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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

  
 

  

From the
Treasures
of
Arabic
Morphology

NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morphology has been


published by Zam zam Publishers of Pakistan.
Unfortunately the quality of the print is poor and the
publishers have retyped the contents pages with
typing errors. If anyone is prepared to publish the
book in a quality format, kindly contact the author at
alinaam@alinaam.org.za. All comments and criticisms
are welcome. Post your comments to the above email
address.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Title From the Treasures of Arabic


Morphology

Author Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition Safar 1427 A.H.


March 2006
Academy for Islamic Research
Published by Madrasah In’āmiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com

Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in


a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior
permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief
quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by


Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown,
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Contents

Introduction 10
Some Useful Terms 11
Arabic Terms 12
The Types of Words 14
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 15
Positive and Negative 15
Active and Passive 15
The Second Category of Verbs 16
Exercise 1 17
Types of Nouns 18
The Scales of Verbs 20
Exercise 2 22
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 23
Exercise 3 25
The Perfect Active (  ) 26
Exercise 4 28
The Perfect Passive ( ) 29
Exercise 5 33
The Imperfect () 35
Exercise 6 38
The Imperfect Passive ( ) 39
Exercise 7 40
The ( !"# ) 41
Exercise 8 44
The ( $ ) 45
Exercise 9 49
The (%&) and ('#) of Emphasis 50
Exercise 10 55
The Imperative (() 56
Exercise 11 61

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The Prohibition () 61


Exercise 12 65
The Derived Nouns ( )*+ ,-.) 66
The Active Participle (/01 2) 66
Exercise 13 68
The Passive Participle (1 2) 69
Exercise 14 70
The Elative (/1* 2) 71
Exercise 15 73
The ( !+ 1") 74
The Noun of the Instrument ( 3 2) 76
Exercise 16 78
The Adverb ( 4 2) 79
Exercise 17 81
The Intensive Adjective ( 5! 5") 82
Exercise 18 84
The Categories (6 () of Verbs 85
The (6 () of (78 9:9) 85
The First (6 ) 85
The Second (6 ) 86
The Third (6 ) 86
The Fourth (6 ) 87
The Fifth (6 ) 88
The Sixth (6 ) 88
Exercise 19 90
The (6 () of (;< =>? 9:9) 91
Construction of the Derived Nouns 95
The Abbreviated Paradigm of each (6 ) 97
(<@ 6 ) 97

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Exercise 20 99
(/1A 6 ) 99
Exercise 21 101
( B01 6 ) 101
Exercise 22 103
(1#@ 6 ) 103
Exercise 23 105
(*<@ 6 ) 105
Exercise 24 110
(:<@ 6 ) 110
Exercise 25 112
(/C1A 6 ) 112
Exercise 26 114
(/01A 6 ) 114
Exercise 27 117
(1*2@ 6 ) 117
Exercise 28 119
(<@ 6 ) 119
Exercise 29 121
(:<@ 6 ) 121
Exercise 30 123
(C<@ 6 ) 123
Exercise 31 125
Four Root-Letter Verbs 126
Exercise 32 129
The Derived Forms of Four Root-Letter 130
Verbs
(/BD1A 6 ) 130
Exercise 33 132
(EB< 6 ) 132
Exercise 34 134

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(:< 6 ) 134
Exercise 35 136
Other Derived Forms 137
Exercise 36 142
The Seven Categories 143
Exercise 37 146
The Rules of (F) 147
Rule 1 147
Rule 2 147
Rule 3 148
Rule 4 148
Rule 5 150
Rule 6 151
Rule 7 152
Rule 8 153
Rule 9 154
Rule 10 156
Exercise 38 156
The Orthography of the Hamzah 157
The Paradigms of (F) 158
Exercise 39 160
Exercise 40 161
Exercise 41 163
Discussion of (G F) 163
Discussion of (%: F) 164
Exercise 42 165
The Rules of (/*) 166
Rule 1 166
Rule 2 167
Rule 3 168
Rule 4 169
Rule 5 170
Rule 6 171

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Rule 7 171
Rule 8 179
Rule 9 184
Rule 10 189
Exercise 43 193
Rule 11 193
Rule 12 194
Rule 13 195
Rule 14 196
Rule 15 199
Rule 16 199
Rule 17 202
Rule 18 203
Rule 19 204
Rule 20 205
Rule 21 206
Rule 22 207
Rule 23 208
Rule 24 209
Rule 25 210
Rule 26 212
Exercise 44 213
The Paradigms of (H) 214
Exercise 45 220
The Paradigms of ( $() 221
Exercise 46 228
The Paradigm of (I> $() 229
Exercise 47 240
The Paradigms of (JK#) and (L1) 241
Exercise 48 250
Exercise 49 260
Exercise 50 271
Combination of (F) and (/*) 272
Exercise 51 283

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The Rules of (L0) 284


Rule 1 284
Rule 2 286
Rule 3 287
Rule 4 288
Rule 5 289
Exercise 52 290
Exercise 53 297
A Combination of (L0) , (F) and (/*) 301
Exercise 54 303
Special Meanings (N"M) of Each (6 ) 304
The (N"M) of (# 6 ) 304
The (N"M) of (6 6 ) 304
The (N"M) of (O- 6 ) 305
The (N"M) of (% 6 ) 305
The Derived Categories 306
The (N"M) of (<@ 6 ) 306
The (N"M) of (/1A 6 ) 309
The (N"M) of ( B01 6 ) 311
The (N"M) of (*<@ 6 ) 312
The (N"M) of (1#@ 6 ) 314
The (N"M) of (:<@ 6 ) 314
The (N"M) of (/1A 6 ) 315
The (N"M) of (/01A 6 ) 317
The (N"M) of (1*2@ 6 ) 318
The (N"M) of (<@ 6 ) 319
The (N"M) of (:<@ 6 ) 320
The (N"M) of (C<@ 6 ) 320
The (N"M) of ( BB< 6 ) 321

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The (N"M) of (/B1A 6 ) 321


The (N"M) of (:<@ 6 ) 322
The (N"M) of (E:<@ 6 ) 322
Application of the Special Meanings 323
Challenging Words 325
Appendix A - Morphology or Etymology? 352
Bibliography 356

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Introduction

Arabic Morphology ( P
P P
PB0) is a branch of Arabic
Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is
highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to
learn this science in order to be proficient in the language.
Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime
importance in learning the language.

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the


important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study
this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good
foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the
need to study any further books on the subject.

The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been


adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the
text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the
term ( FBQ G0) instead of ( PFB GP0). Similarly, instead
of writing (RPP), the correct Arabic form of ( P )
has been used while the term (P P) is used instead of
(P
P) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to
learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his
learning.

Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes


which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have
been clearly explained with examples and a step by step

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method as to how a word is changed from its original form


to its present one.

It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students


of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path
to understanding the intricacies of the language. Āmīn.

For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject,


whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to
Appendix A at the end of this book.

Some Useful Terms

Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in


such inflected languages as Latin and French, where
elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of
inflection relating to tense, person, number.1

Declension: A term used to describe the case system of


nouns and other words.2

Inflection: The variation or change of form that words


undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number,
tense, person, mood, voice, comparison.3

Linguistics and Philology: The study of language.

Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of


all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes,
wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model
for all other words of the same type.4

1
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992.
2
Ibid, p. 281.
3
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160.
4
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992.

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Arabic Terms

The following are some of the Arabic terms used


frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn
them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout
the book.

Term Meaning
 A diacritical point SP denoting the sound
of ‘a’.
 A diacritical point - TP denoting the sound
of ‘u’.

A diacritical point - UP denoting the sound
of ‘i’.
 A diacritical point - VP that serves the

 purpose of joining


pronunciation
two letters in

 A letter having a fathah, e.g. (


W )
 A letter having a dammah, e.g. (Y
X )

 A letter having a kasrah, e.g. (Z
U)
  A letter having a sukûn or jazm, e.g. (\
[ )

  The three diacritical points, fathah
dammah and kasrah are each called a
harakah
  A letter having a harakah, e.g. (
W )

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 ! " The first root letter of a word, also referred


to as consonant or radical, e.g. the ( ) of

(]
W *W<^)
 ! #$ The second root letter of a word, e.g. the
(N) of (]
W *W<^)
 ! % The third root letter of a word, e.g. the (_)

of (]
W *W<^)
&'( Word-form denoting the number, gender
and mood of the verb
)!*+ (6 () is the plural of (6 ) which refers
to a category of verbs belonging to one
class. The first verb of the perfect tense
() and the imperfect tense (),
are used to indicate the diacritical points of
the alphabets of the verbs.

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The Types of Words

Term Meaning Example

/ . - , word
6
` W*U
10 2 !- noun
/a $X W
3/ 42 - verb
/^ W <^
5
0 2 . particle – it is dependent on either
[ U
an (P2) or (/P<) in conveying its
meaning

With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three


types:

Term Meaning Example


67! Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the past tense. It
/^ PPW<^ – He
is referred to as the perfect did.
tense in English.
87! Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the present or
/D W 1b W> - He is
future tense. It is referred to doing or he
as the imperfect tense in will do.
English.
9! a command /b PPW<b U – You
do.

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Term Meaning Example


:; ! Intransitive – does
not require an object
[ P PU+F[ W> - He is
walking.
<=47! Transitive - requires
an object
6
W PW!b ]X *W1b W> – He is
opening the door.

Positive and Negative

Term Meaning Example


>?@A positive
/D W 1b W> – He is doing.
6B negative
/D W 1b W> &^ – He is not doing.
The terms (R!H) and (1) are also used.

Active and Passive

Term Meaning Example


5 4 active tense – the doer
of the action is known
/D W 1b W> – He is doing.
CD passive tense – the doer
of the action is not
/D W 1b W> – It is being
known done.

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The Second Category of Verbs

With regard to the root letters ( B". c) of a verb, they


are of two types:

Term Meaning Example


9:9 3 root letters or
triliteral
W 
W #W
0  4 root letters or
quadriliteral
W H^[ W
Each of these two types is further divided into two categories:
(1) (78) – the () consists of root letters only, without
any extra letters.
(2) (;< =>?) - the () has root letters plus extra letters.
This results in the following four categories:

Term Meaning Example


78 9:9 3 root letters only
W 
W #W
;< =>? 9:9 3 root letters plus extra
letters
d
W W*W$[ U
78 0  4 root letters only
W H^[ W
;< =>? 0  4 root letters plus extra
letters
/^ W[
W AW

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Exercise 1

(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root-


letters or 4 root-letters.
(a) /
^ ^ (^
(b) e
W W [ 7W
(c) e
W W MW
(d) W 1^ 0
[ W
(e) W f
^ [K^
(2) What do the following terms mean:

Term Meaning


.
9:9
0 
78
;< =>?

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Types of Nouns

(1) There are three types of nouns - (,-):

[a] = , [b] g*+ and [c] =$ .

(2) The (=P – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the

occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. (X P[h^) –


to assist.
(3) The (g*P+) is a word derived from a verb e.g. (` PU"W#) –

helper is derived from (W 


W #W).
(4) The (=P
P$) is neither a (=P
P) nor a (g*P+) e.g.
(/
a $X W ) – man.

(5) The (=PP) and the (g*PP+) also fall under the

categories of (9:9), (0P ), (7P8) and (;P< =P>?) like


the (/P
P<). The categories mentioned under the verb like
(]i") etc. also apply to an (2).

(6) The noun (=P


P$) with regard to its letters can either
have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters
(quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is
therefore of six types:
[1] (78 9:9) e.g. (/a $X W ) – a man
[2] (;< =>? 9:9) e.g. (` WF U ) – a donkey

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[3] (78 0 ) e.g. (6


` W )b 0W ) – scorpion
[4] (;< =>? 0 ) e.g. (\ ` ^j[ KU) - paper
[5] (78 2k) e.g. (/ a $W [ 1^ 2W ) - quince
[6] (;< =>? 2k) e.g. (N ` [ !XQ^ [0W ) – a
spider

(7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the


(/P<) because most of the changes (N1>PA) occur in a

(/P<) while few changes occur in an (P2) and none occur

in a ( ).

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The Scales of Verbs

The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually


consists of three letters called consonants or radicals.
These consonants form a kind of skeleton which
constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes
may be added.

Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are


constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the
verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect
tense (P /P1 P dPIl mP =P). In most
dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are
entered under the third person masculine singular form of
the verb.

In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past


tense (P
P), denoting actions completed at the time to
which reference is made; and the imperfect (P
P), for
incompleted actions, referring to the present or future
tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by
the imperfect form (P). The imperative (P.) may
be considered a modification of the imperfect.

To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs, the


grammarians use the three letters of the verb (/
^ PW <^), where
the ( ) represents the first radical of the verb, the ()

represents the second radical of the verb and the ()


represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale

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('W?P[U ) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are

determined. Accordingly, the word (d


W P
PW*^ ) is on the scale
of (/
^ W <^), (d
X PX*Qb W>) is on the scale of (/D PX1b W>) and (d
[ PX*b (D)
is on the scale of (/
b X <b (D).

The letter that corresponds to the ( ) of the ('?P


P) is
called the (ِ PWFBUQ
^ b ,T P^<), that which corresponds to the () is
called the (ِ P FW BUQ^ b X [P 0W ) while the letter corresponding to
the () is called the (ِ F W BUQ^ b %X &^ ).
Example: the word (d W *W^ ) is on the scale of (/^ W <^):

C 8 5

) > 

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Exercise 2

(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what


each letter represents. The first one has been done for you.

(a) (W 
W #W)
C 8 5

 E

The (') is the ( FBQ ,<), the (n) is the ( PFBQ GP0), the
() is the ( FBQ %X & ^ ).
(b) (O[ FW 2[ @U)
(c) (]X *W1b AW)
(d) (6X U  [ #W)
(e) (/D W o
[ W>)
(f) (%W X 
^)
(g) (dX Ui [ W>)
(h) (dX pW mb W>)
(i) (^ q^2W )
(j) (rW W 2W )

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The Categories of Triliteral Verbs

(F G! 6@;H ! )!*+)
(1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in
the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah ( PPi*<).
The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a ( Pi*<),

( F) or (sP ). The active perfect tense ( P /P1

P) of triliteral verbs (7P8 P9:9) is used on three


scales:
[a] /
^ W <^ e.g. (]W *W<^)
[b] /
^ U <^ e.g. (OW FU 2W )
[c] /
^ X <^ e.g. (%W X ^ )
(2) The conjugation of the (/
^ PU<^) and (/^ PX<^) forms is similar
to the conjugation of (/
^ W <^).
(3) The imperfect tense ( P
P PP) of (/^ P PW<^) is
sometimes (/ D PW1b W>) e.g. (]X *WPb1W> ]W *WP^<) and sometimes (/D PX1b W>)
e.g. (X PX[ W> W PW#W) and sometimes (/ D PU1b W>) e.g. ( 6 W W PW
6
X U 
[ W>).
(4) The conjugation of the (/ D PX1b W>) and (/D PU1b W>) is similar to
the conjugation of (/ D W 1b W>).

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(5) The ( P ) of (/^ PU<^) is sometimes (/D PW1b W>) e.g.
(OX FW [ W> OW FU 2W ) and sometimes (/D U 1b W>) e.g. (dX Ui[ W> d W U W ).
(6) The ( P P) of (/ ^ PX<^) is only (/D PX1b W>) e.g.
(%X X Q
b W> %W X ^ ).
(7) The ( ) of all three scales is (/ ^ U <D).
(8) The (8 ) of all three scales is (/ D W 1b X>).
(9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six
categories (6 () of (78 9:9) which are as follows:
(X X [W> W W #W)(1)
(6
X U 
[ W> 6 W W  W ) (2)
(]X *W1b W> ]W *W<^) (3)
(O
X FW [ W> OW FU 2W ) (4)
(%X X Q
b W> %W X ^ ) (5)
(d
X Ui [ W> d W U W ) (6)
(10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to
which category (6P
P ). It is based on (P
P-) – as heard
from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which
category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are
however certain guidelines which are as follows:
[a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( ]W *WPP^<

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]X *WPb1W>) the second or third letter will be from the ( P


)B)5, e.g. (d X pW mb W> d W pW v^ ), (D q^
[ W> ^ q^2W ), (OX FW o
[ W> OW FW $W ).
[b] If the perfect (P P /PP1) is of the form
(/
^ PU<^), the imperfect (P /P1) is generally from the
category of (O X FW
[ W> OW FU 2W ).
[c] If the perfect (P /1) is of the form (/ ^ PX<^),
the imperfect (PP /PP1) is generally from the

category of (%X X Q b W> %W X ^ ).


