Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 59

Prowess of Sarawak History

LEE BIH NI

First Edition, 2013 Lee Bih Ni

Editor: Lee Bih Ni

Published by: Desktop Publisher leeh_ni@yahoo.com

Translator: Lee Bih Ni

Bil

Content

Page

________________________________________________________ Bab 1 Introduction


Introduction Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak Second World War and occupation Rosli Dhoby Early life Assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart Events Death Aftermath Reburial Legacy Independence Geography Environment Demographics Population

Iban people Chinese


Malaysian Chinese

Malay Melanau Bidayuh Orang Ulu Others


Religions Demographics of Sarawak: Religions of Sarawak Government Administrative divisions Conclusion

Bab 2

The White Rajahs


Introduction Rulers Titles Government Cession to the United Kingdom Legacy

22

Bab 3

James Brooke, Charles Brooke & Charles Vyner Brooke


Early life Sarawak Burial Personal life James Brooke o Fiction o Honours

26

o Notes Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak o Biography Charles Vyner Brooke o Early life o Rajah of Sarawak o Abdication and later life o Family o Titles from birth to death Conclusion

Bab 4

ROSLI DHOBI
Rosli Dhoby Rosli Dhoby & Sibu Who is Rosli Dhoby? Rukun 13 or Rukun Tiga Belas is a defunct Sarawakian organization that existed from 1947 until 1950. o Formation Penalty & disestablishment List of Rukun 13 members Anti-cession movement of Sarawak Factors Overview of movement Tracking Urban Struggle, Rosli Dhobi of Sibu Conclusion

37

Bab 5

Administrative changes for self Government Sarawak


48

Sarawak After the defeat of Japan: Sarawak Submission Events History Corridor Anti-Cession movement in Sarawak History Corridor Anti-Cession Movement Action: Resistance and British Reactions Resistance ways: Sends Protest Letter. The opposition People's Action Sarawak Reactions & the British British Reaction On Violence: History Corridor 13 Pillar Measures for self Government Sarawak Among the measures taken; Restructured Sarawak Administration: Establishment of Political Parties In Sarawak The establishment of the Sarawak Alliance LEFTISTS ROLE IN INDEPENDENCE The Early Voices in Malaysia Independence History COMMUNISTS - A Chapter of Bloodshed in Malaysia Independence History BIRDS OF THE SAME FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER

Birth of a New Nation The Big Picture of Malaysia Independence History The Lesson Restructuring After War Malaysia Today Conclusion

Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang ("Land of the Hornbills"), Sarawak is situated on the northwest of the island, bordering the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Indonesia to the south, and surrounding Brunei. It is the largest state in Malaysia. The administrative capital is Kuching, which has a population of 658,562. 1 Major cities and towns include Miri (pop. 269,380), Sibu (pop. 209,616) and Bintulu (pop. 189,695). As of the last census (2010), the state population was 2,420,009. 2 The eastern seaboard of Borneo was charted, though not settled, by the Portuguese in the early 16th century. The area of Sarawak was known to Portuguese cartographers as Cerava. During the 17th century, Sarawak was self-governed under Sultan Tengah. By the early 19th century, Sarawak had become a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei Sultanate. During the reign of Pangeran Indera Mahkota in 19th century, Sarawak was facing chaos.3 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (18271852), the Sultan of Brunei, ordered Pangeran Muda Hashim in 1839 to restore order and it was during this time that James Brooke arrived in Sarawak. Pangeran Muda Hashim initially requested assistance in the matter, but Brooke refused. In 1841, Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this time he agreed to provide assistance. Pangeran Muda Hashim signed a treaty in 1841 surrendering Sarawak and Sinian to Brooke. On 24 September 1841, Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Governor to James Brooke. He effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak, later extending his administration through an agreement with the Sultan of Brunei. Sarawak was thus an independent kingdom from 1841 until 1888, when the state was placed under British protection.

(2006 census; Kuching City South 143,500; Kuching City North 133,600; Padawan- 3rd Mile/ 7th Mile/ 10th Mile 302,800) 2 "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101227065717/http://www.statistics.gov.my/ccount12/click.php?id=2127. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 3 Sarawak. Retrieved Jan 18 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarawak

Brooke Dynasty

Figure 1: Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak.

Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak. James Brooke was appointed Rajah by the Sultan of Brunei on 18 August 1842. Brooke ruled the territory, later expanded, across the western regions of Sarawak around Kuching until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke, with the condition that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke. 4 The Sarawak territories were greatly enlarged under the Brooke dynasty, mostly at the expense of areas nominally under the control of Brunei. In practice Brunei had only controlled strategic river and coastal forts in much of the lost territory, so most of the gain was at the expense of Muslim warlords and of the de facto independence of local tribes. The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the rulers of Indian princely states. In contrast to many other areas of the empire, however, the Brooke dynasty was intent on a policy of paternalism in order to protect the indigenous population against exploitation. They governed with the aid of the Muslim Malay and enlisted the Ibans and other "Dayak" as a contingent militia. The Brooke dynasty also encouraged the immigration of Chinese merchants but forbade the Chinese to settle outside of towns in order to minimise the impact on the Dayak way of life. Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah of Sarawak, established the Sarawak Museum, the oldest museum in Borneo. In the early part of 1941 preparations were afoot to introduce a new constitution, designed to limit the power of the Rajah and give the people of Sarawak a greater say in
4

Ibid.

government. Despite this democratic intention, the draft constitution contained irregularities, including a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke and his top government officials, financially compensating him via treasury funds.5 Second World War and occupation Japan invaded Sarawak and occupied the island of Borneo in 1941, occupying Miri on 16 December and Kuching on 24 December, holding both territories for the duration of World War II until the area was secured by Australian forces in 1945. Charles Vyner Brooke formally ceded sovereignty to the British Crown on 1 July 1946, under pressure from his wife among others. In addition, the British Government offered a healthy pension to Brooke. Anthony Brooke continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak. After the end of the World War II, Anthony Brooke then opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown, and was associated with anti-secessionist groups in Sarawak. For this he was banished from Sarawak and he was allowed to return only seventeen years later, when Sarawak became part of Malaysia. Sarawak became a British colony (formerly an independent state under British protection) in July 1946, but Brooke's campaign continued. The Malays in particular resisted the cession to Britain, dramatically assassinating the second British governor, Sir Duncan George Stewart. Rosli Dhoby Rosli Dhoby (1932 March 2, 1950) was a Malay Sarawakian nationalist from Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia during the British crown colony era in that state. He was a member leader of the Rukun 13 organization along with Morshidi Sidek, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli and Bujang Suntong. It was a secret cell organization which carried out assassinations of British colonial officers in Sarawak. He was well known for his assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart, the second governor of colonial Sarawak in 1948.

Facebook. En-gb.facebook.com. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.

Figure 2: Rosli Dhoby (19321950) Born 1932 in Kampung Siong, Sibu, Kingdom of Sarawak

Early life Rosli Dhobi was born in 1932 in Kampung Siong, Sibu, Kingdom of Sarawak. Little is known about his earlier life although friends regard Rosli as an approachable person despite his quietness. He had an eldest sister and a younger brother, Fatimah and Ainie.6 Rosli started his career as a teacher and quit his job in 1947 in order to teach in Sibu People's School. Rosli was known to be a nationalist and a poet. Using the nickname Lidros, Rosli penned down a nationalistic poem titled 'Panggilan Mu yang Suchi' which was published in Utusan Sarawak on February 28, 1948. The usage of nickname was prevalent at the time since the British Colonial Authority vigorously monitored any attempts to spread words against them. Rosli joined Rukun 13 in August, 1948. He was introduced to the organization by an old friend, Bujang Suntong. Assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart The end of the Second World War had brought an end to the Brooke Dynasty rule in Sarawak. Believing it to be in the best interest of the people of Sarawak, Rajah Vyner Brooke ceded the state to the British Crown.7 Sarawak became a Crown Colony, ruled from the Colonial Office in London, which in turn dispatched a Governor for Sarawak. This move was opposed by Rajah Muda Anthony Brooke, who was supposed to become the next Rajah

6 7

Rosli Dhobi. Retrieved Jan 18 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosli_Dhobi Ibid.

Brooke, as well as many native Sarawakians who were initially told that they would be allowed self-government. Anthony Brooke became the leader of the anti-cession movement. Events On December 3, 1949, Sir Duncan George Stewart, the second governor of Sarawak, was murdered by the Rukun 13 members, Rosli Dhoby, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli, Morshidi Sidek and Bujang Suntong in Sibu. Rosli Dhoby and Morshidi Sidek were among the crowd that welcomed the governor on his arrival to Sibu. While the governor was meeting the local subjects and in near proximity with Rosli, Morshidi began to pretend to take pictures of the governor with a broken camera. The governor stopped to allow Morshidi to photograph him. At that moment, Rosli stabbed the governor. Rosli was arrested on the spot and sent to Kuching for trial and later into imprisonment. The governor bled so badly that he had to be flown back to Kuching for treatment and later to Singapore, where he died a week after the incident. Death After a few months languishing in prison, Rosli Dhoby, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli, Morshidi Sidek and Bujang Suntong were found guilty of murder and sentenced to death on December 4, 1949. This move was criticized by many, as Rosli Dhobi was a juvenile at the time of assassination. The death sentence was nonetheless a political statement. Rosli Dhoby was sent to the gallows on the morning of March 2, 1950. Fearing the resentment of the local population, the British government did not allow Rosli Dhoby's body to leave the Kuching Central Prison. Instead, his body was interred in an unmarked tomb within the prison compound. After Sarawak gained independence on 22 July 1963 from Britain and later through the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, a tombstone was put in place at his tomb. The tombstone is now on display at the outer compound of Sarawak Islamic Museum in Kuching after the reinternment of his remains in 1996. Aftermath Sarawak was sent into tumultuous years, and the anti-Cessionists rebellion were crushed as the support by the locals dwindled due to the "aggressive" tactic used by Rosli Dhoby, alongside the oppositions from some of the Malay leaders who were pro-British. Most of the anti-Cessionists were arrested and later send into prison, and some of them were even imprisoned in Changi Prison in Singapore. However, things later returned to normal and

peace was restored during the era of 3rd Governor of Sarawak, Sir Anthony Foster Abell. Even those who were imprisoned at Changi are allowed to return to Sarawak, to continue their sentence at Kuching Central Prison. Reburial After 46 years resting in prison compound, the remains of Rosli Dhoby were moved out of the Kuching Central Prison to be buried in the Sarawak's Heroes Mausoleum near Sibu Town Mosque at his home town of Sibu on March 2, 1996. To honour his struggle against the British, he was given state funeral by Sarawak Government. Legacy A drama Warkah Terakhir (The last letter) premiered on Astro's channel 131, Astro Citra. The drama was directed by Wan Hasliza, filming on Rosli Dhoby's life as a student, member of the PPM (Pergerakan Pemuda Melayu), a volunteer at the Sekolah Rakyat and the assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart. In this drama, Rosli Dhoby was portrayed by Malaysian actor Beto Khusairy. Independence Sarawak was officially granted independence on 22 July 1963, and joined with Malaya, Sabah, and Singapore, in the federation of Malaysia, 8 formed on 16 September 1963, despite the initial opposition from parts of the population.9 Sarawak was also a flashpoint during the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966.10 Geography The Sarawak state legislative assembly building, in Kuching. Having land area of 124,450 square kilometres (48,050 sq mi) spreading between latitude 0 50 and 5N and longitude 109 36 and 115 40 E, it makes up 37.5% of the land of Malaysia.

