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The World Around Us

Phonics Practice

Published by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, of McGraw-Hill Education, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Two Penn Plaza, New York, New York 10121. Copyright by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, network storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BSF 12 11 10 09 08

Unit 6

The World Around Us

Contents
The Camping Trip

The Camping Trip ........... 1


consonant + le syllables
Realistic Fiction

by Liz Ray illustrated by Cheryl Mendenhall

Farm Tools Over Time

Farm Tools Over Time ..... 7


consonant + le syllables
Informational Nonction: Social Studies

by Carol K. Lindeen

Turtle

The

The Turtle ................... 23


vowel team syllables
Realistic Fiction

by Liz Ray illustrated by Jeremy Tugeau

Women of Courage

Women of Courage ....... 29


vowel team syllables
Informational Nonction: Social Studies

by Eric Michaels

Tadpole Decides

Tadpole Decides ........... 45


final-e syllables
Fantasy
by Liane B. Onish illustrated by Richard Bernal

Meat-Eating Plants

Meat-Eating Plants ........ 51


final-e syllables
Informational Nonction: Science

by Wiley Blevins

The Rainy Day


by Liz Ray illustrated by Melanie Siegel

The Rainy Day .............. 67


vowel team syllables
Realistic Fiction

Warning!
Extreme Weather

Warning! Extreme Weather ..................... 73


vowel team syllables
Informational Nonction: Science

by Emma Rose

How Bird Was Lured Away from Fire

How Bird Was Lured Away from Fire ............ 89


r-controlled syllables
Folk Tale

by Emma Searle illustrated by Kim Howard

Energy Every Day

Energy Every Day .......... 95


r-controlled syllables
Informational Nonction: Science

by Emma Rose

The Camping Trip

by Liz Ray illustrated by Cheryl Mendenhall

Dad took Max and Jill camping in the desert for several days. I dont like it here, Max grumbled. Its too hot and dry. I cant see a single living thing, said Jill. Just rocks, pebbles, and sand blowing in the wind.
2

Dad made a simple supper of hot dogs, pickles, and apples. They ate by the light of a candle. Then Max and Jill crawled into their sleeping bags. In the middle of the night, a strange sound filled the tent.

Listen! said Jill. She trembled. It sounds like a howling giggle! What is it? Max asked, huddled in his sleeping bag. I think its a coyote, said Dad. They live in the desert.
4

The next day, the kids and Dad went on a hike. Look at these marks in the sand, said Dad. I think snakes made them. These look like mouse footprints, said Jill.

Max saw a lizard scramble up a rock. A hawk soared over them. That night they watched the stars twinkle and sparkle. A soft wind ruffled their hair. I like the desert now, said Max. So do I, said Jill.
6

Farm Tools Over Time

by Carol K. Lindeen

Getting Started
How do farmers get milk from dairy cattle? How do farmers plant a whole field of corn? In the past, farmers had to do these jobs with their hands. The work was hard and took a long time to finish. But today, these jobs are a lot easier to do, thanks to technology. Technology is the use of science to do something or to solve a problem. Over time, technology has changed many things. Now, one person can tackle a chore that used to keep several people busy.

Imagine how hard it would be to plant a big field of corn by hand! Today, special machines help farmers plant seeds faster than ever. How else has technology changed life on the farm?
9

Horse Power
Before farmers had the machines we have today, they planted and picked crops with their hands. Many of their tools were made of wood. Farmers used animals like horses and oxen to pull plows and other heavy things. But even with an animals help, the work was hard. A plow is a large tool that breaks up clumps of dirt. In the winter, the ground settles and becomes hard. Farmers must loosen the soil in the spring before they can plant seeds. A plow cuts into the dirt and helps get the ground ready for planting.

10

Horses pulled plows.


1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

In the 1700s and most of the 1800s, a farmer would get his horses from the stable and hook them to the front of a plow. The horses pulled the plow through the field while the farmer rode or walked behind.
11

The farmer held reins that were hooked to the horses bridle. The farmer tugged on the reins to tell the horse to stop or turn. The horses did the heavy pulling, but the work was rough for the farmer also.
12

Sometimes dirt got stuck on the plow. The farmer would have to stop the horses to clean the plow. And sometimes the ground was so hard, the horses were barely able to pull the plow through it.
13

Stronger and Faster


Walking or riding behind horses was tiring work. Plowing or planting a field was a slow job for many people. If only there was a machine that could help! In the late 1800s, farmers tried the first tractors. These noisy machines ran on steam power. A boiler was used to heat water until the water was so hot that it turned into steam. The steam power made the tractor move. Farmers started using tractors to pull heavy loads like plows. Tractors were stronger and could pull a plow faster than a team of horses.
14

Horses pulled plows.