Exercise 3
To which category (6P
P ) does each of the following verb
belong:
(1) (w
D W ![W> w
^ W W)
(2) (Z
X X *[W> ZW W AW)
(3) (
X W 1b W> W U <^)
(4) (d
X BDfb W> d W B^j^ )
(5) (r
X U [ W> r W W 2W )

5
)B ) are the following six letters:
The (

(x y z y _ y  y { y ,).

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The Perfect Active Tense (  )


(1) There are 14 word-forms ( 5PP") of the perfect tense

(PP /PP1). All three diacritical points or vowels

(NP) can be used on the ( PFBQ GP0) as is apparent


from the above-mentioned six categories (6 ().

(2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( /P1


P) and Imperfect (P /P1) conjugations with the
third person (dP
PPIl), followed by the second person
(dj|) and finally the first person (BQ*).

(3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the
second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural
form is used for both the dual and plural.

(4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense.


Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while
the second three are for the feminine of the third person.
The following six forms are for the second person, the first
three being for the masculine and the second three for the
feminine. The final two forms are for the first person.

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I?H7! 5 47! 67! 34 !

&'J ! (Word-form) Verb

dIl m = /^ W <^


dIl m HA ^BW <^
dIl m O} [BDW <^
dIl w#~ = R
[ B^W <^
dIl w#~ HA W*B^W <^
dIl w#~ O} W Bb W <^
 m = R
W Bb W <^
 m HA WF*XBb W <^
 m O} [ *XBb W <^
 w#~ = R
U Bb W <^
 w#~ HA WF*XBb W <^
 w#~ O} h *XBb W <^
BQ* = R
X Bb W <^
BQ* O} WBb W <^

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Exercise 4

Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( P


) in table form :
(a) (d
X BU5[ W> d W B^l^ )
(b) (]
Xo W [W> ]W o W #W)
(c) (/
D *X)b W> /^ *WK^)
(d) (w
D W ![W> w ^ W W)
(e) (/
D MX =[ W> /^ MW 7W )
(f) (d
X *XQb W> d W *W^ )
(g) (
X B^[ W> W BU0W )
(h) (
X U [W> W U #W)
(i) (=
Xi Wo [ W> =W i W $W )
(j) (/
D !W)b W> /^ !UK^)

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The Perfect Passive ( )

The (P
P PP) is constructed from the ( PP
P) in all triliteral verbs ( 7P8 P9:9). If we take the
first verb, namely the third person singular form, (/
^ P W <^), a
( FP) is rendered to the first letter, a (sP ) is rendered
to the second letter while the third letter remains in its
original condition. The result is (/
^ PU<D). No matter what the
( P
P) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the

passive tense it will always be ( Q). Examples:

Active – (5 4) Passive – (CD)

W 
W #W W 
U #X
OW FU 2W OW FU 2X
%W X ^ %W U D

Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if
they are used with a particle ( ), e.g.

(U;U d
W pU vD ) – It was taken.

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I?H7! CDG! 67! 34 !


Word-form Verb
singular masculine 3rd person
/^ U <D
dual masculine 3rd person
:
^ U <D
[BDU <D
rd
plural masculine 3 person

R
[ B^U <D
rd
singular feminine 3 person

W*B^U <D
rd
dual feminine 3 person

W Bb U <D
rd
plural feminine 3 person

singular masculine 2nd person


R
W Bb U <D
dual masculine 2nd person
WF*XBb U <D
plural masculine 2nd person
[ *XBb U <D
singular feminine 2nd person
R
U Bb U <D
dual feminine 2nd person
WF*XBb U <D
plural feminine 2nd person
h *XBb U <D
singular first person
R
X Bb U <D
dual and plural first person
WBb U <D

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6K7! 5 47! 67! 34 !


Verb Pronoun
/^ W <^ W W pX
^BW <^ W WFpX The words (PW) or (&
^)
[BDW <^ W [ pX are used for the
negative sense. To use
R
[ B^W <^ W W pU (&
^ ) with (P), the
W*B^W <^ W WFpX condition is that the
(&
^ ) must be repeated
W Bb W <^ W h pX
eg.
R
W Bb W <^ W R
W #[(^ (B"
W &^ W r
W =h "
W :
^ <^).
WF*XBb W <^ W WF*X#[(^ The column on the
[ *XBb W <^ W [ *X#[(^ right indicates how the
pronouns (IFP
P) are
R
U Bb W <^ W R
U #[(^ used with the verbs.
WF*XBb W <^ W WF*X#[(^
h *XBb W <^ W h *X#[(^
R
X Bb W <^ W W#(^
WBb W <^ W X i
[ #W

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6K7! CDG! 67! 34 !


Word-form Verb
dI5 /^ U <D W
'!I5 ^BU <D W
'!I5 [BDU <D W
!I5 R
[ B^U <D W
'*!I5 W*B^U <D W
N!I5 W Bb U <D W
dj€ R
W Bb U <D W
'!j€ WF*XBb U <D W
'!j€ [ *XBb U <D W
!j€ R
U Bb U <D W
'*!j€ WF*XBb U <D W
N!j€ h *XBb U <D W
BQ* R
X Bb U <D W
5 O BQ* WBb U <D W
Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in
this table.

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Exercise 5

(a) Translate the following sentences:

'^ ‚[)D b ^W K^ W pX (1)


'D ‚[)D b ,S U KD (2)
U [ W[ *XQb W W*!W*W^ WFpX (3)
W*!WBUjD 'U W*[!Ub (4)
ƒ1AX R W Bb ^ (^ R W #[(^ (5)
^ Q W ^@U [ *XHbU X [ *X#[(^ (6)
W Bb U b R
U ![B^j^ R U #[(^ (7)
^1+
[ *W
[ FX b ^@U h *XHbU X h *X#[(^ (8)
ƒ!W^ W [U „W X i [ #W (9)
[ QD ^[ K^ WF[ U <^ W (10)

(b) What is the ( 5") of the following verbs:


[1] (
 'v† sH …< I
2 ?., L, BBK …<  )
[2] (ƒ 1b #W 3, .M, )
[3] (N$  !2 N . O. )
[4] ('= . . O. ‡)
[5] (; )
. - P. F<)

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[6] (; !2 *R - Q


- , )
[7] (% QB0 S
. - N )
[8] (I
2 , T-R s7ˆ v@)
[9] (I
2 , -MN d#v ‰
C q )
[10] (1
2 UR .KMV :. . ‡)

(c) Are the following verbs ( ) or (8)?

[1] ('
^ ?U W )
[2] (R
W Bb !UKD)
[3] (
h AX[ U ŠD )
[4] (=
W X W)
[5] (W#=
[
U KD)

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The Imperfect ( )


The Imperfect () is formed by adding prefixes and/or
suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the
letters (
W [AW(^). The suffixes may either be ('), ('), (>) or just
(').

After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has
('Q2), e.g. the ( ) of (/
D W 1b W>) has a sukûn. The second letter
can have any of the three harakât, depending on which category
(6 ) the verb belongs to.

In the indicative case (O< ), the final vowel of the third
radical ( FBQ %&) is ( F) in the singular form of the verb, e.g.
(/
D W 1b W>), (/D W 1b AW), (/D W <b (^) and (/D W 1b #W). For the subjunctive case ( 
d), this ( F) is changed to ( i*<), e.g. (/^ W 1b W>), (/^ W 1b AW),
(/
^ W <b (^) and (/^ W 1b #W); while for the jussive case (%?‹ ), it is
replaced by a ('Q2), e.g. (/ b W 1b W>), (/b W 1b AW), (/b W <b (^) and (/b W 1b #W). The
changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later.

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I?H7! 5 47! 87! 34 !


Meaning Verb
He is doing or he will do.
/D W 1b W>
They (2 males) are doing or they will do.
'U ^BW 1b W>
They (plural males) are doing or they will do.
'^ [ BDW 1b W>
She is doing or she will do.
/D W 1b AW
They (2 females) are doing or they will do.
'U ^BW 1b AW
They (plural females) are doing or they will do.
W Bb W 1b W>
You (1 male) are doing or you will do.
/D W 1b AW
You (2 males) are doing or you will do.
'U ^BW 1b AW
You (plural males) are doing or you will do.
'^ [ BDW 1b AW
You (1 female) are doing or you will do.
W [BUW 1b AW
You (2 females) are doing or you will do.
'U ^BW 1b AW
You (plural females) are doing or you will do.
W Bb W 1b AW
I am doing or will do.
/D W <b (^
We are doing or we will do.
/D W 1b #W

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I?H7! CDG! 87! 34 ! 6K7! 5 47! 87! 34 ! 6K7! CDG! 87! 34 !

/D W 1b X> /D W 1b W> &^ /D W 1b X> &^


'U ^BW 1b X> 'U ^BW 1b W> &^ 'U ^BW 1b X> &^
'^ [ BDW 1b X> '^ [ BDW 1b W> &^ '^ [ BDW 1b X> &^
/D W 1b AX /D W 1b AW &^ /D W 1b AX &^
'U ^BW 1b AX 'U ^BW 1b AW &^ 'U ^BW 1b AX &^
W Bb W 1b X> W Bb W 1b W> &^ W Bb W 1b X> &^
/D W 1b AX /D W 1b AW &^ /D W 1b AX &^
'U ^BW 1b AX 'U ^BW 1b AW &^ 'U ^BW 1b AX &^
'^ [ BDW 1b AX '^ [ BDW 1b AW &^ '^ [ BDW 1b AX &^
W [BUW 1b AX W [BUW 1b AW &^ W [BUW 1b AX &^
'U ^BW 1b AX 'U ^BW 1b AW &^ 'U ^BW 1b AX &^
W Bb W 1b AX W Bb W 1b AW &^ W Bb W 1b AX &^
/D W <b (D /D W <b (^ &^ /D W <b (D &^
/D W 1b #X /D W 1b #W &^ /D W 1b #X &^

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Exercise 6

(1) To which category (6PP ) do each of the following


verbs belong:
(a) (gDBΠg^BM)
(b) (UB4> ^BŠ)

(c) (=X!> =W!0)

(d) (UBŽ ^B)

(e) (D4> ^4#)

(2) What is the ( 5") of the following words:

, 2 R , 42 W. %, G)< Q (1)


, 2 N . 42 O. ‡ > #( (2)
…„ \ 1R - XV W. %,
 '@ (3)
U 1b WU [
[ R - 2 +, %, (4)
, 2 N N \V W. >m (5)
f< ‰m =R ?R$2 +, %, (6)
/ ‘ ’@ , 2 R XN K2 W. ;
, , +, (7)
'0 , 2 4R K.2 W.  (8)

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The Imperfect Passive Tense (  )


The (P
P P
P) is constructed from the ( P
P
P) in all triliteral verbs (7P8 P9:9). If we take the

first verb, namely the third person singular form, (/


D PW1b W>), a
(FP) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( P:0
PP) – sign of the imperfect tense. A ( PPi*<) is

rendered to the ( PFBQ GP0) while the ( PFBQ %&)

remains as it is. The result is (/ D P W 1b X>). No matter what the


( P) of the ( PFBQ GP0) in the active tense is, in the

passive tense, it will always be (_*1). Examples:

Active – (5 4) Passive – (CD)

X 
X [W> X 
W [X>
OX FW
[ W> OX FW
[ X>
6
X U 
[ W> 6
X W 
[ X>

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Exercise 7

(a) Translate the following into English:

'^ [ BD…^
[ X> p /D W 1b W> hF0W /D …^ [ X> &^ (1)
X !WB 6X W + [ X> (2)
“ X .S W  X FW h  %W [ Wb /D ^ ~[ X> (3)
U WW WiFX b U< ‰ “ U Q^ [ W b /D *W)b X> (4)
^ Q C [ <U ‰ “ =U [”U  'D W B• X W 1b X> /b pW (5)

(b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:


[1] The door of the school is being opened.
[2] He is being sent to Madînah.
[3] The disbelievers will be defeated.
[4] The car will be left on the road.
[5] The book will be read today.

(c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( P


PP
8):

(5) (4) ( 3) ( 2) ( 1)
_
X W 1b W> %X ?U [ W> X QD +[ W> r
X X [ W> OX $U [ W>

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The ( !"# )


The ( !"# ) are: ('b (^), ([ ^), ([ ^ ) and ('b v^ @U). When they
precede the ( /<), they render (d#) to the following
five words:
dIl m = y /D W 1b W> (1)
dIl w#~ = y /D W 1b AW (2)
 m = y /D W 1b AW (3)
BQ* = y /D W <b (^ (4)
BQ* O} y /D W 1b #W (5)
The (60‘ '#) of the following seven words is deleted:
dIl m HA y 'U ^BW 1b W> (1)
dIl m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b W> (2)
dIl w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (3)
 m HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (4)
 m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b AW (5)
 w#~ = y W [BUW 1b AW (6)
 w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (7)
The following two words remain unchanged:

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dIl w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b W> (1)


 w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b AW (2)
The word (
[ ^) changes the positive imperfect tense ( 

R!H) to negative (1) with emphasis.

The paradigms of ( ) – the active tense and (8) – the

passive tense – when used with the other particles, ('


b (^), ([ ^ ) and
('
b v^ @U) will be the same as was in the case of ([ ^).
Examples:

[BDW 1b W> 'b (^ :


^ W 1b W> 'b (^ /^ W 1b W> 'b (^

bDBW 1b W> [ ^ :
^ W 1b W> [ ^ /^ W 1b W> [ ^

[BDW 1b W> 'b v^ @U :


^ W 1b W> 'b v^ @U /^ W 1b W> 'b v^ @U

Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( /<) when used with


the particle (
[ ^).

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34 ! 6$  ] 6K ! =' \O 34 ! 6$  ] 6K ! =' \O


5 47! 3?^
7! CDG! 3?^
7!

/^ W 1b W> [ ^ /^ W 1b X> [ ^
^BW 1b W> [ ^ ^BW 1b X> [ ^
[BDW 1b W> [ ^ [BDW 1b X> [ ^
/^ W 1b AW [ ^ /^ W 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
W Bb W 1b W> [ ^ W Bb W 1b X> [ ^
/^ W 1b AW [ ^ /^ W 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
[BDW 1b AW [ ^ [BDW 1b AX [ ^
[ BUW 1b AW [ ^ [ BUW 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
W Bb W 1b AW [ ^ W Bb W 1b AX [ ^
/^ W <b (^ [ ^ /^ W <b (D [ ^
/^ W 1b #W [ ^ /^ W 1b #X [ ^

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Exercise 8

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ('


b (^):
/D  Xi [ W> (1)
Y
X W F[ W> (2)
[ W> (3)
X QD +
d
X W Bb W> (4)
6
X X )b W> (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (


[ ^ ):
X fD 1b W> (1)
OX <^[ W> (2)
=X !X[ W> (3)

X BUF[ W> (4)
/D FW [ W> (5)

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The ( $ )


The ( $ ) are ('
b @U), ([ ^), (hF^), (U [ .S  %X &^ )
,T &^ and (

U [ h). When they precede the ( /<), they render (%?$)
to the following five words:
dIl m = y /D W 1b W> (1)
dIl w#~ = y /D W 1b AW (2)
 m = y /D W 1b AW (3)
BQ* = y /D W <b (^ (4)
BQ* O} y /D W 1b #W (5)
The (60‘ '#) of the following seven words is deleted:
dIl m HA y 'U B^W 1b W> (1)
dIl m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b W> (2)
dIl w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (3)
 m HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (4)
 m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b AW (5)
 w#~ = y W [BUW 1b AW (6)
 w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (7)
The following two words remain unchanged:
dIl w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b W> (1)

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 w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b AW (2)


The word ( [ ^) changes the positive imperfect tense ( 
R!H) to the negative perfect tense (1 ).