United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, '''North Borneo and Sarawak'''. Un.org (14 December 1960). Retrieved on 12 August 2012. United Nations Member States. Un.org. Retrieved on 12 August 2012. 9 UN General Assembly 15th Session The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509 510). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. UN General Assembly 18th Session the Question of Malaysia (pages:4144). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. 10 United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippnes, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 July 1963). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord. (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012.

Sarawak also contains large tracts of tropical rainforest home to an abundance of plant and animal species. The state of Sarawak stretches for over 750 kilometres (470 mi) along the northeast coastline of Borneo, interrupted in the north by about 150 kilometres (93 miles) of Brunei coast. Sarawak is separated from the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and culminate near the source of the Baram River with the steep Mount Selidang (4504 ft) at central plateau of Usun Apau, Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu in the park of the same name and Mount Murud with the highest peak in Sarawak.11 The major rivers from the south to the north include the Sarawak River, Lupar River, Saribas River, and Rajang River, which is the longest river in Malaysia at 563 kilometres (350 mi). The Baleh River branch, the Baram River, and the Limbang River drains into the Brunei Bay as it divides the two parts of Brunei and the Trusan River. The Sarawak river is 2,459 square kilometres (949 sq mi) in area and is the main river flowing through the capital of Kuching. Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying flat country with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. The hill region provides most of the easily inhabited land and most of the larger cities and towns have been built in this region. The ports of Kuching and Sibu have been built some distance from the coast on rivers. Bintulu and Miri are close to the coastline where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea. The third region is the mountain region along the border and with the Kelabit (Bario), Murut (Ba Kelalan) and Kenyah (Usun Apau) highlands in the north.12 Environment Sarawak has vast areas of both lowland and highland rainforest. However, Sarawak has been hit hard by the logging industry and the expansion of monoculture tree plantations and oil palm plantations. Malaysia's deforestation rate is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. Statistics estimate Sarawak's forests have been depleted but there is no definitive study to know how much. Malaysia's deforestation rates overall are among the highest in Asia, jumping almost 86 percent between the 19902000 period and 20002005. In total, Malaysia lost an average of 1,402 km2 0.65 percent of its forest areaper year since

11 12

Geography. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Sarawak Ibid.

2000.13 By comparison, Southeast Asian countries lost an average of 0.35% of their forest per annum during the 1990s. Demographics Population As of the 2010 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,399,839, making it the 4th most populous state in Malaysia. Due to the large area of Sarawak, it has the lowest population density in Malaysia, which stands at 22 people per km2. Sarawak also has some of the lowest population growth in Malaysia. Ethnic groups Ethnic groups in Sarawak14
Ethnic Percentage

Iban Chinese Malay Bidayuh Melanau Orang Ulu Others

29% 24% 23% 8% 6% 5% 5%

A modern Iban longhouse, built using new materials and preserving essential features of communal living.

13 14

Malaysia: Environmental Profile. Rainforests.mongabay.com. Retrieved on 19 January 2013. Negeri: Sarawak: Total population by ethnic group, sub-district and state, Malaysia, 2010". Statistics.gov.my. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/population/05Jadual_Mukim_negeri/Mukim_ Sarawak.pdf. Retrieved 2013-01-19

Iban girls dressed in traditional women's attire during Gawai festivals in Debak, Betong region, Sarawak. Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, Indians, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home villages to look for employment. Generally, Sarawak has seven major ethnic groups namely Iban, Chinese, Malay, Bidayuh, Melanau, Orang Ulu, and "others". Several more minor ethnics which do not belong to any of these seven major ethnic groups are Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis, Murut, and Indian. Unlike Indonesia, the term Dayak is not officially used to address Sarawakian's native ethnicity. Iban

Iban people

Sea Dayaks (Iban) women from Rejang, Sarawak, wearing rattan corsets decorated with brass rings and filigree adornments. The family adds to the corset dress as the girl ages and based on her family's wealth. The Ibans comprise the largest percentage (almost 30%) of Sarawak's population.15 Iban is native to Sarawak and Sarawak has the highest number of Ibans in Borneo. The large
15

Ibid

majority of Ibans practise Christianity. However, like most other ethnic groups in Sarawak, they still observe many of their traditional rituals and beliefs. Sarawak celebrates colourful festivals such as the Gawai Dayak (harvest festival), Gawai Kenyalang (hornbill, or the god of war festival), penuaian padi and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead). Chinese

Malaysian Chinese
Chinese pioneers first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. Today, they make up 24% of the population of Sarawak and consist of communities built from the economic migrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries. They are classified as a nonBumiputera ethnic group, despite bearing the largest contribution and hardship towards the development of Sarawak since the early 19th century. The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups, the most significant being Foochow, Hakka, Hokkien, Teochew, Hainanese, and Puxian Min. The Chinese maintain their ethnic heritage and culture and celebrate all the major cultural festivals, most notably the Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians. Ethnic Chinese in Sarawak were encouraged to settle because of their commercial and business acumen. The biggest dialect group is the Hokkien; many originated from Jinmen, Republic of China and Xiamen in China. The Hakka and Cantonese represent a minority of the Chinese population. Despite their small numbers, the Hokkien have a considerable presence in Sarawak's private and business sector, providing commercial and entrepreneurial expertise and oftentimes operating joint business ventures with Malaysian Chinese entreprises. 16 There are number of Chinese settled down in Sarawak between the years 19111949 after the Nationalist led-Kuo Min Tang lost in civil war in 1949 between against Communist Party of China. Most of the Nationalist refugees or Neutral fled from Mainland China.17 In 1963, when Sarawak helped Malaya to form Malaysia, most of them automatically gained the Citizenship of Malaysia despite of having the Kuo Min Tang Republic of China Citizenship.18

16

Richter, Frank-Jrgen, ed. (1999). "Overseas Chinese and Overseas Indian Business Networks". Business Networks in Asia: Promises, Doubts, and Perspectives. Greenwood. ISBN 9781567203028. http://books.google.ca/books?id=piNfUHUmPG8C&pg=PA192. Retrieved 2013-01-19 17 Pike, John. "Chinese Civil War". Global Security. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/chinese-civilwar.htm. Retrieved 2013-01-19. Chiang Kai Shiek". Sarawakiana. http://sarawakiana.blogspot.com/2008/08/chiang-kai-shek-or-chiang-chungcheng.html. Retrieved 19 Jan 2013. 18 Jan Voon, Cham. "Kuomintang's influence on Sarawak Chinese". University of Malaysia Sarawak ( UNIMAS). http://symposia.unimas.my/iii/sym/app?id=6596352876721218&lang=eng&service=blob&suite=def. Retrieved 19 Jan 2013.

Malay The Malays make up 23% of the population in Sarawak. 19 They mostly populate the southern region and urban areas of Sarawak. Melanau

Melanau
The Melanaus have been thought to be amongst the original settle of Sarawak.20 They make up 6% of the population in Sarawak.21 Today most of the Melanaus community Islam and Christians, though they still celebrate traditional animist festivals such as the annual Kaul Festival. Bidayuh

Bidayuh
Concentrated mainly on the West end of Borneo, the Bidayuhs make up 8% of the population in Sarawak. 22 The Bidayuhs speak a number of different but related dialects. Some Bidayuhs speak either English or Sarawak Malay as their main language. While some of them still practise traditional religions, the majority of modern-day Bidayuhs have adopted the Christian faith. Another ethnic associated to Bidayuh is Salako, classified as Bidayuh by the Malaysian government for political convenience. Orang Ulu

Orang Ulu

A young Sarawakian playing the sapeh

19

Negeri: Sarawak: Total population by ethnic group, sub-district and state, Malaysia, 2010". Statistics.gov.my. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/population/05Jadual_Mukim_negeri/Mukim_ Sarawak.pdf. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 20 Gomiri. Gomiri. Retrieved on 19 Jan 2013. 21 Negeri: Sarawak: Total population by ethnic group, sub-district and state, Malaysia, 2010". Statistics.gov.my. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/population/05Jadual_Mukim_negeri/Mukim_ Sarawak.pdf. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
22

Ibid

Orang Ulu is an ethnic group in Sarawak. The various Orang Ulu ethnics together make up roughly 6% of Sarawak's population. The phrase Orang Ulu means upriver people and is a term used to collectively describe the numerous tribes that live upriver in Sarawak's vast interior. Such groups include the major Kenyah and Kayan people, and the smaller neighbouring groups of the Kajang, Kejaman, Punan, Ukit, and Penan. Nowadays, the definition also includes the down-river tribes of the Lun Bawang, Lun Dayeh, "mean upriver" or "far upstream", Berawan, Saban as well as the plateau-dwelling Kelabits. Orang Ulu is a term coined officially by the government to identify several ethnics and sub-ethnics who live mostly at the upriver and uphill areas of Sarawak. Most of them live in the district of Baram, Miri, Belaga, Limbang, and Lawas. A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribe are Christians but traditional religions are still practised in some areas. Some of the major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include:

Kenyah Kayan Lun Bawang Kelabit Penan Bisaya

Others Other minority ethnic groups residing in Sarawak are the Kedayan ethnic group and the Punan Bah people (in fact is a collective of obscure and unaccounted ethnic communities grouped together as a single ethnic entity), and also non-Bumiputera ethnic groups, which are the Indian and Eurasian. The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in parts of Sarawak. The Kedayan language is spoken by more than 37,000 people in Sarawak, with most of the members of the Kedayan community residing in Lawas, Limbang, Miri, and Sibuti areas. Unlike its Peninsular counterpart, Sarawakians of Indian descent are small in number and have assimilated very well to the other communities. Eurasians continues to be the smallest among the minority ethnic groups in Sarawak, mostly due to assimilation and interracial marriages. The Punan Bah communities are usually located in areas that encompass the borders of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei, and Indonesia. More studies need to be carried out about them, as they are one of the lesser known group in the state.

Religions

Demographics of Sarawak: Religions of Sarawak


Religion in Sarawak - 2010 Census23 Religion Christianity Islam Buddhism Chinese Ethnic Religion Other No religion Percent 44% 30% 13.5% 6.0% 3.1% 2.6%

As of 2010 the population of Sarawak disregarding foreign immigrants is 44% Christian, 30% Muslim, 13.5% Buddhist, 6.0% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 3.1% follower of other religions, and 2.6% non-religious. Christianity has the highest number of practitioners in Sarawak. Major Christian denominations in Sarawak are the Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Methodists, Borneo Evangelical Mission km2(BEM or Sidang Injil Borneo, km2 S.I.B.), and Baptists. Many Sarawakian Christians are non-Malay Bumiputera, ranging from Iban, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu and Melanau. Islam is the second largest religion in Sarawak. Many Muslims are from Malay, Melanau, and Kedayan ethnic groups. Buddhism is the third largest, predominantly practiced by Chinese Malaysians. Taoism and Chinese Folk Religion are together the fourth largest religious group, also represented by ethnic Chinese. Other minor religions in Sarawak are Baha'i, Hinduism, Sikhism, and animism. Many Dayaks especially the Ibans, continue to practice their ethnic religion, particularly with dual marriage rites and during the important harvest and ancestral festivals such as Gawai Dayak, Gawai Kenyalang and Gawai Antu. Other ethnics who still have trace number of animism followers are Melanau and Bidayuh. Government Unlike other states in Malaysia, Sarawak is divided into divisions rather than districts. Each division is headed by one resident. Divisions are further divided into districts, each of which is headed by a district officer; and each district is divided into sub-districts, each headed by an administrative officer.
23

2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/census2010/Taburan_Penduduk_dan_Ciriciri_Asas_Demografi.pdf. Retrieved 19 Jan 2013. p. 13

Administrative divisions Sarawak is divided into 11 Divisions: Limbang, Miri, Bintulu, Kapit, Sibu, Mukah, Sarikei, Betong, Sri Aman, Samarahan, Kuching.