Steam tractors pulled plows.

1700

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

In many ways, the tractor made farming easier. But the steam tractor was hard to handle. Also, heating the water in the boiler took time.
15

Horses pulled plows.

Steam tractors pulled plows.

Gas tractors pulled plows.

1700

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Around 1900, farmers started to use tractors that ran on gas. A farmer could start a gas tractor right away without heating a boiler. Gas tractors got stronger and easier to use as technology improved in the 1900s.
16

Horses cant walk very fast with a heavy plow dragging behind them. They also need to rest at night. But a tractor can keep moving as long as it has fuel. Todays tractors have more power than 100 horses!
17

Milking Cows
In the past, dairy farmers milked their cows by hand twice a day. The farmer sat bent over on a stool. He squirted the milk from the cows udder into a bucket. Milking a cow by hand was a slow job. One farmer could only handle a small herd of cattle. In the 1800s, inventors looked for ways to make milking easier. An early system used tubes to drain the milk from inside the cows udder. Around 1900, an inventor made a milk pump that ran on steam. This led the way to newer, better technology.

18

Farmers milked cows by hand.

Hand-pump machines were invented.

Steam-pump machines were invented.

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Today, most dairy farmers use electric milking machines. A farmer puts suction cups on the cows udders. The cups pull the milk out. The milk runs through pipes. A tank chills the milk until it goes to a factory.
19

Hand-pump Steam-pump machines machines Farmers milked cows by hand. were invented. were invented.

Electrical Today, fast machines came machines can milk to the farm. many cows at once.

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Modern milking machines clean the milk and keep it fresh. One worker can run as many as three machines. A single machine can milk 20 cows in 15 minutes.
20

Farmers today use technology in many ways to make their work faster and easier. Many farm machines even use computers and satellites. Just imagine what changes technology may bring to the farm in the future!
21

Index
cattle, 8, 18 cow(s, s), 1820 farmer(s), 814, 16, 18, 19, 21 field(s), 8, 9, 11, 12 horse(s), 1017 machine(s), 9, 10, 14, 1921 milk, 8, 1820 plow(s), 10, 11, 1317 steam, 14 16, 1820 technology, 8, 9, 16, 18, 21 tool(s), 10 tractor(s), 14 17
22

Turtle

The

by Liz Ray illustrated by Jeremy Tugeau

One weekend, Kaylin followed a footpath to the pond. She sat under a willow tree. This was the area she loved best. Kaylin looked down and saw a turtle under some roots. It seemed very feeble.
24

Poor fellow, said Kaylin. Ill take care of you. She took the turtle home and put it in a yellow box. She gave the turtle a shallow pan of water and a leaf. But the turtle remained very still.

25

Kaylin got some money and went to the bookstore. She bought a booklet about turtles. The booklet explained that turtles rest all winter. They wake up in spring. It also said that turtles should remain in the wild.
26

Its spring now, said Kaylin. Ill return my turtle to the pond. Kaylin took the turtle back to the pond. She put the turtle next to some flowers. Then she leaned on her elbows and watched.

27

First the turtle ate a piece of a daisy. Then it crawled into the shallow water and ate a minnow. When Kaylin stood, her shadow fell over the turtle. It hid in its shell until she moved. You will be fine, she said. You can take care of yourself.

28

Women of Courage

by Eric Michaels

Getting Started
Today in the United States, we all enjoy freedom. That wasnt always true. In the 1800s, women had few rights, and many people were enslaved. At that time, life in the United States was very different from the way it is today. In 1861, the United States began fighting the Civil War. The northern states and southern states fought against each other. Life in the South was very different from life in the North. The southern states wanted slavery to continue, but the northern states did not. This was one of the reasons the states began fighting against one another.
30

Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War.

This was a very difficult time in the United States. Many brave people in both the North and the South stood up for what they believed was right. Lets take a look at how four brave women made a difference during the Civil War years.
31

Sojourner Truth
Sojourner Truth was born into a family of slaves in New York around 1797. She was given the name Isabella. In 1827, she ran away to escape slavery. Then in 1828, slavery ended in the state of New York. Isabella was finally free! She decided to become a speaker, and she changed her name to Sojourner Truth. She was the first black woman to speak out against slavery. In her speeches, Sojourner talked about womens rights. She talked about ending slavery everywhere.
32

During the Civil War, many AfricanAmerican soldiers and slaves went north looking for freedom. Sojourner did what she could to help. She even met with President Lincoln and shared her feelings about slavery with him.
33

Sojourner Truth died in 1883. She had used the power of her words to fight for what she believed was right.
34

Julia Ward Howe


Julia Ward was born in New York City in 1819. She married a doctor, Samuel Gridley Howe. He spent much of his time helping others. Julia Ward Howe filled her days by writing poems and plays. She also helped her husband work against slavery. During the Civil War, the Howes visited soldiers in Virginia. While they were visiting, Julia heard the soldiers singing a song. It caught her attention. She couldnt get the tune out of her head. She decided to write new words for that tune.

