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International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

Surface Roughness Analysis in Machining Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites with Carbide Tool Using Taguchi
A. K. Parida1
1

Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Abstract: Cutting parameters have a great effect on the machinability of materials


during the turning process of GFRP. The effects of cutting parameters on machinability have been examined by many researchers and studies on determination of suitable cutting conditions for various materials are still under investigation. In this study, surface roughness of glass-fiber reinforced plastic composite was examined on the basis of cutting parameters such as speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The surface quality was found to relate closely to the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut .The Taguchi method is statistical tool, adopted here experimentally to investigate influence of surface roughness by cutting parameters. The Taguchi process helps to select or to determine the optimum cutting conditions for turning process. Many researchers developed many mathematical models to optimize the cutting parameters to get lowest surface roughness by turning process. Further, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the influence of process parameters and their interaction during machining. Keywords: Machining, GFRP, Taguchi, ANOVA.

INTRODUCTION
Composite materials are finding high-technology applications in the aerospace, automobile, and machine tool industries and so on due to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, high specific stiffness, high damping, low thermal expansion, and good dimensional stability. Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), an advanced composite material, is widely used in a variety of applications, including aircraft, robots, and machine tools. High dimensional accuracy and better surface integrity are the necessary qualities of the machined surfaces of GFRP. Generally, GFRP composite pipes are manufactured either by the hand lay-up process or by a filament winding method. Near-net-shaped components with the required surface finish quality can be manufactured by subsequent machining processes. GFRP has two phases of materials, namely, harder reinforcement and softer matrix, due to which they exhibit varying mechanical properties. The mechanism of material removal is also different from that of single-phased material, such as metals. De-lamination, fiber pull-out, fiber fragmentation, burring, and fuzzing are some of the types of damage caused by machining GFRP, as reported by Wang and Zhang [1]. Machinability in the turning processes of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) using polycrystalline diamond cutting tools was studied by Paulo Davim and Francisco. A new machinability index was established as a function of specific cutting pressure and surface roughness. Therefore, an attempt is made to investigate the machining parameters of GFRP materials based on tool wear and surface roughness through a turning operation by using cemented carbide (K20) cutting tools.[2] 67
Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

Cutting speed is the factor, which has greater influence on tool flank wear, followed by feed rate. The interactions also play some role in deciding the tool wear on the machining of GFRP composites. The interaction between cutting speed and depth of cut has more influence comparing with other interactions on tool flank wear on the machining of GFRP composites. The optimization procedure can be used to predict the tool flank wear for turning of GFRP composites within the ranges of variable studied. However, the validity of the procedure is limited to the range of factors considered for the experimentation. This procedure does not give exact optimal solutions, which is the limitation of this study [3]. Eriksen concluded on machining short fiber reinforced thermoplastic that the surface roughness reduces with the increase of cutting speed and depth of cut and it increases as the feed increases. The surface roughness produced on the GFRP work piece is mainly due to the feed and the roughness increases for an increasing feed rate higher than 0.1 mm per revolution. The roughness increased slightly for cutting speed up to 500m per min. For higher cutting speed up to 1500m per min, the roughness was independent of the cutting speed. [4] It was found from the investigation of Spur & Lachmund [5] that, by proper selection of the tool material and geometry, excellent machining of the work piece is achieved and the surface quality relates closely to the feed rate and the tool. Turning, together with drilling, milling and sawing, belongs to the most important cutting technologies for the machining of FRP. Turning differs from milling and sawing mainly because an almost constant engagement of the tool exists. Apart from fluctuations in stress caused by the different cutting behavior of the fibers and the matrix, a quasi-continuous cut exists during turning of GFRP. Ferreira et al. [6] showed that turning experiments were observed with the performance of different tool materials like ceramics, cemented carbide, cubic boron nitride (CBN), and diamond. During the tests the tool wear, the machining forces, and engine motor current were measured. Experimental results showed that only diamond tools are suitable for use in finishing turning. Sreejith et al. [7] showed the wide difference in thermal properties of the fiber and matrix material and also the relatively poor thermal conductivity of composites make it rather difficult to adopt any of the unconventional technique for machining the polymeric composites. Moreover, unconventional processes cannot obtain the shapes obtained by traditional turning, drilling, and therefore traditional material removed processes are the most suited for machining polymeric composites. Composite materials are mainly molded parts, which require machining, especially face turning and surface turning, to obtain the desired dimensional tolerances. For achieving the desired quality of the machined surface, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of material removal, the kinetics of machining and the associated tribological processes affecting the performance of the cutting tools. Davim and Mata [8] have studied the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness in turning glass fiber-reinforced plastics using statistical analysis. The objective has been focused on obtaining the contribution percentages of the cutting parameters (cutting velocity and feed rate) on the surface roughness on the work piece. This technique used orthogonal arrays and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subsequently, these authors conducted the new optimization study of surface roughness in turning GFRP tubes manufactured by filament winding and hand lay-up, using polycrystalline diamond cutting tools. The objective was establishing the optimal 68
Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