The paradigms of ( ) – the active voice and (8) – the

passive voice – when used with ('


b @U), (hF^), (U [ .S  %X &^ ) and ( ,T &^
U [ h), will be the same as was in the case of ([ ^).
Examples:

[BDW 1b W> 'b @U :


^ W 1b W> 'b @U /b W 1b W> 'b @U
bDBW 1b W> hF^ :
^ W 1b W> hF^ /b W 1b W> hF^
[BDW 1b WU :
^ W 1b WU /b W 1b WU
[BDW 1b W> &^ :
^ W 1b W> &^ /b W 1b W> &^

The word (hF^) means ‘not as yet’. Thus (/


b W 1b W> hF^) will mean ‘he
did not do as yet’.
The (U [ .
S %X &^ ) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense

(8). In the active tense ( ), it is only used in the third

person (dIl) and first person (BQ*) word-forms.

If any of the ( $ ) precede a ( /<) whose ( %&

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FBQ) is a ( B ), the ( B ) is deleted.


Examples:

( 5  Example of Example of Example of


() (<) (!)
:)
[ ^ 
X =[ W> [ ^ %U [ W> [ ^ –
W €
[ W> [ ^
hF^ 
X =[ W> hF^ %U [ W> hF^ –
W €
[ W> hF^
. %& 
X =[ WU %U [ WU –
W €
[ WU
 ,& 
X =[ W> &^ %U [ W> &^ –
W €
[ W> &^

Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( /<) when used with


the particle (
[ ^).

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87! 6$ 12 , ] 6K ! 87! 6$ 12 , ] 6K ! =' \O


5 47! CDG!

/b W 1b W> [ ^ /b W 1b X> [ ^
^BW 1b W> [ ^ ^BW 1b X> [ ^
[BDW 1b W> [ ^ [BDW 1b X> [ ^
/b W 1b AW [ ^ /b W 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
W Bb W 1b W> [ ^ W Bb W 1b X> [ ^
/b W 1b AW [ ^ /b W 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
[BDW 1b AW [ ^ [BDW 1b AX [ ^
[ BUW 1b AW [ ^ [ BUW 1b AX [ ^
^BW 1b AW [ ^ ^BW 1b AX [ ^
W Bb W 1b AW [ ^ W Bb W 1b AX [ ^
/b W <b (^ [ ^ /b W <b (D [ ^
/b W 1b #W [ ^ /b W 1b #X [ ^

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Exercise 9

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (


[ ^):
%X X Qb W> (1)
OX WF[ W> (2)
X QD + [ W> (3)
d
X W Bb W> (4)
6
X X )b W> (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (. %&):


X o X 1b W> (1)
OX ^ [ W> (2)
=X !X[ W> (3)

X BUF[ W> (4)
/D FW [ W> (5)

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The (%&) and ('#) of Emphasis

(;## =[U qb *h %X &^ ) – The Energetic Forms

(1) To create emphasis in the meaning of ( /<), the ( %X &^


=[U qb *h) is prefixed to it and ( B)9 '#) or ( 11M '#) suffixed to
it. The ( B)9 '#) is (7h=+ W X ) and is suffixed to all the word-forms
(—W"U ). The ( 11M '#) is (2) and is not suffixed to the
( HA) and (w#~ O}) word-forms.

(2) The letter prededing the ( B)9 '#) is (_*1) in the


following word-forms:
h B^W 1b W^ P dIl m = y /D W 1b W> (1)
h B^W 1b *W^ P dIl w#~ = y /D W 1b AW (2)
h B^W 1b *W^ P  m = y /D W 1b AW (3)
h B^W <b q^^ P BQ* = y /D W <b (^ (4)
h B^W 1b W^ P BQ* O} y /D W 1b #W (5)

(3) The (60‘ '#) is deleted in the following words before


attaching the (=q* '#):

'• ^BW 1b W^ P dIl m HA y 'U ^BW 1b W> (1)

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h BDW 1b W^ P dIl m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b W> (2)


'• ^BW 1b *W^ P dIl w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (3)
'• ^BW 1b *W^ P  m HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (4)
h BDW 1b *W^ P  m O} y '^ [ BDW 1b AW (5)
h BUW 1b *W^ P  w#~ = y W [BUW 1b AW (6)
'• ^BW 1b *W^ _  w#~ HA y 'U ^BW 1b AW (7)

(4) The (L) of the ( HA) is retained while the ( B)9 '#) itself
becomes ( Q), e.g. (' • ^BW 1b W^).
(5) The () of (m O}) and the (‰) of (w#~ =) are also

deleted. The ( F) before the () and the (s ) before the

(‰) are retained, e.g. (


h BDW 1b W^) and (h BUW 1b *W^).
(6)In the (w#~ O}) word-forms, an (L) is inserted between

the ('#) of (O}) and the ( B)9 '#) so that three nûns do not
occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word-
forms:

'• WBb W 1b W^ P dIl w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b W> (1)


'• WBb W 1b *W^ P  w#~ O} y W Bb W 1b AW (2)

(7) The ( B)9 '#) itself is ( Q) in these two words. In short,

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the ( B)9 '#) is ( Q) after (L) and (_*1) in the other
instances.

(8) The ( 11M '#) is similar to the ( B)9 '#) except in the
( HA) and (w#~ O}) word-forms. The ( 11M '#) is only used

in those words where there is no (L) before ( B)9 '#) and


these are eight word-forms.
Once ( B)9 '#) and ( 11M '#) enter a ( /<), its
meaning changes to the future tense.

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6$ '^H ! K ! ] =' \ ! % 6$ '^H ! K ! ] =' \ ! %


5 47! 87! CDG! 87!

h B^W 1b W^ h B^W 1b X^


'• ^BW 1b W^ '• ^BW 1b X^
h BDW 1b W^ h BDW 1b X^
h B^W 1b *W^ h B^W 1b *X^
'• ^BW 1b *W^ '• ^BW 1b *X^
' WBb W 1b W^ ' WBb W 1b X^
h B^W 1b *W^ h B^W 1b *X^
'• ^BW 1b *W^ '• ^BW 1b *X^
h BDW 1b *W^ h BDW 1b *X^
h BUW 1b *W^ h BUW 1b *X^
'• ^BW 1b *W^ '• ^BW 1b *X^
' WBb W 1b *W^ ' WBb W 1b *X^
h B^W <b q^^ h B^W <b qD^
h B^W 1b W^ h B^W 1b X^

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6$ '_! K ! ] =' \ ! % 6$ '_! K ! ] =' \ ! %


5 47! 87! CDG! 87!

[ B^W 1b W^ [ B^W 1b X^


◘ ◘
[ BDW 1b W^ [ BDW 1b X^
[ B^W 1b *W^ [ B^W 1b *X^
◘ ◘
◘ ◘
[ B^W 1b *W^ [ B^W 1b *X^
◘ ◘
[ BDW 1b *W^ [ BDW 1b *X^
[ BUW 1b *W^ [ BUW 1b *X^
◘ ◘
◘ ◘
[ B^W <b q^^ [ B^W <b qD^
[ B^W 1b W^ [ B^W 1b X^

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Exercise 10

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( PB)9 'P#) in the


active and passive tenses:

d
X BDi [ W> (1)
OX WF[ W> (2)
X QD + [ W> (3)
d
X W Bb W> (4)
6
X X )b W> (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( P11M 'P#) in the


active and passive tenses:


X BUF[ W> (1)
OX <^[ W> (2)
=X !X[ W> (3)
™
X BUo [ W> (4)
/D FW [ W> (5)

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The Imperative (()

The (P P( – imperative second person) is constructed


from the ( /<) in the following manner:

(1) The (P P:0) – the sign of the imperfect tense -


is deleted.
(2) If the following letter is (ZP
Pi*), the final letter is
rendered (2). Example: the verb (=
X U AW) changes to (=[ 0U ).
(3) If the following letter is (P2), a (/P" s?Pš) is
inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered (2).

(4) If the ( PFBQ G0) has a ( FP), the (/P" s?Pš) is

rendered a ( F). Example: (X  X [AW) becomes ([ 


X #[(D).
(5) If the ( FBQ G0) has a ( Pi*<) or (sP ), the ( s?Pš

/") is rendered a (s ). Examples:


(]
X *W1b AW) becomes (][ *W<b @U).
(6
X U  [ AW) becomes (6 [ U  [ @U).
(6) The (6P0‘ '#) is deleted while the (sP  'P#) –
the nūn of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples:
('
U ^BW 1b AW) becomes (^BW <b @U).
(
W Bb W 1b AW) becomes (W Bb W <b @U).

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(7) The ( PPB PP) at the end is deleted. Examples:

(
[ 0X =[ AW) becomes (X 7[ (D).
(
[ U [ AW) becomes (%U [ @U).
(W+€ [ AW) becomes (– W M[ @U).

(8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( PP(


BQ*PP dPPI5) is formed by adding a (%&) at the
beginning of (P /P<). This (%&) has the same effect

on the verbs as (
[ ^).

(9) The (=Pq* %&) and (=Pq* 'P#) can also be attached
to the (() word-forms.

Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( P


P P
P. - the

imperative active) and (P


PP P
PP. - the imperative
passive).

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5 47! 9! CDG! 9!

/b W 1b WU /b W 1b XU
^BW 1b WU ^BW 1b XU
[BDW 1b WU [BDW 1b XU
/b W 1b *WU /b W 1b *XU
^BW 1b *WU ^BW 1b *XU
W Bb W 1b WU W Bb W 1b XU
/b W <b @U /b W 1b *XU
^BW <b @U ^BW 1b *XU
[BDW <b @U [BDW 1b *XU
[ BUW <b @U [ BUW 1b *XU
^BW <b @U ^BW 1b *XU
W Bb W <b @U W Bb W 1b *XU
/b W <b q^U /b W <b qDU
/b W 1b WU /b W 1b XU

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'^H ! K ! ] 5 47! 9! '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 9!

h B^W 1b WU h B^W 1b XU


'• :
^ W 1b WU '• :
^ W 1b XU
h BDW 1b WU h BDW 1b XU
h B^W 1b *WU h B^W 1b *XU
'• :
^ W 1b *WU '• :
^ W 1b *XU
'• WBb W 1b WU '• WBb W 1b XU
h B^W <b @U h B^W 1b *XU
'• :
^ W <b @U '• :
^ W 1b *XU
h BDW <b @U h BDW 1b *XU
h BUW <b @U h BUW 1b *XU
' :
^ W <b @U '• :
^ W 1b *XU
'•S WBb W <b @U '• WBb W 1b *XU
h B^W <b q^U h B^W <b qDU
h B^W 1b WU h B^W 1b XU

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'_! K ! ] 5 47! 9! '_! K ! ] CDG! 9!

[ B^W 1b WU [ B^W 1b XU


 
[ BDW 1b WU [ BDW 1b XU
[ B^W 1b *WU [ B^W 1b *XU
 
 X

[ B^W <b @U [ B^W 1b *XU

 
[ BDW <b @U [ BDW 1b *XU

[ BUW <b @U [ BUW 1b *XU

 
 
[ B^W <b q^U [ B^W <b qDU

[ B^W 1b WU [ B^W 1b XU

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Exercise 11

Conjugate the imperative (P


P() of the following verbs in
the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them
using the (=q* %&) and (=q* '#):
/D U 5[ W> (1)
/D MX =[ W> (2)
d
X Ui [ W> (3)
/D W o [ W> (4)
—D !W
[ W> (5)

The Prohibition ()

(1) The particle (&


^ ) is used before (P /P<) to denote
prohibition. It has the same effect as (
[ P ^) in changing the
different word-forms.
(2) The ( PB)9 '#) and ( P11M 'P#) can be attached to all
the forms of ().

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5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK !

/b W 1b W> &^ /b W 1b X> &^


:
^ W 1b W> &^ :
^ W 1b X> &^
[BDW 1b W> &^ [BDW 1b X> &^
/b W 1b AW &^ /b W 1b AX &^
:
^ W 1b AW &^ :
^ W 1b AX &^
W Bb W 1b W> &^ W Bb W 1b X> &^
/b W 1b AW &^ /b W 1b AX &^
:
^ W 1b AW &^ :
^ W 1b AX &^
[BDW 1b AW &^ [BDW 1b AX &^
[ BUW 1b AW &^ [ BUW 1b AX &^
:
^ W 1b AW &^ :
^ W 1b AX &^
W Bb W 1b AW &^ W Bb W 1b AX &^
/b W <b (^ &^ /b W <b (D &^
/b W 1b #W &^ /b W 1b #X &^

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'^H ! K ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 6DK !

h B^W 1b W> &^ h B^W 1b X> &^


'• :
^ W 1b W> &^ '• :
^ W 1b X> &^
h BDW 1b W> &^ h BDW 1b X> &^
h B^W 1b AW &^ h B^W 1b AX &^
'• :
^ W 1b AW &^ '• :
^ W 1b AX &^
'• WBb W 1b W> &^ '• WBb W 1b X> &^
h B^W 1b AW &^ h B^W 1b AX &^
'• :
^ W 1b AW &^ '• :
^ W 1b AX &^
h BDW 1b AW &^ h BDW 1b AX &^
h BUW 1b AW &^ h BUW 1b AX &^
'• :
^ W 1b AW &^ '• :
^ W 1b AX &^
'• WBb W 1b AW &^ '• WBb W 1b AX &^
h B^W <b (^ &^ h B^W <b (D &^
h B^W 1b #W &^ h B^W 1b #X &^

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'_! K ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! '_! K ! ] CDG! 6DK !

[ B^W 1b W> &^ [ B^W 1b X> &^


 
[ BDW 1b W> &^ [ BDW 1b X> &^
[ B^W 1b AW &^ [ B^W 1b AX &^
 
 
[ B^W 1b AW &^ [ B^W 1b AX &^
 
[ BDW 1b AW &^ [ BDW 1b AX &^
[ BUW 1b AW &^ [ BUW 1b AX &^
 
 
[ B^W <b (^ &^ [ B^W <b (D &^
[ B^W 1b #W &^ [ B^W 1b #X &^

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Exercise 12

(1) Conjugate the prohibition (PP) of the following


verbs in the active and passive forms first and then
conjugate them using the (=q* %&) and (=q* '#):
OX FW o[ W> (1)
e
X X € [ W> (2)
d
X Ui [ W> (3)
/D W o [ W> (4)
—D !W
[ W> (5)

(2) What is the ( 5") of the following verbs?

'• WBb MX =[ W> &^ (1)


[ *W!X9b(^ &^ (2)
' =W X 1b #W &^ (3)
[ U WF[ AX &^ (4)
'• W[ W o [ AW &^ (5)
h XpW [ AW &^ (6)
'• W#=[ W + [ AW &^ (7)
h !X^ [ W> &^ (8)

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THE DERIVED NOUNS ( )*+ ,-.)