35

The song Julia wrote, Battle Hymn of the Republic, became famous. Her song was printed in a magazine called The Atlantic Monthly. The song became popular with the soldiers of the Union, or northern, Army. Many other people sang it, too.
36

After the Civil War ended, Julia Ward Howe worked for womens rights and other beliefs she cared about. Even today, her Battle Hymn of the Republic is sometimes sung as a patriotic song.
37

Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman was born into a family of slaves around 1820. She worked both in the fields and as a house servant. In 1849, Harriet used the Underground Railroad to escape to freedom. This wasnt a real railroad. It was a system of different places, such as houses and barns, where slaves could hide. They stopped at the secret places as they escaped to the North. Harriet decided to help others escape along the Underground Railroad. She helped free about 300 slaves, including her own family.
38

During the Civil War, Harriet worked for the North as a nurse. She also worked as a scout, or spy. Even as the fighting went on, Harriet bravely continued to help slaves escape to freedom.
39

The Harriet Tubman home

After the Civil War ended, Harriet helped raise money for schools and began a home for people in need. Today, the Harriet Tubman Home still stands.

40

Clara Barton
Clara Barton was born in Massachusetts in 1821. As a young woman, she worked as a teacher and as a government worker. When the Civil War began, Clara wanted to help. So she went out into the battlefields. She took supplies to the men. She helped soldiers who were hurt. Clara soon became known as the Angel of the Battlefield. After the war, Clara went to Switzerland for a rest. While she was there, she learned about the Red Cross. The Red Cross was a group that helped people in times of war.
41

Clara wanted America to have a Red Cross, too. In 1881, she opened an American Red Cross office. She worked to make sure that people could get help from the American Red Cross at any time, not just during war.
42

Clara Barton's home

Clara Barton died in 1912. But the Red Cross lives on and continues to help people in need. All four women you have read about worked to make changes happen. What they did long ago still makes a difference, even 100 years later!
43

Index
Barton, Clara, 4143 Battle Hymn of the Republic, 36, 37 Civil War, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 3941 Howe, Julia Ward, 3537 Howe, Samuel Gridley, 35 Lincoln, Abraham, 31, 33 Red Cross, 4143 Truth, Sojourner, 3234 Tubman, Harriet, 3840 Underground Railroad, 38

44

Tadpole Decides

by Liane B. Onish illustrated by Richard Bernal

Tadpole swam beside the reeds next to Fish. Tadpole decided he was a fish. Hello, Fish, said Tadpole. Look, I am a fish, too. Are you sure? asked Fish. Tadpole said, I have a tail like a fish. But a fish is round and I am skinny.
46

Snake slithered by. Tadpole decided he was a snake. Hi, Snake, said Tadpole. Look, I am a snake, too. Are you sure? asked Snake. Tadpole said, I am thin like a snake. But a snake is long and I am short. Tadpole was not so sure.

47

Soon, Tadpole began to change. His whole body was not skinny like Snakes. Tadpole had four legs and a tail. He was so excited! Tadpole saw Turtle. Tadpole decided he was now a turtle.
48

Hello, Turtle, said Tadpole. Look, I am a turtle, too. Are you sure? asked Turtle as she drew her legs and tail inside her shell. Tadpole did not have a shell. I am not sure, he said sadly.

49

The next morning, he leaped out of the water. I am not a fish, a snake, or a turtle! he said. And you are not a tadpole! said Frog, sitting alone on the grass. Look, I am a frog, too, said the grown-up tadpole. And I am sure.
50

Meat-Eating Plants

by Wiley Blevins

Getting Started
We need plants to live. We grow plants for food. Plants also provide us with the oxygen that we breathe. For plants to live, they need water and minerals. Plants use these things to grow.

52

Plants get water and minerals from the soil. But some plants live in soil that is bad. The soil does not have enough minerals. This bad kind of soil can be found in wet areas, such as marshes and bogs. Here, the minerals have been washed away. Plants living here can survive, but they need more minerals in order to grow big and strong. They get these minerals in a special way. These plants catch and eat animals!