cutting parameters to obtain a certain surface roughness in the GFRP work pieces, using multiple analysis regression. Palanikumar considered four important input variables are cutting speed, fiber orientation angle, and depth of cut and with using Design of Experiments. He concluded that Feed rate is the factor, which great influence on surface roughness, followed by cutting speed. The interaction between depth of cut and feed rate has more influence comparing other interactions on surface roughness for the machining of GFRP composites [9]. Turning tests were carried out on GFRP rods using cermets tools by Bagci and Isik. The study proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and a Response Surface (RS) model to predict surface roughness on the machined surface. Models were also compared to predict surface roughness accurately with in a wide range of cutting parameters based on DOE. The ANN model involves more computationally time than a response surface model. It was found that maximum test errors were 6.30% and 6.36% by comparing roughness (Ra) values predicted from ANN model with those predicted RSM [10].

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
GFRP bars made up of isophthalic and vinylester as resin are used for this study. The resin composition of the pipes is 50% isophthalic and 50% vinylester, and the volume fraction of the materials is 65:35 (resin : glass). Table 1 shows the mechanical and thermal properties of the selected GFRP material.

MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES VALUE


Tensile modulus (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Co-efficient of linear expansion (m/m C) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Density (Kg/m3) 169.75 60 2105 0.29 1,260

The structural orientation of the specimen used for the tests is SM+18CSM+SM, where SMis the surfacemat and CSMis the chopped strand mat. The composite specimens are 75 mm in length, with 30 mm diameter. A CNC lathe (FANUC) with 7.5-KW spindle power and a maximum speed of 4,500 rpm was used to perform the machining operation. Carbide tool inserts (K20 grade) were used for machining. The cutting tool inserts used for the machining are of readily available Kennametal brand of specifications; KC9125, A1203/tin-coated (CVD Coating and Kennametal number 1869679). The geometry of the cutting tool insert are as follows: rake angle 7 (negative), 7 clearance angle, 80 edge major tool cutting, 0 cutting edge inclination 69
Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

angle, and a nose radius of 0.8 mm. The surface roughness was evaluated with a surface roughness measuring instrument Surf Corder (SE 1200). The cutoff length of the instrument is 0.80 mm.

PLAN OF EXPERIMENT
This paper uses Taguchi method for optimization of cutting parameters in machining of GFRP composites, which is very attractive and effective method to deal with responses influenced by number of variables. In this method, main parameters are assumed to have influence on process results, which are located at different rows in a designed orthogonal array. With such an arrangement completely randomized experiments can be conducted. This method is useful for studying the interactions between the parameters, and also it is a powerful design of experiments tool, which provides a simple, efficient and systematic approach to determine optimal cutting parameters. Compared to the conventional approach of experimentation, this method reduces drastically the number of experiments that are required to model the response functions. It is proposed for the purpose to improve the quality of products based on the concepts of statistics and engineering. The methodology of Taguchi for three factors at three levels was used for the implementation of the plan of experiments. The orthogonal array L18 is selected as shown in Table, which has 18 rows corresponding to the number of tests with the required columns. The plan of experiments comprises 18 tests and the factors and their levels required for the experiments are also presented in Table. The quality characteristics to be studied are surface roughness. The experimentally collected data are then subjected to optimization using ANOVA obtained from regression analysis. Both simple regression and cross product regression methods were used in the study and compared. Regression equations are also obtained using the empirical formula for both simple regression and cross product regression methods.

CUTTING PARAMETERS
Symbol A B C Cutting Parameter Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut Level 1 135 0.04 1.00 Level 2 185 0.05 1.30 Level 3 240 0.063 1.50

The surface roughness was measured by using Mahr Pertho meter. The dependent variable is surface roughness. In total 18 experiments were designed by Taguchi method, conducted and responses are shown in the Table. The Table gives the various cutting parameters for each experiment; the results are measured and shown in the last column of the same Table. The different units used here are: cutting speed m / min, Feed mm rev, depth of cut (DOC) mm, surface roughness Ra - m. Design Expert software was used for Taguchis method. Dry Turning process was used. 70
Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

CUTTING CONDITIONS AND RESPONSE


Run Cutting Speed(A) 185 185 185 135 240 240 240 135 135 240 185 135 240 240 185 185 135 135 Feed(B) Depth of Cut(C) Surface Roughness(Ra) 0.65 0.41 0.63 0.84 0.82 0.46 0.80 0.76 0.63 0.41 0.98 0.50 0.53 0.59 0.59 0.77 0.90 0.44

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

0.063 0.04 0.04 0.063 0.063 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.063 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.063 0.05 0.063

1.30 1.30 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.30 1.30 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.30