The following six nouns are derived from the verb:


1 (4) /1* 2 (3) 1 2 (2) /01 2 (1)
4 2 (6) 3 2 (5) !+

The Active Participle (/01 2)

The active participle (/01 2) indicates the person or being


from whom the action emanates, e.g. (ÒUW2) – a person who
listens.
In 3-root letter verbs (78 9:9), the (/01 2) is formed by
adding an (L) after the first letter, rendering a (s ) to the

second letter and (>A) to the final letter. Thus, (/ ^ W <^) becomes
(/
a 0U ^<). In the dual forms ( HA), (L) and ('#) are attached to
the end, e.g. (' U: ^ 0U ^<). For the feminine form, a round (s) is
inserted at the end. For the masculine plural (m O}), (') is

inserted, e.g. (' ^ [ BD0U ^<), while for the feminine plural (w#~ O}),
the syllable, (N) is attached, e.g. (N ` :
^ 0U ^<). There are three
scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of
the word.

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&'J ! 3$ ! 1!


m = /a 0U ^<
m HA 'U :
^ 0U ^<
m O} '^ [ BD0U ^<
w#~ = a B^0U ^<
w#~ HA 'U W*B^0U ^<
w#~ O} N
` :
^ 0U ^<

In the indicative case (O< ), the ( HA) is used with an (L)
while in the accusative and genative cases (‹ d ), it

is used with a (‰) preceded by a ( i*<). The ('#) of the ( HA) is

( Q), e.g. ('U:


^ 0U ^<) and (U [B^0U ^<).

For the masculine plural in (O< ), a () is used while in


(‹ d ), a (‰) preceded by a (s ) is used. The

('#) of (O}) is (_*1), e.g. ('


^ [ BD0U ^<) and (W [ BU0U ^<).

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Exercise 13

Conjugate the (/01 2) of the following verbs:


OX FW o [ W> (1)
e
X X € [ W> (2)
d
X Ui [ W> (3)
/D W o [ W> (4)
OX WF[ W> (5)
/D U 5[ W> (6)
/D MX =[ W> (7)
_
X W o [ W> (8)
=X X 1b W> (9)
—D !W
[ W> (10)

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The Passive Participle (1 2)

The passive participle (1 2) is that entity on which the


action occurs, e.g. (_
` [ *X1b W ) – the thing which is opened. It is
formed by adding a (_*1 %) at the beginning, a () after the

second letter and (>A) at the end. The first root letter (

B"() becomes (2) while the second one becomes (%F).
The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the
(/01 2). Like the (/01 2), it also has six word-forms.

&'J ! C47! 1!


m = a [ X 1b W
m HA 'U &
^ [ X 1b W
m O} '^ [ D[ X 1b W
w#~ = a ^[ X 1b W
w#~ HA 'U W*^[ X 1b W
w#~ O} ` &
N ^ [ X 1b W

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Exercise 14

Conjugate the (1 2) of the following verbs:

X BU4b W> (1)


6
X mU Qb W> (2)
X B^[ W> (3)
=X W + [ W> (4)
—D !W[ W> (5)
/D U 5[ W> (6)
/D MX =[ W> (7)
d
X Ui [ W> (8)
/D W o [ W> (9)
OX WF[ W> (10)

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The Elative (/1* 2)

The (/1* 2) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative


or superlative degree e.g. (/
DW <b (^) – more virtuous or most
virtuous. The scale of (/
D W <b (^) is used for this purpose, except for
colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale
of (/
D W <b (^) is used for (
!+ 1) e.g. (X FW [ (^) – red, (›œF0[ (^) –
blind. Tanwīn never enters the end of (/1* 2). The ( 2

/1*) generally renders the meaning of the doer (/0<) but


sometimes it can render the meaning of the object (1), e.g.

(X 
W „[ (^) - more famous.

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (/1* 2):

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&'J ! 3' ! 1!


m = /D W <b (^
m HA 'U :W
S <b (^
m P2 O} '^ [ BDW <b (^
m  Q O} /D 0U ^<(^
w#~ = ^B[ <D
w#~ HA 'U WB^[ <D
w#~ P2 O} N
` WB^[ <D
w#~  Q O} /a W <D

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Exercise 15

Conjugate the (/1* 2) of the following verbs:

%X X Qb W> (1)
/D FX o [ W> (2)
X Xi [ W> (3)
X X +[ W> (4)
—D !W [ W> (5)
/D U 5[ W> (6)
/D MX =[ W> (7)
d
X Ui [ W> (8)
/D W o [ W> (9)
OX WF[ W> (10)

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The ( !+ 1")

The ( !+ 1") is a derived noun referring to the permanent

quality of an entity, e.g. (/


a [FU $W ) – beautiful. The (/01 2) on
the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. (ÒUW2) –
listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as
(6
` U W) if the quality of (6[
W ) emanates from him whereas the
attribute of (/
a [FU $W ) applies to a person all the time.The ( 1"
!+) is always intransitive (%&) even though it may be

constructed from a transitive verb (‰=*). Hence the difference

between (ÒUW2) and (Ò[F


U 2W ) is that (ÒUW2) indicates a being
listening at the moment while (Ò[F
U 2W ) indicates a being which
permanently has the quality of listening even though there may
be no object. Therefore one can say (
W W ^B^ ÒUW2), but to say

W W ^B^
Ò[FU 2W ) is incorrect. The ( !+ 1") has six word-forms
like the (/01 2). For the dual and plural forms, changes are

made to the end as in the (/01 2).

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( !+ 1"):

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&'J ! D?Q (


m = `
W W
m HA 'U W
W W
m O} '^ [ X
W W
w#~ = a W
W W
w#~ HA 'U W*W
W W
w#~ O} N
` W
W W

The ( !+ 1") is used on many scales for which there is no


rule. It is based on (-) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes

a (), () or (‰) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g.

(` Wo„X ), (` [ KDW ), (L


` [>U „W ). Sometimes the root-form remains
intact but a change occurs in the harakāt, e.g. (d ` [ "
W ), (d
` X$X ),
(` 1b "
U ). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder.
Scale Example Meaning
/a W <^ `
W W handsome

/a X <D d
` X$X impure

a W<D 
` Wo„X brave

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a W<^ 'a WW chaste

/a [ <^ ` €
[
W thick

/a [ <U ` 1b "
U empty

/a [ <D  X free

/a U <^ _
` U <^ happy

/a 0U ^< d
` U W" companion

/a [U <^ ` [>U ^ noble

/D W <b (^ X FW [ (^ red

'D ^B[ <^ 'D +


W fb 0W thirsty

The Noun of the Instrument ( 3 2)

The ( 3 2) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument


used for the action. It is formed by adding a ( Q %) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has three scales.

Scales
/a W 1b U a B^W 1b U a W1b U
Examples
ž
a W€
[ U a W W [ U _
` W*1b U
Meanings needle fan key

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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows:

Scales Examples
/a W 1b U ` 
W [U
'U ^BW 1b U 'U W
W [U
/D 0U ^1W X "
U WW
a B^W 1b U sa W 
W [U
'U W*B^W 1b U 'U WAW 
W [U
/D 0U ^1W X "
U WW
a W1b U ` W[U
'U ^W1b U 'U WW[U
/D [0U ^1W X ["
U WW

Sometimes the underived noun (=$) is used to denote an


instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is
no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples:
(\
` qb <^) - axe , (%̀[=X K^) – adze6, (` [Q• 2U ) - knife.

6
Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood.

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Exercise 16

(a) Conjugate the ( 3 2) of the following verbs:

W 4^ #W (5) r
W W j^ (4) 7W W W (3) ™
W W^ (2) ]W *W<^ (1)

/^ ^ (^ (10) OW W"
W (9 ) OW f^ K^(8) /^ MW 7W (7) /^
W l^ (6)

(b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences:

.  NFB4 /0$ Y. NF  gM


 (1)
. F>=>( fK< K  r  (2)
. 0 6( 0< 2 < >$ G0 < (3)
. '? Q )A & (4)
. 6+ O< < ” (5)
. ]! p=0 'E @ (6)

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The Adverb ( 4 2)

The ( 4 2) is a derived noun that indicates the place or


time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it
is called ('Q Š) and if it indicates the time of the action, it
is called ('? Š). It is made by adding a (_*1 %) at the

beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely (/ a W 1b W ) and


(/
a U 1b W ). If the () is (G _*1) or (G %F) or
(JK#), the ( 4 2) will be on the scale of (/ a W 1b W ), e.g.
(]
` *W1b W ), (` 
W [W ) and (ƒ[ W ). If the () is (G  Q) or
(H), the ( 4 2) will be on the scale of (/ a U 1b W ), e.g.
(6
` U  [ W ) and (ÒUK[ W ).
The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows:

]` 'KHO =!
/D 0U ^1W 'U :
^ W 1b W /a W 1b W scale

]X AU^1W 'U Wi*W1b W ]` *W1b W example

The ( 4 2) is often constructed from the underived noun


(=$) on the scale of (a B^W 1b W ) to indicate an excess of that object
in that place, e.g.

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(sa =
W 2W b W ) – a place of many lions - derived from (=` 2W (^) – lion,
(a W !W
[ W )– a place of many predators - derived from (ÒX!2W ) –
predator,
(a €
W f^ ![W ) – a place of many ducks - derived from ( ̀[f• U) – duck.
There are certain words, which according to the rule should have
a( i*<) on the ( FBQ G0), but have been used with a (s )
instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The
scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these
words with a ( i*<) as well. These words are:

Word Meaning Word Meaning

=` o
U
[ W place of
prostration
` +
Ui
[ W place of assembly

ÒUBfb W place of rising


ž
a )U
[ W place of falling

` QU
[ W place of staying
r̀U1b W intersection


`
U [W place of
slaughtering
` ?U o
[ W place of slaughtering

R
` !U[W place of
germinating
r̀U+
[ W east

g̀U<[ W place of resting


the elbow
6
` U 5[ W west

` €
U [W nostril
a h4U W place where one
expects something

Sometimes the ( 4 2) is used on the scale of (a B^W 1b X ), e.g.

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(a B^i
W Qb X ) – antimony bottle, from (/a i
[ D ) - antimony.
The scale of (a ^W<D) indicates the place where a thing falls during
the action, e.g.
(a ^W l
D ) – the water which falls during bathing,
(a 2
W WD ) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping.

Exercise 17

(a) Conjugate the ( 4 2) of the following verbs:

]W *W<^ (1)
™
W W^ (2)
7W W W (3)
r
W W j^ (4)
W 4^ #W (5)
/^ W l^ (6)
/^ MW 7W (7)
OW f^ K^ (8)
OW W" W (9)
/^ ^ (^ (10)

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The Intensive Adjective ( 5! 5")

The ( 5! 5") is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of


the verbal noun e.g. (6
` h
W ) – one who hits a lot. The difference
between ( 5! 5") and (/1* 2) is that in ( 5! 5"),
the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into
consideration whereas in the (/1* 2), the excess in
meaning is in comparison to others. Hence (= ¡ Fh i
W X [ U 6
X W 
[ (^) or
(%U 
[ )^ b 6
X W 
[ (^) is in comparison to others while (6 ` h W ) is not in
comparison to anyone.

In the ( 5! 5"), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes


a (s) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. (a W B0 W /a $X W ) – a very
learned man, (a W B0
W sa (^W [ U) - a very learned woman.

When (/
a [U <^) is in the meaning of (/a 0U ^<), or (a [ X <^) is in the
meaning of (
a [ X 1b W ), a differentiation is made between the
masculine and feminine forms. Examples:
(
` [BU0W W pX ) , (a FW [BU0W W pU )
(
a [ FX W /a FW $W ) , (a ^[ FX W a K^W#).
The following scales are the ones most frequently used for

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( 5! 5"):
Scale Example Meaning
/a U <^ ` mU W very cautious

/a [U <^ ` [BU0W very knowledgeable

a [ ` <^ a [ D (^ big eater

a h<^ Z̀12W shedder of blood

a h<D ` h!D very great

/a [¢ <U g̀[>=¢ "


U very truthful

/a W 1b U %̀W?o
[ U one who cuts a lot

a W1b U %̀W[U one who awards many prizes

/a [U 1b U g̀[fU [U chatterbox

a W<D 6
` Wo0X very strange

a [ 0X ^< r̀[X ^< very decisive

a B^[ <D a Q^ i
[
X one who habitually laughs

a [ “ <^ %̀[“K^ eternal

a [ “ <D \
` [ =“ KD most holy

/a h <D d
` BKD very agile

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Exercise 18

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:


(1) He is very agile.
(2) This book is very strange.
(3) The principal awards many prizes.
(4) Abū Bakr is very truthful.
(5) She is a big eater.
(6) Allāh is very knowledgeable.
(7) The king was a shedder of blood.
(8) The student is very cautious.
(9) His mother is very patient.
(10) The mujāhid is extremely brave.

(B) What is the scale of the following ( 5! —"):


` h!$W (1)
a W1b U (2)
g̀[>=¢ " U (3)
a W h<^ (4)
` [QU [ U (5)
6` [ X „X (6)
` [BU0W (7)
` mU W (8)
` h!D (9)
` [ =“ KD (10)
\

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The Categories ( 6 () of Verbs


The (6 () of (78 9:9)

You have already learnt that the verbs of (78 9:9) –three root-
letter verbs – have six categories (6 () – plural of (6 ).

The First (6 ): (X 


X [W> W 
W #W)
(/
D X 1b W>
/^ W <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a ( i*<) while
the () has a ( F), e.g. (X  [ h) – to help. The abbreviated
paradigm7 of this (6 ) is as follows:

W X <^ ƒ
[ #W X W [X> W 
U #XW ` "U W# W X <^ ƒ 
[ #W X  X [W> W  W #W
;X [U X [ 4  [  X [AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ 
X #[(D ;X [U X [ q^b^ ` [ 
X [W
/U [U 1b *h /D W <b (^W ` W[U W sa W 
W [U W `  W [U ;X [U D ^£bW `  W [W
‰W [ #X ;X [U w
D #h~W FX bW X 
W #[(^ ;X [U

7
The abbreviated paradigm is where the first ( 5P
P") of each paradigm
of the active and passive tenses is used.

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The Second (6 ) : ( 6


X U 
[ W> 6
W W 
W)
(/
D U 1b W>
/^ W <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a ( i*<) while
the () has a (s ), eg (6 X [ 
h ) – to hit. The abbreviated
paradigm of this (6 ) is as follows:

ƒ [ 
W 6 X W [ X> 6W U  X 6 ` U W W X <^ ƒ [  W 6 X U  [ W> 6 W W  W
6
[ U [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW 6 [ U  [ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ 6
` [ X  [ W W X <^
W a WW 
[ U W 6` W  [ U ;X [U D ^£bW 6` U  [ W ;X [U X [ 4 
W [ X ;X [U wD #h~W FX bW 6
X W  [ (^ ;X [U /U [ 
U 1b *h /D W <b (^W 6` W [ U

The Third (6 ) : (]


X *W1b W> ]W *W<^)
(/
D W 1b W> /^ W <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a ( i*<) while
the () also has a ( i*<), e.g. (] X *[1^ b) – to open. The
condition for this (6 ) is that if the verb is (]i")8, the (  X [0W
FW BUQ^ b) or ( FW BUQ^ b %X &^ ) must be from the ( )B ). This
does not mean that every verb which is (]i") and whose (  X [0W

8
(]iP") is that word which has no ( PB P), two letters of the

same type or (s?š) as its root letter.

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FW BUQ^ b) or ( FW BUQ^ b %X &^ ) is from the ( )B ), will be from
(]*< 6 ). The abbreviated paradigm of this (6 ) and the

remaining (6 () is similar to the above-mentioned examples.

_
` [ *X1b W W X <^ ƒi*[<^ ]X *W1b X> ]W *U<DW ]` AU^< W X <^ ƒi*[<^ ]X *W1b W> ]W *W<^
]` *W1b W ;X [U
X [ 4  ][ *W1b AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW ][ *W<b @U ;X [U X [ q^b^
;X [U /U [U 1b *h /D W <b (^W _
` W*1b U W a i W *W1b U W ]` *W1b U ;X [U D ^£bW
Wi*[<D ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW ]X *W<b (^

The Fourth (6 ) : (O


X FW
[ W> OW FU 2W )
(/
D W 1b W>
/^ U <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a (s ) while
the () has a ( i*<), e.g. (O X F[
h ) – to listen.