Sarawak is divided into 11 Divisions

Administrative districts Each division is further divided into districts. There are 31 districts in Sarawak.

District Kuching Kuching Bau Lundu Samarahan Asajaya Samarahan Simunjan Serian Sri Aman Sri Aman Lubok Antu Betong Betong Saratok Sibu Kanowit Selangau

Division

Subdistrict Siburan, Padawan Sematan

Sebuyau Tebedu Lingga, Pantu Engkilili Pusa, Spaoh, Debak, Maludam Roban, Kabong, Budu

Sibu

Mukah

Miri Bintulu Limbang

Sarikei

Kapit

Mukah Dalat Daro Matu Miri Marudi Bintulu Tatau Limbang Lawas Sarikei Meradong Julau Pakan Kapit Song Belaga

Balingian Oya Belawai Igan Subis, Niah-Suai Beluru, Long Lama Sebauh Ng. Medamit Sundar, Trusan

Nanga Merit Sungai Asap

Conclusion Sarawak is a region of Malaysia on northwest Borneo. A British protectorate after 1888 and a crown colony after 1946, it joined Malaysia in 1963. This study is to see the prowess of Brooke family Rajahs history and the prowess of Rosli Dhoby in carried out assassinations of British colonial officers in Sarawak to against the submission of Sarawak administration to British Colonial. References (2006 census; Kuching City South 143,500; Kuching City North 133,600; Padawan- 3rd Mile/ 7th Mile/ 10th Mile 302,800) "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101227065717/http://www.statistics.gov.my/ccount12/click.p hp?id=2127. Retrieved 24 January 2011. Chiang Kai Shiek". Sarawakiana. http://sarawakiana.blogspot.com/2008/08/chiang-kai-shekor-chiang-chung-cheng.html. Retrieved 19 Jan 2013. Facebook. En-gb.facebook.com. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.

Jan Voon, Cham. "Kuomintang's influence on Sarawak Chinese". University of Malaysia Sarawak ( UNIMAS). http://symposia.unimas.my/iii/sym/app?id=6596352876721218&lang=eng&service=blob&su ite=def. Retrieved 19 Jan 2013. Pike, John. "Chinese Civil War". Global Security. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/chinese-civil-war.htm. Retrieved 2013-01-19. Malaysia: Environmental Profile. Rainforests.mongabay.com. Retrieved on 19 January 2013. Negeri: Sarawak: Total population by ethnic group, sub-district and state, Malaysia, 2010". Statistics.gov.my. http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/population/05Jadual_Mukim_ negeri/Mukim_Sarawak.pdf. Retrieved 2013-01-19 Richter, Frank-Jrgen, ed. (1999). "Overseas Chinese and Overseas Indian Business Networks". Business Networks in Asia: Promises, Doubts, and Perspectives. Greenwood. ISBN 9781567203028. http://books.google.ca/books?id=piNfUHUmPG8C&pg=PA192. Retrieved 2013-01-19 Rosli Dhobi. Retrieved Jan 18 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosli_Dhobi United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, '''North Borneo and Sarawak'''. Un.org (14 December 1960). Retrieved on 12 August 2012. United Nations Member States. Un.org. Retrieved on 12 August 2012. UN General Assembly 15th Session The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509510). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. UN General Assembly 18th Session the Question of Malaysia (pages:4144). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippnes, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 July 1963). (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012. United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord. (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012.

Chapter 2 The White Rajahs Introduction The White Rajahs were a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. The first in the line was Englishman James Brooke.Other men sometime referred to as White Rajahs include Englishman Alexander Hare in Borneo, Scot John Clunies Ross in the Cocos Islands, and Dane Mads Lange in Bali.24 Rulers Sarawak was part of the realm of Brunei until James Brooke, who was to become the first White Rajah, received a sizable chunk of land from the Bruneian Sultan. Throughout the rule of the first two Brookes, Sarawak's size increased tremendously as more territory was leased or annexed from Brunei. There were three White Rajahs:25 Name Portrait Birth Death Marriages Succession right Note

James of Sarawak (1841 1868)

29 April 1803

11 June 1868

granted Sarawak officially unmarried and the title Rajah and without by the Sultan of legitimate issue Brunei

Charles of Sarawak (1868 1917)

3 June 1829

17 May 1917

Margaret Alice Lili de Windt, with whom he had six children, three surviving infancy

His uncle James named Charles as his successor

24

Runciman, Steven, The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, Cambridge University Press, 1960 25 Ibid

Vyner of Sarawak (1917 1946)

26 September 1874

9 May 1963

Sylvia Brett, with whom he had three daughters

son of the preceding

All three were educated in England and are buried there at Sheepstor Church. By and large the Brookes pursued a policy of paternalism, aimed at protecting the 'native peoples' from 'capitalist exploitation,' and as a result preventing the same levels of development which were evident in some other parts of the British Empire. While James laid much of the groundwork for the expansion of Sarawak, it was his nephew Charles who was the great builder, both in terms of public buildings such as forts and also in extending the borders of the state. While the manner of his departure was controversial, Vyner nonetheless instituted significant political reforms, including ending the absolute rule of the Rajah in 1941 ahead of the Japanese invasion by granting new powers to the Council Negeri (the parliament). Titles "Rajah Muda" was the title given to the heir apparent of the Rajah of Sarawak, and the style "His Highness". The wife of the Rajah Muda had the title "Ranee Muda". When James Brooke first arrived in Sarawak it was governed as a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei. When he assumed control of the original area around Kuching in the 1840s, much of the system of government was based on the ineffective Bruneian model. James set about reforming the government and eventually created a civil service, which recruited European, mainly British, officers to run district outstations. 26 The Sarawak Service was continually reformed by Rajah James and his successors. Government James retained many of the customs and symbols of Malay monarchy and combined them with his own style of absolute rule. The Rajah had the power to introduce laws and acted as chief judge in Kuching. The Brookes were determined to prevent the peoples of Sarawak from being 'exploited' by Western business interests and formed the Borneo Company Limited to assist in managing the economy. This entity also provided military support to the
26

Ranee Margaret of Sarawak (2001). My Life in Sarawak. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582663-9.

Brookes during events such as the Chinese Rebellion, when one of the company steamships, The Sir James Brooke, helped recapture Kuching. A small paramilitary force, the Sarawak Rangers, was formed by Rajah Charles to police and defend the expanding state. This small army also manned a series of forts around the country, performed ceremonial duties and acted as the Rajahs' personal guard.27 Cession to the United Kingdom After World War II, Vyner Brooke ceded Sarawak to the Colonial Office for a sizeable pension for him and his three daughters. His nephew and designated heir, Anthony Brooke, initially opposed cession to the Crown, as did a majority of the native members of the Council Negri. Duncan Stewart, the second British governor to Sarawak, was assassinated by a group agitating for union with newly independent Indonesia and Anthony Brooke was unjustly implicated. Documents newly released indicate that the British Government chose not to reveal the truth of the matter, which was known to HMG at the time. However, there is now no serious movement for the restoration of the monarchy. The period of Brooke rule is generally looked upon favourably in Sarawak, although successive post-federation Malaysian governments have attempted to downplay and, to a certain extent, denounce the Brooke Raj. The coaling station of Brooketon in Brunei was named after the Brooke family. The architectural legacy of the dynasty can be seen in many of the country's nineteenth century and colonial heritage buildings. In Kuching these include the Astana, or governor's residence, the Sarawak Museum, the Old Courthouse, Fort Margherita, the Square Fort, and Brooke Memorial. Several key buildings from the Brooke period have been demolished, such as the offices and warehouses of Borneo Company. Legacy Modern Kuching still boasts many businesses and attractions which capitalise upon the era of the White Rajahs. The Brooke Dockyard, which was founded in the period of Rajah Charles, is still in operation, as is the original Sarawak Museum. The James Brooke Caf and the Royalist, a pub named after James Brooke's schooner, pay tribute to the Brookes.

27

Reece, R.H.W., The Name of Brooke: The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak, 1993.

Sarawak is notably different from peninsular Malaysia and even Sabah in that its ethnic groups are more varied due to the large proportion of tribal peoples such as the Iban and Dyaks. Chinese and Indian migration was encouraged at various times by the Brookes.28 Heraldry and emblems

Flag of the Kingdom of Sarawak. The heraldic arms of the Brooke dynasty were based on the emblem used by James Brooke, and consisted of a red and black cross on yellow shield, crested by a badger, known in heraldic parlance as a brock and hence alluding to the dynastic surname. A crown was added in 1949 and the shield design was used as the basis of the Sarawak flag until 1973. In 1988 the state flag reverted to these original colours.

References Ranee Margaret of Sarawak (2001). My Life in Sarawak. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582663-9. Reece, R.H.W., The Name of Brooke: The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak, 1993. Runciman, Steven, The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, Cambridge University Press, 1960 Sylvia, Lady Brooke, Queen of the Headhunters, 1970. White Rajahs. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajah_of_Sarawak

28

White Rajahs. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajah_of_Sarawak

Chapter 3 James Brooke, Charles Brooke & Charles Vyner Brooke James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 11 June 1868) was a British adventurer whose exploits in areas of the British Empire led to him becoming the first White Rajah of Sarawak. Early life Brooke was born in Secrole, a suburb of Benares, India. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre, and his mistress Harriott Teasdale. Brooke stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England and a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away. Some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Assam during the First Anglo-Burmese War until seriously wounded in 1825, and sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, and resigned. He remained in the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, and returned home via China. Sarawak Brooke attempted to trade in the Far East, but was not successful. In 1833, he inherited 30,000, which he used as capital to purchase a 142-ton schooner, The Royalist.29 Setting sail for Borneo in 1838, he arrived in Kuching in August to find the settlement facing an Iban and Bidayuh uprising against the Sultan of Brunei. Greatly impressed with the Malay Archipelago, in Sarawak he met Pangeran Muda Hashim, to whom he gave assistance in crushing the rebellion, thereby winning the allegiance of the Sultan, who in 1841 offered Brooke the governorship of Sarawak in return for his help. Raja Brooke was highly successful in suppressing the widespread piracy of the region. However some Malay nobles in Brunei, unhappy over Brooke's measures against piracy, arranged for the murder of Muda Hashim and his followers. Brooke, with assistance from a unit of Britain's China squadron, took over Brunei and restored its sultan to the throne. In
29

James, Lawrence (1994). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 244245. ISBN 0-312-16985.

return the sultan ceded complete sovereignty of Sarawak to Brooke, who in 1846 presented the island of Labuan to the British government. He was granted the title of Rajah of Sarawak on 24 September 1841, partly attributed to his relationship with a daughter of the Sultan, although the official declaration was not made until 18 August 1842. Brooke began to establish and cement his rule over Sarawak: reforming the administration, codifying laws and fighting piracy, which proved to be an ongoing issue throughout his rule.[citation needed] Brooke returned temporarily to England in 1847, where he was given the Freedom of the City of London, appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Labuan, British consul-general in Borneo and was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB). Brooke became the centre of controversy in 1851 when accusations against him of excessive use of force against natives, under the guise of anti-piracy operations, ultimately led to the appointment of a royal commission in Singapore in 1854: its investigation did not confirm the charges, but the accusations continued to haunt him. During his rule, Brooke faced threats from Sarawak warriors like Sharif Masahor and Rentap, and an uprising by Chinese miners in 1857,30 but remained in power. Having no legitimate children, in 1861 he named Captain John Brooke Johnson-Brooke, his sister's eldest son, as his successor. Two years later, while John was in England, James deposed and banished John from Sarawak because John had criticised him. He later named another son of the same sister, Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke, who did indeed succeed him. In November 1862, Captain Brooke rescued several civilians from the Moro Pirates after a pitched naval battle off the coast of Mukah. During the fighting, Brooke's steamer named Rainbow sank four prahus and damaged one other with cannon fire. Over 100 pirates were killed or wounded in the engagement while Brooke, and his Sarawakian followers, were mostly unscathed.31 Brooke ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868, following three strokes over a period of ten years.

