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GENERAL NOTES

*Johnston, Bruce 6. (ed.) Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1976, p. 420.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE

OF STEELCONSTRUCTION

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EXAMPLE d
Given:

Design the lightest W shape of F,, = 36 ksi steel, to support a concentric load of 670 kips. The effective length with respect to its minor axis is 16 ft. The effective length with respect to its major axis is 31 ft.

Solution: Enter the appropriate column load table for W shapes at effective length of KL = 16 ft. Since deeper columns are generally more efficient, begin with the W 14 table and work downward, weightwise. Select W14~132,good for 708 kips > 670 kips. rxlr,, = 1.67 Equivalent effective length for X-X axis: 3111.67 = 18.6 ft Since 18.6 ft > 16 ft, X-X axis controls. Re-enter table for effective length of 18.6 ft to satisfy axial load of 670 kips, select W14x132 with rxlr, = 1.67. By interpolation, the column is good for 679 kips. Use: W14 x 132 column
EXAMPLE 2

Given: Design an 1 ft long W12 interior bay column to support a concentrated concentric 1 axial and roof load of 540 kips. The column is rigidly framed at the top by 30 ft long W30X 116 girders connected to each flange. The column is braced normal to its web at top and base so that sidesway is inhibited in this plane. Use Fy = 36 ksi steel.
Solution:

a. Check Y-Y axis: Assume column is pin-connected at top and bottom with sidesway inhibited. From Table C-C2.1 in the Commentary for condition (d), K = 1.0: Effective length = 1 ft 1 Enter column load table: W12x 106 good for 593 kips > 540 kips 0.k. b. Check X-X axis: 1. Preliminary Selection: Assume sidesway uninhibited and pin-connected at base From Table C-C2.1 for condition (f)*: K = 2.0. Approximate effective Iength relative to X-X axis. 2.0 x 1 = 22.0 ft 1
*Table C-(22.1 gives K values, in most cases on the conservative side; therefore, final selection may be made by use of Fig. 1 when determining effective length.

AMERICAN INSTITWE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

SIDESWAY INHIBITED

SIDESWAY UNINHIBITED

Figure 1. The subscripts A and B refer to the joints at the two ends of the column section being considered. G is defined as

in which I;indicates a summation of all members rigidly connected to that joint and lying in the k plane in which buckling of the column is being considered. I, z the moment of inertia and LC the unsupported length of a column section, and I, is the moment of inertia and Lg the unsupported length of a girder or other restraining member. Ic and 1, are taken about axesperpendicular to the plane of buckling being considered. s For column en& supported by but not rigidly connected to a footing or foundation, G i theoretically infinity, but, unless actually designed as a true friction free pin, may be taken as "10" for practical designs. If the column end is rigidly attached to a properly designed footing, G may be taken as 1.0. Smaller values may be used if justified by analysis.

From properties section in Tables, for W12 column:

rx/r,, = 1.76.
Corresponding effective length relative to the Y-Y axis:

.'. Effective length for X-X axis is critical.

Enter column load table with an effective length of 12.5 ft: W12~106 column, by interpolation, good for 577 kips > 540 kips o.k. A ~ R P C A N OF STEELCOP(STBUCTION INSTITUTE

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2. Final Selection: Try W12X 106. Using Fig. 1 (sidesway uninhibited): I for W12x 106 column = 933 in.4 , I for W30x 116 girder = 4930 in.4 , G (at base) = 10 (assume supported but not rigidly connected).
933111 = 0.258, say 0.26. (4930 x 2)/30 Connect points GA = 10 and GB = 0.26, read K For W12x106, r,lr, = 1.76. Actual effective length relative to Y-Y axis:
=

G (at top)

1.75.

Since effective length for Y-Y axis was critical: Use: W12 x 106 column

EXAMPLE 3

Given:

Using the alignment chart, Fig. 1 (sidesway uninhibited) and Table A, design columns for the bent shown (r.), by the inelastic K-factor procedure. Let F, = 36 ksi. Assume continuous support in the transverse direction.
Solution:

The alignment charts in Fig. 1are applicable to elastic columns. By multiplying G-values times the stiffness reduction factor E,IE, the charts may be used for inelastic columns. Since E,IE = FaIF,', the relationship may be written as Ginel,,, = (FJF,') Gelmric By utilizing the actual stress in the reduction factor, instead of the allowable stress (falF,' instead of FaIF,'), a direct solution is possible, using the following steps:

,!-I
1

560k

560 W16x31

L20.4

1. For known value of axial load P , select a trial column size: Assume W12x 106: A = 31.2 in.2; I = 933 in.4; r, = 5.47 in. , 2. Calculate fa = PIA: fa = 560131.2 = 17.95 ksi