W X <^ ƒF[ 2W OX FW [ X> OW FU 2X W ÒUW2 W X <^ ƒF[ 2W OX F[ W> OW FU 2W


;X [U X [ 4  O[ FW [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW O[ FW 2[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ 
` [ FX
[ W
/D W <b (^W 
` WF [ U W a W FW
[ U W ÒWF [ U ;X [U D ^£bW ÒWF [ W
WF[ 2X ;X [U w
D #h~W FX bW OX FW 2[ (^ ;X [U /U [U1b *h

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The Fifth (6 ) : (%X X Q


b W> %W X ^ )
(/
D X 1b W>
/^ X <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a ( F) while
the () also has a ( F), e.g. (%X [ Q ^ b) – to be noble. The
verbs of this (6 ) are intransitive. In this (6 ), instead of the

(/01 2), the ( !+ 1") on the scale of (/a [U <^) has been
used, e.g. (
` [>U ^ ).

W X <^ ƒW ^ %X W Qb X> %W U D W ` [>U ^ W X <^ ƒW ^ %X X Qb W> %W X ^


;X [U X [ 4  %[ X Qb AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW %[ X b (D ;X [U X [ q^b^ %̀[X Qb W
/U [U 1b *h /D W <b (^W %̀WQb U W a W W Qb U W %̀WQb U ;X [U D ^£bW %̀WQb W
W[ D ;X [U wD #h~W FX bW %X W b (^ ;X [U

The Sixth (6 ) : (d


X
Ui
[ W> d
W
U W )
(/
D U 1b W>
/^ U <^) – the ( FW BUQ^ b X [0W ) of the () has a (s ) while
the () also has a (s ), e.g. (d X [iW b^) – to ponder.
Besides (d W U W ), no other (]i" /<) has been used in this
(6 ). Acccording to some scholars, the verb ( X U [W> W U #W) is also

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from this (6 ). However, verbs that are (H)9 or (L1)10 have

been used, e.g. (¤


D U W>
¤
^ U W ) and ([ BUW> W UW ). The verb (d W
U W ) has
also been used with a ( i*<) on the ( F W BUQ^ b X [0W ) of (),
that is (d
X
Wi
[ W>).

d
X Wi [ X> dW U X W d ` 2U W W X <^ ƒ! [ W dX Ui[ W> d W U W
&^ ;X [0W X [ hW d [ U [ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ 6
` [ Xi[ W W X <^ ƒ!
[ W
W d ` Wi[ U ;X [U D ^£bW d
` Ui [ W ;X [U X [ 4  d[ Ui [ AW
w
D #h~W FX bW d
X W [ (^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h /D W <b ^(W 6` W i [ U W a !W Wi [ U
W!
[ X ;X [U

9
A word having a () or (‰) as the ( FBQ ,<).
10
A word having two ( B ).

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Exercise 19

Conjugate the following verbs as done above:

d
W *W^ (1)
]W !W2W (2)
W BU0W (3)
W U #W (4)
/^ FW W (5)
L
W X  W (6)

W X „W (7)
W B^l^ (8)
d
OW WW (9)
6
W W pW (10)

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The ( 6 () of (;< =>? 9:9)


The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb

Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms


which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of
the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a
common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it
reaches its pinnacle in Arabic.

Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the


root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, (W 
W #W), which is the
root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are
derived with differing meanings:

Verb Meaning
W "
W W# to support

W 
h WAW to try to help

W "
W WAW to render mutual assistance

W 
W *W#[(U to come to someone’s aid

W 
W [*W2[ (U to ask for assistance

Another example of derived verbs is (/


^ *WK^) which means to kill.
When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings
are achieved.

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Verb Meaning
/^ *hK^ to massacre

/^ AW^K to combat, battle

/^ *W*WKb (U to fight with one another

/^ *W)b *W2[ (U to risk one’s life

Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have
only one (like – 6
h v^ to drive away) or two (like L
W
W MW – to sink),
while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is
often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms.

Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms
are used, e.g. ( d
W AhW - to arrange).

The (6 () of (;< =>? 9:9) are twelve in total. They are

formed by adding extra letters to the ( /1) of ( 9:9


78). Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a
verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to
six (root letters plus extra letters).

Seven of these (6 () have (/" s?š) at the beginning while


five do not have. Besides (78 9:9), every letter with a ( )

will become (%F) in the ( ) except for the

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penultimate letter which will be ( Q). The (2) will


remain as it is,
e.g. (d
W U*X$[ (D), (W 
U [*X2[ (D).

When (W) or (&


^ ) are used in the (1
), the (/" s?š)
will not be pronounced as will the (L) of the (W) and (&
^ ), e.g.
(d
W W*W$[  W), (W fU 1D #[ &^ ).

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The 12 (6 () of (;< =>? 9:9) are as follows:

)* Example Extra Letters


3( ! a
C/ .4V A- %W W b (^ ( Of) s?š
3/ '2 4- V O.
W h "
W 
C no hamza

/ , $. ,R /^ AW^K  no hamza

C/ .4-V A- d
W W*W$[ @U Ny( /" s?š
C/ .4- B2A- W f^ 1^ #[@U 'y( /" s?š
C/ ,4- V A- h FW [ @U E y ( /" s?š
3/ b4, O. /^ !h)^ AW 
C yN no hamza

3/ $R ,O. /^ W^)AW yN no hamza

C/ .4V -2 A- W 
W [*W2[ @U Ny\y( /" s?š
C/ .4'2 4- V A- W „W [ +
W M[ @U y( /" s?š
C/ ,'2 4- V A- %h Wp7[ @U E y  y ( /" s?š
C/ !c4- V A- v^ h B^$[ @U C y ( /" s?š

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Construction of the Derived Nouns

To construct the (/01


2) of any (6 ) besides (78 9:9),
the (  ) is modified by adding a (%F %) at the

beginning and making the penultimate letter ( Q) if it is not

already ( Q).


Examples:
%X U Qb X> ¥ %̀UQb X
X ¢  W X> ¥
` ¢  W X
/D AU^)X> ¥ /a AU^)X

The (1 2) is like the (/01 2) except that the

penultimate letter is (_*1).


Examples:
%X U Qb X> ¥ %̀WQb X
X ¢  W X> ¥
` h  W X
/D AU^)X> ¥ /a AW^)X

The ( 4 2) of these (6 () is used on the scale of the


(1 2). There is neither ( 3 2) nor (/1* 2) in

these (6 (). In ordert to express the meaning of the ( 3 2),

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the words (;U UW) are added to the (=) for this purpose, e.g.

(6
X W*U$[ †Ub ;U UW) – the means of refraining.

To express the (/1* 2), the word (=“ „W (^) is used before the
(6 =), e.g. (ƒ W*U$ [ @U =“ „W (^) – more refraining. Words like
(X H^
b (^), (/¦ K^(^) etc. can also be used.

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The Abbreviated Paradigm (5" ") of Each


(6 )

C4A )*
X [ q^b^ %̀WQb X W X <^ ƒWb @U %X W Qb X> %W U b (DW %̀UQb X W X <^ ƒWb @U %X U Qb X> %W W b (^
%[ U Qb AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW %[ U b (^ ;X [U

The sign of (P


P<@ 6P
P ) is a (OP Pf) s?P Pš) 11 in the
(P /P1) and (P() while the (P P:0) is

always (%FPP). The (OPPf) s?P Pš) of the (P P) is


deleted from the (P). Thus (%X U 
b q^PX>) becomes (%X U PbQX>).
The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern.

The detailed paradigms of this verb are provided


hereunder.

11
A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any
letter.

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5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

%[ U Qb X> &^ %[ U Qb XU %X U Qb X> %W W b (^


W U Qb X> &^ W U Qb XU 'U W U Qb X> W W b (^
[ X U Qb X> &^ [ X U Qb XU '^ [ X U Qb X> [X W b (^
%[ U Qb AX &^ %[ U Qb *XU %X U Qb AX R
[ W W b (^
W U Qb AX &^ W U Qb *XU 'U W U Qb AX W*W W b (^
W [ U Qb X> &^ W [ U Qb XU W [ U Qb X> W [ W b (^
%[ U Qb AX &^ %[ U b (^ %X U Qb AX R
W [ W b (^
W U Qb AX &^ W U b (^ 'U W U Qb AX WF*X[ W b (^
[X U Qb AX &^ [ X U b (^ '^ [ X U Qb AX [ *X[ W b (^
[ U U Qb AX &^ [ U U b (^ W [U U Qb AX R
U [ W b (^
WU Qb AX &^ W U b (^ 'U W U Qb AX WF*X[ W b (^
W [ U Qb AX &^ W [ U b (^ W [ U Qb AX h *X[ W b (^
%[ U b (DT &^ %[ U b qDTU %X U b (DT R
X [ W b (^
%[ U Qb #X &^ %[ U Qb XU %X U Qb #X W[ W b (^

y a P W U Qb X y '^ [ P X U Qb X y 'U P
PW U Qb X y %̀UP Qb X :/P P01 P P2
. N ` WU Qb X y 'U W*W U Qb X

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Exercise 20

Conjugate the following verbs:

W !WM[ (^ (5) /^ 2W [ (^ (4) W 


W [ (^ (3) =W W [(^ (2) ™
W B^$[ (^ (1)

3'4O )*
W X <^ 1̈[>U 
[ AW
X h 
W X> W ¢ " X W ` ¢ 
W X W X <^ 1̈[>U 
[ AW
X ¢ 
W X>
W h "
W

[ ¢ 
W AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
[ ¢ "
W ;X [U X [ q^b^
` h 
W X

The sign of (/1A 6 ) is the tashdîd of the ( FBQ G0) in the


() and ( () without a (N) preceding the ( ,<

FBQ). The ( :0) of this (6 ) is also always


(%F).

The (=) of this (6 ) is also used on the following scales:

(
a W<^) e.g. (%̀^B2W y %̀^B^ );
(
a h<U) e.g. (6 ` mU );
(a B^U 1b AW) e.g. (a W
U ?[ AW);
(
a W1b AW) e.g. (` WQb AW).
The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.

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5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!


[ ¢ 
W X> &^
[ ¢ 
W XU
X ¢ 
W X>
W h "
W
<^¢ 
W X> &^ <^¢ 
W XU 'U <^¢ 
W X> <^h "
W
[ <D¢ 
W X> &^ [ <D¢ 
W XU '^ [ <D¢ 
W X> [<Dh "
W

[ ¢ 
W AX &^
[ ¢ 
W *XU
X ¢ 
W AX R
[ <^h "
W
<^¢ 
W AX &^ <^¢ 
W *XU 'U <^¢ 
W AX W*<^h "
W
W <b ¢ 
W X> &^ W <b ¢ 
W XU W <b ¢ 
W X> W <b h "
W

[ ¢ 
W AX &^
[ ¢ "
W
X ¢ 
W AX R
W <b h "
W
<^¢ 
W AX &^ <^¢ "
W 'U <^¢ 
W AX WF*X<b h "
W
[<D¢ 
W AX &^ [ <D¢ "
W '^ [ <D¢ 
W AX [ *X<b h "
W
[ <U¢ 
W AX &^ [ <U¢ "
W W [<U¢ 
W AX R
U <b h "
W
<^¢ 
W AX &^ <^¢ "
W 'U <^¢ 
W AX WF*X<b h "
W
W <b ¢ 
W AX &^ W <b ¢ "
W W <b ¢ 
W AX h *X<b h "
W

[ ¢ "
W (DT &^
[ ¢ "
W qDTU
X ¢ "
W (DT R
X <b h "
W

[ ¢ 
W #X &^
[ ¢ 
W XU
X ¢ 
W #X W<b h "
W

y a <^¢ PWX y '^ [ <D¢ PWX y 'U ^<¢ PWX y


` ¢ PWX :/P01 2
.N` ^<¢ 
W X y 'U W*<^¢ 
W X

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Exercise 21

Conjugate the following verbs:

r
W =h "
W (5) W =h K^ (4) W +
h W (3) /^ !hK^ (2) W B2W (1)

$ )*
;X [U X [ q^b^ /a AW^)X W X <^ ¨ B^AW^)X /D AW^)X> /^ AU[ KDW /a AU^)X W X <^ ¨ B^AW^)X /D AU^)X> /^ AW^K
/b AU^)AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW /b AU^K

The sign of ( B01 6 ) is the (s=I L) after the ( FBQ ,<)
in the ( /1) and (c . /<) without a (N)

preceding it. The ( :0) of this (6 ) is always

(%F).

The (=) of ( B01 6 ) is also used on the following scales:

(
a W<U) e.g. (a W*KU);
(
a W[<U) e.g. (a W*[KU).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.

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5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

/b AU^)X> &^ /b AU^)XU /D AU)^ X> /^ AW^K


:
^ AU^)X> &^ :
^ AU^)XU 'U :
^ AU^)X> :
^ AW^K
[BDAU^)X> &^ [ BDAU^)XU '^ [ BDAU^)X> [BDAW^K
/b AU^)AX &^ /b AU^)*XU /D AU^)AX R
[ B^AW^K
:
^ AU^)AX &^ :
^ AU^)*XU 'U :
^ AU^)AX W*B^AW^K
W Bb AU^)X> &^ W Bb AU^)XU W Bb AU^)X> W Bb AW^K
/b AU^)AX &^ /b AU^K /D AU^)AX R
W Bb AW^K
:
^ AU^)AX &^ :
^ AU^K 'U :
^ AU^)AX WF*XBb AW^K
[ BDAU^)AX &^ [ BDAU^K '^ [ BDAU^)AX [ *XBb AW^K
[ BUAU^)AX &^ [ BUAU^K W [BUAU^)AX R
U Bb AW^K
:
^ AU^)AX &^ :
^ AU^K 'U :
^ AU^)AX WF*XBb AW^K
W Bb AU^)AX &^ W Bb AU^K W Bb AU^)AX h *XBb AW^K
/b AU^K(D &^ /b AU^KqDU /D AU^K(D R
X Bb AW^K
/b AU^)#X &^ /b AU^)XU /D AU^)#X WBb AW^K

'U PW*B^AU^)X y a P^BAU^)X y '^ [ BDAUP^)X y 'U :


^ AU^)X y /a AU^)X :/01 2
.N
` :
^ AU^)X y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 22

Conjugate the following verbs:

W $W Wp (5) W <^W2 (4) OW <^W7 (3) =W pW W„ (2) d


W K^W (1)

C4B! )*
` f^ 1^ [X W X <^ ƒ^f1U #[@U X f^ 1^ [X> W fU 1D #[(DW ` fU 1^ [X W X <^ ƒ^f1U #[@U X fU 1^ [W> W f^ 1^ #[@U
[ fU 1^ [AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ fU 1^ #[@U ;X [U X [ q^b^

The sign of (1# 6 ) is the (') before the ( FBQ ,<). This
(6 ) is always intransitive (%&).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

[ fU 1^ [W> &^ [ fU 1^ [WU X fU 1^ [W> W f^ 1^ #[@U


W fU 1^ [W> &^ W fU 1^ [WU 'U W fU 1^ [W> W f^ 1^ #[@U
[X fU 1^ [W> &^ [ X fU 1^ [WU '^ [ X fU 1^ [W> [X f^ 1^ #[@U
[ fU 1^ [AW &^ [ fU 1^ [*WU X fU 1^ [AW N
[ W f^ 1^ #[@U
WfU 1^ [AW &^ WfU 1^ [*WU 'U W fU 1^ [AW WAW f^ 1^ #[@U
'^ [ fU 1^ [W> &^ '^ [ fU 1^ [WU '^ [ fU 1^ [W> '^ [ f^ 1^ #[@U
[ fU 1^ [AW &^ [ fU 1^ #[@U X fU 1^ [AW N
W [ f^ 1^ #[@U
W fU 1^ [AW &^ W fU 1^ #[@U 'U W fU 1^ [AW WFAX[ f^ 1^ #[@U
[ X fU 1^ [AW &^ [ X fU 1^ #[@U '^ [ X fU 1^ [AW [ AX[ f^ 1^ #[@U
‰
[ U fU 1^ [AW &^ ‰
[ U fU 1^ #[@U W [>U fU 1^ [AW N
U [ f^ 1^ #[@U
WfU 1^ [AW &^ W fU 1^ #[@U 'U W fU 1^ [AW WFAX[ f^ 1^ #[@U
'^ [ fU 1^ [AW &^ '^ [ fU 1^ #[@U '^ [ fU 1^ [AW h AX[ f^ 1^ #[@U
[ fU 1^ #[(^S &^ [ fU 1^ #[q^SU X fU 1^ #[(^S N
X [ f^ 1^ #[@U
[ fU 1^ [#W &^ [ fU 1^ [WU X fU 1^ [#W W#[ f^ 1^ #[@U

y sa W PUf1^ [X y '^ [ X PUf1^ [X y 'U W PUf1^ [X y ` PUf1^ [X :/P01 2
.N` W fU 1^ [X y 'U WAW fU 1^ [X

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 23

Conjugate the following verbs:


W W 
W #[@U (5) =W )^ W #[@U (4) d
W B^)^ #[@U (3) L
W +
W Q^ #[@U (2) W
W Q^ #[@U (1)

C4! )*
W X <^ ƒ W*U$[ @U d
X W*Wo
[ X> d
W U*X$[ (DW d` U*Wo
[ X W X <^ ƒ W*U$[ @U d X U*Wo
[ W> d
W W*W$[ @U
d
[ U*Wo
[ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW d
[ U*W$[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ d
` W*Wo
[ X

The sign of (*< 6 ) is the (N) after the ( FBQ ,<).


