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EUROPEAN STANDARD

EN 12663

NORME EUROPEENNE EUROPAISCHE NORM

July2000

ICS 45.060.01

English version

Railway applications

Structural requirements of railway vehicle bodies

铁道车辆车体结构要求

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2000-01-14.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

The European Standards exist in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

CEN

European Committee for Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Europaisches Komitee fur Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

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EN 12663:2000

Contents 目录 Foreword ……………………………………………………………………… 2 Introduction 前言 ………………………………………………………………… 2

  • 1 Scope 适用范围 ………………………………………………………………… 3

  • 2 Definitions 定义 ………………………………………………………………… 3

    • 2.1 Railway vehicle body 铁道车辆车体 ………………………………………… 3

    • 2.2 Operator of railway vehicles 铁道车辆运营者 ……………………………… 3

    • 2.3 Designer of railway vehicles 铁道车辆设计者 ……………………………… 3

    • 2.4 Vehicle masses 铁道车辆质量 ……………………………………………… 4

    • 2.5 Coordinate system 坐标系 …………………………………………………… 4

      • 3 Structural requirements 结构要求 …………………………………………… 5

        • 3.1 General 概述…………………………………………………………………… 5

        • 3.2 Categories of railway vehicles 铁道车辆种类……………………………… 6

        • 3.3 Uncertainties in railway design parameters 铁路设计参数不确定性………7

        • 3.4 Demonstration of static strength and structural stability 静强度和结构稳定性验证……………………………………………………… 9

        • 3.5 Demonstration of stiffness 刚度验证……………………………………… 11

        • 3.6 Demonstration of fatigue strength 疲劳强度验证 ………………………… 11

          • 4 Design load cases 设计载荷工况 …………………………………………… 13

            • 4.1 General 概述 ………………………………………………………………… 13

            • 4.2 Longitudinal static loads for the vehicle body 车体纵向静载荷…………… 13

            • 4.3 Vertical static loads for the vehicle body 车体垂直静载荷………………… 15

            • 4.4 Superposition of static load cases for the vehicle body 车体静载荷工况合成 16

            • 4.5 Proof load cases for equipment attachments 设备装置保证载荷………… 17

            • 4.6 General fatigue load cases for the vehicle body 车体一般疲劳载荷……… 18

            • 4.7 Fatigue loads at interfaces 界面处的疲劳载荷……………………………… 21

            • 4.8 Combination of fatigue load cases 疲劳载荷工况的组合………………… 22

            • 4.9 Modes of vibration 振动模态………………………………………………… 22

4.10 Other design loads 其他设计载荷………………………………………… 23

  • 5 Permissible stresses for materials 材料许用应力 …………………………… 23

    • 5.1 Static strength 静强度 ……………………………………………………… 23

    • 5.2 Fatigue strength 疲劳强度…………………………………………………… 23

      • 6 Requirements of strength demonstration tests 强度验证试验要求………… 24

        • 6.1 Objectives 目的……………………………………………………………… 24

        • 6.2 Proof load tests 保证载荷试验……………………………………………… 24

        • 6.3 Service or fatigue load tests 运营或疲劳载荷试验………………………… 25

        • 6.4 Vibration tests 振动试验…………………………………………………… 26

        • 6.5 Impact tests 冲击试验 ……………………………………………………… 26

Annex A (informative): Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or other provisions of EU Directives

附录 A(资料性):本欧洲标准条款选择基本要求或欧共体指令其他规定26

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Foreword

This European Standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CENTC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. 本欧洲标准由 CENTC 256“铁路应用”技术委员会起草,该技术委员会的秘书处由 DIN 主持。

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2001, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2001. 最迟在 2001 1 月,通过出版相同文本或签署认可,本欧洲标准将成为国家标准状态;与 其相抵触的国家标准最迟在 2001 1 月将停用。

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). 本欧洲标准在欧洲议会和欧洲自由贸易协会给 CEN 的要求下起草,并维持欧盟指令的基本 要求。

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 按照 CEN/CENELEC 的内部规定,下列国家的标准化组织必须执行本欧洲标准:奥地利、 比利时、捷克、丹麦、芬兰、法国、德国、希腊、冰岛、爱尔兰、意大利、卢森堡、荷兰、 挪威、葡萄牙、西班牙、瑞典、瑞士、英国。

Introduction 前言

The structural design of railway vehicle bodies depends on the loads they are subject to and the characteristics of the materials they are manufactured from. Within the scope of this European Standard, it is intended to provide a uniform basis for the structural design of the vehicle body.

铁道车辆车体结构设计取决于其承受的载荷和其使用的材料特性。在本欧洲标准的范围内,

试图提供一个统一的车体结构设计基础。

The loading requirements for the vehicle body structural design and testing are based on proven experience supported by the evaluation of experimental data and published information. The aim of this European Standard is to allow the designer freedom to optimize his design whilst maintaining requisite levels of safety.

车体结构设计和试验的载荷要求是基于试验数据评估支持的已证实的经验和已出版的信息。

本欧洲标准的目的是允许设计者自主的优化其设计,同时保持必须的安全水平。

This European Standard defines no specific arithmetical techniques in order not to affect the developments in analysis methods and permit innovative developments by vehicle designers and operators. Changes due to advances in scientific knowledge and technology will be taken into account at suitable intervals through revisions and/or supplements.

本欧洲标准不定义特殊的计算技术,以不影响分析方法的发展;允许车辆设计者和运用者革

新发展。由于科学知识和技术的进步发生的变化将在适当的阶段通过修订和/或补充的方法

加以考虑。

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  • 1. Scope 适用范围

This European Standard defines minimum structural requirements for railway vehicle bodies.

本欧洲标准定义了铁道车辆车体的最低结构要求。

This European Standard specifies the loads vehicle bodies shall be capable of sustaining, identifies how material data shall be used and presents the principles to be used for design verification by analysis and testing.

本欧洲标准说明车体应能承受的载荷,确定应使用的材料数据,提供分析和试验设计评估使

用的原理。

The railway vehicles are divided into categories which are defined only with respect to the structural requirements of the vehicle bodies.

铁道车辆被分为不同种类,这些种类仅是按照车体结构要求定义。

These structural requirements should not be confused with operating requirements. It is the responsibility of the operator to decide as to which structural category railway vehicles shall be designed. Some vehicles may not fit into any of the defined categories; the structural requirements for such railway vehicles should be specified by the operator using the principles presented in this European Standard.

这些结构要求不应与运用要求相混淆。决定铁道车辆设计成哪种结构类型是运用者的责任。

某些车辆也许不能适合已定义的种类;此类铁道车辆的结构要求应由运用者使用本欧洲标准

提供的原理进行说明。

The standard applies to all railway vehicles within the EU and EFTA territories. The specified requirements assume operating conditions and circumstances such as are prevalent in these countries.

本标准适用于在欧盟和欧洲自由贸易区的所有铁道车辆。所述要求采用在这些国家普遍的运

用条件和环境。

  • 2. Definitions 定义

For the purpose of this European Standard, the following definitions apply:

在本欧洲标准中采用下列定义:

  • 2.1 Railway vehicle body 铁道车辆车体

It comprises the main load carrying structure above the suspension units. It includes all components which are affixed to this structure which contribute directly to its strength, stiffness and stability.

由悬挂之上主要载荷支承结构组成。它包括安装在该结构上对其强度、刚度和稳定性有贡献

的所有部分。

NOTE: Mechanical equipment and other mounted parts are not considered to be part of the vehicle body though their attachments to it are. 注释:机械设备和其他安装部件不作为车体部件,尽管他们安装在车体上。

  • 2.2 Operator of railway vehicles 铁道车辆运营者

The organisation which has the responsibility for defining the technical requirements for the railway vehicle in order that it will perform the intended operation in consideration of acceptance criteria.

考虑到接受标准以便完成预定运用任务,对定义铁道车辆技术要求负有责任的组织。

  • 2.3 Designer of railway vehicles 铁道车辆设计者

The organisation which has responsibility for designing the railway vehicle to satisfy the technical requirements of the operator.