53

Venus Flytrap
There are more than 250,000 different kinds of plants on Earth. About 400 of them eat meat. The best-known meat-eating plant is the Venus flytrap. A Venus flytrap can eat a fly, an ant, a spider, a snail, or a cricket. The Venus flytrap grows in marshes in North and South Carolina.

54

A Venus ytrap

55

A Venus flytrap grows to about 12 inches tall and has white flowers. Each leaf looks like a clamshell. The leaf has sharp spines along its edges. How does the Venus flytrap catch its meals? The leaf of this plant has a big job. The leaf smells like a sweet juice. Bugs like this smell. They fly to the leaf. When a bug lands on the leaf, the leaf snaps shut. The leaf acts like a trap. The bug cant get out.

56

Why does this happen? The plants cant see or hear. But they can feel bugs on top of them. Each leaf on the Venus flytrap has three small hairs on it. When the bug lands on one of the hairs, the leaf knows its time to close.
57

After 30 minutes, the whole trap fills with a liquid. The bug dies and starts to dissolve. That means it breaks into small bits. It takes one or two weeks for the bug to dissolve. The plant takes in this bug-filled liquid. The plant uses the liquid for food to help it grow. After the plant eats the bug, the leaf opens up.

58

A bladderwort

Like the Venus flytrap, the bladderwort plant also traps its meals. It has small bags called bladders. If a bug touches the bladder, it opens up and sucks the bug inside.
59

Sundew Plant
A sundew plant can also eat bugs. These beautiful plants grow in wet areas, such as bogs. Many sundew plants are found in Australia. Soft, red hairs cover each leaf. Each hair has sticky goo on its tip. Bugs like the sweet smell of the plants sticky goo. When the sun shines, the plants goo looks like small drops of dew on the plant. Thats how this plant got its name.

60

A sundew plant

Sundew plants act like flypaper. Flies stick to flypaper. When a bug lands on a sundews leaf, it sticks to the goo. As the bug tries to get away, it gets stuck even more.
61

The plant knows it has a new meal when it feels this movement. The leaf then bends around the bug. As the bug tries to escape, the leaf grips the bug harder. More sticky goo pours out of the leaf, too. Soon, the bug is crushed. The plant uses the goo to break apart the bug. Thats how the sundew plant eats the bug.

62

Pitcher Plant
A pitcher plant eats animals, too. Besides bugs, it eats small birds, frogs, and even rats. A pitcher plant looks just like its namea big pitcher of water.

A pitcher plant

63

Pitcher plants have bright colors. Bugs like these colors. Some bugs also hide under the plants leaves to get out of the rain. A pitcher plant has no moving parts. It drowns its meals. First, a bug smells the plants sweet juices. The bug lands on the plant. Then the bug crawls inside the plant to drink the juices at the bottom of the pitcher.

64

The inside of the plant is covered with wax-like flakes. The bug slips on the flakes. It quickly falls into the watery mix of juices. The bug cannot get out because the sides of the plant are too slippery. Soon, the bug drowns. The pool of juices helps the plant digest, or eat, the bug. Now, like other meat-eating plants, the pitcher plant can grow big and strong.

65

Index
Australia, 60 bladderwort, 59 digest, 65 dissolve, 58 minerals, 52, 53 oxygen, 52 pitcher plant, 6365 soil, 53 sundew plant, 60 62 Venus flytrap, 54 59

66

The Rainy Day


by Liz Ray illustrated by Melanie Siegel

It was the biggest rainstorm of the year. Sam had remained inside all weekend. Now he leaned on his elbows and watched raindrops slide down the window. Im bored, Sam complained. Can I go outside?
68

Put on your raincoat and boots, said Mom. And dont get near the river. Sam followed a footpath up the hill. He saw lots of footprints in the mud. A tall girl stood at the top of the hill. She looked down at the river.

69

Sam saw a man in a yellow raincoat standing on the footbridge. He must measure how high the river gets, explained the girl. We need to know if it will flood. Sam had lots of questions but he had no time to ask them.
70

As he watched the man complete his task, Sam saw a log rush downstream. It crashed into the footbridge and knocked the man into the river. He grabbed a willow branch, but the water was not shallow enough to stand in. He needs help! yelled the girl.

71

Just then Sam and the girl saw a man in a rowboat. He helped the man in the yellow coat into the boat. The man was safe at last! Sam was glad. And he was not bored anymore either!