Rule 1

If the ( FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (7), (v), or (), the (N) of


(*<) is changed to (7). If the (FBQ ,<) is a (7), then (%l7@ -
assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. (
W W AW7[ @U) changes to (W07h @U).

If the ( FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (v), then after changing the


(N) to (7), the following three changes are permissible:

(1) The (v) is changed to (7) and the rule of (%l7@) is applied,

e.g. (W Q
^ AWvb @U) changes to (W ^ 7h @U).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(2) Sometimes the (7) is changed to (v) and then the rule of

(%l7@) is applied to the ( FBQ ,<), e.g. (W Q


^ AWvb @U) changes to
(W 
^ v @U).
(3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of
(%l7@), e.g. (W 
^ 7W vb @U).

If the ( FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (), then after changing the


(N) to (7), the following two changes are permissible:

(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (%l7@),

e.g. (W $ W 7W [ @U).


(2) Sometimes the (7) is changed to () and then the rule of

(%l7@) is applied to the ( FBQ ,<), e.g. (W o W AW[ @U) changes to
(W $
W h @U).
Rule 2

If the ( FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (n), (Y), (©), or (ª), the


(N) of (*<) is changed to (©). If the ( FBQ ,<) is a (©), then

it is compulsory to apply (%l7@) e.g. (d


W B^*Wjb @U) changes to (d
W B^j @U).
If the ( FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (ª), then after changing the

(N) to (©), the following three changes are permissible:

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(1) The (ª) is changed to (©) and the rule of (%l7@) is applied,

e.g. (
W B^*WŠb @U) changes to (W B^j @U).
(2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (%l7@),

e.g. (
W B^f^ Šb @U).
(3) The (©) is changed to (ª) and the rule of (%l7@) is applied,

e.g. (
W B^*WŠb @U) changes to (W B^Š @U).

If the (FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (n) or (Y), then after


changing the (N) to (©), the following two possibilities are
permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (%l7@),

e.g. (W !Wf


^"
[ @U) and (6
W W f^ 
[ @U).
(2) Sometimes the (©) is changed to (n) or (Y) and then the

rule of (%l7@) is applied, e.g. (W !W*W"


[ @U) changes to (W !W"
h @U) and
(6
W W *W
[ @U) changes to (6
W W 
h @U).
Rule 3

FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is (¤), then it is permissible to


If the (

change the (N) to (¤) and apply the rule of (%l7@), e.g. (W W*9b @U)

changes to (W 9@U).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Rule 4

If the ( FBQ G0) of (*< 6 ) is (N), (¤), (e), (), (7),


(v), (\), («), (n), (Y), (©), or (ª), then after changing the

(N) to the same letter as the ( FBQ G0), the ( ) of the (N)

is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of (%l7@) is

applied. The (/" s?š) is deleted, e.g. ( W


W *WM[ @U) changes to
(
Wh MW ) and (‰W=*Wp[ @U) changes to (‰h=pW ).

(4.2) The () of these verbs - (


W
h MW ) and (‰h=pW ) - will be
(
X¢€
W W>) and (‰
[ =¢ W W>).

(4.3) It is permissible to have a (s ) on the ( FBQ ,<), e.g.


(
X¢€
U W> W 
h MU ) and (‰
[ =¢ U W> ‰h=pU ). The words ('
^ [ FX 
¢€
U W>) and

[ =¢ U W>) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this (6 ).
(4.4) It is permissible to read a ( F) on the ( FBQ ,<) of the
(/01 2). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g.
(
`¢€
W X ), (` 
¢€U X ), (` 
¢€
X X ).
Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

d
[ U*Wo
[ W> &^ d
[ U*Wo
[ WU d
X U*Wo
[ W> d
W W*W$[ @U
!WU*Wo
[ W> &^ !WU*Wo
[ WU 'U !WU*Wo
[ W> !WW*W$[ @U
[!XU*Wo
[ W> &^ [!XU*Wo
[ WU '^ [ !XU*Wo
[ W> [ !XW*W$[ @U
d
[ U*Wo
[ AW &^ d
[ U*Wo
[ *WU d
X U*Wo
[ AW R
[ !WW*W$[ @U
!WU*Wo
[ AW &^ !WU*Wo
[ *WU 'U !WU*Wo
[ AW W*!WW*W$[ @U
W ![U*Wo
[ W> &^ W ![U*Wo
[ WU W ![U*Wo
[ W> W ![W*W$[ @U
d
[ U*Wo
[ AW &^ d
[ U*W$[ @U d
X U*Wo
[ AW R
W ![W*W$[ @U
!WU*Wo
[ AW &^ !WU*W$[ @U 'U !WU*Wo
[ AW WF*X![W*W$[ @U
[ !XU*Wo
[ AW &^ [ !XU*W$[ @U '^ [ !XU*Wo
[ AW [ *X![W*W$[ @U
[ !UU*Wo
[ AW &^ [ !UU*W$[ @U W [!UU*Wo
[ AW R
U ![W*W$[ @U
!WU*Wo
[ AW &^ !WU*W$[ @U 'U !WU*Wo
[ AW WF*X![W*W$[ @U
W ![U*Wo
[ AW &^ W ![U*W$[ @U W ![U*Wo
[ AW h *X![W*W$[ @U
d
[ U*W$[ (^ &^ d
[ U*W$[ q^U d
X U*W$[ (^ R
X ![W*W$[ @U
d
[ U*Wo
[ #W &^ d
[ U*Wo
[ WU d
X U*Wo
[ #W W![W*W$[ @U

y a PW!U*Wo
[ X y '^ [ PX!U*Wo
[ X y 'U PW!U*Wo
[ X y d
` PU*Wo
[ X :/P01 2
.N` !WU*Wo
[ X y 'U W*!WU*Wo
[ X

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 24

Conjugate the following verbs:

/^ 5W *W„[ @U (5) OW FW *W2[ @U (4) %W W *W[ @U (3) /^ FW *W[ @U (2) OW FW *W$[ @U (1)

C/ ,4- V A- )*
[ U FW [ @U ¢ FW [ @U h FW [ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^  WFi
[ X W X <^ ƒWFU [ @U “ FW i
[ W> h FW [ @U
[ U FW i
[ AW &^ ¢ FW i [ AW &^ h FW i [ AW &^ ;X W0 X [ hW

The sign of (:<@ 6 ) is the repetition of the ( FBQ %&) and


four letters after the (/" s?š) in the ( /1). The ( %&

FBQ) of this (6 ) is always (7C=+) except in (JK#).12


Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

12
The rules of (JK#) will be discussed later.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

h FW i
[ W> &^ h FW i
[ WU “ FW i
[ W> h FW [ @U
h FW i
[ W> &^ h FW i
[ WU 'U h FW i
[ W> h FW [ @U
[“ FW i
[ W> &^ [“ FW i
[ WU '^ [ “ FW i
[ W> [ “ FW [ @U
h FW i
[ AW &^ h FW i
[ *WU “ FW i
[ AW N
[ h FW [ @U
h FW i
[ AW &^ h FW i
[ *WU 'U h FW i
[ AW WAh FW [ @U
'^ [ U FW i
[ W> &^ '^ [ U FW i
[ WU '^ [ U FW i
[ W> '^ [ W FW [ @U
h FW i
[ AW &^ h FW [ @U “ FW i
[ AW N
W [ W FW [ @U
h FW i
[ AW &^ h FW [ @U 'U h FW i
[ AW WFAX[ W FW [ @U
[“ FW i
[ AW &^ [ “ FW [ @U '^ [ “ FW i
[ AW [ AX[ W FW [ @U
‰
[ ¢ FW i
[ AW &^ ‰
[ ¢ FW [ @U W [>¢ FW i
[ AW N
U [ W FW [ @U
h FW i
[ AW &^ h FW [ @U 'U h FW i
[ AW WFAX[ W FW [ @U
'^ [ U FW i
[ AW &^ '^ [ U FW [ @U '^ [ U FW i
[ AW h AX[ W FW [ @U
h FW [ (^ &^ h FW [ q^U “ FW [ (^ N
X [ W FW [ @U
h FW i
[ #W &^ h FW i
[ WU “ FW i
[ #W W#[ W FW [ @U

y sa hS PWFi
[ X y '^ [ “T PWFi
[ X y 'U h PWFi
[ X y  PWFi
[ X :/P01 2
.N` h FW i
[ X y 'U WAh FW i
[ X

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 25

Conjugate the following verbs:

¬
h W [@U (5) h 1^ "
[ @U (4) h !Wlb @U (3) h 
W M[ @U (2) 7h W 2[ @U (1)

3/ b4, O. )*
;X [U X [ q^b^ /a !h)^ *WX W X <^ B̈!“)^ AW /D !h)^ *WX> /^ !¢)D AXW /a !¢)^ *WX W X <^ B̈!“)^ AW /D !h)^ *WW> /^ !h)^ AW
/b !h)^ *WAW &^ ;X W0 X [ hW /b !h)^ AW

The sign of (/C1A6 ) is the tashdīd of the ( FBQ G0) and (N)
precedes the ( FBQ ,<) in the ( /1).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

/b !h)^ *WW> &^ /b !h)^ *WWU /D !h)^ *WW> /^ !h)^ AW


:
^ !h)^ *WW> &^ :
^ !h)^ *WWU 'U :
^ !h)^ *WW> :
^ !h)^ AW
[BD!h)^ *WW> &^ [BD!h)^ *WWU '^ [ BD!h)^ *WW> [ BD!h)^ AW
/b !h)^ *WAW &^ /b !h)^ *W*WU /D !h)^ *WAW R
[ B^!h)^ AW
:
^ !h)^ *WAW &^ :
^ !h)^ *W*WU 'U :
^ !h)^ *WAW W*B^!h)^ AW
W Bb !h)^ *WW> &^ W Bb !h)^ *WWU W Bb !h)^ *WW> W Bb !h)^ AW
/b !h)^ *WAW &^ /b !h)^ AW /D !h)^ *WAW R
W Bb !h)^ AW
:
^ !h)^ *WAW &^ :
^ !h)^ AW 'U :
^ !h)^ *WAW WF*XBb !h)^ AW
[BD!h)^ *WAW &^ [ BD!h)^ AW '^ [ BD!h)^ *WAW [ *XBb !h)^ AW
[ BU!h)^ *WAW &^ [ BU!h)^ AW W [BU!h)^ *WAW R
U Bb !h)^ AW
:
^ !h)^ *WAW &^ :
^ !h)^ AW 'U :
^ !h)^ *WAW WF*XBb !h)^ AW
W Bb !h)^ *WAW &^ W Bb !h)^ AW W Bb !h)^ *WAW h *XBb !h)^ AW
/b !h)^ AW(^ &^ /b !h)^ AWq^U /D !h)^ AW(^ R
X Bb !h)^ AW
/b !h)^ *W#W &^ /b !h)^ *WWU /D !h)^ *W#W WBb !h)^ AW

y 'U PW*B^!¢)^ *WX y a P^B!¢)^ *WX y '^ [ BD!¢)^ *WX y 'U :


^ !¢)^ *WX y /a !¢)^ *WX :/01 2
.N
` :^ !¢)^ *WX

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 26

Conjugate the following verbs:

W BW AW (5) d
W o
h W AW (4) W BQ^ AW (3) %W =h )^ AW (2) W B
W AW (1)

3/ $R ,.O )*
/a W^)W*X W X <^ :
¨ X^)WA /D W^)*WX> /^ U[ )D AXW /a U^)W*X W X <^ :
¨ X^)WA /D W^)*WW> /^ W^)WA
/b W^)W*AW &^ ;X W0 X [ hW /b W^)WA ;X [U X [ q^b^

The sign of (/01A6 ) is that the (N) precedes the ( FBQ ,<)
in the ( /1) and there is an extra (L) after the ( ,<

FBQ).
Rule 1

In (/C1A
6 ) and (/01A 6 ), when two (N)’s are adjacent to
one another in the ( /<), it is permissible to delete one,
e.g.
(/
D !h)^ *WAW) (/
D !h)^ AW)
('
^ [ X pW ^4*WAW) ('
^ [ X pW ^4AW).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Rule 2

If the ( FBQ ,<) of (/C1A 6 ) and (/01A 6 ) is (N), (¤),


(e), (7) ,(v), (), (\), («), (n), (Y), (©) or (ª), it is

permissible to change the (N) into the ( FBQ ,<) and apply the

rule of (%l7@). In this case, the ( /1) and (() require a

(/" s?š) at the beginning. The (/ a “ <@U 6 ) and (/a 0X <@U 6 )


have been created due to this rule.

Examples:
(W 
h f^ AW) (W 
h f^ j) (W 
h j @U)
(/
^ K^^HAW) (/
^ K^^H9) (/
^ K^9@U)

 [ h j @U ; . ` ¢ f X < ƒ“ j @U Xh f W> W h j @U P 3/ b4dA- )*


[ h f AW &^ ;0
 /b K^9@U ; . /a KUHX < B̈KD9@U /D K^HW> /^ K^9@U _ 3/ $R dA- )*
/b K^HWA &^ ;0
Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 87! 67!


5 47! 5 47!