满足运营者技术要求,对设计铁道车辆负有责任的组织。

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  • 2.4 Vehicle masses 车辆质量

2.4.1

2.4.2

-

-

长途

-

-

通勤/郊区

-

-

长途

-

-

通勤/郊区

-

-

2.4.3

旅客典型重量:

long distance

Mass of the vehicle body in working order m 1

整备状态车体质量 m 1

The mass in working order m 1 consists of the completely assembled vehicle body with all mounted parts. This includes the full operating reserves of water, sand, fuel, foodstuffs etc. and the overall weight of staff. 整备状态质量 m 1 包括带有所有安装部件的完全组装的车体。这里包括全部运营准备的水、 沙、燃料、食品等,以及工作人员总重。

Maximum payload m 2 最大有效载荷 m 2

The maximum payload m 2 is to be determined dependent on the type of vehicle. For freight vehicles, it corresponds to the allowed mass of the goods. For passenger rolling stock, it depends on the number of seats for passengers and on the number of passengers per m 2 in the standing areas. These values are fixed by the operator, taking into account any statutory regulations, and give the mass for the payload and the number of passengers which are allowed to be transported in these vehicles. 最大有效载荷 m 2 的确定取决于车辆类型。对于货车,其对应于容许的货物质量。对于客车, 其取决于乘客坐席数量和站立区每平方米乘客数。这些值由运营者确定,考虑法律规定,并 给出在这些车辆上容许运输的有效载荷质量和乘客数量。

Typical weights for passengers:

commuter/suburban

Typical passenger densities in standing areas:

站立区典型旅客密度:

long distance

commuter/suburban

Typical luggage area loading:

典型行李区装载:

80 kg per passenger with luggage;

包括行李每位旅客 80kg

70 kg per passenger.

每位旅客 80kg

2 to 4 passenger per m

2

2 4 /m 2

2

5 to 10 passengers per m .

5 10 /m 2

2

300 kg per m .

300kg/m 2

Mass of the bogie or running gear m 3 转向架或走行装置质量 m 3

The mass of one bogie or running gear m 3 is the mass of all equipment below and including the body suspension. The mass of linking elements between vehicle body and bogie or running gear shall be apportioned between m 1 and m 3 . 一个转向架或走行装置的质量 m 3 是车体悬挂以下,包括车体悬挂的所有设备的质量。车体 和转向架或走行装置之间连接元件的质量将在 m 1 m 3 之间进行分配。

  • 2.5 Coordinate system 坐标系

The coordinate system is shown in Figure 1 . The positive direction of the x-axis (corresponding to vehicle longitudinal axis) is in the direction of movement. The y-axis (corresponding to vehicle transverse axis) is in the horizontal plane. The positive direction of the z-axis (corresponding to vehicle vertical axis) points upwards.

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坐标系如图 1 所示。x-轴(相应于车辆纵轴)的正方向是运动方向。y-轴(相应于车辆横轴) 在水平面内。z-轴(相应于车辆垂直轴)的正方向是向上。

Page 5 EN 12663:2000 坐标系如图 1 所示。 x- 轴(相应于车辆纵轴)的正方向是运动方向。 y- 轴(相应于车辆横轴) 在水平面内。 z- 轴(相应于车辆垂直轴)的正方向是向上。 Figure 1

Figure 1 - Vehicle coordinate system

图 1-车辆坐标系

3 Structural requirements 结构要求 3.1 General 概述

Railway vehicle bodies shall withstand the maximum loads consistent with their operational requirements and achieve the required service life under normal operating conditions with an adequate probability of survival.

铁道车辆车体应能承受相应运用要求的最大载荷,并在正常运用条件下达到必须的带有适当

存活概率的使用寿命。

The capability of the railway vehicle body to not sustain permanent deformation and fracture shall be demonstrated by calculation and/or testing (see clause 6). The assessment shall be based on the following criteria:

铁道车辆车体不发生永久变形和断裂的能力将提供计算和/或试验(见第 6 款)检验。评估 基于下列准则:

  • a) Exceptional loading defining the maximum loading which shall be sustained and a full

operational condition maintained;

  • a) 持续不变的和保持全运用条件的最大载荷定义的超常加载;

  • b) Acceptable margin of safety, such that if the exceptional load is exceeded, catastrophic fracture

or collapse will not occur;

  • b) 可接受的安全余量,例如如果超常载荷被超过,不应出现灾难性断裂或崩塌;

  • c) Stiffness, such that the deformation under load and the natural frequencies of the structure meet

limits as determined by the operational requirements;

  • c) 刚度,例如载荷下的位移和结构固有频率满足由运用要求决定的限值;

  • d) Service or cyclic loads being sustained for the specified life without detriment to the structural

safety.

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d) 对指定寿命对结构安全无损害持续的运营或循环载荷;

The operator shall supply data defining the expected service conditions. In conjunction with the operator, it is the task of the designer to identify all significant load cases in a meaningful way from these data and to ensure that the design satisfies them.

运营者应提供数据定义预期的使用条件。与运营者协力,从这些数据以有意义的方法确定所

有载荷工况和确保设计满足这些数据是设计者的任务。

Where a vehicle body is a development of an earlier design for which the safety has been demonstrated, and similar service conditions apply, then earlier data may be used, supported by comparative evidence. Areas of significant change shall be re-analysed and/or tested.

当车体是一个已被验证安全的较早设计的改进时,并且有相同的运用条件,通过比较证据的

支持,那么可以使用早期数据。

The requirements of this European Standard are based on the use of metallic materials and requirements defined in 3.4.2, 3.4.3 and 3.6 and clauses 5 and 6 are specifically applicable only to such materials. If different (nonmetallic) materials are being used, then the basic principles of this standard shall still be applied. The designer shall ensure that he has suitable data to represent the performance of the materials. He shall adopt methods and requirements such that they are applied in a manner consistent with the current state of knowledge. 本欧洲标准要求基于使用金属材料,在 3.4.2, 3.4.3, 3.6 和第 5, 6 款定义的要求明确仅适用于 此类材料。如果使用不同(非金属)材料,本标准的基本原理仍然可以应用。设计者应确保 有能代表材料性能的适当数据。应采用方法和要求这些试验数据以与当前知识相一致的方式 加以应用。

The load cases used as the basis of vehicle body design shall comprise the relevant cases listed in clause 4. 用于车体设计基础的载荷工况由第 4 款中列出的相应工况组成。

All formal parameters are expressed as SI basic units and units derived from SI basic units. The gravitational acceleration g is -9,81 m/s 2 . 所有形式参数以国际基本单位和导出单位表示。重力加速度 g -9,81 m/s 2

3.2 Categories of railway vehicles 铁道车辆种类 3.2.1 Structural categories 结构种类

For the application of this European Standard, all railway vehicles are classified in categories.

为应用本欧洲标准,所有铁道车辆被按种类分类。

The classification of the different categories of railway vehicles is based only upon the structural requirements of the vehicle bodies. It is the responsibility of the operators to decide as to which category railway vehicles shall be designed. There will be differences between operators. This is to be expected and should not be considered as conflicting with this European Standard. Some railway vehicles may not fit into any of the defined categories. The structural requirements for such railway vehicles should be specified by the operator using the principles presented in this standard.

不同种类铁道车辆分类方法仅基于车体结构要求。决定设计哪种类型铁道车辆是运营者的责

任。运营者之间会有所不同。这是预料之中的但不应与本欧洲标准相冲突。某些铁道车辆也

许不适合任何已定义的种类。对于这些铁道车辆的结构要求由运营者使用本标准提供的原理

详细说明。

Due to the specific nature of their construction and different design objectives there are two main groups, namely freight vehicles (F) and passenger vehicles including locomotives (P). The two groups may be subdivided further into categories according to their structural requirements. 由于结构特性和不同设计目的,主要有两组,即货车(F)和客车包括机车(P)。这两组按 照各自结构要求再细分为种类。

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The choice of category from the clauses below shall be based on the structural requirements as defined in the tables in clause 4. These structural requirements should not be confused with the operating requirements. The track gauge is also not a determinant for the choice of category. 从下列条目中选择种类是基于第 4 款表中定义的结构要求。这些结构要求不应与运营要求相 混淆。对于种类选择,线路轨距也不是一个决定性的因素。

  • 3.2.2 Freight vehicles 货车

All vehicles in this group are used for the transportation of goods. Two categories have been defined:

本组内的所有车辆都是用于运输货物。两个种类被定义:

  • - Category F-I e.g. vehicles which can be shunted without restriction;

  • - 种类 F-I,例如 能够无限制调车的车辆;

  • - Category F-Il e.g. vehicles excluded from hump and loose shunting.