72

Warning!
Extreme Weather

by Emma Rose

Getting Started
Weather. We talk about it often. We ask questions such as, How cold is it today?, Did you hear the thunderstorm last night?, When is it going to rain?, and Have you ever seen so much snow? Weather affects your life every day. It helps you decide what to wear. Should you take an umbrella? Do you need an extra sweater? Weather affects what you do, too. Will there be soccer practice if it rains?

74

No matter where you live, your weather follows patterns. You may get rainy springs, hot summers, cool falls, and snowy winters. But when weather systems go wild, get ready for extreme weather!
75

Hurricane!
A hurricane is one of the most dangerous types of weather on Earth. It is a huge storm with heavy rains and strong winds. Wind and rain swirl around a calm center, called the eye. Hurricanes usually come in the late summer or fall. Hurricanes often begin over an ocean. They can get stronger as they get closer to land.

76

A satellite photo of a hurricane

Satellite pictures show the path that a hurricane follows. A meteorologist can study satellite pictures. Meteorologists use these pictures to predict where and when a hurricane will reach the shore.
77

When a hurricane reaches land, strong winds can blow 75 to 190 miles per hour. Thats strong enough to lift roofs off homes and make tall trees fall. Being outside in a hurricane is not safe.
78

Meteorologists give each hurricane a different name. Hurricanes are named in order of the letters of the alphabet. The first hurricane of the year gets a name that starts with A. The next hurricane will get a name that starts with B, and so on. Will they ever run out of names for hurricanes? No! Thats because the same names are used every six years. If a hurricane is really big, its name might be retired. Retired hurricane names wont ever be used again.

79

Tornado!
What other kind of storm is also very dangerous? A tornado! Tornadoes have very strong winds that twist around and around in a circle. Because of this, a tornado is also called a twister. Most tornadoes start as strong thunderstorms. But unlike hurricanes, tornadoes begin over land. A tornado reaches from the bottom of a thundercloud all the way down to the ground. A tornado is wider at the top than at the bottom, like an ice-cream cone.

80

A tornados winds can blow up to 300 miles per hour. Thats strong enough to lift a railroad car into the air and drop it down somewhere else.
81

A map of Tornado Alley

Tornadoes strike in the United States more than in any other part of the world. They often happen along a strip of land in the central part of the United States. This areas nickname is Tornado Alley.
82

Tornadoes can happen any time of the year, but most strike between March and August. Meteorologists cannot predict a tornado the way they can predict a hurricane. But they can warn people if a tornado is nearby. If there is a tornado warning, the people who live in Tornado Alley know how to stay safe. They go into a safe room, such as a basement without windows. Then they dont need to worry about being hit by broken glass.

83

Blizzard!
Snow falls when there is moisture in the air and the temperature drops to the freezing point or below. Snow can be beautiful to look at. Sometimes, snow can also be extreme. What happens when there is too much snow, too much wind, and very cold temperatures? The answer is: a blizzard!

84

In a blizzard, the wind blows very hard. Its difficult to see through the snow. You cant see much farther than the length of a football field. In a whiteout, you cant see anything but snow!
85

In a blizzard, winds create piles of snow. Heavy snow and ice may pull down telephone wires. Roads and airports may be closed.

86

Blizzards, like hurricanes and tornadoes, are very dangerous. You should stay inside during any of these storms. But when the storm is over, you might want to go to the library and find a book to learn more about it!
87

Index
blizzard(s), 84 87 eye (of hurricane), 76 hurricane(s), 76 80, 83, 87 meteorologist(s), 77, 79, 83 names (of hurricanes), 79 rain(y), 74 76 satellite pictures, 77 snow(y), 74, 75, 84 86
88

thunderstorm(s), 74, 80 tornado(es), 80 83, 87 Tornado Alley, 82, 83 twister, 80 weather systems, 75 whiteout, 85 wind(s), 76, 78, 80, 81, 84 86

How Bird Was Lured Away from Fire

by Emma Searle illustrated by Kim Howard

This story is a retelling of an old, old tale about fire. The tale tells how a man got fire by luring it away from a bird. Bird was an odd creature. She had wings like other birds, but she could not fly. So she walked around the grasslands and the towns, looking for food and drink.
90

One day Bird found Fire on the ground. She hid Fire under her wing, hoping to keep it all to herself. Soon Bird grew tired and thirsty. So she went into a building to get a water bottle out of a machine. Bird went back outside to drink her water, but she couldnt open the bottle.

