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ESC 301 ECOLOGY-Part B

Ferhan Çeçen

ECOSYSTEMS

• A grouping of plants, animals, and microbes occupying an explicit unit of space and interacting with each other and their environment.

The Source of High Quality Energy

• Energy of sun lights and warms the planet

• Supports photosynthesis

• Powers the cycling of matter

• Drives climate and weather that distribute heat and H 2 O

Solar Energy in = Energy out radiation Reflected by atmosphere (34%) UV radiation Radiated by
Solar
Energy in = Energy out
radiation
Reflected by
atmosphere (34%)
UV radiation
Radiated by
atmosphere
as heat (66%)
Lower Stratosphere
(ozone layer)
Visible
GreenhouseGreenhouse
light
Absorbed
Troposphere
effecteffect
by ozone
Heat
Absorbed
by the earth
Heat radiated
by the earth
Earth

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

1. Most ecosystems fix less than 1 % of the sunlight available for photosynthesis.

2. Living organisms can use energy in basically two forms: radiant or fixed.

3. Radiant energy exists in the form of electromagnetic energy, such as light.

4. Fixed energy is the potential chemical energy found in organic substances.

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

1. Organisms that can take energy from inorganic sources and fix it into energy rich organic molecules are called autotrophs.

2. If this energy comes from light then these organisms are called photosynthetic

autotrophs.

THE PLANTS

3. Organisms that require fixed energy found in organic molecules for their survival are called heterotrophs. THE ANIMALS

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

1. Heterotrophs who obtain their energy from living organisms are called consumers.

2. Consumers that consume plants are known as herbivores.

3. Consumers that consume other animals are known as carnivores.

4. Decomposers or detritivores are heterotrophs that obtain their energy either from dead organisms or their remains.

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

1. Radiant energy is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis.

2. Fixed energy is used by all organisms in the process of respiration.

3. Once fixed by plants, organic energy can move within ecosystems.

ProducersProducers

Producers Producers

Photosynthesis

6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 Respiration

Photosynthesis 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 Respiration C 6 H 1 2 O

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

+ 6 H 2 0 Respiration C 6 H 1 2 O 6 + 6 O

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

1. Organisms can be either producers or consumers in terms of energy flow through an ecosystem.

2. Producers (Plants, autotrophs) take energy from sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide into glucose (or other sugars).

3. Consumers (Animals, heterotrophs) get their energy from the organic compounds (carbon bonds) made by the producers.

Consumers

• Primary consumers = herbivores = rabbits: eat plant material

• Secondary consumers = carnivores = predators = coyotes: prey are herbivores and other animals

• Parasites = predator = either plant or animal:

prey are plants or animals

• Detritus feeders and decomposers = bacteria and fungi: prey are plants or animals

Trophic Relationships

Food chains: feeding pathways

Food chains are a description of who eats whom.

Predator-prey and host-parasite describe specific feeding relationships. Food webs: complex feeding relationships. Trophic Levels or Feeding Levels

All producers belong to the first trophic level.

All herbivores (primary consumers) are on the second trophic level.

All primary carnivores (secondary consumers) are on the third trophic level.

Trophic Categories

Trophic Categories

Ecosystem function

• Energy flows through ecosystems

• Chemical matter cycles within and/or between ecosystems

Matter and Energy

• Energy: anything that has the ability to move matter; has no mass and does not occupy space

– Cannot be created or destroyed

– Can be changed from one form to another

– Cannot be recycled

– Can be measured

• Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass

– Cannot be created or destroyed

– Can be changed from one form into another

– Can be recycled

– Can be measured where gravity is present

Laws of Thermodynamics

First Law: Energy is neither created nor destroyed but may be converted from one form to another.

Second Law: In any energy conversion, you will end up with less usable energy than you started with.

Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems

Most of the most important relationships between living organisms and the environment are controlled directly or indirectly by the amount of available incoming energy received at the Earth's surface from the sun.