  • - 种类 F-Il,例如 不能通过驼峰和任意调车的车辆。

    • 3.2.3 Passenger vehicles and locomotives 客车和机车

To this group belong all types of railway vehicles intended for the transport of passengers, ranging from main line vehicles, suburban and urban transit stock to tramways. Also included are locomotives and power units.

对于本组属于所有用于运送旅客的铁道车辆,范围从干线车辆、郊区和城市运输车辆到轨道

电车。也包括机车和动力单元。

Passenger vehicles are divided into five structural design categories into which all vehicles may be allocated. The five categories are listed below, with an indication of the types of vehicle generally associated with each:

客车被分为五种结构设计种类,所有车辆都可以分配到其中。五个种类如下,一般每个车对

应车辆类型的一个标识:

  • - Category P-I e.g. Coaches and locomotives;

  • - 类型 P-I,例如 客车和机车;

  • - Category P-Il e.g. Fixed units;

  • - Category P-Il,例如 固定单元;

  • - Category P-Ill e.g. Underground and rapid transit vehicles;

  • - Category P-Ill,例如 地铁和快速交通车辆;

  • - Category P-IV e.g. Light duty metro and heavy duty tramway vehicles;

  • - Category P-IV,例如 轻轨地铁和重轨电车

  • - Category P-V e.g. Tramway vehicles.

  • - Category P-V,例如 有轨电车。

3.3 Uncertainties in railway design parameters 铁路设计参数不确定性

  • 3.3.1 Loads 载荷

All loads used as the basis for vehicle body design shall incorporate any necessary allowance for uncertainties in their values. The loads specified in clause 4 include this allowance. 作为车体设计基础的所有载荷对其不确定性应加入必须的容差。第 4 款中给出的载荷已包括 了这方面的容差。

  • 3.3.2 Material 材料

For design purposes, the minimum material property values as defined by the material specification shall be used.

EN126632000

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用于设计目的,应使用材料规格定义的最小材料特性。

Where the material properties are affected, for example, by

例如,由于下列原因材料特性受影响时,

  • - rate of loading;

  • - 加载速率;

  • - time (e.g. by material ageing);

  • - 时间(例如 材料老化)

  • - environment (moisture absorption, temperature etc.);

  • - 环境(潮湿吸收、温度等)

  • - welding or other manufacturing processes

  • - 焊接或其他制造方法

appropriate new minimum values shall be determined.

应确定适当的新的最小值。

Similarly, the S-N curve used to represent the fatigue behaviour of material shall incorporate the above effects and shall represent the lower bound of data scatter as defined in 5.2. 同样,用于表征材料疲劳特性的 S-N 曲线应包括上述影响,应代表 5.2 中定义数据离散的较 低范围。

3.3.3 Uncertainty factors 不确定因素

The following factors introduce uncertainty into the design process:

下列因素引入设计过程的不确定性:

  • a) Dimensional tolerances 尺寸公差

It is normally acceptable to base calculations on the nominal component dimensions. It is necessary to consider minimum dimensions only if significant reductions in thickness (due to wear etc.) are inherent in the operation of the component. Adequate protection against corrosion will be an integral part of the vehicle specification. The loss of material by this cause may normally be neglected.

通常基于名义尺寸计算是可以接受的。仅当部件运用中固有的厚度明显减少(由于磨耗等)

才必须考虑最小尺寸。适当的抗蚀保护将是车辆技术条件的一个重要部分。因此材料损失通

常可以忽略。

  • b) Manufacturing process 制造方法

The performance characteristics exhibited by material in actual components may differ from those derived from test samples. Such differences are due to variations in the manufacturing processes and workmanship, which cannot be detected in any practicable quality control procedure.

在实际部件中材料表现的工作特性也许和从试样得到的工作特性不同。某些差别是由于制造

方法和制造工厂的变化,这些都不能在任何实际质量控制程序中发现。

  • c) Analytical accuracy 分析精度

Every analytical procedure incorporates approximations and simplifications. It is incumbent on the designer to be consciously conservative in the application of analytical procedures to the design.

每一种分析方法都包含近似和简化。在应用设计分析方法中,设计者义不容辞应有意识的小

心谨慎。

The uncertainties described in a) and b) may be allowed for by incorporating a safety factor into the design process. This “uncertainty factor” designated S shall be applied when comparing the calculated stresses to the permissible stress. a)b)中说明的不确定性可以通过加入设计方法的安全系数加以考虑。在计算应力和许

Page 9

EN 12663:2000

用应力比较时,应使用指定的“不确定性系数”S

3.4 Demonstration of static strength and structural stability 静强度和结构稳定 性验证

  • 3.4.1 Requirement 要求

It shall be demonstrated by calculation and/or testing, that no permanent deformation or fracture of the structure as a whole, or of any individual element, will occur under the prescribed design load cases. The requirement shall be achieved by satisfying 3.3.2 and, if the design is also limited by the conditions of 3.4.3 and 3.4.4 these shall be satisfied as well. 应通过计算和/或试验验证,在规定的设计载荷工况下,整体上或任何零件没有出现永久变 形和破裂。要求应通过满足 3.3.2 来达到;如果设计也被 3.4.3 3.4.4 条件限制,这些条件 也应满足。

  • 3.4.2 Yield or proof strength 屈服或弹性强度

Where the design is verified only by calculation, S 1 shall be 1,15 for each individual load case. S 1 may be taken as 1,0 subject to agreement between designer and operator where:

当只通过计算校核设计时,对每一单独载荷工况 S 1 1.15。按照设计者和运营者之间的协 议 S 1 可以取 1.0,当:

  • - the design load cases are to be verified by test or

  • - 设计载荷工况将通过试验检验,或

  • - the uncertainties mentioned in 3.3.3 can be shown to be very low or

  • - 可以表明在 3.3.3 中提及的不确定性非常低,或

  • - the superposition of load cases is demonstrated by calculation (see 4.4).

  • - 通过计算验证载荷工况的组合(见 4.4)。

Under the static load cases as defined in 4.1 to 4.5, the ratio of permissible stress to calculated stress shall be greater than or equal to S 1 . 4.1 4.5 定义的静载荷工况下,许用应力和计算应力之比应大于或等于 S 1

where:

其中:

Page 9 EN 12663:2000 用应力比较时,应使用指定的“不确定性系数” S 。 3.4 Demonstration of static strength and structural stability 静强度和结构稳定

R is the material yield (R e ) or 0,2% proof stress, (R p02 ) in N/mm 2 R 是材料屈服限(R e )0,2% 弹性极限(R p02 ),单位 N/mm 2 σ c is the calculated stress, in N/mm 2 . σ c 是计算应力,单位 N/mm 2

In determining the stress levels in ductile materials, it is not necessary to take into account features producing local stress concentration. If the analysis does incorporate local stress concentrations, then it is permissible for the theoretical stress to exceed the material yield or 0,2% proof limit. The areas of local plastic deformation associated with stress concentrations shall be sufficiently small so as not to cause any significant permanent deformation when the load is removed.