91

Just then a scientist who worked in the building stepped outside. He saw Bird struggling with her bottle. When she raised her wings, the man saw Fire. Bird has Fire, he thought. Surely, that is mine! I must get it back from Bird! The man thought and thought about how to lure Bird away from Fire. At last he had an idea.
92

The man went up to Bird. Bird, we must talk. I saw into the future last night. I dreamed you were flying! This upset Bird because she could not fly. But she stayed to hear more. You stood high on a hill with your wings completely stretched out. A gust of wind lifted you up. You were flying! said the man. And there was no wire!

93

Bird pretended not to care about the dream. But the next day, she stood on a hill. She put Fire on the ground. Then she stretched out her wings and waited. Just then the man snatched Fire and ran away. The man was very happy again. Now he could use Fire to help people of all cultures. He was sure that he could show them how to use Fire in many safe ways.
94

Energy Every Day

by Emma Rose

Getting Started
Imagine that you and your family are at an amusement park. You are standing in line. You are waiting for your turn on your favorite ridethe roller coaster! Soon the roller coaster glides to a stop, and you get into your seat. Safety bars slide down to hold you in place. The roller coaster begins to move. You grip the safety bars tightly.

96

A chain pulls the roller coaster up, up, up the track. At the top, the roller coaster stops for just a second. Then it hurtles down one slope and up the next. One thing powers both you and the roller coasterenergy.
97

Energy and You


In science, energy means that someone or something is doing work. Everything you dorunning, playing ball, and even sleepingtakes energy. You get your energy from the food you eat. Food is the fuel your body burns to get the chemical energy you need. You need that chemical energy to live, grow, work, and have fun.

98

Plants get energy from the sun. Some plants are foods we eat. When we eat vegetables, salad greens, or even popcorn, energy from those plants goes into our bodies.
99

Some animals eat plants, too. When they do, they get energy from the plants. Then if we eat meat or dairy products from these animals, that energy is passed on to us.
100

Using and Saving Energy


Look up. Are the lights on? If so, thats electricity at work! Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity powers things like lamps, fans, computers, water heaters, and furnaces. It may even power some of your toys! Every day we need to use a lot of electricity. So its important not to waste it. Why? Because natural resources like oil and coal are used to make electricity. And we need to conserve, or save, our natural resources. We can do this by saving energy, not wasting it.
101

A recycling center

102

School Recycling Program


12

10

Tons of Trash Per School

19921993

19941995

19961997

19981999

20002001

School Year

Perhaps you turn off lights to save energy. Many people recycle things to save energy, too. Look at this graph. It shows how much trash some schools collected for recycling.
103

SOURCE: Broward County Public Schools Recycling Program

Energy at Play
Do you and your friends play soccer? It takes a lot of energy to play soccer. It also takes many kinds of energy. As you travel down the field, you use kinetic energythe energy of motion. You use chemical energy, too. The chemical energy in your body gives you muscle power! You also use mechanical energy. Your muscles use this kind of energy when they work. For example, mechanical energy lifts your feet and pumps your arms.

104

Even though these soccer balls are not moving, they have potential energy, or the possibility to do work. One way an object gets potential energy is when you raise it above the ground. It has the potential of falling to the ground.
105

Potential energy is also the energy that is stored in an object. One way to store energy is in a battery. By itself, a battery has potential energy. Think about putting a battery in a toy, such as a remote-control car. The car now has potential energy. Turn the battery on and press the button on the control. Electricity from the battery makes the car move. The energy stored in the battery changed the cars potential energy to kinetic energythe energy of motion.

106

Energy All Around


Stand in the sun for a while. The suns heat warms you and the earth. The sunlight helps you see in the daytime. We call energy from the sun solar energy. Its important for scientists to find many ways to use solar energy. Solar energy may be used instead of oil or other fuels that come from our natural resources. And since solar energy comes from the sun, we will always have plenty of it to use.

107

108

How do you use energy? Perhaps you enjoy playing with remote-control cars. Or are you a batter swinging at a baseball? No matter what you do, energy makes it happen.

109

Index
animals, 100 battery, 106 chemical energy, 98, 104 electricity, 101, 106 food(s), 98, 99 fuel(s), 98, 107 heat, 107 kinetic energy, 104, 106 lights, 101, 103 mechanical energy, 104 motion, 104, 106 natural resources, 101, 107 plants, 99, 100 potential energy, 105, 106 recycling, 102, 103 solar energy, 107 sun, 99, 107

110

Unit 6: The World Around Us


Week 1: The Camping Trip
to use with Dig, Wait, Listen: A Desert Toads Tale
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
consonant + le syllables

page 1 WORD COUNT: 187

candle, gumbled, huddled, middle, rufed, scramble, simple, single, sparkle, trembled, twinkle HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS listen, several, wind Review: into, of, live, said, their, they, what STORY WORDS coyote, desert

