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Column load tables are presented for W, WT and S Shapes, Pipe, Structural Tubing and Double Angles. Tabular loads are computed in accordance with the AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings - Allowable Stress Design (ASD), Equations (E2-1) and (E2-2), for axially loaded members having effective unsupported lengths indicated at the left of each table. The effective length K L is the actual unbraced length, in feet, multiplied by the factor K, which depends on the rotational restraint at the ends of the unbraced length and the means available to resist lateral movements. Table C-C2.1 in the Commentary of the AISC ASD Specification is a guide in selecting the K-factor. Interpolation between the idealized cases is a matter of engineering judgment. Once sections have been selected for the several framing members, the alignment charts in Fig. 1 (reproduced from the Structural Stability Research Council Guide* and including Fig. C-C2.2 of the AISC ASD Commentary) affords a means of obtaining more precise values for K, if desired. For column behavior in the inelastic range, the values of G as defined in Fig. 1 may be reduced by the values given in Table A, as illustrated in Ex. 3. Load tables are provided for columns of 36-ksi yield stress steel for all shape categories. In addition, tables for W, WT and S Shapes and for Double Angles are provided for 50-ksi yield stress steel, and tables for Structural Tubing are provided for 46-ksi yield stress steel. All loads are tabulated in kips. Load values are omitted when Kllr exceeds 200. The Double Angle and WT tables show loads for effective lengths about both axes. In all other tables allowable loads are given for effective lengths with respect to the minor axis. When the minor axis is braced at closer intervals than the major axis, the capacity of a column must be investigated with reference to both major ( 1 - X )and minor (Y-Y) axes. The ratio rxlryincluded in these tables provides a convenient method for investigating the strength of a column with respect to its major axis. To obtain an effective length with respect to the minor axis equivalent in load carrying capacity to the actual effective length about the major axis, divide the major axis effective length by the r,lry ratio. Compare this length with the actual effective length about the minor axis. The longer of the two lengths will control the design and the allowable load may be taken from the table opposite the longer of the two effective lengths with respect to the minor axis. Properties useful to the designer are listed at the bottom of the column load tables. These properties, and footnotes concerning compact sections, are particularly helpful in the design of members under combined axial and bending stress as discussed below and illustrated in the design examples. Additional notes relating specifically to the W, WT and S Shape tables, the Steel Pipe and Structural Tubing tables and the Double Angle tables precede each of these groups of tables.
*Johnston, Bruce 6. (ed.) Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1976, p. 420.





Design the lightest W shape of F,, = 36 ksi steel, to support a concentric load of 670 kips. The effective length with respect to its minor axis is 16 ft. The effective length with respect to its major axis is 31 ft.

Solution: Enter the appropriate column load table for W shapes at effective length of KL = 16 ft. Since deeper columns are generally more efficient, begin with the W 14 table and work downward, weightwise. Select W14~132,good for 708 kips > 670 kips. rxlr,, = 1.67 Equivalent effective length for X-X axis: 3111.67 = 18.6 ft Since 18.6 ft > 16 ft, X-X axis controls. Re-enter table for effective length of 18.6 ft to satisfy axial load of 670 kips, select W14x132 with rxlr, = 1.67. By interpolation, the column is good for 679 kips. Use: W14 x 132 column

Given: Design an 1 ft long W12 interior bay column to support a concentrated concentric 1 axial and roof load of 540 kips. The column is rigidly framed at the top by 30 ft long W30X 116 girders connected to each flange. The column is braced normal to its web at top and base so that sidesway is inhibited in this plane. Use Fy = 36 ksi steel.

a. Check Y-Y axis: Assume column is pin-connected at top and bottom with sidesway inhibited. From Table C-C2.1 in the Commentary for condition (d), K = 1.0: Effective length = 1 ft 1 Enter column load table: W12x 106 good for 593 kips > 540 kips 0.k. b. Check X-X axis: 1. Preliminary Selection: Assume sidesway uninhibited and pin-connected at base From Table C-C2.1 for condition (f)*: K = 2.0. Approximate effective Iength relative to X-X axis. 2.0 x 1 = 22.0 ft 1
*Table C-(22.1 gives K values, in most cases on the conservative side; therefore, final selection may be made by use of Fig. 1 when determining effective length.




Figure 1. The subscripts A and B refer to the joints at the two ends of the column section being considered. G is defined as

in which I;indicates a summation of all members rigidly connected to that joint and lying in the k plane in which buckling of the column is being considered. I, z the moment of inertia and LC the unsupported length of a column section, and I, is the moment of inertia and Lg the unsupported length of a girder or other restraining member. Ic and 1, are taken about axesperpendicular to the plane of buckling being considered. s For column en& supported by but not rigidly connected to a footing or foundation, G i theoretically infinity, but, unless actually designed as a true friction free pin, may be taken as "10" for practical designs. If the column end is rigidly attached to a properly designed footing, G may be taken as 1.0. Smaller values may be used if justified by analysis.

From properties section in Tables, for W12 column:

rx/r,, = 1.76.
Corresponding effective length relative to the Y-Y axis:

.'. Effective length for X-X axis is critical.

Enter column load table with an effective length of 12.5 ft: W12~106 column, by interpolation, good for 577 kips > 540 kips o.k. A ~ R P C A N OF STEELCOP(STBUCTION INSTITUTE


2. Final Selection: Try W12X 106. Using Fig. 1 (sidesway uninhibited): I for W12x 106 column = 933 in.4 , I for W30x 116 girder = 4930 in.4 , G (at base) = 10 (assume supported but not rigidly connected).
933111 = 0.258, say 0.26. (4930 x 2)/30 Connect points GA = 10 and GB = 0.26, read K For W12x106, r,lr, = 1.76. Actual effective length relative to Y-Y axis:

G (at top)


Since effective length for Y-Y axis was critical: Use: W12 x 106 column



Using the alignment chart, Fig. 1 (sidesway uninhibited) and Table A, design columns for the bent shown (r.), by the inelastic K-factor procedure. Let F, = 36 ksi. Assume continuous support in the transverse direction.

The alignment charts in Fig. 1are applicable to elastic columns. By multiplying G-values times the stiffness reduction factor E,IE, the charts may be used for inelastic columns. Since E,IE = FaIF,', the relationship may be written as Ginel,,, = (FJF,') Gelmric By utilizing the actual stress in the reduction factor, instead of the allowable stress (falF,' instead of FaIF,'), a direct solution is possible, using the following steps:



560 W16x31


1. For known value of axial load P , select a trial column size: Assume W12x 106: A = 31.2 in.2; I = 933 in.4; r, = 5.47 in. , 2. Calculate fa = PIA: fa = 560131.2 = 17.95 ksi