在确定易延展材料应力水平中不必考虑产生局部应力集中的问题。如果分析混合有局部应力 集中,那么允许理论应力超过屈服极限和 0,2%的弹性极限。和应力集中有关的局部塑性变 形区应足够小,免得当载荷去除时引起任何明显的永久变形。

  • 3.4.3 Ultimate strength 极限强度

It is necessary to provide a margin of safety between the maximum design load and the failure

Page 10

EN 12663:2000

load. This is achieved by introducing a safety factor, S 2 , such that the ratio between material ultimate stress and calculated stress shall be greater than or equal to S 2 . 必须规定最大设计载荷和失效载荷之间的安全极限。这通过引入安全系数 S 2 来实现,这样 材料极限应力和计算应力之比应大于或等于 S 2

*

Page 10 EN 12663:2000 load. This is achieved by introducing a safety factor, S , such

where:

其中:

R m is the material ultimate stress, in N/mm 2 R m 是材料极限应力,单位 N/mm 2 σ c is the calculated stress, in N/mm 2 . σ c 是计算应力,单位 N/mm 2

Usually S 2 =1.5, but the factor may be reduced when at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

通常 S 2 =1.5,当下列条件中至少有一条得到满足,此系数可以减少:

  • a) there are alternative load paths;

  • a) 有可供选择的载荷路径;

  • b) for parts of the structure which are specifically designed to collapse in a controlled manner;

  • b) 对于在可控状态下特殊设计结构的零部件;

  • c) the calculations are sufficiently detailed to give high confidence in the performance of the

critical areas of the structure.

  • c) 计算充分详细地对结构评定区域的性能给出高可信度。

The treatment of stress concentration as indicated in 3.4.2 also applies in this case. However, the effect of stress concentration shall be considered in more detail for brittle materials where local plastic yielding, as a mechanism for stress redistribution at the concentration, does not occur.

  • 3.4.2 中说明的对应力集中的处理也适用于本工况,然而当不出现作为一个在集中处应力重

新分布机制的局部塑性屈服时,对脆性材料应更详细地考虑应力集中的影响。

A reduction in the value of S 2 shall be agreed between the operator and designer. S 2 数值的减少应在运营者和设计者之间协商决定。

  • 3.4.4 Stability 稳定性

Local instability, in the form of elastic buckling, is permissible provided alternative load paths exist and the yield or proof criteria are met.

假如可选择载荷路径存在和满足标准的屈服或弹性极限,以弹性挤曲形式的局部屈服是允许

的。

The vehicle structure shall have a margin of safety against instability leading to general structural failure. This is to be achieved by ensuring that the ratio of the critical buckling stress to the calculated stresses shall be greater than or equal to S 3 :

车辆结构应有一个抵抗导致总体结构失效的不稳定性的安全限度。这是通过确保临界屈曲应 力与计算应力的比值大于或等于 S 3 来实现的:

Page 10 EN 12663:2000 load. This is achieved by introducing a safety factor, S , such

S 2 incorporates the uncertainty factor S 1 . S 2 包含有不确定系数 S 1

EN126632000

10

Page 11

EN 12663:2000

where:

其中:

σ cb is the critical buckling stress, in N/mm 2 σ cb 是临界压曲应力,单位 N/mm 2

σ c is the calculated stress, in N/mm 2 σ c 是计算应力,单位 N/mm 2

Usually S 3 =1 ,5, but the factor may be reduced if the structure is specifically designed to collapse in a controlled manner. A reduction in the value of S 3 shall be agreed between the operator and designer. 通常 S 3 =1.5,但如果结构被特殊设计为在可控制状态下压溃,该系数可以减少。S 3 数值的减 少应在运营者和设计者之间达成协议。

  • 3.5 Demonstration of stiffness 刚度验证

Stiffness limits ensure that the vehicle body remains within its required space envelope and unacceptable dynamic responses are avoided.

刚度限值确保车体保持在要求的空间包络面内,并消除不可接受的动态响应。

The required stiffness may be defined in terms of an allowable deformation under a prescribed load or as a minimum frequency of vibration. The requirements may apply to the complete vehicle body or to specific components or sub-assemblies.

要求的刚度可以通过规定载荷下允许的位移或最低振动频率来定义。要求可以用于完整的车

体,或特定部件,或部分总成。

Any additional specific requirements shall be agreed between the operator and designer.

任何附加的特殊要求应在运营者和设计者之间达成协议。

  • 3.6 Demonstration of fatigue strength 疲劳强度验证

3.6.1 General 概述

The structures of railway vehicle bodies are subjected to a very large number of dynamic loads of varying magnitude during their operational life.

铁道车辆车体结构在其使用寿命中承受不同量级的大量的动态载荷。

The effects of these loads are most apparent at critical features in the vehicle body structure. Examples of such features are:

对车体结构重要特征处这些载荷影响是最明显的。这些特征的例子是:

  • a) Points of load input (including equipment attachments);

  • a) 载荷输入点(包括设备附件);

  • b) Joints between structural members (e.g. welds, bolted connections);

  • b) 结构件之间的连接(例如,焊接、螺栓连接);

  • c) Changes in geometry giving rise to stress concentrations (e.g. door and window corners).

  • c) 几何变化引起应力集中(例如,门角和窗角)。

The identification of these critical features is essential. This is achieved by the designer’s experience in conjunction with the results of structural analysis or tests. Detailed examination of local features may be necessary.

这些重要特征的识别是基础。这要通过结构分析或试验的结果以及设计者的经验来达到。局

部特征的详细检查也许是必要的。

It is possible to demonstrate the fatigue strength by two different calculation methods:

能够通过两种不同的方法检验疲劳强度:

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EN 12663:2000

  • a) Endurance limit approach (see 3.6.2.1);

  • a) 耐久极限方法(见 3.6.2.1);

  • b) Cumulative damage approach (see 3.6.2.2).

  • b) 累计损伤方法(见 3.6.2.2)。

The nature and quality of the available data influence the choice of method to be used as described in 3.6.2. The methods to be used shall be agreed between designer and operator. 现有数据的性质和质量影响 3.6.2 中说明的使用方法的选择。使用的方法应在运营者和设计 者之间协商决定。

Provided the dynamic load cases which are being examined in the fatigue analysis already include allowance for any uncertainty and provided the minimum material properties are used as described in 5.2, no additional safety factors are necessary in these calculations. 如果疲劳分析检验用动态载荷已经包括了不确定性容差,并且按照 5.2 使用最小材料特性, 在这些计算中不必使用附加安全系数。

Test methods to demonstrate the fatigue performance or to verify the calculations results are described in 6.3. 疲劳性能试验检验方法或计算结果试验检验方法在 6.3 中说明。

3.6.2 Methods of calculation 计算方法

  • 3.6.2.1 Endurance limit approach 耐久极限方法

This approach is acceptable where the material data show that an endurance limit exists. The endurance limit is a stress level at which, provided all dynamic stress cycles remain below it, no fatigue damage will occur.

当材料数据表明存在耐久极限时可使用本方法。耐久极限是一个应力标准,倘若所有应力循

环都在其之下,不会出现疲劳损坏。

The required fatigue strength is demonstrated provided the stress, due to all appropriate combinations of the fatigue load cases defined in 4.6 to 4.8, remains below the endurance limit. 如果 4.6 4.8 中说明疲劳载荷工况的所有适当组合下的应力均保持在耐久极限之下,表明 达到要求的疲劳强度。

  • 3.6.2.2 Cumulative damage approach 累计损伤方法

This approach should be used when it is inappropriate to maintain the stress level below the endurance limit for all relevant load combinations, or when no material endurance limit can be defined.

当对于所有相关载荷组合不能保持应力水平在耐久极限以下,或材料耐久极限不能被定义

时,应使用本方法。

Representative histories for each case of the load sources as defined in 4.6 to 4.8 shall be expressed in terms of magnitude and number of cycles. Due regard shall be given to combinations of loads which act in unison. The damage due to each such case in turn is then assessed, using an appropriate material S-N diagram (Wöhler Curve), and the total damage determined in accordance with an established damage accumulation hypothesis (such as Palmgren-Miner). 4.6 4.8 中定义载荷源的每一工况相应历程应使用大小和循环数量表示。对载荷组合的 协调作用应给以关注。然后依次评估由于每一种工况的损伤,使用一个适当的 S-N 图(Wöhler 曲线),依照一个确定的损伤累计假设(例如 Palmgren-Miner)确定总的损伤。

It is permissible to simplify the load histories and combinations, provided this is carried out in a manner appropriate to the nature of the requirement and which does not affect the validity of the results.