30

Heidhues, MFS (2003) Golddiggers, farmers, and traders in the "Chinese Districts" of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. SEAP Ithaca, NY P102 31 http://anglicanhistory.org/asia/sarawak/sketches1882/16.html

Burial A memorial stained glass window in St Leonard's Church dedicated to those from Sarawak who died in World War II. It depicts a butterfly, a moth, and pitcher plants, two of which were named after James Brooke. All three White Rajahs are buried in St Leonard's Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor. Personal life James Brooke Brooke was influenced by the success of previous British adventurers and the exploits of the British East India Company. His actions in Sarawak were clearly directed to both expanding the British Empire and the benefits of its rule, assisting the local people by fighting piracy and slavery, and securing his own personal wealth to further these activities. His own abilities, and those of his successors, provided Sarawak with excellent leadership and wealth generation during difficult times, and resulted in both fame and notoriety in some circles. His appointment as Rajah by the Sultan, and his subsequent knighthood, is evidence that his efforts were widely applauded in both Sarawak and British society.32 Among his more notable emotional relationships was the one with Badruddin, a Sarawak prince, of whom he wrote, "my love for him was deeper than anyone I knew." Later, in 1848, Brooke is alleged to have formed a relationship with 16 year old Charles T. C. Grant, grandson of the seventh Earl of Elgin, who reciprocated. 33 Whether this relationship was purely a friendship or otherwise has not been fully revealed. Although he died unmarried, he did acknowledge one son. Neither the identity of the son's mother nor his birth date is clear. The son was brought up as Reuben G. Walker in the Brighton household of Frances Walker (1841 and 1851 census, apparently born ca.1836). By 1858 he was aware of his Brooke connection and by 1871 he is on the census at the parish of Plumtree, Nottinghamshire as "George Brooke", age "40", birthplace "Sarawak, Borneo". He was married (in 1862)34 and had seven children, three of whom survived their infancy. The oldest was called James; he died, travelling steerage to Australia, in the wreck of the SS

32 33

Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience, Ronald Hyam; pp.4445 WALKER, J.H., "This peculiar acuteness of feeling: James Brooke and the enactment of desire", Borneo Research Bulletin, vol 29 (1998) pp 148- 189 34 http://4dw.net/royalark/Malaysia/sarawak4.htm

British Admiral35 on 23 May 1874. A memorial to this effect giving a birthdate of 1834 is in the churchyard at Plumtree.36 Fiction Fictionalised accounts of Brooke's exploits in Sarawak are given in Kalimantaan by C. S. Godshalk and The White Rajah by Nicholas Montserrat. Another book, also called The White Rajah by Tom Williams was published by JMS Books in 2010. Brooke is also featured in Flashman's Lady, the 6th book in George MacDonald Fraser's meticulously researched Flashman novels; and in Sandokan: The Pirates of Malaysia (I pirati della Malesia), the second novel in Emilio Salgari's Sandokan series. Brooke was also a model for the hero of Joseph Conrad's novel Lord Jim, and he is briefly mentioned in Kipling's short story "The Man Who Would Be King". Charles Kingsley dedicated the novel Westward Ho! (1855) to Brooke. Errol Flynn intended to star on a film on Brooke's life called The White Rajah for Warner Bros, based on a script by Flynn himself. However although the project was announced for filming it was never made.37 Honours Some Bornean species were named in Brooke's honor: Rhododendron brookei, Rhododendron, named by Hugh Low. Rajah Brooke's Pitcher Plant, Nepenthes rajah, a pitcher plant named by Joseph Dalton Hooker Trogonoptera brookiana, birdwing butterfly, named by Alfred R. Wallace. Brooke's Squirrel, Sundasciurus brookei.

James Brooke Brooke family


Born: 29 April 1803 Died: 11 June 1868

Regnal titles Preceded by Rajah of Sarawak Succeeded by None 18421868 Charles

35

http://www.kingisland.net.au/~maritime/britishadmiral.htm http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/vicpamphlets/0/0/1/pdf/vp0010.pdf 36 http://www.keyworth-history.org.uk/about/reports/0509.htm 37 NEWS OF THE SCREEN: GABLE AND SHEARER FOR 'PRIDE OR PREJUDICE' HAWAIIAN SETTING FOR BING CROSBY FILM. New York Times (1923Current file) [New York, N.Y] 1 September 1936: 24.

Notes The term Rajah reflects traditional usage in Sarawak and English writing, although Raja may be better orthography in Malay. Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak Charles, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke; 3 June 1829 17 May 1917), born Charles Anthoni Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke,38 as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo.

Charles, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke; 3 June 1829 17 May 1917), born Charles Anthoni Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke,39 as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo. Biography Charles was born in Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Somerset, in England, to the Rev. Francis Charles and Emma Frances Johnson, the younger sister of Rajah Sir James Brooke. Francis and Emma had other children: Captain John Brooke Johnson (18231868) (later Brooke Brooke), Mary Anna Johnson (b. 1824), Harriet Helena Johnson (b. 1826), Charlotte Frances Johnson (b. 1828), Captain (William) Frederic Johnson (b. 1830), Emma Lucy Johnson (b. 1832), Margaret Henrietta Johnson (18341845), Georgianna Brooke Johnson (18361854), James Stuart Johnson (18391840), and Henry Stuart Johnson (b. 1841).

38 39

The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520 Ibid.

Charles was educated at Crewkerne Grammar School and entered the Royal Navy. He adopted his uncle James's name and entered his service in 1852 as Resident at the Lundu station. In 1865, James named Charles as his successor. Charles married Margaret Alice Lili de Windt at Highworth, Wiltshire on 28 October 1869; she was raised to the title of Ranee of Sarawak with the style of Her Highness 28 October 1869. They had six children, three of whom survived infancy: Dayang Ghita Brooke (18701873) James Harry Brooke (18721873) Charles Clayton Brooke (18721873) Vyner of Sarawak (18741963) Bertram, Tuan Muda (18761965) Harry Keppel Brooke, Tuan Bongsu (18791926)
40

Evidence also exists (see Reece cited in references below) that Charles Brooke had another son, Esca Brooke, born of a liaison with a native Malay woman which was unrecognized in English law. Esca was later adopted by Rev. William Daykin and moved to Canada.

Rajah Charles as depicted on a one cent coin


Charles continued the work his uncle had started, suppressing piracy, slavery, and headhunting, while encouraging trade and development and expanding his borders as the opportunity arose. In 1891 he established the Sarawak Museum, the first museum in Borneo. Brooke founded a boys' school in 1903, called the 'Government Lay School', where Malays could be taught in the Malay language. This was the forerunner of SMK Green Road.41 By the time of his death, Britain had granted Sarawak protectorate status, it had a parliamentary government and a railway, and oil had been discovered.

40 41

Ibid.

"Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 70". Royal Asiatic Society. v. 70 1997. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=F2YaAQAAIAAJ&q=%22Government+Lay+School%22+1903&dq =%22Government+Lay+School%22+1903&lr=&cd=2. Retrieved 3 April 2010.

All three White Rajahs are buried in St Leonard's Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor. Charles Vyner Brooke Vyner, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke; 26 September 1874 9 May 1963) was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak.42

Early life The son of Charles of Sarawak and his wife Margaret de Windt (Ranee Margaret of Sarawak), Vyner was born in London and spent his youth there, being educated at Clevedon, Winchester College, and Magdalene College, Cambridge. 43 He then entered the Sarawak public service. Vyner served as aide-de-camp to his father 18971898, district officer of Simanggang 18981901, Resident of Mukah and Oya, 19021903, Resident of the Third Division 19031904, President of the Law Courts 19041911, Vice-President of the Supreme and General Councils 19041911. In his military career he was 2nd Lieutenant 3rd County of London (Sharpshooters) Yeomanry (12 May 1911), resigning on 21 May 1913. During World War I he served incognito as a private in anti-aircraft defence and as a fitter in the aeroplane manufacturing works at Shoreditch, east London. He was granted the personal style of His Highness by command of George V, 22 June 1911. It was in England that he met and married The Hon. Sylvia Brett, daughter of Lord Esher,44 on 21 February 1911. They returned to Sarawak.

42 43

The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520

Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (19221958). "Brooke, Charles Vyner". Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.
44

The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520

Rajah of Sarawak Following the death of his father, Vyner succeeded on 17 May and was proclaimed Rajah on 24 May 1917 at Kuching. He took the oath before the Council Negri on 22 July 1918. Vyner's early years as Rajah saw a boom in the Sarawak rubber and oil industries and the subsequent rise in the Sarawak economy allowed him to modernise the country's institutions, including the public service, and introduce a penal code developed on British India lines in 1924. Granted a knighthood in 1927, Vyner continued to run a hands-off and relatively popular administration that banned Christian missionaries and fostered indigenous traditions (to an extent; headhunting was outlawed). Sarawak, however, was not immune to Japanese imperial ambition, which manifested itself in Sarawak on 25 December 1941. In that same year he withdrew 200,000 from the Treasury for his personal expenses, in exchange for limiting his powers by a new constitution. 45 Vyner and his family were visiting Sydney, Australia, where he would remain for the duration of the war.[citation needed] The Daily Telegraph described him as "a cloud-living Old Wykehamist, ... one of the few monarchs left in the world who could still say l'Etat, c'est moi." Similarly, his Who's Who entry read thus: "Has led several expeditions into the far interior of the country to punish headhunters; understands the management of natives; rules over a population of 500,000 souls and a country" 40,000 square miles (100,000 km2) in extent.46 Abdication and later life Vyner returned to Sarawak on 15 April 1946 and temporarily resumed as Rajah, until 1 July 1946 when he ceded Sarawak to the British government as a crown colony, thus ending White Rajah rule in Sarawak. Vyner died in London at No. 13, Albion Street, Bayswater, W2 on 9 May 1963, 47 four months before Sarawak as well as Malaya, Sabah and Singapore joined together to form the Federation of Malaysia. Vyner, his father, his brother Bertram, the Tuan Muda, and Rajah James, are buried in St Leonard's Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor.