Week 1: Farm Tools Over Time


to use with Dig, Wait, Listen: A Desert Toads Tale
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
consonant + le syllables

page 7 WORD COUNT: 740

able, bridle, cattle, handle, settles, single, stable, tackle HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS several Review: do, early, eld, from, have, heavy, machine, many, move, of, one, other, people, puts, special, to, today, their, they, through, was, were, work CONTENT WORDS fuel, technology

111

Week 2: The Turtle


to use with Splish! Splash! Animal Baths
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
vowel team syllables

page 23 WORD COUNT: 198

booklet, bookstore, daisy, explained, feeble, footpath, Kaylin, remain, remained, weekend, yourself HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS area, money, piece Review: about, bought, into, moved, put, said, some, was

Week 2: Women of Courage


to use with Splish! Splash! Animal Baths
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
vowel team syllables

page 29 WORD COUNT: 789

about, against, always, around, away, beliefs, believed, enjoy, feelings, freedom, looking, railroad, reasons, soldiers, speaker, speeches, teachers, underground HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS area, money, piece Review: also, another, decided, elds, four, group, many, one, people, sure, was, what, work, young CONTENT WORDS slavery, system

112

Week 3: Tadpole Decides


to use with A Way to Help Planet Earth
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Elements
nal-e syllables

page 45 WORD COUNT: 213

beside, decided, decides, excited, inside, tadpole HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS sure, whole Review: have, said, to, was

Week 3: Meat-Eating Plants


to use with A Way to Help Planet Earth
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Elements
nal-e syllables

page 51 WORD COUNT: 727

besides, dissolve, escape, inside, provide, survive HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS whole Review: along, away, also, have, into, live, of, one, special, to, two CONTENT WORDS digest, dissolve, oxygen

113

Week 4: The Rainy Day


to use with Super Storms
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
vowel team syllables

page 67 WORD COUNT: 209

complained, downstream, explained, footbridge, footpath, footprints, outside, raincoat, raindrops, rainstorm, rainy, remained, rowboat, weekend HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS complete, measure, questions Review: enough, inside, into, of, said

Week 4: Warning! Extreme Weather


to use with Super Storms
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
vowel team syllables

page 73 WORD COUNT: 688

August, about, airports, alley, around, because, between, dangerous, freezing, follows, football, heavy, moisture, nearby, outside, railroad, rainy, reaches, really, snowy, thundercloud, through, whiteout, windows, without HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS questions Review: along, any, are, do, enough, give, learn, live, often, one, other, they, to, what CONTENT WORDS meteorologist, systems, temperature, tornado, tornadoes

114

Week 5: How Bird Was Lured Away from Fire


to use with Pushing Up the Sky
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
r-controlled syllables

page 89 WORD COUNT: 312

cultures, future, herself, luring, surely, tired, thirsty HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS Review: building, completely, of, scientist, to, was

Week 5: Energy Every Day


to use with Pushing Up the Sky
DECODABLE WORDS Target Phonics Element
r-controlled syllables

page 95 WORD COUNT: 672

batter, battery, center, coaster, computers, conserve, energy, every, furnaces, heaters, hurtles, important, matter, other, perhaps, popcorn, power, roller, soccer, solar, started, water HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS pulls, travel, voice Review: always, are, comes, do, from, friends, instead, gives, have, into, live, move, scientists, though, to, work CONTENT WORDS chemical, mechanical, potential

115

HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS TAUGHT TO DATE Grade K Grade 1 eyes old a about fall once and across father one are after nd only can again four open do against friends or for air from orange go all full other has along funny our have also girl out he always give over here another goes people I any gone place is around good poor like away great pretty little ball grew pull look be head put me because help ride my been her run play before house saw said begin how says see below instead school she better into searching the blue it should this boy jump shout to brought knew show was build know so we buy laugh some what by learn soon where call live sound with carry love straight you certain make sure change many their climbed minutes then come more there could mother they does move thought done never three down new through early no today eat not together eight nothing too enough now two every of under

until up upon use very walked want warm water way were who why work would write yellow your

Grade 2 above against America among another area because began behind believe below blue body bought building built carry certain city color complete country decided different door during English even family eld follow food four group happened hear heavy hundred idea important inside island listen

machine material measure money morning move near number off often once only order other own paper picture piece pretty pulled questions region remember scientist second several song special study sure system talk though through together travel voice whole wind word world year young