Energy Flow through Trophic Levels

Energy Flow through Trophic Levels

The Law of 10 %

On the average about 10 % of the energy entering a feeding level (trophic level) is transferred to the next one.

Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

a. All organic matter can be defined as biomass.

b. All biomass can be arranged into a feeding relationship with the producers on the first trophic level.

c. On average, 10% of the energy from one trophic

level moves to the next trophic

level. (This is

due partly to the First and Second Laws of

thermodynamics.) At each trophic level most of the organisms are not consumed, portions of

organisms

consumer undigested, and energy is released to

the environment as high potential energy is converted to low potential energy.

consumed pass through the

Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

d. Because so little energy can be transferred between trophic levels, it is necessary that the first trophic level contains the greatest number of organisms, and the subsequent trophic levels contain fewer and fewer organisms. Limitations on the transfer of energy between trophic levels creates the biomass pyramid.

e. If organisms (humans) eat high on the biomass pyramid (trophic levels 3, 4, 5, etc.), then fewer organisms can be supported than if organisms eat lower on the biomass pyramid.

Ecological Pyramids of Biomass

Ecological Pyramids of Biomass

Ecological Pyramids of Energy

Ecological Pyramids of Energy

PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY

• The conversion of light energy to chemical energy is called “gross primary production.” • Plants use the energy captured in photosynthesis for maintenance and growth.

• The energy that is accumulated in plant biomass is called “net primary production.”

Primary Productivity

• NPP=GPP-respiration rate

• GPP= RATE at which producers convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass

– Rate at which producers use photosynthesis to fix inorganic carbon into the organic carbon of their tissues

– These producers must use some of the total biomass they produce for their own respiration

• NPP= Rate at which energy for use by consumers is stored in new biomass (available to consumers)

• Units Kcal/m 2 /yr or g/m 2 /yr

• Most productive vs. least productive

What are the most productive Ecosystems?

EstuariesEstuaries SwSw ampsamps andand marshesmarshes TropicalTropical rainrain forestforest TemperateTemperate forestforest NorthernNorthern coniferousconiferous forestforest (taiga)(taiga) SavannaSavanna AgriculturalAgricultural landland WoodlandWoodland andand shrublandshrubland TemperateTemperate grasslandgrassland LakesLakes andand streamsstreams ContinentalContinental shelfshelf OpenOpen oceanocean TundraTundra (arctic(arctic andand alpine)alpine) DesertDesert scrubscrub ExtremeExtreme desertdesert

Desert Desert scrub scrub Extreme Extreme desert desert 800 800 1,600 1,600 2,400 2,400 3,200 3,200

800800

1,6001,600

2,4002,400

3,2003,200

4,0004,000

4,8004,800

5,6005,600

6,4006,400

7,2007,200

AverageAverage netnet primaryprimary productivityproductivity (kcal/m(kcal/m 22 /yr)/yr)

8,0008,000

8,8008,800

9,6009,600

Biodiversity

Biodiversity • Variety of living things, number of kinds • Ecological diversity different habitats, niches, species

• Variety of living things, number of kinds

• Ecological diversity

different habitats, niches, species interactions

• Species diversity

different kinds of organisms, relationships among species

• Genetic diversity

– different genes & combinations of genes

Benefits of Biodiversity

• New food sources

– Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish

Benefits of Biodiversity • New food sources – Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish

Benefits of Biodiversity

• Medicines

• Plants

• Jellyfish & sea anemones

• Nudibranchs

Benefits of Biodiversity • Medicines • Plants • Jellyfish & sea anemones • Nudibranchs

Threats to Biodiversity

• Extinction and population reductions

Hunting and overharvesting

• Tiger

• Dodo

• Whales

• Sharks

Habitat loss

Pollution

Climate change

Invasive species

Protecting Biodiversity

• How can we protect biodiversity

– Stop overharvesting

• Sustainable yield

• Hunting & fishing laws (every state ?)

– in developing nations ?

– Refuges, parks, preserves

– Endangered Species Act