45 46 47

Accounts by his nephew, Anthony Brooke http://sarawakdotcom.blogspot.com/ "The girl who would be queen", The Daily Telegraph, 2/6/2007.
The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520

Family He was survived by three daughters: Dayang Leonora Margaret, Countess of Inchcape, wife of firstly the Earl of Inchcape (one son, Lord Tanlaw, and one daughter) and, secondly of US Colonel Francis Parker Tompkins (one son). Dayang Elizabeth, a RADA educated singer and actress, wife of firstly Harry Roy (one son and one daughter), and secondly, Richard Vidmer until her death.48 Dayang Nancy Valerie, wife of firstly, Robert Gregory, an American wrestler, secondly, Jos Pepi Cabarro a Spanish businessman, thirdly, Andrew Aitken Macnair (one son, Stewart, born 1952), and fourthly, Memery Whyatt. She died in Florida.49 Titles from birth to death C. Vyner de Windt Brooke, Esq. (26 September 1874 30 July 1891) Vyner, The Rajah Muda of Sarawak (31 July 1891 11 May 1911) Lieutenant The Rajah Muda of Sarawak (12 May 1911 21 June 1911) H.H. Lieut. The Rajah Muda of Sarawak (22 June 1911 21 May 1913) H.H. Vyner, The Rajah Muda of Sarawak (21 May 1913 1916) H.H. Private The Rajah Muda of Sarawak (1916 16 May 1917) H.H. Rajah Vyner of Sarawak (17 May 1917 1917) Col. H.H. Rajah Vyner of Sarawak (1917 2 June 1927) Col. H.H. Rajah Vyner of Sarawak, GCMG (3 June 1917 1932) H.H. Rajah Vyner of Sarawak, GCMG (1932 9 May 1963) Although his rule in Sarawak ceased in 1946, part of his abdication 'deal' was that he maintained his styles and titles for life. Conclusion Indeed, Anthony Brooke could hardly have been more British. Born thousands of miles away in England, he would later be educated at Eton and Oxford. Yet as far as the people of Sarawak were concerned, he was royalty. Since 1841, his fathers family had taken it upon themselves to rule this remote region as their private empire. The White Rajahs, as they became known, had the power of life and death over their subjects, not to mention their own constabulary, flag and postage stamps.

48 49

Princess Pearl (aka Elizabeth Vyner Brooke) IMDb


The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520

Anthony, too, would go on to govern Sarawak. In fact, this bizarre and extraordinary dynasty known as much for its eccentricity as for its benevolent rule only came to an end this month when he died at the age of 98. The family had come to power thanks to Anthonys great-great-uncle James Brooke a man so swashbucklingly adventurous that Errol Flynn once proposed to play him in a film about his life. Born in Benares in 1803, he was the son of an English judge who worked for the East India Company.

End of the line: Anthony Brooke, last White Rajah of Sarawak, would lose the territory to the British

References James, Lawrence (1994). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 244245. ISBN 0-312-16985. Heidhues, MFS (2003) Golddiggers, farmers, and traders in the "Chinese Districts" of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. SEAP Ithaca, NY P102 http://anglicanhistory.org/asia/sarawak/sketches1882/16.html Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience, Ronald Hyam; pp.4445 WALKER, J.H., "This peculiar acuteness of feeling: James Brooke and the enactment of desire", Borneo Research Bulletin, vol 29 (1998) pp 148- 189 http://4dw.net/royalark/Malaysia/sarawak4.htm http://www.kingisland.net.au/~maritime/britishadmiral.htm http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/vicpamphlets/0/0/1/pdf/vp0010.pdf http://www.keyworth-history.org.uk/about/reports/0509.htm NEWS OF THE SCREEN: GABLE AND SHEARER FOR 'PRIDE OR PREJUDICE' HAWAIIAN SETTING FOR BING CROSBY FILM. New York Times (1923Current file) [New York, N.Y] 1 September 1936: 24. Barley, Nigel. White Rajah. London:Time Warner, 2002 ISBN 978-0-316-85920-2 Cavendish, Richard. "Birth of Sir James Brooke." History Today. April 2003, Vol. 53, Issue 4.

Doering, Jonathan. "The Enigmatic Sir James Brooke." Contemporary Review, July, 2003. (Book review of White Rajah by Nigel Barley. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85920-6.) The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p18752.htm#i187520 "Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 70". Royal Asiatic Society. v. 70 1997. Retrieved 3 April 2010. Ranee Margaret of Sarawak (2001). My Life in Sarawak. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582663-9. R.H.W. Reece (1982). The Name of Brooke, the End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580474-0 9780195804744.

Chapter 4 ROSLI DHOBI Rosli Dhoby, Sarawak Malay warriors who fought for independence from the British dead Sarawak gallows on February 2, 1950. His age was then 17 years old and he's a teacher. But the fighting spirit against the British who wanted to return control of Sarawak after the Second World War pretty awesome. He was found guilty of stabbing to death a second British Governor of Sarawak, Sir Duncan Stewart with a knife poisoned in Sibu on December 3, 1949. Young man who was born in 1932 parishioners in Sibu Sarawak Malay Youth Movement sits (GPMS) set up to oppose the British private, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke family who defeated Japan in World War II but want to cede Sarawak to the Colonial Office in London after the War in 1945. Sarawak is dominated by private colonial British Sir James Brooke in 1842. Brookes, Sir James, his nephew Sir Charles, and son of Sir Charles, Sir Charles Vyner, ruled Sarawak from year 1842 until the defeat in the war with Japan in 1941. Jim was a member of the Pillar 13 in GPMS. GPMS that combines Malay leaders Brunei and Sarawak parishioners led by Datuk Patinggi Abang Abdillah the Prime Minister's Department at the time of Sir Charles Vyner. Before the Brooke family control of Sarawak, Abang Abdillah family is representative of the government of Sarawak and Brunei Sultan, the founder of the State. Pillar established 13 Queensway Road, Sibu, on February 21, 1949. The aim is to stab Sir Duncan the deeply unpopular among the natives of Sarawak as being arrogant towards them. Pillar 13 has chosen to stab Sir Jim Duncan when colonial agents visited Sibu on December 3, 1949. At 9.30 am on that day, he is Sir Duncan belly pierced with a knife called Badik Melanau tradition. Jim shouted: "Get out of here or you're dead!" Jim and his friend, who is also descended from parishioners, Morsidi Sidik, both arrested by British police. Sir Duncan was sent to Sibu Hospital and then to Singapore to receive intensive care. British officer, died seven days after the incident. On December 15, 1949, Jim and Morsidi and their two colleagues, Awang Awang Rambli Suntong Matsaruddin and Single, who also descended from parishioners, has been sentenced to death in prison Kuching, Jalan Tabuan, Kuching. They are all buried without a gravestone.

All four of these nationalist fighters reinterred in Sibu on March 2, 1996, in Sibu, after an official ceremony attended by the President of the fifth State Tun Ahmad Zaidi Adruce Mohamad Noor (friends who also descended from parishioners). This is the last letter to his family Rosli Dhoby suspended the day before: My parents are dimuliai and obeyed and loved the day and night. 1. Son farewell and gratitude for the terrible death of her son. Do not remember-remember and appealed because of it is fate and destiny inevitable son and dimungkirkan again. 2. Nurture brothers and sisters and all of us - Provide the lessons either `circumcision 'or' Fardh 'to them. 3. Forgive sins and red soles son from father and mother kept up to say farewell to son. And refreshment halalkanlah son. 4. Selimutilah deceased son with Sarawak National Colours. 5. All his written work, book and clothing son, give it all to sister Aini. (Datuk Aini Dhoby is a founder of the opposition Jati Sarawak in 1961 together with Tun Ahmad Zaidi, former chief minister third and fourth Governor of Sarawak, Tun Abdul Rahman, Jacob, and the fourth Chief Minister Tan Sri Dr Abdul Taib Mahmud. Barisan Rakyat or BARJASA Sarawakian Bumiputra Sarawak then called the Party and finally, Pesaka Bumiputra Sarawak United Party or the UN) 6. While small child Fatimah, give the name to commemorate ROSLI son. 7. Greetings respectful and safe than sorry and to her older son and his uncle's son. 8. Father and mother and all the family members do not forget to practice benevolence and prayed for special supplies to the everlasting. Greetings from son worship. Rosli Dhoby50 Rosli Dhoby Wong Ho Leng visited family members of the late Rosli Dhoby during the Hari Raya. This is his 2nd visit in 2 years. To the family and the Malays, Rosli was a hero. This Malay Sarawakian nationalist was a member leader of the Rukun 13 organization, a secret cell which carried out assassinations of British colonial officers in Sarawak. In 1948, Rosli Dhoby assassinated Sir Duncan George Stewart, the 2nd Governor of colonial Sarawak. Other

50

http://pembelamelayu2009.wordpress.com/2008/08/21/524/

members of the Rukun 13 organization who carried out the assassination included Morshidi Sidek, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli and Bujang Suntong. The assassination was well orchestrated. Rosli Dhoby and Morshidi Sidek were among the crowd that welcomed the Governor on his arrival to Sibu. While the governor walked to near Rosli, Morshidi pretended to take pictures of the Governor with a broken camera. The Governor stopped to allow Morshidi to photograph him. At that moment, Rosli stabbed the Governor who died a week thereafter. Rosli was arrested on the spot. He was charged for murder together with Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli, Morshidi Sidek and Bujang Suntong. The trial was conducted in Kuching which found all of them guilty of murder and sentenced to death on 4.12.1949. Rosli Dhoby was sent to the gallows on the morning of 2.3.1950. The execution was not bereft of controversy because Rosli Dhoby was a juvenile then. According to the Wikipedia: (a) Fearing the resentment of the local population, the British government did not allow Rosli Dhobys body to leave the Kuching Central Prison. Instead, his body was interred in an unmarked tomb within the prison compound. After Sarawak gained independence from Britain and joined to form a federation called Malaysia on 16 September 1963, a tombstone was put in place at his tomb. (b) After 46 years resting in prison compound, the remains of Rosli Dhoby were moved out of the Kuching Central Prison to be buried in the Sarawaks Heroes Mausoleum near Sibu Town Mosque at his home town of Sibu on March 2, 1996. To honour his struggle against the British, Rosli Dhoby was given a state funeral by the Sarawak Government. Together with PAS members, He visited the burial place and paid respect to the late Rosli Dhoby in May 2010, during the Sibu by-election. He salutes his courage for standing up against the colonial masters. But he paid the ultimate price for it.51

