impedance of 15 ohms. This would give a unit value of 0.75 ohms per kilometre using these values the fault locator would accurately measure the fault position. The fault locator if enabled will measure for any general trip condition. While the fault is being calculated the relay fascia function keys are disabled for a few seconds.

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