如果在某种意义上合乎要求的特性并且不影响结果的有效性,单独载荷历程及其组合是允许

的。

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EN 12663:2000

4 Design load cases 设计载荷工况

  • 4.1 General 概述

This clause defines the load cases to be used for the design of railway vehicle bodies. It contains static loads representing exceptional conditions as defined in 3.1 a) and fatigue load conditions as in 3.1 d). 本条款定义铁道车辆车体设计使用的载荷工况。它包括在 3.1 a)中定义的代表超常条件的静 载荷和在 3.1 d)中定义的疲劳载荷条件。

Nominal values for each load case are given in the associated tables for each category of vehicle. The values represent the normal minimum requirements. If an operator considers a higher value necessary to achieve safe operation on his system, then he shall specify this requirement. For specific operational conditions or design features, a lower value is acceptable if a well founded technical justification is presented.

对于每种车辆,每种载荷工况额定值在相关表格中给出。其值代表额定的最小要求。如果运

营者认为在他的系统中安全运营必须达到更高的值,则应详细说明这些要求。对于特殊运用

条件或设计特点,如果提供充分的有根据的技术理由可接受较低的值。

In addition to the load cases specified in tables 1 to 19, and any additional requirements or variations specified by the operator, it is the responsibility of the designer to ensure that the design can sustain any other relevant static or dynamic loads which arise from the design of the vehicle (e. g. engine torque, brake system forces). 除表 1 19 说明的载荷工况以及任何运营者附加的要求和变更之外,确保设计能承受来自 车辆设计的其他相关静态或动态载荷(例如 发动机扭矩、制动系统力)是设计者的责任。

  • 4.2 Longitudinal static loads for the vehicle body 车体纵向静载荷

4.2.1 Compressive forces in buffer andor coupling area 缓冲器和/或车钩上 的压缩力

Table 1 - Compressive force at buffer level andor coupler level 1-作用在缓冲器和/或车钩高度的压缩力

Force in kN 力的单位 kN

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

2000

 

1200

2000

1500

800

400

200

 
 

Table 2 - Compressive force below buffer andor coupling level 2-作用在缓冲器和/或车钩高度的压缩力

Force

in

kN

 

力的单位 kN

Freight vehicles

 

Category

Category

种类

种类

 

F-I

P-V

   

Passenger rolling stock

 

货车

 

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

1500 a

900

a

a

a

50 mm below buffer centre line. 缓冲器中心线以下 50mm

 

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EN 12663:2000

Table 3 - Compressive force applied diagonally at buffer level (if side buffers are fitted)

3-对角作用在缓冲器高度的压缩力(如果安装有两侧缓冲器)

Force in kN 力的单位 kN

 

Freight vehicles

   

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

400

 

500

500

 

 

Table 4 - Tensile force in coupler area 4-车钩区的拉伸力

 

Force

in

kN

 

力的单位 kN

 

Freight vehicles

   

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

1000 a

 

1000

a

1000

a

1000

b

b

 

b

a

A higher force (e.g. 1500 kN) may be necessary for certain types of coupling.

 

b

对于中心连接也许需要更高的力(例如 1500kN)。 The tensile force shall be agreed by the operator and designer to meet the required duty.

 

为满足需求设计者和使用者应就拉伸力达成验证。

 

4.2.2 Compressive forces in end wall area 端墙上的压缩力

The compressive force specified in tables 5, 6 and 7 shall be reacted at coupler/buffer level at the opposite end of the vehicle body. 567 中的压缩力作用在车钩/缓冲器高度上,另一端作用在车体上。

Table 5 - Compressive force 150 mm above the top of the structural floor at head stock

 

5-头车结构地板之上 150mm 的压缩力

 

Force

in

kN

 

力的单位 kN

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

 

400

a

400

b

b

 

b

a

Not for locomotives with middle driver’s cab.

 

不适用于带有中间司机室的机车。

 

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EN 12663:2000

Table 6 - Compressive force at the level of the waistrail (window sill) 6-腰带(窗框)高度的压缩力

Force in kN 力的单位 kN

 

Freight vehicles

   

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

 

300 a b

300 b

300 b

 

a

Optional for locomotives with middle driver’s cab

 

对带有中间司机室的机车为可选项

 

b

At the driver’s cab this load shall be distributed across the window sill

 

对司机室,此载荷应分布在窗框

 
 

Table 7 - Compressive force at the level of the cant rail 7-上边梁高度的压缩力

Force

in

kN

 

力的单位 kN

 

Freight vehicles

   

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

 

300 a

300

150

 

a

Not for locomotives

 

不适用于机车

 

4.3 Vertical static loads for the vehicle body 车体垂直静载荷 4.3.1 Maximum operating load 最大工作载荷

 
 

Table 8- Maximum operating load 8-最大运用载荷

 

Load in N 力的单位 N

 

Freight vehicles

   

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

 

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

 

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

1.95×g×(m 1 +m 2 )

a

1.3×g×(m 1 +m 2 )

b

1.2×g×(m 1 +m 2 ) b

 

a If a design code is used in which the permissible stress is reduced by a safety factor of 1,5 (base material) or 1,65 (weld or stress concentration zone) then the factor 1,95 shall be reduced to

1,3.

 

如果使用设计规程中许用应力使用 1.5(集材)或 1.65(焊接或应力集中区)安全系数缩 减,那么系数 1.95 应减少到 1.3b For air suspension with a safety system which indicates a suspension fault, resulting in restricted operation, the factor 1,2 instead of 1,3 may be used for Category P-Ill vehicles 对于带有指示悬挂故障,导致限制运行安全系统的空气悬挂,P-Ill 类车辆可以使用 1.2 代替 1.3

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EN 12663:2000

4.3.2

Lifting 起重

 

The forces in the tables 9 and 10 represent the lifted masses and act through the centres of those masses. The formulae are given for a two-bogie vehicle. The same principle shall be used for railway vehicles with other suspension configurations. 9 和表 10 中的力代表被提升质量和通过这些质量中心作用的力。公式是按两转向架车辆 给出的。对于其他悬挂配置的铁道车辆应使用相同的原理。

The mass to be lifted may not include the full payload or bogies in some operational requirements. In such cases, the values of m 2 and m 3 in the following tables shall be set to zero or reduced to the specified value.

在某些运用要求下,要提升的车辆可以不包括有效载荷或转向架。在这种情况下,下表中 m 2 m 3 的值应设为零或变为给定值。

 

Table 9 - Lifting at one end of the vehicle at the specified lifting positions 9-在指定架车位提升车辆的一端

Load in N

 

力的单位 N

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

1.1×g×(m 1 +m 2 +m 3 )

 

1.1×g×(m 1 + m 3 )

 

Table 10 - Lifting the whole vehicle at the specified lifting positions 10-在指定架车位提升整车

Load in N 力的单位 N

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

1.1×g×(m 1 +m 2 +2×m 3 )

 

1.1×g×(m 1 + 2×m 3 )

 

4.3.3

Lifting with displaced support 使用移动支撑起吊

 

The load case of table 10 shall be considered with one of the lifting points displaced vertically relative to the plane of the other three supporting points. The degree of offset shall be defined by the operator. 应考虑表 10 中的载荷工况在一个起吊点相对于其他三个支撑点平面垂直移动。偏移量的大 小应由运用者确定。

4.4 Superposition of static load cases for the vehicle body 车体静载荷工况合成

In order to demonstrate a satisfactory static strength, the designer shall consider as a minimum the superposition of static load cases as indicated in table 11. 为了验证满足静强度,设计者应该考虑表 11 给出的是一个最低的静载荷工况组合。

Each part of the structure shall satisfy the criteria of 3.4 under the worst combination of the load cases specified below. 在以下指定的最坏的载荷工况组合下,结构的每一部分均应满足 3.4 中的判据。

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Table 11 - Superposition of static load cases for the vehicle body 11-车体静载荷组合工况

Load

in

N

力的单位 N

Superposition Cases

Freight vehicles 货车

Passenger rolling stock 客车

 