51

http://holeng.dapsarawak.com/?p=1565

Rosli Dhoby & Sibu 'Panggilan Mu yang Suchi' Wahai Pemuda harapan bangsa, Segeralah bangun membuat-kan jasa, Kebangunan mu menyedar kan Melayu bangsa, Ka-haluan kemajuan Aman Sentosa, Wahai pemuda ber-chita suchi, Kenal-kan Sarawak Negara kita yang Asli, Meskipun bagai-mana anchaman akan terjadi, Hendak lah sa-hidup sa-mati, Mengibar-kan bendera menggambar kan hati, Menunjok-kan rupa bangsa dan Negri, Mengenal-kan hak di-tanahayer sendiri, Wahai pemuda yang ber-semangat kan gelisah, Insap-lah pada perjuangan bangsa, Lambat bangat di-takdzir Allah, Bangsa dan tanahayer tetap Merdeka. Oleh : Lidros (Rosli Dhoby) Utusan Sarawak 28 Februari 194952 Rosli Dhoby and Sibu 'Call thy Holy' O Youth nation's hope Hurry wake up make services, Awakening your right to sensitize the Malay race, Ka-Aman Sentosa course of progress, My aspiration is to see youth holy ambition, Sarawak known our Natural State, Despite how the threat will occur, Want to be together dead and life, Flying its flag draw hearts, Showed a nation-state appearance and State, Identify nation own right, O youth, agitated right spirit,
52

http://amirmukhtar.blogspot.com/2010/05/rosli-dhoby-sibu.html

Realise is the struggle, Sooner or later, in Gods will, Nations and fixed nations Independence. By : Lidros (Rosli Dhoby) Utusan Sarawak 28 Februari 194953 Who is Rosli Dhoby? No, he's not the pioneer entrepreneur of laundry shops (aka Kedai Dobi). Neither photo above is the 'jambu boy' who alleged he has been sodomized by a prominent politician. In fact, Rosli Dhoby (1932-March 2, 1950) was a Malay Melanau Sarawakian nationalist from Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia during the British crown colony era in that state. He was a member leader of the Rukun 13 organization, a secret cell organization which carried out assassinations of British colonial officers in Sarawak - Damn, that's cool! Rosli Dhobi was the one responsible for the assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart, the 2nd governor of colonial Sarawak in 1949 using a poisoned dagger (badik) - He was a teacher & just turned 17 years old at that time. The price paid for his fight for the freedom of his beloved country, Rosli Dhoby was hanged to death at Kuching Central Prison on 2nd March 1950 & his body was buried in an unmarked grave. Only after Sarawak gained independence & joined Malaysia in 1963 a tombstone was put on his grave. In 1996, his remains (& 3 other heroes) were re-interred in Sarawak's Heroes Mausoleum near Sibu Town Mosque, his hometown & were given State Funeral - However, according to some accounts, Rosli's remains were mysteriously nowhere to be found. His former tombstone in Kuching is now on display at Sarawak Islamic Museum. It's now up to the Sibu people to decide & live up the fight of Rosli Dhoby.54 Rukun 13 or Rukun Tiga Belas is a defunct Sarawakian organization that existed from 1947 until 1950. Formation This organization was officially formed in final 1947 due to opposition to the Cession to the United Kingdom in Sarawak. At first, the organization had planned to kill the British Governor Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke but the fate decide otherwise. Sir Charles Noble

53 54

Ibid. Ibid.

Arden-Clarke was transferred to Gold Coast. 55 He was succeeded by Sir Duncan George Stewart. Penalty & disestablishment After the second Governor of Sarawak, Duncan Stewart was killed by Rosli Dhobi and later died in Singapore General Hospital, the British caught all Rukun 13 members in March 1950. The 2 main members of Rukun 13, Rosli Dhobi and Awang Rambli were sentenced to death together with 2 other people, Bujang Suntong and Morshidi Sidek who were not Rukun 13 members. The rest of the Rukun 13 members were jailed. List of Rukun 13 members Rosli Dhobi Morshidi Sidek. Awang Rambli Amit Mohd Deli. Bujang Suntong. Abg Ahmad Osman Dollah Morni Junit Jack Yusof Awang Osman Abg Han Abg Ahmad Wan Zin Che Alias Osman Tambek Adun Amin Jenal Abg Mat Sirat Anti-cession movement of Sarawak The anti-cession movement of Sarawak (Malay: Gerakan Anti-Penyerahan Sarawak) was a movement in Sarawak to fight against the British attempt to govern Sarawak as a crown colony rather than a protectorate ruled by the White Rajahs. The movement lasted from 1 July 1946 until March 1950.56

55 56

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rukun_13

"Pergerakan Anti-Cession". Unofficial PKMS website. 21 October 2009. http://pkmsblog.blogspot.com/2009/10/pergerakan-anti-cession.html. (Malay)

Factors The anti-cession of movement of Sarawak arose from the violation of a provision in the 1941 constitution of Sarawak, which stipulated that Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke would grant the right self-rule to Sarawak. Instead, he decided to cede it to Britain as a crown colony on 8 February 1946.57 Secondly, the Sarawakian people had believed that the rule of the Brooke family could be expected to lead to independence for Sarawak, but heir apparent Anthony Brooke was not appointed as the next Rajah.58 In addition, the decision was taken without the consent of the indigenous people. The British did discuss it with the local people, but declared Sarawak a crown colony on 1 July 1946 anyway, with support from British officers and non-native residents.59 Overview of movement Many Malays joined Datu Patinggi Abang Haji Abdillah and Datu Patinggi Haji Mohammad Kassim to fight against cession of Sarawak to Britain. Many other local associations, such as the Malay National Association of Sarawak (PKMS), took part as well. 60 Members of the movement sent a letter objecting to cession to the Colonial Office in London. They also displayed an anti-cession poster in all the villages of Sarawak, and local people, including women, held demonstrations against it. 61 However, when the authorities discovered that most of the members of the movement were civil servants, "Circular No.9" was issued and signed by C.W.Dawson on 31 December 1946, to warn civil servants that it was illegal to participate in political movements, on pain of dismissal from their post. More than 338 public employees, mostly teachers, resigned on 2 April 1947 in protest against the circular. These resignations forced the closure of more than 22 schools in Sarawak. 56 students also quit their university studies to denounce the circular.62 The largest demonstration took place on 1 July 1947, when the British government appointed Sir Charles Arden-Clarke, former Resident

57

"Sarawak C.V.Booke White Rajah". CACHE Historical and World Coins. http://www.cachecoins.org/sarawak01.htm. 58 "SARAWAK: End of Absolutism". Time Magazine. 6 October 1941. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,790265,00.html?iid=chix-sphere.
59 60

Reece, R.H.W., The Name of Brooke: The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak, 1993.

"Sejarah PKMS". Unofficial PKMS website. 18 October 2009. http://pkmsblog.blogspot.com/2009/10/sejarah-pkms.html. (Malay) 61 Sarawak, Sejarah (9 June 2010). "Bermulanya perjuangan dan penentangan Cession". http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=129148803780660. (Malay) 62 "Circular No 9". Unofficial PKMS website. 22 October 2009. http://pkmsblog.blogspot.com/2009/10/circular-no-9.html. (Malay)

Commissioner of Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana) as the first Governor of the British Crown Colony of Sarawak.63 From that date onwards, demonstrations increased. The British government, intending to put an end to the anti-cession movement, tried to disrupt the close relationship between Malays and the indigenous Dayak people. They also tried to weaken the movement by saying that the colonization of Sarawak aimed to bring better life to Malays and encouraging the formation of the Young Malay Association (YMA), which supported the colonisation of Sarawak. YMA members were picked at random from the anti-cession camp if they refused to join, their children will be unable study at school or work in the Civil Service. The British government also pursued psychological warfare against the anti-cession movement, causing it to decline from December 1947 on.64 Tracking Urban Struggle, Rosli Dhobi of Sibu Names of Rosli Dhobi history, but was recorded in the book he was only known as a rebel who died in the gallows for their involvement in real killing Sarawak Governor. Story of him was not much displayed to the public.65 Thank God the opportunity to visit with tour Sibu Land Lujnah PAS for a week we can add information related fighter figure in Sarawak's independence. Not thought that the earth was once ruled by the Raja Brooke family, without huts or pasantren suddenly appear young at heart religion stood against British colonialism on platform Islam. Not heard the name of the religious leaders on earth while the Sarawak such names Tuan Guru Hj Hasan Monas popular as Tok Beard in Bihar, or so much as Haji Abdul Rahman bewildered and Tokku Paloh in Rajasthan, Sheikh Samad of Palembang against Siam in Sindh or at least like Mat Kilau, Tok Imam messenger alias Elephant and Dato Bahaman the Rich Semantan in Pahang that could act like a teacher with Tokku Paloh great scholar in Rajasthan. It. Appearance appearance on earth God has ordained that ruled Sarawak colonial emergence of a young boy at the age of 16 years if his day, still was schooling and never will understand Rosli Dhobi perjuangan.Itulah youth who move Rukan 13 youth movement that

63 64

Perjuangan anti-cession Sarawak books. Achie, Nordi. "Petualang Dan Pensubahat British: Satu Penelitian Terhadap Pemikiran Intelektual Melayu Antipenyerahan Di Sarawak, 1946-1950". Universiti Malaysia Sabah. http://bahagiansejarah.com/pdf/6.%20nordiePETUALANG%20-%20USM%202010new%5B1%5D.pdf. (Malay)
65

http://tukulbesi.blogspot.com/2010/08/menjejak-perjuangan-rosli-dhobi-di.html

makes prayers as The main core of the struggle. A visit to grandmother's house Dhobi Halimah 81-year-old sister who still lives Jim has a nostalgic look back on the past 60 years the story of greatness and sacrifice of a young boy who hated colonialism willing to devote his life with 3 other friends for the sake of Islam and beloved homeland. In 1946 when Raja Brooke family that ruled Sarawak cede power to the British, there was the rise of the people against Brirish entry into Sarawak. Young man named Jim, who is said to get guidance from a lawyer Awang Hamit Rambli dare write a warning letter to the new governor of the second Sir Duncen Stewart so as not to come into the village youth Sarawak.Surat of course seen in one eye by the 'white man'. Colonial English did not care, warning the village boy. December 1949, the Governor could not enjoy and suck on the land of Sarawak, his stomach exploded in an area near a stream in the Rajang today Sibu Town building situated Board Pelabuhan.Barangkali Sir Duncen Stewart had just down to Sibu via air.Pemuda Rosli Dhobi not timid young man, a warning has been given, he felt obliged to give a lesson to the arrogant invaders before they suck the land of the people of Sarawak. With cries of Allahu Akbar, a young 16-year-old dashed towards the British Governor, without wasting time weapon 'Badik in hand it up to your stomach's content embedded governor to fall into bumi.Orang many military escort Governor ran lari.Tentera course shocked by the violent diduga.Rosli not caught, and you can imagine just what happened to him after a severe itu.Gabenor taken to Singapore for dirawat.Tiga days later the white norang is dead. Jim along with three colleagues languished in detention he jailed Kuching.Kesempatan sent letters to parents advising them to be patient and pray for the safety of himself and a partner in tahanan.Dia also reminded that held prayers ur wish granted relief from Allah. Some time ditahanan pending trial, the Gurkhas came to his sister's house Halimah who are pregnant, ask beranaknya certificate, he said to the release Rosli.Kakak Halimah happy with the news of course, without thinking long handed the birth certificate of Jim's brother Hopefully dirinduio will be released immediately. Halimah far meleset.Surat begets expectation that proves his brother was 16 years old and can not be sentenced to death for juveniles were betrayed British.Tarikh still birth have been changed so that more than 18 tahun.Maka rightly sentenced Rosli mati.Begitulah qada 'and destiny of course unforgettable once Jim's family still live till today. Previously sentenced to

