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INTRODUCTION A.

THE STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

Meaning of Political Science 1. Political Science. Greek word polis, which means city or State; Latin word scire, which means to know. It is, therefore, to know a city or State. The systematic study of the State and all its elements and their relationship. It is concerned with the association of human beings into a body politic or a political community (one organized under government and law). It deals with those relations: among men and groups which are subject to control by the State; among men and groups to the State itself; of the State to other States.

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Politics. The art of decision-making. The art of good management of state affairs.

Scope of Political Science 1. Political Theory deals with the study of the State through a systematic body of principles relating to the origin, form, behavior, and purposes of the State, and upon which its political system operates. It includes: 1.1. 1.2. Political Philosophy expresses the moral or ethical standards that governments may adopt to run public affairs. Political Ideology refers to a belief system that explains and justifies a preferred political order for society, either existing or proposed, and offers strategy (processes, institutions, programs) for its attainment.

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Political Dynamics focuses on forces at work in government and politics and covers pressure or interest groups, public opinion and propaganda and political parties. Foreign Relations/International Relations involves inquiries into the foreign policy of nation-states in their mutual relationships on the different forces geographical, technological, economic, psychological and political which contribute to the shaping of such policy. Government deals with the study of government set up of a State on both national and local levels, and covers the State constitution, laws, citizenship, structures of the various levels of government, the election process, the judicial system, political parties, interest groups, foreign affairs, etc. Comparative Government seeks to study the similarities and differences among States as regards their executive, legislative, and judicial bodies, their constitutions, laws, administrative organizations, foreign policies, political parties and processes, economic, social and political functions, and their cultures and traditions. International Law refers to the body of generally accepted principles that governs the relationship between and regulates the conduct of nation-states.

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Constitution seeks to study the growth and development, roles and functions of the organic law of the State. Public Administration focuses upon the methods and techniques used in the actual management of State affairs by executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Public Law deals with the organization of governments, the limitations upon government authority, the powers and duties of governmental offices and officers and the obligations of one State to another.

Kinds of Public Law 1. Political Law deals with the organization and operation of the governmental organs of the State and defines the relations of the State with the inhabitants of its territory. (Macariola vs. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77). Constitutional Law the law embodied in the Constitution as well as the principles growing out of the interpretation and application made by the courts, particularly the Supreme Court being the court of last resort, of the provisions of the Constitution in specific cases. Administrative Law fixes the organization of government, determines the competence of the authorities that execute the law, and indicates to the individual the remedies for the violation of his rights. Law on Public Corporation deals with the study of such public corporations as barangays, municipalities, cities and/or chartered cities and provinces as well as such quasi-public corporations as the government-owned and controlled corporations. Law on Public Offices and Officers deals with the public office, its creation, modification and dissolution and, the eligibility, manner of election or appointment and assumption of office, rights, duties, powers, inhibitions, liabilities, and the modes of terminating the official relations of public officers. Election Law deals with the study of the means by which the people choose their officials to whom, for definite and fixed periods, they entrust for the time being, as their representatives, the exercise of the fundamental powers of government.

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Interrelationship with Other Branches of Learning


Branches of Learning 1. Economics focuses on the study of the production, distribution, conservation, and consumption of wealth. History presents history as past politics. Geography/Geopolitics deals with the study of physical factors such as population pressures, sources of raw materials, etc. upon domestic and foreign politics. Sociology/Anthropology focuses on the origins and nature of social control and governmental authority with the abiding influences of race and culture upon society, and with the patterns of collective human behavior. Psychology provides a well-spring of knowledge to political scientists in knowing how man acts and behaves to achieve popular esteem through the successful exercise of political leadership or the attainment of political power. Political Science regularly adopts an economic approach in seeking to interpret such matters as financial policies and government regulation of business. uses knowledge of the past as it seeks to interpret present and probable developments in political phenomena adopts in seeking to explain the growth and development of political phenomena like democratic and authoritarian governments. uses the findings of sociologists and anthropologists on crime, marital relations problems, juvenile delinquency, housing problems, etc. in aid of lawmaking and policy making. uses the theories and principles of psychology in dealing with public opinion, pressure groups, and propaganda.

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Branches of Learning 6. Philosophy provides theories about the origin of State, individualism, democracy, communism, the separation of governmental powers, and many others. Statistics and Logic provides statistical procedures for the quantitative measurement of political phenomena and of logical procedures for the analysis of reasoning. Jurisprudence provides analysis of existing legal systems, and with the ethical, historical, sociological, and psychological foundations of law.

Political Science uses the different philosophical concepts in explaining political phenomena. ensures the proper application of statistical procedures for the quantitative measurement of political phenomena and of logical procedures for the analysis of reasoning. integrates legal and extra-legal viewpoints to maintain a full understanding of the facts of political life.

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Functions and Importance of Political Science 1. To discover principles that should be adhered to in public affairs. 2. To study the operations of government in order to demonstrate what is good, to criticize what is bad or inefficient, and to suggest improvements. 3. To utilize its insights for constitution-making, legislation, law enforcement, resolution of conflicting claims and interests, and responding to matters of public concern. Goals in the Study of Political Science Courses 1. Education for Citizenship. Productive, pro-active citizens Career preparation 2. Essential parts of Liberal Education. Liberation from: ignorance, mediocrity and passivity Maxim: eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. It requires: study, information, understanding: government and politics 3. Knowledge and understanding of Government. a condition sine qua non for responsible citizenship and social responsibility.