组合工况

Category 分类 F-I, F-Il

Category 分类 P-I, P-Il, P-Ill, P-IV, P-V

Compressive force and

table 1 and g×(m 1 +m 2 )

1

g×(m 1 +m 2 )

table 1 and g×(m 1 +m 2 )

 

vertical load

压缩力和垂直载荷

table 2 and g×(m 1 +m 2 )

1

g×(m 1 +m 2 )

2

g×(m 1 +m 2 )

 
 

table 1 and g×m 1

table 1 and g×m 1

 

Compressive force and min. vertical load

压缩力和最小垂直载荷

1

g×m 1

1

g×m 1

Tensile force and vertical load

table 4 and g×(m 1 +m 2 )

table 4 and g×(m 1 +m 2 )

 

拉伸力和垂直载荷

4 g×(m 1 +m 2 )

4 g×(m 1 +m 2 )

 

table 4 and g×m 1

table 4 and g×m 1

 

Tensile force and min. vertical load

拉伸力和最小垂直载荷

4

g×m 1

4

g×m 1

4.5 Proof load cases for equipment attachments 设备装置保证载荷

In order to calculate the forces on the fastenings during operation of the vehicle, the masses of the components are to be multiplied by the specified accelerations in tables 12, 13 and 14. The load cases shall be applied individually. As a minimum additional requirement, the loads resulting from the accelerations defined in tables 12 or 13 shall be considered separately in combination with the load due to 1×g vertical acceleration and the maximum loads which the equipment itself may generate. If the mass of the equipment, or its method of mounting, is such that it may modify the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle, then the suitability of the specified accelerations shall be investigated. The body to bogie connection shall sustain independently the maximum loads arising from:

为了计算车辆运行中的紧固力,部件质量必须乘以表 121314 中指定的加速度。载荷工 况应分别施加。作为一个最低附加要求,由表 12 或表 13 定义的加速度产生的载荷应分别考 虑与由于 1×g 垂直加速度载荷和设备自身生成的最大载荷相结合。如果设备质量或其安装 方法也许改变了车辆动力学特性,应对指定加速度的适用性进行研究。车体到转向架连接应 独力支承以下最大载荷:

  • a) the maximum bogie acceleration in the x-direction according to table 12;

  • a) x-方向最大转向架加速度,按照表 12

  • b) the maximum lateral acceleration of the vehicle body according to table 13;

  • b) 车体的最大横向加速度,按照表 13

  • c) the vertical loads arising if it is required to lift the body with the bogie according to table 14.

  • c) 如果要求车体带转向架起吊而发生的垂直载荷,按照表 14

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EN 12663:2000

Table 12 - Accelerations in x-directlon 12x-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

±5×g

 

±5×g a

min.±3×g

±3×g

±2×g

a

min. ±3×g for locomotives 对机车最小 ±3×g

 
 

Table 13 - Accelerations in y-directlon 13y-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

±1×g

 

Table 14 - Accelerations in z-directlon 14z-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

   

客车

 

Category

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

Category

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

种类

F-I

F-Il

P-I

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

1±c)×g a

a

c = 2 at the vehicle end, falling linearly to 0,5 at the vehicle center 在车端 c = 2,线性下降到车体中央为 0.5

 

4.6 General fatigue load cases for the vehicle body 车体一般疲劳载荷

  • 4.6.1 Sources of load input 载荷输入的来源

All sources of cyclic loading which can cause fatigue damage shall be identified.

所有能引起疲劳损伤的循环载荷来源都应确定出来。

The following specific inputs shall be considered in carrying out the fatigue damage assessment of the vehicle structure. The nature of the analysis (see 3.6.2), the form of the load cases and the way in which they are combined shall be agreed between designer and operator. 在进行车体疲劳损伤评估中,应考虑下列指定的输入。分析类型(见 3.6.2)、载荷工况型式 以及组合方法应由设计者和运营者协商确定。

  • 4.6.2 Payload spectrum 有效载荷谱

Where the payload changes significantly, the percentage of time spent at each level shall be defined by the operator and be made available in an appropriate form for calculation purposes.

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EN 12663:2000

当有效载荷明显变化,每一水平的时间百分比应由运营者定义,使其对计算目的有一个适当

的型式。

Changes in payload are likely to be significant in freight and rapid transit/metro applications. For other types of vehicle, it is usually sufficient to assume a constant payload over the entire operational life. Payload levels should be expressed in terms of a fraction of m 2 the maximum payload. Changes in the distribution of payload shall be taken into account where relevant. 对货车、快运/地铁应用,有效载荷变化可能是意义重大。对于其他类型车辆假定在其全部 运用寿命内有一个不变的有效载荷通常是足够的。有效载荷应根据 m 2 最大有效载荷的一部 分来表示。相应的地方应考虑有效载荷分配的变化。

  • 4.6.3 Loadunload cycles 加载/减载循环

The load/unload cycles should be determined from the operator’s specified duty and represented in a suitable manner for analysis purposes. Fatigue damage due to load/unload cycles is likely to be significant only if vehicles have a high payload to tare weight ratio and/or frequent changes in load. /减载循环应按运营者指定的用途来确定,应表现为分析目标的适合方式。仅当车辆有高 载荷空重比和/或载荷经常改变,由于加/减载循环的疲劳损伤才可能是有意义。

  • 4.6.4 Track induced loading 线路引起的载荷

Induced loading resulting from vertical, lateral and twist irregularities of the track may be determined from:

由线路垂向、横向和扭曲不平顺引起的载荷可以从以下确定:

  • a) Dynamic modelling (from data relating to the track geometry and roughness);

  • a) 动力学模拟(来自涉及线路几何和粗糙度的数据);

  • b) Measured data over the intended or similar route; or represented by

  • b) 计划线路或相似线路上测量的数据;或代表性数据

  • c) Empirical data (accelerations, displacements etc.).

  • c) 经验数据(加速度、位移等)。

The nature of the data will differ depending on whether a cumulative damage or endurance limit approach to fatigue design is being used.

根据使用累计损伤疲劳设计方法还是耐久极限疲劳设计方法,数据的特点也将不同。

Tables 15 and 16 give empirical vertical and lateral acceleration levels, suitable for an endurance limit approach, consistent with normal European operations, which shall be adopted if no more precise data are available. In some applications, the effect of track twist may also have to be considered. In such cases, the operator and designer shall agree on the dimension and number of these track twists. 15 和表 16 给出经验垂直和横向加速度水平,适用于耐久极限方法,和欧洲正常运用条件 相一致,如果没有更精确的数据可用可以采用这些数据。

The equivalant dynamic loading in a cumulative damage analysis may be represented accordingly by taking the acceleration levels in tables 15 and 16 and assuming they act for 10 7 cycles. 采用表 15 和表 16 中的加速度水平并假设作用 10 7 循环,从而可以代表在累计损伤分析中的 等效动态载荷。

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EN 12663:2000

Table 15 - Accelerations in y-directlon 15y-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 

货车

客车

Category

Category

Category P-I

 

Category

Category

Category

Category

 

F-I

F-Il

(locomotives)

(coaches)

P-lI

P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

±0.4×g a

±0.2×g

 

±0.15×g

a

This value may be reduced in cases of improved suspension

 

如果改善了悬挂,此值也许可以减小

 
 

Table 16 - Accelerations in z-directlon 16z-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 

货车

客车

Category

Category

Category P-I

 

Category

Categor

Category

Category

 

F-I

F-Il

(locomotives)

(coaches)

P-lI

y P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

(1±0.3)×g a

(1±0.25)×g

 

(1±0.15)×g

(1±0.15)×g b

a

b

For freight vehicle with single stage suspension 用于单级悬挂货车 For operation on groove rails it is recommended that the acceleration be increased by 20 % 对用于有缝线路,建议加速度值增加 20

 

4.6.5

Aerodynamic loading 空气动力载荷

Significant aerodynamic load input may arise in the following circumstances:

在下列环境可能有明显的空气动力学载荷输入:

a)

trains passing at high speed;

a)

高速下列车交会;

b)

tunnel operations;

b)

隧道内运行;

c)

exposure to high cross winds.

c)

暴露在大的侧风下。

The operator and designer shall consider the relevance of such load inputs and a suitable representation of the effects for analysis purposes shall be developed if necessary.