death, Jim could bequeath to his family in his last letter to always be patient, give religious education to their children and do not forget Expand welfare and do not leave on the day of prayer for the supply of Baqa '. Forty years passed, after sentenced to death, his body was not allowed to see members remain in prison keluarga.Jasadnya Kuching merdeka.Dia though the country had still not appreciated as pejuang.Hinggalah in 1996, after various demands, the government allowed his grave with three friends moved to Bukittinggi in Sibu Mosque. But there are strange events occur that puzzle answer for over 40 tahun.Pusara Rosli empty, no skeleton, teeth, or rambut.Berbeza with three friends who found the skeleton, teeth and hair. Once the story is true story, the wife of the murdered governor have need to see the face of the brave young man said to kill her husband itu.Rosli not suspended, but brought to England to be shown there Gabenor.Di wife's possible he tortured, killed, chopped or thrown into sea, Allah knows best. Only God knows. According to the inscriptions on tombstones in cemetery warrior date of their death is different. Rosli and Morshidi Sidek sentenced to death on March 2, 1950, while the lawyer and also his mentor and Single Suntong Awang Ramli was sentenced on March 23, 1950. Let us be charitable Alfatihah to Rosli Dhobi late, late Rambli Awang Amit, Single late Suntong and Morshidi Sidek.Nudah they may include among the martyrs who died fighting in His Cause. The above story is told by the members of his family especially his sister Halimah, his nephew Mohammad Haris Asfia Sibu PAS youth activists involved digging his grave on March 2, 199666 Conclusion After an unsuccessful attempt 67 , thirteen radical members of the Sibu Malay Youth Movement formed a secret organization called Rukun 13 (The 13 Pillars). This organization aimed to eradicate all European and Malay officers who were in favor of British rule in Sarawak. Rikun 13 members Rosli Dhobi and Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli, together with non-members Morshidi Sidek and Bujang Suntong, assassinated Sir Duncan Stewart, the second Governor of Sarawak, when he arrived in Sibu on 3 December 1949. He died in Singapore General Hospital a week later. This incident led the British authorities to try to
66 67

Ibid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-cession_movement_of_Sarawak

crush the anti-cession movement once and for all, by any means possible. All Rukun 13 members were arrested in March 1950. The four assassins were sentenced to death and the remaining Rukun 13 members were jailed. After the end of the anti-cession movement, Britain ruled Sarawak from early 1950 until the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.68 References Haji Nasir Haji Sulaiman/Mary Tan Swee Ee/Ros Maria Chin, Pendekatan Diagramatik Sejarah, Sasbadi Press ISBN 978-983-59-3275-5 Ramlah Binti Adam/Abdul Hakim Bin Samuri/Shakila Parween Binti Yacob/Muslimin Bin Fadzil, Sejarah, DBP ISBN 978-983-62-7883-8 A documentary of Rosli Dhobi (Malay) "Pergerakan Anti-Cession". Unofficial PKMS website. 21 October 2009. (Malay) Reece, R.H.W., The Name of Brooke: The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak, 1993. "Sarawak C.V.Booke White Rajah". CACHE Historical and World Coins. "SARAWAK: End of Absolutism". Time Magazine. 6 October 1941. "Sejarah PKMS". Unofficial PKMS website. 18 October 2009. (Malay) Sarawak, Sejarah (9 June 2010). "Bermulanya perjuangan dan penentangan Cession". (Malay) "Circular No 9". Unofficial PKMS website. 22 October 2009. (Malay) Perjuangan anti-cession Sarawak books. 9.^ Achie, Nordi. "Petualang Dan Pensubahat British: Satu Penelitian Terhadap Pemikiran Intelektual Melayu Antipenyerahan Di Sarawak, 1946-1950". Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Malay) 10.^ Rosli Dhoby - Pejuang Atau Pembunuh). Documentary on Rosli Dhobi, broadcast by Astro Prima. (Malay)

68

Rosli Dhoby - Pejuang Atau Pembunuh). Documentary on Rosli Dhobi, broadcast by Astro Prima. (Malay)

Chapter 5 Administrative changes for self Government Sarawak Sarawak has been dominated by the Brooke family. Charles Vyner Brooke in 1941 introduced the 1941 Constitution Celebration 100 Years Intake Sarawak Constitution could not be performed because Sarawak was attacked by Japan from 1941 to 1945. (Tregonning, K.G., 1960) Sarawak After the defeat of Japan: After PD II British introduced the British Military Administration (PTB) on 10 September 1945 (Porritt, VL, 1997). Between PTB role is; i. Restore order Sarawak ii. Sarawak's economic recovery iii. Sarawak administrative update Submitted Sarawak to the British Government British sought to take over the administration of Sarawak from Brooke family. Charles Vyner Brooke Sarawak decide to leave it to the British. Charles Vyner Brooke was the last of the Rajah of Sarawak. (Porritt, V.L., 1997) Among the driving handing sebab2 Sarawak to the British; i. The British government's insistence that the family leave Brooke Sarawak to British investment secure in the state. ii. Brooke family disputes - Charles Vyner Brooke was old and want to retire but has no heir except his nephew Anthony Brooke. iii. Financial difficulties because Sarawak was devastated by war and Charles Vyner. Brooke does not have the financial resources to develop Sarawak. Sarawak Submission Events Negotiations in December 1945 made between Charles Vyner Brooke, with the British. Brooke was represented by Gerard T. MacBryan sent to obtain the signature from native chiefs and local leaders in the Supreme Council of Sarawak. Gerard T. MacByran to agree with the way the worst. February 8, 1946 decision declaring Charles Vyner Brooke Sarawak consent of the Supreme Council for the British to cede Sarawak to raise objections many parties, especially the Malay and Iban. As a result of the Colonial Office asked Charles Vyner Brooke Sarawak delivery consensus on legislation and democracy. Charles Vyner Brooke

refers to the State Council. After sitting for 3 days the State Council approved Bill Submission Sarawak or Cession Bill. 18 votes for 16 votes against surrender & submission. Motion submission supported by non-Natives. On 1 July 1946 the British declared Sarawak as a British Crown Colony. Sir Charles Arden Clarke was appointed as the first British Governor of Sarawak. History Corridor British want to capture Sarawak for economic and defense interests. Family disputes. Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak to the British because of old age and illhealth. He has no heir, and his nephew Brooke Anthony unfit to rule Sarawak. Anti-Cession movement in Sarawak Submission of Sarawak to the British objected to the Malay and Iban. This movement takes place from year 1946 to year 1949. Malay society led Datu Patinggi Abang Abdillah Bin Datu Patinggi Haji Mohammad Kassim. He was the head of the Malay community datu-datu, and educated Malays, and a former teacher. Protest was joined by; i. National Association of Sarawak Malay (PKMS) ii. Sibu Malay Youth Front (BPMS) iii. Sarawak Youth Front (BPS) iv. Sarawak Dayak Association (PDS) This resistance movement known as the Sarawak Anti-Cession Movement. There was movement Antipenyerahan factor Sarawak Submission Sarawak Sarawak against the 1941 Constitution that promised its own government. Charles Vyner Brooke make their own decisions without consultation with indigenous leaders and by intrigue. Malay Youth Front asks Anthony Brooke (nephew) has been appointed as the new King of Sarawak Sarawak independence in order to facilitate claims. History Corridor Anti-Cession Movement Action: Send letters of protest and a telegram to the British government. Organise demonstrations and posting posters persuade the British out of the state.

A total of 338 Malay officers in the civil service have resigned and a boycott of the first appointment of the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Arden Clarke in Kuching. Resistance and British Reactions Resistance ways: Sends Protest Letter. a. The anti-cession act sent a protest letter, telegram and telegram to the British. b. British ignored the protest. Pasting posters. a. Posters plastered all over the village. b. Each village mobilized to make posters and banners. Among the words that are written; a. "We Protesting vehemently Action On Brooke Submit Sarawak to the British Colonial ". b. "Sarawak is Our Right. Destroying Colonial " Involvement of Women. Women involved in the demonstration protest. Among them; a. PKMS mothers led Ms Lily Eberwein has gone into the interior to get support and sympathy for the Iban. b. BPM mothers like Mrs. Sharifah Hajah Sipah Majesty Othman, Dayang Fauziah and Mr Abol Ajibah are willing to sacrifice time and energy. The opposition People's Action Sarawak British discovered the anti submission from among the Malay government servants especially teachers. In December 1946, the British issued the Circular No.9 notice. It relates to the British warning to government employees not to engage in antipenyerahan movement. It adds fury to the British. On 2 April 1947 a total of 338 civil servants to resign. Mostly the Malay teachers. As a result of 22 government schools were closed. A total of 56 students of the Sarawak Malay College leave school and circular objects. (Mohd Noor Abdullah, 1979). The result is; a) place a massive demonstration on the 1st day of July. b) the largest demonstration occurred in Kuching on July 1, 1947 accompanied PKMS, BPM & PDS c) object to the appointment of the first Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Arden Clarke.

Resistance intensified when the Malay Youth Front (BPM) hold a rally of 250 indigenous representatives BPM branches. Reactions & the British British reaction to the initial stage: British initially consider antipenyerahan movement is temporary and not long. British assumption misses the movement has the support of the people of Sarawak. Among the British action; a. British intensified efforts to weaken the movement by dividing racial unity. b. Encourage the establishment of Young British Malay Association (YMA), which supports the submission Sarawak to the British. c. British create antagonisms between the Malays and the Dayaks to both loggerheads. d. British fighter smear anti-cession movement by accusing they struggle just to keep the Sarawak Malay special rights only. e. British persenda, contempt, and ridicule the antipenyerahan in-council their official functions. Effects; a. In 1947 anti-cession movement weakened by various British propaganda. b. Young people to establish BPM Sibu 'Thirteenth Pillar' in the form of free radicals. They vowed to rid Europe & Malay leaders who collaborate. Rosli Dhobi (member of 13 Pillar) assigned to kill the Governor Sir Duncan Stewart second in Sibu Sarawak. Rosli Dhobi the Pillar 13 fighters who are willing to sacrifice himself to free the motherland. He wrote a poem in Utusan Sarawak uses the nickname Lidros entitled 'calling the Holy'. (Mohd Noor Abdullah, 1979) British Reaction On Violence: On 3 December 1949 Sir Duncan Stewart visited Sibu. Rosli Dhobi He was stabbed by a knife. A week later Sir Duncan Stewart died in hospital Singapore. British determined to fight the use of anti-cession force. Those found guilty sentenced to death, namely; a. Rosli Dhobi b. Rambli Awang Mohd Deli

c. Single Suntong d. Morshidi Sidek 13 Pillar other members imprisoned. British ban Sarawak Malay Association. Its effects; a. British managed to disable antipenyerahan movement. b. The early 1950s the British to strengthen the position in the State. c. The British remained in power until 1963. History Corridor 13 Pillar The body is made up of 13 members. They are frustrated that formal objections raised had not been treated accordingly. They often receive abuse and humiliation in official speeches. They would rather die than let Sarawak became a British colony. Measures for self Government Sarawak Among the measures taken; Restructured Sarawak Administration: a. Beginning in 1946. b. The purpose of facilitating the administration of Sarawak. c. Sarawak divided into 5 parts. d. Each division is headed by a British resident. e. Each section is divided into several regions, headed by a District Officer. Formation of Local Council: a. Formed by the British in 1947 b. Purpose to give an opportunity to the members appointed to take part in the local administration Functions of Local Councils; a. Manage primary education b. Water supply c. Road d. Health e. Control spending f. Collect the head tax and other taxes