116

DECODING SKILLS TAUGHT TO DATE

CVC letter patterns; short a; consonants b, c, ck, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v; inflectional ending -s (plurals, verbs); short i; consonants d, j, qu, w, x, y, z; double final consonants; l blends; possessives with s; end blends; short o; inflectional ending -ed; short e; contractions with nt; s blends; r blends; inflectional ending -ing; short u; contractions with s; digraphs sh, th; compound words; long a (a_e), inflectional ending -ed (drop final e); long i (i_e); soft c, g, -dge; digraphs ch, -tch, wh-; inflectional ending -es (no change to base word); long e (e_e), long o (o_e), long u (u_e); silent letters gn, kn, wr; 3-letter blends scr-, spl-, spr-, str-; inflectional endings -ed, -ing (double final consonant); long a (ai, ay); inflectional endings -er, -est; long e (e, ea, ee); e at the end of long e words; long o (o, oa, oe, ow); 2-syllable words; long i (i, ie, igh, y); 2-syllable inflectional endings (changing y to ie); long e (ey, y); inflectional ending -ed (verbs; change y to i); r-controlled vowel /r/er, ir, ur; inflectional endings -er, -est (drop final e); r-controlled vowel /r/ar; abbreviations Mr., Mrs., Dr.; r-controlled vowel /r/or, oar, ore; compound words; diphthong /ou/ou, ow; final e (mouse, house); diphthong /oi/oi, oy; prefixes re-, un-; variant vowels /u /oo, //oo, ew, ue, u_e; possessives; variant vowel //a, au, aw; singular and plural possessive pronouns; 2-syllable words; r-controlled vowel /r/air, are, ear; contractions; short a, e, i, o, u; consonant blends dr, sl, sk, sp, st; consonant digraphs ch,-tch, sh, th, wh, ph; long a (a_e), i (i_e), o (o_e), u (u_e); soft c and g; long a (a, ai, ay, ea, ei); consonant blends scr, spr, str; long e (e, ea, ee, ey, ie, y); prefixes re-, un-, dis-; long i (i, ie, igh, y); compound words; long o (o, oa, oe, ow); inflectional endings -s, -es; long u (ew, u, ue, u_e); inflectional ending -ing, r-controlled vowels er, ir, ur, ear, eer, ere, ar, or, oar, ore, air, are; inflectional endings -er, est; silent letters gn, kn, wr, mb; diphthong ou, ow; diphthong oi, oy; variant vowel oo, ui, ew, ue, u, ou, oe; variant vowel oo, ou; variant vowel au, aw; suffixes -ful, -less; inflectional ending -ed; closed syllables, open syllables, consonant + le syllables; vowel team syllables; final e syllables; r-controlled syllables

117

Photography Cover, 1: Stephen Frink/Getty Images. 7: (b) John Vachon/USDA, (t) Alan Egginton/Shutterstock. 9: Richard Hamilton Smith/CORBIS. 11: G.W. Hales/Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 12: Arthur Rothstein/CORBIS. 13: Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 15: CORBIS. 16: E.O. Hopp/CORBIS. 17: Eduardo Barcellos/SambaPhoto/Getty Images. 19: B. Drake/PhotoLink/Getty Images. 20: Bill Tarpenning/USDA. 21: Tom Roberts/AP Photo. 29: (tl) Library of Congress, (tr) Clara Barton National Historic Site, National Park Service, (bl) Bettmann/CORBIS, (br) Prints and Photographs Division/Library of Congress. 3133: Library of Congress. 34: Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 36: CORBIS. 3739: Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 40: Lee Snider/Photo Images/CORBIS. 42: Royalty-Free/CORBIS. 43: Clara Barton National Historic Site, National Park Service. 51: David Sieren/Visuals Unlimited. 52: Royalty-Free/CORBIS. 55: E. R. Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc. 57: Wardene Weisser/Bruce Coleman Inc. 59: William H. Amos/Bruce Coleman Inc. 61: John Shaw/Bruce Coleman Inc. 63: PhotoLink/Getty Images. 73: Chuck Doswell/Visuals Unlimited. 77: StockTrek/Getty Images. 78: Stockbyte/PunchStock. 81: Royalty-Free/CORBIS. 85: image 100/Alamy. 87: dynamicgraphics/Jupiterimages. 95: Brett Mulcahy/Shutterstock. 97: E. R. Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc. 99: Royalty-Free/CORBIS. 100: B. Drake/PhotoLink/Getty Images. 102: Creatas/PunchStock. 105: Ed Bock/CORBIS. 108: Claudia Kunin/CORBIS.

Grade 2 Unit 6

www.macmillanmh.com

MHID 0-02-202264-3 ISBN-13 978-0-02-202264-8


10000 EAN 9 780022 022648