/b W^)*WW> &^ /b W^)*WWU /D W^)*WW> /^ W^)AW


:
^ W)^ *WW> &^ :
^ W^)*WWU 'U :
^ W^)*WW> :
^ W^)AW
[BD W^)*WW> &^ [BD W^)*WWU '^ [ BD W^)*WW> [ BD W^)AW
/b W^)*WAW &^ /b W^)*W*WU /D W^)*WAW R
[ B^ W^)AW
:
^ W^)*WAW &^ :
^ W^)*W*WU 'U :
^ W^)*WAW W*B^ W^)AW
W Bb W^)*WW> &^ W Bb W^)*WWU W Bb W^)*WW> W Bb W^)AW
/b W^)*WAW &^ /b W^)AW /D W^)*WAW R
W Bb !h)^ AW
:
^ W^)*WAW &^ :
^ W^)AW 'U :
^ W^)*WAW WF*XBb W^)AW
[BD W^)*WAW &^ [ BD W^)AW '^ [ BD W^)*WAW [ *XBb W^)AW
[ BU W^)*WAW &^ [ BU W^)AW W [BU W^)*WAW R
U Bb !h)^ AW
:
^ W^)*WAW &^ :
^ W^)AW 'U :
^ W^)*WAW WF*XBb W^)AW
W Bb W^)*WAW &^ W Bb W^)AW W Bb W^)*WAW h *XBb W^)AW
/b W^)AW(^ &^ /b W^)AWq^U /D W^)AW(^ R
X Bb W^)AW
/b W^)*W#W &^ /b W^)*WWU /D W^)*W#W WBb W^)AW

y 'U W*B^ U^)*WX y a B^ U^)*WX y '^ [ BD U^)*WX y 'U :


^ U^)*WX y /a U^)*WX :/01 2
.N
` :^ U^)*WX

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 27

Conjugate the following verbs:

W "
W W€AW (5) W pW ^4AW (4) r
W W ^1AW (3) /^ AW^)AW (2) ¤
^ 7W WiAW (1)

C/ .4V -2 A- )*


ƒW[*U2[ @U X 
W [*W
[ X> W 
U [*X2[ (DW ` 
U [W*
[ X W X <^ ƒW[*U2[ @U X 
U [*W
[ W> W 
W [*W2[ @U
[ 
U [*W
[ AW &^ ;0  [  U [*W2[ @U ; . `  W [*W [ X W X <^

The sign of (
a W1b *U2[ @U 6 ) is the extra (\) and (N) before the
( FBQ ,<).
It is permissible to delete the (N) from the verb ( 
W ^f*W2[ @U
OX [fU *W
[ W>). The verbs ([0X ^f2[  WF<^) and (O[ fU
[ AW [ ^ W) mentioned

in the Qur’ân are from this (6 ).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

[ 
U [*W
[ W> &^ [ 
U [*W
[ WU X 
U [*W
[ W> W 
W [*W2[ @U
W 
U [*W
[ W> &^ W 
U [*W
[ WU 'U W 
U [*W
[ W> W 
W [*W2[ @U
[X 
U [*W
[ W> &^ [ X 
U [*W
[ WU '^ [ X 
U [*W
[ W> [ X 
W [*W2[ @U
[ 
U [*W
[ AW &^ [ 
U [*W
[ *WU X 
U [*W
[ AW N
[ W 
W [*W2[ @U
W 
U [*W
[ AW &^ W 
U [*W
[ *WU 'U W 
U [*W
[ AW WAW 
W [*W2[ @U
'^ [ 
U [*W
[ W> &^ '^ [ 
U [*W
[ WU '^ [ 
U [*W
[ W> '^ [ 
W [*W2[ @U
[ 
U [*W
[ AW &^ [ 
U [*W2[ @U X 
U [*W
[ AW N
W [ 
W [*W2[ @U
W 
U [*W
[ AW &^ ^U[*W2[ @U 'U W 
U [*W
[ AW WFAX[ 
W [*W2[ @U
[ X 
U [*W
[ AW &^ [ X 
U [*W2[ @U '^ [ X 
U [*W
[ AW [ AX[ 
W [*W2[ @U
‰
[ U 
U [*W
[ AW &^ ‰
[ U[*W2[ @U W [>U 
U [*W
[ AW N
U [ 
W [*W2[ @U
W 
U [*W
[ AW &^ ^U[*W2[ @U 'U W 
U [*W
[ AW WFAX[ 
W [*W2[ @U
'^ [ 
U [*W
[ AW &^ '^ [ 
U [*W2[ @U '^ [ 
U [*W
[ AW h AX[ 
W [*W2[ @U
[ 
U [*W2[ (^ &^ [ 
U [*W2[ q^U X 
U [*W2[ (^ N
X [ 
W [*W2[ @U
[ 
U [*W
[ #W &^ [ 
U [*W
[ WU X 
U [*W
[ #W W#[ 
W [*W2[ @U

y sa W 
U [*W
[ X y '^ [ X 
U [*W
[ X y 'U ^U[*W
[ X y ` 
U [*W
[ X :/01 2
.N` ^U[*W [ X y 'U WAW 
U [*W
[ X

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 28

Conjugate the following verbs:

%W =W €
[ *W2[ @U (5) =W W +
[ *W2[ @U (4) W B^[ *W2[ @U (3) /^ !W)b *W2[ @U (2) W
Wi
[ *W2[ @U (1)

C/ .4'2 4- V A- )*
[ „U [ +
W M[ @U ; . ` „U [ +
W€[ X W X <^ ƒ#W+[+
U M[ @U X „U [ +

[ W> W„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ „U [ +

[ AW &^ ;0 

The sign of (
a W[U <b @U
6 ) is the repetition of the () and the
appearance of a () between the two ()’s. This () has changed

to a (‰) in the (=) due to the preceding (s ). This (6 )

is mostly intransitive (%&).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

[ „U [ +

[ W> &^ [ „U [ +

[ WU X „U [ +

[ W> W „W [ +
W M[ @U
W„U [ +

[ W> &^ W„U [ +

[ WU 'U W„U [ +

[ W> W„W [ +
W M[ @U
[X„U [ +

[ W> &^ [X„U [ +

[ WU '^ [ X„U [ +

[ W> [ X„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ „U [ +

[ AW &^ [ „U [ +

[ *WU X „U [ +

[ AW R
[ W„W [ +
W M[ @U
W„U [ +

[ AW &^ W„U [ +

[ *WU 'U W„U [ +

[ AW W*W„W [ +
W M[ @U
h „U [ +

[ W> &^ h „U [ +

[ WU h „U [ +

[ W> h „W [ +
W M[ @U
[ „U [ +

[ AW &^ [ „U [ +
W M[ @U X „U [ +

[ AW R
W [„W [ +
W M[ @U
W„U [ +

[ AW &^ ^U„[ +
W M[ @U 'U W„U [ +

[ AW WF*X[„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ X„U [ +

[ AW &^ [ X„U [ +
W M[ @U '^ [ X„U [ +

[ AW [ *X[„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ U„U [ +

[ AW &^ [ U„U [ +
W M[ @U W [U„U [ +

[ AW R
U [„W [ +
W M[ @U
W„U [ +

[ AW &^ ^U„[ +
W M[ @U 'U W„U [ +

[ AW WFAX[ 
W [*W2[ @U
h „U [ +

[ AW &^ h „U [ +
W M[ @U h „U [ +

[ AW h *X[„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ „U [ +
W M[ (^ &^ [ „U [ +
W M[ q^U X „U [ +
W M[ (^ R
X [„W [ +
W M[ @U
[ „U [ +

[ #W &^ [ „U [ +

[ WU X „U [ +

[ #W h„W [ +
W M[ @U

a W„U [ +

[ X y '^ [ X„U [ +

[ X y 'U W„U [ +

[ X y ` „U [ +

[ X :/01 2
.N` ^U„[ +
W€[ X y 'U W*W„U [ +

[ X y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 29

Conjugate the following verbs:

gW ^[ B^M[ @U (3) ]W ^[ B^[ @U (2) 6


W 7W [ =W [ @U (1)

C/ ,'2 4- V A- )*
[ U Wp7[ @U %¢ Wp7[ @U %h Wp7[ @U ; . % Wp=[ X W X <^ ƒWF[pU 7[ @U %“ Wp=[ W> %h Wp7[ @U
[ U Wp=[ AW &^ %¢ Wp=[ AW &^ %h Wp=[ AW &^ ;0 

The sign of (
a ^B[U <b @U
6 ) is the repetition of the () and the
appearance of an extra (L) before the first () in the ( /1

). This (L) changes to a (‰) in the (=).

The (%l7@) in this (6 ) is similar to the (%l7@) of (^BU <b @U 6 ).


The verbs of (^BU <b @U 6 ) and (
a ^B[U <b @U 6 ) mostly have the

meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive (%&).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

%h Wp=[ W> &^ %h Wp=[ WU %“ Wp=[ W> %h Wp7[ @U


h Wp=[ W> &^ h Wp=[ WU 'U h Wp=[ W> h Wp7[ @U
[“ Wp=[ W> &^ [“ Wp=[ WU '^ [ “ Wp=[ W> [ “ Wp7[ @U
%h Wp=[ AW &^ %h Wp=[ *WU %“ Wp=[ AW R
[ h Wp7[ @U
h Wp=[ AW &^ h Wp=[ *WU 'U h Wp=[ AW W*h Wp7[ @U
W F[ U Wp=[ W> &^ W F[ U Wp=[ WU W F[ U Wp=[ W> W F[ W Wp7[ @U
%h Wp=[ AW &^ %h Wp7[ @U %“ Wp=[ AW R
W F[ W Wp7[ @U
h Wp=[ AW &^ hWp7[ @U 'U h Wp=[ AW WF*XF[ W Wp7[ @U
[“ Wp=[ AW &^ [ “ Wp7[ @U '^ [ “ Wp=[ AW [ *XF[ W Wp7[ @U
[ ¢ Wp=[ AW &^ [ ¢ Wp7[ @U W [¢ Wp=[ AW R
U F[ W Wp7[ @U
h Wp=[ AW &^ hWp7[ @U 'U h Wp=[ AW WF*XF[ W Wp7[ @U
W F[ U Wp=[ AW &^ W F[ U Wp7[ @U W F[ U Wp=[ AW h *XF[ W Wp7[ @U
%h Wp7[ (^ &^ %h Wp7[ q^U %“ Wp7[ (^ R
X F[ W Wp7[ @U
%h Wp=[ #W &^ %h Wp=[ WU %“ Wp=[ #W WF[ W Wp7[ @U

y 'U W*h Wp=[ X y a h Wp=[ X y '^ [ “ Wp=[ X y 'U h Wp=[ X y % Wp=[ X :/01 2
.N
` h Wp=[ X

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 30

Conjugate the following verbs:

h WF[ @U (4) h WF2[ @U (3) N


h WFb @U (2) 6
h W„[ @U (1)

C/ !c4- V A- )*
&^ ;0  vb ¢ B^$[ @U ; . va ¢ B^8[ W X <^ v̈hBU$[ @U vD ¢ B^o
[ W> v^ h B^$[ @U
vb ¢ B^o
[ AW

The sign of (
a hU <b @U 6 ) is the (C ) after the ( FBQ G0).
Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

vb ¢ B^o
[ W> &^ vb ¢ B^o
[ WU vD ¢ B^o
[ W> v^ h B^$[ @U
v^ ¢ B^o
[ W> &^ v^ ¢ B^o
[ WU 'U v^ ¢ B^o
[ W> v^ h B^$[ @U
[vD ¢ B^o
[ W> &^ [ vD ¢ B^o
[ WU '^ [ vD ¢ B^o
[ W> [ vD h B^$[ @U
vb ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ vb ¢ B^o
[ *WU vD ¢ B^o
[ AW N
[ v^ h B^$[ @U
v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ v^ ¢ B^o
[ *WU 'U v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW WAv^ h B^$[ @U
'^ vb ¢ B^o
[ W> &^ '^ vb ¢ B^o
[ WU '^ vb ¢ B^o
[ W> '^ vb h B^$[ @U
vb ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ vb ¢ B^$[ @U vD ¢ B^o
[ AW N
W vb h B^$[ @U
v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ ^v¢B^$[ @U 'U v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW WFAXvb h B^$[ @U
[vD ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ [ vD ¢ B^$[ @U '^ [ vDT ¢ B^o
[ AW [ AXvb h B^$[ @U
‰
[ vU ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ ‰
[ vU ¢ B^$[ @U W [>vU ¢ B^o
[ AW N
U vb h B^$[ @U
v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ ^v¢B^$[ @U 'U v^ ¢ B^o
[ AW WFAXvb h B^$[ @U
'^ vb ¢ B^o
[ AW &^ '^ vb ¢ B^$[ @U '^ vb ¢ B^o
[ AW h AXvb h B^$[ @U
vb ¢ B^$[ (^ &^ vb ¢ B^$[ q^U vD ¢ B^$[ (^ N
X vb h B^$[ @U
vb ¢ B^o
[ #W &^ vb ¢ B^o
[ WU vD ¢ B^o
[ #W W#vb h B^$[ @U

'U WAv^ ¢ B^o


[ X y sa v^ ¢ B^o
[ X y '^ [ vD ¢ B^o
[ X y 'U v^ ¢ B^o
[ X y va ¢ B^o
[ X :/01 2
.N
` ^v¢B^o
[ X y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 31

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

©
^ h W M[ @U (1)
©
^ h B^0[ @U (2)

(B) What is the ( 5") of the following words:


'^ [ vD ¢ B^o
[ X (1)
' v^ ¢ B^o
[ WU (2)
[ jU ¢ B^[ AW &^ (3)
a j^ h W €
[ X (4)
^v¢B^$[ @U (5)
h *Xjb h W M[ @U (6)
Wjb h B^0[ @U (7)
N
X [ W WF[ @U (8)
'U hAWFQb W> (9)
'^ [ U WF [ AW &^ (10)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Four-Root letter Verbs


The (6 () of (0 )

/ , , 42 , )* e F  6$*
; . ` H^[ !WX W X <^ s̈WH^[ W X H^[ !WX> W HU[ X W ` HU[ !WX W X <^ s̈WH^[ W X HU[ !WX> W H^[ W
[ HU[ !WAX &^ ;0  [ HU[ W

The sign of (a B^B^[ <^


6 ) is the presence of four root letters in the
( /1). The ( :0) of this (6 ) is (%F).

The rule for the ( ) of the ( :0) is that if the ( /1
) has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the
( :0) will be (%F) even in the active tense

( ), e.g. (%X U Q


b X>), (
X ¢ 
W X>), (/D AU^)X>), (X HU[ !WX>). If the ( /1
) has less than or more than four letters, the ( :0
) will be (_*1), e.g. (X  X [W>), (d X U*Wo
[ W>), (/D W^)*WW>).

Four-root letter verbs are of three types:


(1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. (
W $W [ AW) – to translate.