Amendment Members of the State Council and a member of the Supreme Council; a. Total members amended in 1956. b. Amendment effective from April 1957 with a total membership of 10 people. Establishment of Political Parties In Sarawak Sarawak Constitution introduced in 1956. Some political parties established until 1963, among them; i. Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP): a. Founded on June 12, 1959 b. Founded by Ong Kee Hui and Stephen Young c. Goal setting; Create unity and loyalty of the people of Sarawak To unite the races in Sarawak ii. Sarawak National Party (SNAP): a. Established on 9 April 1960 b. Founded by Abang Haji Mustapha Datu Patinggi c. Goal setting; Creating harmony in Sarawak Recovery of free education for primary schools Enhancing the political, economic and social indigenous iii. Sarawak Nation Party (PANAS- Parti Negara Sarawak): a. Founded on 10 April 1961 b. Founded by Stephen Kalong Ningkan c. The purpose of the establishment; fight for the rights and interests of the Iban of Sarawak Gaining independence for Sarawak iv. Barisan Rakyat Jati Sarawak (BARJASA): a. Founded on December 4, 1961 b. Founded by Datu Majesty Majesty Haji Othman bin Single c. Goal setting; Claiming privilege indigenous population Improve the standard of living Sarawak natives Creating harmony Save the people from the threat of communism Recovery of Malay as the national language

v. Sarawak Chinese Association (SCA): a. Founded in July 1962 b. Founded by William Tan c. The goal - to work towards the unity of the Chinese vi. Party of Inheritance Son of Sarawak (Parti Pesaka Anak Sarawak-PESAKA): a. Founded in August 1962 b. Founded by Temenggung Jugah c. The goal is to help the Dayak unity and guarantee the constitutional right The establishment of the Sarawak Alliance Sarawak Alliance was formed in November 1962. The purpose of elections in 1963. Win 138 seats. Sarawak Alliance consists of a combination of political parti2 like; a. Sarawak National Party (SNAP) b. Sarawak Nation Party (PANAS) c. Party of Inheritance Son of Sarawak (Parti Pesaka Anak Sarawak-PESAKA) d. Barisan Rakyat Jati Sarawak (BARJASA) e. Sarawak Chinese Association (SCA) LEFTISTS ROLE IN INDEPENDENCE It is such press reports that arouse my curiosity to look at the overall story of Malaysia Independence History when politicians debate that individuals branded as leftists also contributed to Malaysia's independence The Early Voices in Malaysia Independence History So I read several references and trace the seeds of independence back in 1906 to muslim reformists, wishing to end colonial rule to establish an Islamic state, began publishing magazines and newspapers to promote their cause. They also formed political parties such as: 1. The first Malay political party, Kesatuan Melayu Muda in 1937 led by Ibrahim Haji Yaakob. Japanese occupation ended it.

2.Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya after the war in 1945 backed by the Malayan Communist Party with Mokhtaruddin Lasso, Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi( who later also led PAS, the Islamic Party of Malaysia in 1956 ) and Ahmad Boestamam as key figures. The British banned it 5 months later. 3.Hizbul Muslimin led by Uztaz Abdul Bakar al-Baqir in 1948, was a faction of PKMM above. The British banned it in the same year. These folks are pioneers of kemerdekaan in terms of time chronology but their political parties did not last long. Now, how about their associate the... COMMUNISTS - A Chapter of Bloodshed in Malaysia Independence History Their political ideology is the opposite of the capitalist British. However, they were useful allies during Japanese occupation, forming the most effective resistance force against the Japanese in Asia. The British supplied them arms and training and legalised their political party, Malayan Communist Party after the war. The communists, mostly Chinese, also wanted independence for Malaya...in favour of a communist state, meaning equal rights for all races ( naturally ). So it was no surprise things turned sour when the Federation of Malaya established in 1948, which guarantees the special rights of Malays turned the communists to 12 years violent opposition, causing death of thousands. No wonder the government called them " pengganas komunis"! Even after communist threat was declared over in 1960, it was only until 1989 they signed a peace treaty with the governments of Malaysia and Thailand to end their war of 'independence'. BIRDS OF THE SAME FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER The moslem reformists disagreed with the British policies and having communist ties certainly did not endear themselves to the British. Then entered Cambridge educated anglophile Tunku Abdul Rahman into a political arena at a time when the British were seeking to hand over Malaya into hands of prospective leaders who would continue to be on friendly terms with them. Aha! Apart from winning landslide victories in polling booths, Tunku Abdul Rahman with his Chinese and Indian political allies managed to reach a settlement on issues pertaining to

economy, education and citizenship while the Malays retain their special rights to rule Malaya. That paved way for Malaya ( West Malaysia today ) to become independent on 31 August 1957 amidst communist threat. Birth of a New Nation In 1961 Tunku proposed the formation of Malaysia with British colonies Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. Initially all the four colonies agreed to join the federation. Brunei then pulled out due to an armed revolt staged to oppose its entry to Malaysia. Singapore was part of the newly formed Malaysia in 1963 but withdrew in 1965. So this is briefly, Malaysia Independence History and the rise of Malay Language as its national language which becomes Malaysia Language as introduced by the National Language Act 1967 and reverted to Bahasa Melayu since 1990's.69 The Big Picture of Malaysia Independence History In the first place, why did Malaysia need independence? I think it's time to look at Malaysia in the big picture of world history. I find this excerpt from The Columbia History of the World on the influence of Western civilization on the world most enlightening: " After Columbus and Cortes had awakened the people of Western Europe to the possibilities, their appetite for converts, profits, and fame was thoroughly aroused and Western civilization was introduced, mainly by force, over nearly all the globe. Equipped with an unappeasable urge to expand and with superior weapons, conquerors made the rest of the world into an unwilling appendage of the Great European powers...The peoples of these continents [Africa, Asia, and the Americas] were, in short, the victims of a ruthless, unrelenting exploitation." The Lesson Says Malay proverb:" Kalau baik buat teladan, kalau tak baik buat sempadan." In the context of history: Make the good portions your role model and if not good, discard them ( to make barriers ).70

Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia (Malaysia Independence History). Retrieved January 24, 2013 from http://www.bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com/sejarah_kemerdekaan_malaysia.html 70 Ibid.
69

Lets compare notes on Malaysia Independence History, it is a pleasure to find another Malaysian website with an article that mentions a bit on Malaysia Independence History from a different angle- beginning with the assasination of J.W.W. Birch. The website is in English, so I translate the excerpt in Bahasa Malaysia. British rule is not accepted in full by the Malays. The first resident, JWW Birch killed while carrying out its duties to enforce the British administration in Perak. * This is the beginning of the fight for independence to be achieved in 1963. Restructuring After War In 1946, the whole of Malaya (except Singapore became a separate British colony) merged became a British colony called the Malayan Union. Since stiff opposition from the Malays, the Malayan Union into a political failure, and after two years, replaced by the Federation of Malaya, a loose alliance in 1948. In 1948, the local communists of the Communist Party, almost all Chinese, launched a rebellion, led the imposition of emergency in Malaya (emergency abolished in 1960). Guerrilla group fighting to stay at the base along the rugged border southern Thailand, occasionally entering northern Malaysia. This guerrilla fighters finally signed a conciliation agreement with the Malaysian government in December, 1989. Popular sentiment independence enthusiasm during and after the war and the Federation of Malaya to negotiate independence from the United Kingdom under the leadership of Tunku Abdul Rahman, who became the first Prime Minister. As this is part of the anti-communist strategy to "take care", then the British agreed to grant independence to Malaya on 31 August 1957. Malaysia remains as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and host to a large number of British and Commonwealth troops until perunduran British forces from east of Suez in the late 1960's. Malaysia Today The independent Federation of Malaya merged with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (renamed Sabah) to form Malaysia on 16 September, 1963. The formation of a warm controversial, both the Philippines and Indonesia to make a claim against the eastern part of Malaysia. Internal rebellion or independence to support the claim for a particular district, was put down by the armed forces of the Commonwealth and is

followed by three years of semi-war state called the Indonesian Confrontation in Indonesia border. As a concession to widespread contestation, Brunei is not involved in the Federation of Malaysia, but still under the protection of the British army. United States strongly supports the formation of Malaysia pledge after a secret diplomatic agreements with the United Kingdom in return for British support in Vietnam. Conclusion Sarawak was officially granted independence on 22 July 1963, and joined with Malaya, Sabah, and Singapore, in the federation of Malaysia, formed on 16 September 1963, despite the initial opposition from parts of the population. Sarawak was also a flashpoint during the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966. References Affairs, S. A. (1999). Longstanding Issues With Malaysia. Southeast Asian Affairs, 1999. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/app/direct/SM.qst Anthony, S.K.S. (2002). Malay Political Leadership. London: Routledge. Cavandish, M. (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Vol. 9. New York: Marshell Cavendish. Chin Yong Liow. (2004). The Politics of Indonesia-Malaysia Relations: One Kin, Two Nations. London: Routledge Curzon. Edgar, O. (1966). The Communist Insurgent War 1948-60. London: Faber & Faber. Gordon, P. M. (1976). Malaysian Politics. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Hanrahan, G.Z. (1979). The Communist Struggle in Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Harry, M. (1972). Jungle War in Malaya. London: Arthur Barker Ltd. Hooker, V.M. (2003). A Short History of Malaysia: Linking East and West. New South Wales Allen & Unwin. Johan Saravanamutthu. (1983). The Dilemma of Independence: Two Decades of Malaysias Foreign Policy, 1957-1977. Pulau Pinang: Universiti Sains Malaysia. Jones, M. (2002). Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia, 1961-1965: Britain, The United States and the Creation of Malaysia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kennedy, J. (1993). History of Malaya. Kuala Lumpu: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.

Khoo Kay Kim. (1972). Komunisme Di Tanah Melayu: Peringkat Awal. Kuala Lumpur: Univeristi Malaya. Mohamed Noordin Sopiee. (1976). From Malayan Union to Singapore Separation-Political Unification in the Malaysian Region, 1945-1965. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka. Mohd Noor Abdullah. (1979). Kemasukan Sabah dan Sarawak ke Dalam Persekutuan Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka. Nathan, K.S. (2004). Malaysia-Singapore Relations: Retrospect and Prospect. Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol, 24. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/app/direct/SM.qst Porritt, V.L. (1997). British Colonial Rule in Sarawak, 1946-1963. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Ryan, N.J. (1965). The Making of Modern Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia. Retrieved January 24, 2013 from http://www.bahasamalaysia-simple-fun.com/sejarah_kemerdekaan_malaysia.html Strong, C.F. (1963). A History of Modern Political Constitutions. Ontario: Capricorn Books. Tregonning, K.G. (1960). North Borneo. London: H.M. Stationery Off. Voeks, R. (2007). Histories of The Borneo Environment: Economic, Political, Social Dimensions of Change and Continuity. The Geographical Review, Vol, 97. Retrived November 20, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/app/direct/SM.qst. Wikisource. (1957, August). 1957: Malaya Celebrates Independence. BBC, 31. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/31/newsid_3534000/3534340.st m

Centres d'intérêt liés