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International Telecommunication Union

Resistibility vs. IEC 62305 Lightning protection standard and for ports connected to multiple conductors
Roberto Pomponi
Telecom Italia, Italy
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

Contents

ITU-T

Resistibility versus IEC 62305 standard


Rated impulse withstand voltage level Uw Probability of damage values due to direct lightning to the services PU and PV and equipment resistibility values Induction protection distance: shielded lines and equipment resistibility values

Resistibility requirements for ports connected to multiple conductors of external d.c. or a.c. dedicated power feeding cables
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 2

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Rated impulse withstand voltage Uw

ITU-T

o Definition (IEC 62305-2 standard, clause 3.1.8) Impulse withstand voltage assigned by the manufacturer to the equipment or part of it, characterizing the specified withstand capability of its insulation against overvoltages Note For the purpose of this standard, only withstand voltage between live conductors and earth is considered
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 3

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Equipment impulse withstand voltage according to IEC 62305-4 standard (1)

ITU-T

o The withstand level of the power installation is

defined in IEC 60664-1 (rated impulse withstand voltage 1,5 2,5 4 and 6 kV)
This is only an insulation coordination test. During the test the equipment is de-energized

o The withstand level of telecommunication

equipment is defined in ITU-T K.20 and K.21 o The withstand level of general equipment is defined in their product specifications or can be tested
against conducted surges, using IEC 61000-4-5 with test levels for voltage: 0,5 1 2 - 4 kV at 1,2/50 s waveshape and with test levels for current: 0,25 0,5 1 2 kA at 8/20 s waveshape against magnetic fields, using IEC 61000-4-9 with test levels: 100 300 1 000 A/m at 8/20 s waveshape and IEC 61000-4-10 with test levels: 10-30-100 A/m at 1 MHz.
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

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Equipment impulse withstand voltage according to IEC 62305-4 standard (2)

ITU-T

o Equipment not complying with radio frequency

(RF), radiated emission and immunity tests, as defined by the relevant EMC product standards, can be at risk due to directly radiated magnetic fields into it. On the other hand, the failure of equipment complying with these standards can be neglected.

Conclusion proposal: SG 5 should suggests to IEC TC 77 to define for power interface port of any type of equipment: resistibility requirements and test procedure in accordance with K.20 or K.21 taking into account IEC 60664-1 requirements
dates ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 5

Lightning as source of damages (IEC 62305 standard)

ITU-T
Direct to the structure Close to the structure RM Equipment failure Direct to the tlc line RU Injury to people RV Physical damage RW Equipment failure Close to the tlc line RZ Equipment failure

Risk components Risks

RA Injury to people RB Physical damage RC Equipment failure

R1: Risk of loss of human life = RA+RB+RU+RV +(RC+RW+RM+RZ) R2: Risk of loss of service = RB+RC+RV+RW+RM+RZ
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 6

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Risk components: Basic equations

ITU-T
Nx Px Lx

Rx = Nx Px Lx
Number of dangerous events Probability of damage Consequent loss of the damage

N x = Ng A x
Ng Ax Ground flash density [Flash number/km2year] Collection area
Ad AM AL Ai
dates

for direct strokes for lightning close to the structure for direct lightning to the service for lightning near the service
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ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

ITU-T

Probability due to direct lightning to the services PU (injury to living beings ) PV (physical damage)
P = p(Ia); Ia is the failure current For unshielded line Ia = 0 and P = 1 (approximation) For shielded line Ia depends on: - Shield resistance per unit length of the service: Rs; - Impulse withstand voltage of the internal systems connected to the services: Uw

K.47

2 Uw Ia = 8 Rs Kp

Uw

Uw

Internal System

Kp
dates

Protection factor value of the protection measure


soil resistivity for buried cable effective soil resistivity for aerial cable
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 8

Probability Table PU and PV

ITU-T
Red values missed in the IEC standard

Probability PU and PV Uw kV 1 1,5 2,5 4 6 5<RS20 (/km) 1 1 0,95 0,9 0,8 1<RS 5 (/km) 0,9 0,8 0,6 0,3 0,1 RS1 (/km) 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,04 0,02

o PU and PV

UW is the insulation breakdown voltage of the line, including the terminal equipment
o The lowest Uw is inside the equipment o The values of this voltage Uw are the resistibility levels. Is it correct?

dates

ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

Induction protection distance, lpi


S1
Loop A1
l pi1 = U w1 U p(f) h h = f(.., KS2, ..)

ITU-T

LPS Customers building S lpi1 A SPD Up/f MET A1 Uw1


Uw2 lpi2

S2

KS2 internal shields Loop A2: not in the


IEC standard

A2

Uw2

approximation

l pi2

U w2 = h

Uw2 withstand voltage of the equipment port connected to both an unshielded or shielded cable. For shielded line, this value is not defined by K.20 or K.21: the test voltage is applied between shield and earth
dates ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 10

Broadband services: Fibre to the curb


Cabinet

ITU-T

Pair conductors to customers Equipment

Power supply DC PE PE DC a b

Optical fibre cable to B.B.

Port F

to B.B.

Existing Symmetrical pair cable

Bonding Bar (B.B.)

Rt

Remote site: Multiple conductors of an external dc or a.c. dedicated remote power feeding circuit
dates ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 11

Expected lightning overcurrents

ITU-T

Isc

isce

peak value of short circuit current (10/350 s) of each conductor

m conductors m conductors Short circuit current of each conductor in the remote site can be assumed equal to the short circuit current measured at the exchange end

e.g. m = 30 - 50

Table 5/K.67 isce [A] p 35 25 15 0,01 0,02 0,05

Isc = miscef(ks, m)

f(ks, m) shielding factor Probably this shielding factor is already included in the value of Table 5/K.67
dates ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 12

Expected power frequency overcurrents

ITU-T Wsc

wace

specific energy of short circuit current of each conductor

m conductors m conductors wace = 0,2 A2s Rec. K.45

Wsc = misceg(ks, m)
g(ks, m) shielding factor

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ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

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Resistibility requirements for ports connected to multiple conductors

ITU-T

o After the evaluation of the expected

overcurrents, the definition of the resistibility and protection requirements for port connected to multiple conductors of external d.c. or a.c. dedicated power feeding circuit could be discussed

o For example: f(ks,m) = 1; m = 50; isce = 35A Isc = 1750 A 10/350 s Possible resistibility requirements:
Port tested with 1750 A 10/350 or equivalent or Port always protected with GDTs with Iimp 2 kA 10/350 Inherent resistibility requirements: in accordance with K.45
dates ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 14

Conclusion
o

ITU-T
o o

SG 5 should suggest to IEC TC 77 to define resistibility requirements and test procedure for power ports of any type of equipment based on K.21 test procedure and IEC 60664-1 requirements The insulation flashover inside the equipment is equivalent to the equipment resistibility value? For internal shielded lines, is it convenient that the equipment resistibility value is given in a different manner respect to the all other cases?
Possible solution: same resistibility requirement for unshielded or shielded internal line

In the development of the broadband services, it could be useful to define the Resistibility requirements for ports connected to multiple conductors
ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan 15

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ITU-T

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ITU-T SG 5 Technical Session Resistibility requirements and testing 23 May 2006, Osaka, Japan

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