SURFACE ROUGHNESS
Surface properties such as roughness are critical to the function ability of machine components. Increased under standing of the surface generation mechanisms can be used to optimize machining process and to improve component function ability. Numerous investigators have been conducted to determine the effect of parameters such as feed rate, tool nose radius, cutting speed and depth of cut on surface roughness in hard turning operation. The surface roughness decreases with increasing nose radius. Large nose radius tools have produced better surface finish than small nose radius tools. The research has shown two purposes. The first was to demonstrate the use of Taguchi parameter design in order to identify the optimum surface roughness with particular combination of cutting parameters. The second was to demonstrate a systematic procedure using Taguchi design in process design of turning operations. In this experiment both were achieved. The average surface roughness is given by -

Ra

1 y ( x) dx L 0

Where Ra is the arithmetic average deviation from the mean line, L is the sampling length, y coordinate of the profile curve. The equation obtained by this method has agreement to the surface roughness by validation for set of cutting parameters. The obtained results are analyzed using Design Expert soft ware and all the values are shown in the table 4. From the ANOVA table, it is evident that 14.467 % depth of cut C is contributing on surface roughness than other 71
Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

two cutting parameters. The feed is the next contributing factor having 9.764 % on surface roughness and Cutting speed has very little role to play. The results obtained by this method was formed as equation by the same soft ware and given as equation. The equation obtained by the Taguchi method is: = 0.64 + 0.0500*A- 0.22*B[1]+ 0.075*B[2]+ -0.828*C[1]+0.082*C[2]-0.075*AB[1]+ 0.11AB[2]-0.032*AC[1]+0.052*AC[2]+3.333 E-003*B[1]C[1]-0.013*B[2]C[1] 0.17B[1]C[2]+8.333 E -003*B[2]C[2] The formed equation was validated by tests and the error between the theoretical and actual value was very negligible.

ANOVA TABLE FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS


SS 0.55 0.045 0.054 0.080 0.11 0.024 0.24 0.018 0.57 DF 13 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 MS 0.043 0.045 0.027 0.040 0.055 0.060 0.060 4.483E0.03 F Value 9.49 10.04 5.98 8.93 12.36 13.32 13.32 Prob > F 0.0339 0.0628 0.0335 0.0194 0.013 0.013 C% 8.137 9.764 14.467 19.893 43.400 43.400 100

Model A B C AB AC BC Residual Total

SS-Sum of Squares, D.F. Degrees of freedom, M.S.- Mean Square, C- Contribution

CONCLUSION
1. From the ANOVA, Table 4 and the P value, the depth of cut is the only significant factor which contributes to the surface roughness. i.e. 14.467 % contributed by the depth of cut on surface roughness. 2. The second factor which contributes to surface roughness is the feed having 9.764 %. 3. The Validation experiment confirms that the error occurred was less than 1.0% between equation and actual value. 4. It is recommended from the above results that depth of cut of 1 to 1.5 mm can be used to get lowest surface roughness. 5. Taguchi gives systematic simple approach and efficient method for the optimum operating conditions. This research gives how to use Taguchis parameter design to obtain optimum condition with lowest cost, minimum number of experiments and industrial engineers can use this method. The research can be extended by using tool nose radius, lubricant, material hardness, etc as parameters.

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Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

International Journal of Creative Mathematical Sciences & Technology (IJCMST) 1(1): 67-73, 2012

ISSN (P): 2319 7811, ISSN (O): 2319 782X

REFERENCES
[1]. Wang XM, Zhang LC (2003) An experimental investigation into the orthogonal cutting of unidirectional fibre reinforced plastics. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(10):10151022. [2]. Paulo Davim J, Francisco M (2005) A new machinability index in turning fiber reinforced plastics. J Mater Process Technol 170(12):436440. [3]. Palanikumar K.,Paulo Davim J.(2009) Assessment of some factors influencing tool wear on the machining of glass fibre-reinforced plastics by coated cemented carbide tools journal of materials processing technology 2 0 9 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 511519. [4]. Eriksen E (1999) Influence from production parameters on the surface roughness of a machined short fibre reinforced thermoplastic. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 39:16111618. [5]. Spur, G., Lachmund, U.(1999), Turning of Fiber- Reinforced Plastics, in Machining of Ceramics and Composites, Eds. Jahanmir, S., Ramulu, M., Koshy. [6]. J.R. Ferreira, N.L. Coppini, F.L. Neto(2001), Characteristics of carboncarbon composite turning, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 109 (6571). [7]. P.S. Sreejith, R. Krishnamurthy, S.K. Malhotra, K. Narayanasamy(2000), Evaluation of PCDtool performance during machining of carbon/phenolic ablative composites, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 104 ( 5358). [8]. Davim JP, Mata F.(2004);Optimization of surface roughness on turning fibre-reinforced plastics (FRPs) with diamond cutting tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 26(4):31923. [9]. Palanikumar K. , Karunamoorthy L., Karthikeyan R.(2004) Optimizing the Machining Parameters for Minimum Surface Roughness in Turning of GFRP Composites Using Design of Experiments J. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol.20 No.4(373-378). [10]. Bagci E, Ik B(2006)Investigation of surface roughness in turning unidirectional GFRP composites by using RS methodology and ANN. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 31(1-2): 1017.

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Corresponding Author: A. K. Parida, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India