运营者和设计者应考虑适当的这些载荷输入,如果需要应研究对分析影响的适当表示方法。

 

4.6.6

Traction and braking 牵引和制动

The number and magnitude of load cycles due to start/stops shall be determined from performance data supplied by the operator. An allowance shall be made for unscheduled stops. 由于起动/停车载荷循环的数量和大小应从运营者提供的运用数据中确定。时刻表以外的停 车应作为容差处理。

The presence of longitudinal accelerations due to dynamic vehicle interactions shall be assessed and their effects incorporated if significant load inputs are generated.

应对由于车辆动态相互作用出现的纵向加速度进行评估,如果发生明显的载荷输入其影响应

加入。

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EN 12663:2000

4.7 Fatigue loads at interfaces 界面处的疲劳载荷

  • 4.7.1 General requirements 一般要求

it is the responsibility of the designer to ensure that all relevant interface loads are incorporated in a meaningful manner, including the appropriate number of cycles. The following subclauses define the most important interface loads.

设计者应确保所有相关接口的载荷以有意义方式的合成,包括适当的循环次数。下列条款定

义了最重要的接口载荷。

  • 4.7.2 Body/bogie connection 车体/转向架连接

The main fatigue load inputs arise from traction and braking and vehicle dynamic interactions. The loads shall be determined using the methods of 4.6.4 and from the performance characteristics of suspension components (dampers, anti-roll bars etc.) 主要疲劳载荷输入来自牵引、制动以及车辆相互动力作用。应使用 4.6.4 的方法以及考虑悬 挂部件(减振器、抗测滚扭杆等)的工作特性确定载荷。

  • 4.7.3 Equipment attachments 设备附件

Equipment attachments shall withstand the loading caused by accelerations due to vehicle dynamics plus any additional loading resulting from the operation of the equipment itself. Acceleration levels may be determined as described in 4.6.4. For normal European operations, empirical acceleration levels for items of equipment which follow the motion of the body structure are given in tables 17, 18 and 19.

由于车辆动力作用加之由设备自身运行产生的附加载荷,设备部件应承受由加速度引起的载 荷。加速度水平可以按 4.6.4 中说明确定。对于常规欧洲运用,对跟随车体结构运动的设备 的经验加速度水平在表 171819 中给出。

Table 17 - Accelerations in x-directlon 17x-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 

货车

客车

Category

Category

Category P-I

 

Category

Categor

Category

Category

 

F-I

F-Il

(locomotives)

(coaches)

P-lI

y P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

±0.3×g a

 

±0.2×g

 

a

For freight vehicle with single stage suspension

 

用于单级悬挂货车

 
 

Table 18 - Accelerations in y-directlon 18y-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 

货车

客车

Category

Category

Category P-I

 

Category

Categor

Category

Category

 

F-I

F-Il

(locomotives)

(coaches)

P-lI

y P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

±0.4×g a

±0.2×g

 

±0.15×g

a

This value may be reduced in cases of improved suspension

 

如果改善了悬挂,此值也许可以减小

 

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EN 12663:2000

Table 19 - Accelerations in z-directlon 19z-方向加速度

Acceleration in m/s 2 加速度单位 m/s 2

 

Freight vehicles

 

Passenger rolling stock

 
 

货车

客车

Category

Category

Category P-I

Category

Categor

Category

Category

 

F-I

F-Il

(locomotives)

(coaches)

P-lI

y P-Ill

P-IV

P-V

 

(1±0.3)×g a

(1±0.25)×g

 

(1±0.15)×g

(1±0.15)×g b

a

b

For freight vehicle with single stage suspension 用于单级悬挂货车 For operation on groove rails it is recommended that the acceleration be increased by 20 % 对用于有缝线路,建议加速度值增加 20

  • 4.7.4 Couplers 车钩

Cyclic loads in coupling components and local attachments resulting from the specified operational requirements shall be assessed if, in the experience of the operator or the designer, fatigue damage can occur.

如果根据运营者或设计者的经验可能出现疲劳损伤,应对由特殊运用要求产生的联挂部件和

局部附件的循环载荷进行评估。

  • 4.8 Combination of fatigue load cases 疲劳载荷工况的组合

It is the responsibility of the designer, in conjunction with the operator, to identify the combinations of fatigue load cases which are relevant to the assessment and to ensure that the design requirements are achieved in these cases. In some applications, it may be necessary to incorporate global loadings due to traction and braking cycles (see 4.6.6) and other loads due to longitudinal (x-direction) induced accelerations with those acting vertically (z-direction) and transversely (y-direction).

与运营者协作,确定与评估有关疲劳载荷的组合并确保在这些工况下达到设计要求是设计者 的责任。在某些应用中,也许必须与牵引和制动循环(4.6.6)的全局载荷和由纵向(x-方向) 引起的加速度同时作用于垂向(z-方向)和横向(y-方向)的其他载荷相结合。

An endurance limit analysis shall include load cases representing realistic combinations of the individual loads identified in 4.6 and 4.7. Since it is not possible to define a general rule, the designer and operator shall agree the relevant combinations. When considered in combination, the magnitudes of the individual load cases may be reduced from those given in the tables 15 to 19. 耐久极限分析应包括代表在 4.6 4.7 中说明的单独工况实际组合的载荷工况。因为不可能 定义一个通用规则,设计者和运营者应协商确定相应组合。在考虑载荷组合时,表 15 到表 19 给出的单一载荷工况的大小也许可以减少。

  • 4.9 Modes of vibration 振动模态

    • 4.9.1 Vehicle body 车体

The natural modes of vibration of the vehicle body, when fully equipped, shall be separated sufficiently, or otherwise decoupled, from the suspension frequencies, so as to avoid the occurrence of undesirable responses at any speed, vehicle loading, or suspension condition.

完全装配完毕时,车体振动固有模态应与悬挂频率充分隔离或衰减,以避免在任何速度、车

辆装载、悬挂条件下出现不良响应。

  • 4.9.2 Equipment 设备

The fundamental modes of vibration of items of equipment, on their mountings and in all

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EN 12663:2000

operation conditions, shall be separated sufficiently, or otherwise decoupled, from the modes of vibration of the body structure and suspension, so as to avoid undesirable responses.

在装配和所有运用条件下,设备振动基本模态应与车体结构和悬挂振动模态充分隔离或衰

减,以避免出现不良响应。

4.10 Other design loads 其他设计载荷

The component parts of freight vehicle bodies shall be designed to meet the intended purpose. The design of these components shall be in accordance with existing national or international standards and regulations such as UIC leaflets.

货车车体的部件应设计满足预定的目的。这些部件的设计应与现有国家或国际标准与规则, 例如 UIC 规程,相一致。

5 Permissible stresses for materials 材料许用应力

  • 5.1 Static strength 静强度

The limiting static material properties shall, where available, be the minimum proof/yield and ultimate strengths as given in the material specifications. The values used should be taken from the corresponding European or national standards. Where such standards do not exist, the most appropriate alternative sources of data shall be used, subject to agreement between operator and designer. 在可使用的地方,极限静态材料特性是在材料规范中给定的最小弹性/屈服和极限强度。使 用值应采用相应的欧洲或国家标准。当这样的标准不存在时,按运营者和设计者的协议,应 使用最适当的数据来源。

  • 5.2 Fatigue strength 疲劳强度

The behaviour of materials under fatigue loading shall be based on current European or international standards, or alternative sources of equivalent standing, wherever such sources are available. It is the designer’s responsibility to seek verified data, or develop such data by suitable tests, appropriate to his application. The data to be used shall be agreed between the operator and designer.

疲劳载荷下的材料特性应基于当前欧洲或国际标准,或等效标准的原始资料,无论如何这些

原始资料是可用的。寻求核实数据,或通过适当试验研究这些数据,以适合其应用是设计者

的责任。要使用的数据应经运营者和设计者双方同意。

Suitable data shall generally exhibit the following characteristics:

适当的数据通常表现下列特点:

  • - a survival probability preferably of 97,5% but at least 95 %;

  • - 97.5%的存活概率,至少也是 95%

  • - a minimum number of 2×10 6 constant amplitude cycles for steel materials corresponding to the endurance limit;

  • - 对钢材料相应耐久极限,2×10 6 常幅值循环的最小数;

  • - a minimum number of 1×10 7 constant amplitude cycles for aluminium materials corresponding to the endurance limit;

  • - 对铝材料相应耐久极限,1×10 7 常幅值循环的最小数;

  • - classification of details according to the component or joint geometry (including stress concentration);

  • - 按照组成或连接几何(包括应力集中)详细分类;

  • - interpretation of the limiting values from small- scale samples by the use of a test technique and previous experience to guarantee applicability to full size components.

  • - 通过试验技术和已有经验解释来自小尺寸试样的极限值,保证实际尺寸部件的应用。

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EN 12663:2000

The workshop practices and manufacturing control procedures shall produce a product quality consistent with the design data.

工厂实践和制造控制程序将得到和设计数据相一致的产品质量。

6 Requirements of strength demonstration tests 强度验证试验要求

  • 6.1 Objectives 目的

Tests shall be performed in order to provide the demonstration of strength and stability as required in 3.1. It is not necessary to carry out tests if there are appropriate verification data available from previous tests on a similar structure and correlation between test and calculation has been established. Tests shall be carried out to verify any significant changes to the design or to the performance requirements. The operator and designer shall agree the test programme. 为了提供按 3.1 要求强度和稳定性的证明,应极限试验。如果有来自较早相似结构试验的适 当可用的确认数据和已经建立了试验和计算的相互关系,不必非要进行试验。为核实任何对 设计和性能要求的重要变化,应进行试验。运营者和设计者应对试验程序协商一致。

The specific objectives of the tests are:

试验的特定目的是:

  • - to verify the strength of the structure when subjected to the maximum loads;

  • - 当施加最大载荷时检验结构强度;

  • - to verify that no significant permanent deformation is present after removal of the maximum loads;

  • - 当施加最大载荷移除后,检验无明显的永久变形存在;

  • - to determine the strength of the structure under loading representing service load cases;

  • - 在运用载荷工况下测定结构强度;

  • - to determine the dynamic behaviour of the structure.

  • - 测定结构动态性能;

The tests shall comprise as appropriate:

试验应包括:

  • - static simulation of selected design load cases;

  • - 选定设计载荷的静态模拟;

  • - measurement of strains/stresses with the aid of electric resistance strain gauges or other suitable techniques;

  • - 使用电阻应变片或其他技术的应变/应力测量;

  • - measurement of the structural deformation under load;

  • - 载荷作用下结构变形的测量;

  • - measurement of the modal parameters.

  • - 模态参数的测量。

    • 6.2 Proof load tests 保证载荷试验

6.2.1 Applied loads 施加载荷

These tests serve to check that there is no permanent deformation to the vehicle body or individual elements when subjected to the following proof load cases:

这些试验用于检查在施加下列验证载荷工况时,车体或单独部件没有永久变形:

a) compression loads according to tables 1 and 3;

  • a) 1 和表 3 的压缩载荷;

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  • b) tension loads according to table 4;

  • b) 4 的拉伸载荷;

  • c) compression loads according tables 5, 6 and 7;

  • c) 567 的压缩载荷;

  • d) vertical loads according to table 8;

  • d) 8 的垂直载荷;

  • e) lifting loads according to 4.3.2;

  • e) 4.3.2 的起吊载荷;

  • f) the worst combination of load cases as determined in table 11.

  • f) 11 确定载荷工况的最坏组合。

It is permissible to verify case f) by combining the results of individual cases as appropriate. 结合个别工况的结果允许修改工况 f)

6.2.2 Test procedure 试验方法

Requirements for the static tests:

静态试验的要求:

  • - The tests are to be carried out in a test rig which allows the application of the test forces at the points where they would occur during operation;

  • - 试验将在试验台上进行,试验台允许在运用中出现的位置上施加试验载荷;

  • - The vehicle body is to be equipped with strain measuring devices at all highly stressed points, particularly in areas of stress concentrations;

  • - 在车体所有高应力点,特别是应力集中区域布置应变测量装置;

The following shall be measured in preliminary tests and during the actual tests:

在预测试和实际试验中应进行下列测量:

  • - the strains at critical points, including sole bars, cant rail, corners of the cutouts for access doors and windows;

  • - 评价点的应变,包括侧梁、上侧梁、门窗角;

  • - the deflection between support points;

  • - 支承点之间的偏移;

  • - any possible residual deflection;

  • - 可能的残余变形;

  • - any possible residual strain;

  • - 可能的残余应变;

It is recommended that the vehicle body is preloaded so as to stabilise the overall structure and that the maximum force is applied incrementally at least twice. The results of the last test shall be taken into account in the verification.

建议车体进行预加载以便整体结构稳定,至少施加到最大载荷两次。最后试验结果应作为证

明。

6.3 Service or fatigue load tests 运营或疲劳载荷试验

Fatigue tests should be applied to the vehicle body or structural parts which are subjected to dynamic loads, if the calculation contains critical uncertainties or there exist no performance data for this detail. The following types of tests may be used:

如果计算包含评估不确定性或对细节没有运用数据,应对车体或承受动态载荷的结构部件进

行疲劳试验。可以使用以下试验类型:

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  • a) Laboratory fatigue tests in which appropriate load histories representing the full operational life

are applied to the vehicle body, critical components or details. No cracks shall appear which

would adversely affect structural safety;

  • a) 实验室疲劳试验,试验中将代表全部使用寿命的适当的载荷历程施加到车体、关键部件

或细部。不应有影响结构安全的裂纹出现;

  • b) Strain measurements with subsequent fatigue life assessment using data from the proof or other

static tests;

  • b) 关于随后疲劳寿命评估的应变测量,使用保证试验或其他静态试验的数据;

  • c) Fatigue life assessment from on-track strain records, made under representative service

conditions.

  • c) 从典型运用条件线路运行应变记录进行的疲劳寿命评估。

Assessments under b) and c) shall meet the requirements of 3.6.

  • b) c)下的评估应满足 3.6 的要求。

    • 6.4 Vibration tests 振动试验

These tests may be carried out, if considered necessary, to verify that the requirements of 4.9 have been achieved. The vibration behaviour should be tested on fully-equipped railway vehicles ready for service. However, the response in the operating condition may be predicted by appropriate calculation from the results of tests on the vehicle structure. 如果认为必要,可以进行这些试验以核实是否达到 4.9 的要求。对整备状态铁道车辆应试验 其振动特性。然而,通过来自车辆结构试验结果的适当计算也可以预测运用条件下的响应。

  • 6.5 Impact tests 冲击试验

These tests serve to demonstrate that vehicles can remain fully serviceable under normal shunting impacts. The tests are optional and should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the operator.

这些试验用于证明在正常的调车冲击下车辆能够完全保持可用性。试验是可选的,试验应按

照运营者要求进行。

Annex A (informative): Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or other provisions of EU Directives 附录 A(资料性):本欧洲标准条款选择基本要求或欧共体指令其他规定

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association and supports essential requirements of EU Directive:

本标准在欧洲议会和欧洲自由贸易联盟给 CEN 的指令下起草,并维持下列欧盟指令的基本 要求:

- Council Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the Interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system ∗∗

- 1996 7 23 日关于欧洲高速铁路系统互通性议会指令 96/48/EC

Compliance with this Standard provides one means of conforming with the specific essential requirements of the Directives concerned and associated EFTA Regulations.

依从本标准提供与欧洲自由贸易协会规则和相关指令特别基本要求相一致的一种方法。

WARNING: Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the products falling within he scope of this Standard. 注意:可以应用其他要求和其他欧盟指令到本标准范围内的产品。

Official Journal of the European Community No L 235/6 of 17.09.96 欧共体公报 No L 235/6 of 17.09.96

EN126632000

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本欧洲标准 2005 6 月由铁科院机辆所翻译。