(2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. (W l


^ [ l^ ) –

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

to gargle, (
W *WF[ AW) – to stammer.
(3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination
of roots, e.g. (
^ =W F[ W ) – to say Al-hamdulillāh, (/^ FW
[ W) – to say
Bismillāh.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

[ HU[ !WX> &^ [ HU[ !WXU X HU[ !WX> W H^[ W


W HU[ !WX> &^ W HU[ !WXU 'U W HU[ !WX> W H^[ W
[X HU[ !WX> &^ [ X HU[ !WXU '^ [ X HU[ !WX> [ X H^[ W
[ HU[ !WAX &^ [ HU[ !W*X X HU[ !WAX N
[ W H^[ W
W HU[ !WAX &^ W HU[ !W*XU 'U W HU[ !WAX WAW H^[ W
'^ [ HU[ !WX> &^ '^ [ HU[ !WXU '^ [ HU[ !WX> '^ [ H^[ W
[ HU[ !WAX &^ [ HU[ W X HU[ !WAX N
W [ H^[ W
W HU[ !WAX &^ ^UH[ W 'U W HU[ !WAX WFAX[ H^[ W
[ X HU[ !WAX &^ [ X HU[ W '^ [ X HU[ !WAX [ AX[ H^[ W
‰
[ U HU[ !WAX &^ ‰
[ U HU[ W W [>U HU[ !WAX N
U [ H^[ W
W HU[ !WAX &^ ^UH[ W 'U W HU[ !WAX WFAX[ H^[ W
'^ [ HU[ !WAX &^ '^ [ HU[ W '^ [ HU[ !WAX h AX[ H^[ W
[ HU[ W(D &^ [ HU[ WqDU X HU[ W(D N
X [ H^[ W
[ HU[ !W#X &^ [ HU[ !WXU X HU[ !W#X W#[ H^[ W

y 'U WAW HU[ !WX y sa W HU[ !WX y '^ [ X HU[ !WX y 'U W HU[ !WX y ` HU[ !WX :/01 2
.N` ^UH[ !WX

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 32

Conjugate the following verbs:

e
W W [ 7W (1)
W Q^ [ 0W (2)

W W M[ W (3)
\
W =W [pW (4)
W f^ [K^ (5)
(B) What is the ( 5") of the following words:
e
[ U [ =W AX &^ (1)
` Q^ [ W X (2)
[ U =U [ =W AX &^ (3)
b ?U bW (4)
\
` =U [W X (5)
'^ [ X fU [)^ X> (6)
[ *X[ K^[ <^ (7)
[BD€ U Bb MW (8)
a <^U <b W X (9)
W <b U M[ ?W AX &^ (10)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs

f' =W 6$*


3/ N 42 , O. )*
&^ ;0  /b W[
W AW ; . /a U[
W *WX W X<^ B̈ X[
W AW /D W[
W *WW> /^ W[
W AW
/b W[
W *WAW

The sign of (/
a BD[ 1^ AW 6 ) is the extra (N) before the four root
letters.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

/b W[
W *WW> &^ /b W[
W *WWU /D W[
W *WW> /^ W[
W AW
:
^ W[
W *WW> &^ :
^ W[
W *WWU 'U :
^ W[
W *WW> :
^ W[
W AW
[BD W[
W *WW> &^ [BD W[
W *WWU '^ [ BD W[
W *WW> [ BD W[
W AW
/b W[
W *WAW &^ /b W[
W *W*WU /D W[
W *WAW R
[ B^ W[
W AW
:
^ W[
W *WAW &^ :
^ W[
W *W*WU 'U :
^ W[
W *WAW W*B^ W[
W AW
W Bb W[
W *WW> &^ W Bb W[
W *WWU W Bb W[
W *WW> W Bb W[
W AW
/b W[
W *WAW &^ /b W[
W AW /D W[
W *WAW R
W Bb W[
W AW
:
^ W[
W *WAW &^ :
^ W[
W AW 'U :
^ W[
W *WAW WF*XBb W[
W AW
[ BDT W[
W *WAW &^ [ BD W[
W AW '^ [ BDT W[
W *WAW [ *XBb W[
W AW
[ BU W[
W *WAW &^ [ BU W[
W AW W [BU W[
W *WAW R
U Bb W[
W AW
:
^ W[
W *WAW &^ :
^ W[
W AW 'U :
^ W[
W *WAW WF*XBb W[
W AW
W Bb W[
W *WAW &^ W Bb W[
W AW W Bb W[
W *WAW h *XBb W[
W AW
/b W[
W AW(^ &^ /b W[
W AWq^U /DT W[
W AW(^ R
X Bb W[
W AW
/b W[
W *W#W &^ /b W[
W *WWU /D W[
W *W#W WBb W[
W AW

y a B^ U[
W *WX y '^ [ BD U[
W *WX y 'U :
^ U[
W *WX y /a U[
W *WX :/01 2
.N
` : ^ U[
W *WX y 'U W*B^ U[
W *WX

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 33

Conjugate the following verbs:

W B^
[ FW AW (5) W *W€
[ !WAW (4) r
W =W #[?W AW (3) /^ W[
W AW (2) d
W pW mb FW AW (1)

C/ d4- V A- )*
[ U [ +
W Kb @U ¢ U +
W Kb @U h U +
W Kb @U ; .  U + W )b X W X <^ ƒW[ +
U Kb @U “ U +
W )b W> h W +
W Kb @U
[ U [ +
W )b AW &^ ¢ U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W )b AW &^ ;0 

The sign of (
a BU <b @U
6 ) is having four root letters, the repetition
of the second () and the inclusion of (/" s?š) in the ( /1

) and (().


Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

h U +
W )b W> &^ h U +
W )b WU “ U +
W )b W> h W +
W Kb @U
hU +
W )b W> &^ hU +
W )b WU 'U hU +
W )b W> hW +
W Kb @U
[“ U +
W )b W> &^ [ “ U +
W )b WU '^ [ “ U +
W )b W> [ “ W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W )b *WU “ U +
W )b AW N
[ h W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W )b *WU 'U h U +
W )b AW WAh W +
W Kb @U
'^ [ U [ +
W )b W> &^ '^ [ U [ +
W )b WU '^ [ U [ +
W )b W> '^ [ W W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W Kb @U “ U +
W )b AW N
W [ W W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W Kb @U 'U h U +
W )b AW WFAX[ W W +
W Kb @U
[ “ U +
W )b AW &^ [ “ U +
W Kb @U '^ [ “ U +
W )b AW [ AX[ W W +
W Kb @U
‰
[ ¢ U +
W )b AW &^ ‰
[ ¢ U +
W Kb @U W [>¢ U +
W )b AW N
U [ W W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b AW &^ h U +
W Kb @U 'U h U +
W )b AW WFAX[ W W +
W Kb @U
'^ [ U [ +
W )b AW &^ '^ [ U [ +
W Kb @U '^ [ U [ +
W )b AW h AX[ W W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W Kb (^ &^ h U +
W Kb q^U “ U +
W Kb (^ N
X [ W W +
W Kb @U
h U +
W )b #W &^ h U +
W )b WU “ U +
W )b #W W#[ W W +
W Kb @U

'U WAh U +
W )b X y sa h U +
W )b X y '^ [ “ U +
W )b X y 'U h U +
W )b X y  U +
W )b X :/01 2
.N
` h U +
W )b X y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 34

Conjugate the following verbs:

h W W [ @U (5) h *W1^ „[ @U (4) h f^ FW Kb @U (3) ' q^FW jb @U (2) / i


W FW 
[ @U (1)

C/ ,K2 4- V A- )*
;0  g[ +
U #[W [@U ; . g̀U+#[W ![X W X <^ K̈W+#[U [@U gX +
U #[W ![W> gW +
W #[W [@U
g[ +
U #[W ![AW &^

The sign of (
a ^B[U <b @U
6 ) is the inclusion of (/" s?š) in the
( /1) and (() and the extra (') after the ().

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow


hereunder.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 6DK ! 5 47! 9! 5 47! 87! 5 47! 67!

g[ +
U #[W ![W> &^ g[ +
U #[W ![WU gX +
U #[W ![W> gW +
W #[W [@U
^)+
U #[W ![W> &^ ^)+
U #[W ![WU 'U )^ +
U #[W ![W> )^ +
W #[W [@U
[)D +
U #[W ![W> &^ [ )D +
U #[W ![WU '^ [ )D +
U #[W ![W> [ )^T +
W #[W [@U
g[ +
U #[W ![AW &^ g[ +
U #[W ![*WU gX +
U #[W ![AW R
[ )^ +
W #[W [@U
)^ +
U #[W ![AW &^ )^ +
U #[W ![*WU 'U )^ +
U #[W ![AW W*)^ +
W #[W [@U
W )b +
U #[W ![W> &^ W )b +
U #[W ![WU W )b +
U #[W ![W> W )b +
W #[W [@U
g[ +
U #[W ![AW &^ g[ +
U #[W [@U gX +
U #[W ![AW R
W )b +
W #[W [@U
)^ +
U #[W ![AW &^ )^ +
U #[W [@U 'U )^ +
U #[W ![AW WF*X)b +
W #[W [@U
[ )D +
U #[W ![AW &^ [ )D +
U #[W [@U '^ [ )D +
U #[W ![AW [ *X)b +
W #[W [@U
[ )U +
U #[W ![AW &^ [ )U +
U #[W [@U W [)U +
U #[W ![AW R
U )b +
W #[W [@U
)^ +
U #[W ![AW &^ )^ +
U #[W [@U 'U )^ +
U #[W ![AW WF*X)b +
W #[W [@U
W )b +
U #[W ![AW &^ W )b +
U #[W [@U W )b +
U #[W ![AW h *X)b +
W #[W [@U
g[ +
U #[W [(^ &^ g[ +
U #[W [q^U gX +
U #[W [(^ R
X )b +
W #[W [@U
g[ +
U #[W ![#W &^ g[ +
U #[W ![WU gX +
U #[W ![#W W)b +
W #[W [@U

y a )^ +
U #[W ![X y '^ [ )D +
U #[W ![X y 'U )^ +
U #[W ![X y g̀U+#[W ![X :/01 2
.N` )^ +
U #[W ![X y 'U W*)^ +
U #[W ![X

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 35

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

W f^ #[W M[ @U (1)
_
W =W [B^ [@U (2)
™
W Q^ #[W 0[ @U (3)
]W f^ [B^2[ @U (4)
/^  W #[W [ @U (5)

(B) What is the ( 5") of the following words:


/b  U #[W i [ AW &^ (1)
'U WifU [B^ [ X (2)
™
[ QU #[W 0[ q^U (3)
N
` W=W [B^![X (4)
WF[ f^ #[W M[ U (5)
[ U =U [B^ [@U (6)
'U W*B^ U #[W i [ X (7)
[ X )^ #[W <b U (8)
'U W* W Q^ #[W [ X (9)
W F[ fU #[W € [ AW &^ (10)

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Other Derived Forms


The ()!*+) of (g f' =W 6@;@)

There are two categories of (6 () here:

(1) (78 0  giB)


(2) (=>? 0  giB)

The first category (78 0  giB) has seven (6 ():
(1) (/ e,, 42 , ) – the () is repeated, e.g. (a PW!!WBb $
W ) – to don a
shawl.

 d
[ !UBb $W ; . d
` !UBb o
W X W X <^ ¨ !W!WbB$W d
X !UBb o
W X> d
W !WBb $W : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
d
[ !UBb o W AX &^ ;0

(2) (/ ee,


. 42 , ) – there is an extra () after the (), e.g.
(a ^
W [ 2W ) – to don a trouser.

b U [ 2W ; . a U [
W X W X <^ ¨ ^W [ 2W D U [
W X> ^ W [ 2W : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
b U [
W AX &^ ;0 

(3) (/ , 4. '2 , ) – there is an extra (‰) after the ( ), e.g.

(sa W f
^ ["
W ) – to command. This word can be used as (W f^ [2W ) as well.

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[ fU ["
W ; . ` fU [
W X W X <^ s̈W f^ ["
W X fU [
W X> W f^ ["
W : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
[ fU [
W AX &^ ;0 

(4) (/ , '.42 , ) – there is an extra (‰) after the (), e.g.

(a 1^ W>[ „
W ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant.

L
[ U>[ „W ; . L
` U>[ +
W X W X <^ ¨ 1^ W>[ „W L
X U>[ +
W X> L
W W>[ „W : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
L
[ U>[ + W AX &^ ;0 

(5) (/ , $
. 2 , )– there is an extra () after the ( ), e.g.
(a WW 
[ $W ) – to make someone don socks.

6
[ U [ $W ; . 6
` U [ o
W X W X <^ ¨ WW [ $W 6
X U[ o
W X> 6
W W [ $W : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
6
[ U [ o
W AX &^ ;0 

(6) (/ , K.42 , )– there is an extra (') after the (), e.g. (a
W WBb K^) – to
make someone don a hat.

 ™
[ UBb K^ ; . ™
` UBb )^ X W X <^ ¨
W WbBK^ ™
X UBb )^ X> ™
W WBb K^ : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
™
[ UBb )^ AX &^ ;0

(7) (/ ,42 , )– there is an extra (‰) after the (), e.g. (sa W Bb K^ ) – to

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

make someone don a hat.

W X <^ s̈W Bb K^ W Bb )^ X> W


U Bb KDW ™
¡ Bb )^ X W X<^ s̈W Bb K^ [
U Bb )^ X> W Bb K^ : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
™
U Bb )^ AX &^ ;0  ™ U Bb K^ ; . ƒ Bb )^ X

(W Bb K^ ) was originally (


W W Bb K^). (
[ U Bb )^ X>) was originally

(
X U Bb )^ X>). (s̈W Bb K^) was originally (¨ W
W Bb K^). These changes will be
discussed later.

The second category - (=>? 0  giB) has three groups:


(1) (/
a BD[ 1W* giB)
(2) (
a ^B[U <b †U giB)
(3) (
a BU <b †U giB)

The first group (/


a BD[ 1W* giB) has 8 (6 ():

(1) (3
/ N 42 .O) – the extra letters are (N) before the ( ) and the ()
is repeated, e.g. (d
` !XBb o
W AW) – to don a shawl.

(2) (C
/ R 42 .O) – the extra letters are (N) before the ( ) and the ()
between the () and the (), e.g. (
a X [
W AW) – to don a trouser.

(3) (3
/ 4R '2 , O.) – the extra letters are (N) before the ( ) and a (‰)

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

after the ( ), e.g. (


` fD [+
W AW) – to be a satan.

(4) (3
/ $R 2 , O.) – the extra letters are (N) before the ( ) and a ()
after the ( ), e.g. (6
` X [ o
W AW) – to don socks.

(5) (3
/ KR42 , O.) – the extra letters are (N) before the ( ) and a (')
after the (), e.g. (™
` XBb )^ AW) – to don a trouser.

(6) (3
/ 4R V . O.) – the extra letters are a (N) and a (%) before the ( ),
e.g. (
` QD
[ FW AW) – to be poor.

(7) (I
0 N 42 , O.) – the extra letters are a (N) before the ( ) and a
(N) after the (), e.g. (N
` X 1b W AW) – to behave like a devil.

(8) (3
h 42 , O.) – the extra letters are a (N) before the ( ) and a (‰)
after the (), e.g. (™
¡ Bb )^ AW) – to don a hat.

The conjugation of these (6 () should be done like

(/
^ W[
W AW), while the last one, namely, (/¡ [ 1^ AW) is like ([
U Bb )^ X> ›œ Bb K^).

The second group, (


a ^B[U <b †U giB) has two (6 ():
(1) (C
/ ,K2 4- V A-) – The second (), the (') after the () and the ( s?š

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

/") are extra, e.g. (\


` W [U Kb @U) – to walk with the chest and
neck protruding out.

; . ™
`
U [W )b X W X <^ ƒ2W [U Kb @U ™
X
U [W )b W> ™
W W [W Kb @U : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
™
[ U [W )b AW &^ ;0  ™ [ U [W Kb @U

(2) ("i ,K2 4- V A-) – The (‰) after the (), the (') after the () and the

(/" s?š) are extra, e.g. (,­ ^)[BU2[ @U) – to lie on one’s back.

gU [B^2[ @U ; . g¡ [B^


[ X W X <^ ,® ^)[BU2[ U@ [ )U [B^
[ W> ›œ)[B^2[ @U : ;X 1D [>U 
[ AW
gU [B^
[ AW &^ ;0 

The (=) of this (6 ) – (,­ ^)[ BU2


[ @U) was originally

` ^)[BU2[ @U). The (‰) was changed to a (s?š).

The third group - (


a BU <b †U giB) has one (6 ):
(C
/ ,$2 - V A-) – The () after the ( ) and one () is extra, e.g.
(7̀=
W p[ U b @U) – to strive.

=h pU W b @U ; . = pU W Qb X W X <^ ƒ7W=p[ U b @U =“ pU W Qb W> =h pW W b @U : ;X 1D [>U 


[ AW
7[ =U p[ W Qb AW &^ =¢ pU W Qb AW &^ =h pU W Qb AW &^ ;0  7[ =U p[ W b @U =¢ pU W b @U

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

In all the word-forms of this (6 ), (%l7@) has been applied and

the changes are similar to those of (h W +


W Kb @U).

Exercise 36

What is the word-form ( 5") of the following words and which


(6 ) are they from:

'^ [ BD U[ W *WX (1)


'^ 7[ =U p[ W Qb AW &^ (2)
L
X W>[ + W *WAW (3)
W [U [ o W AX (4)
X f^ [+ W *W#W (5)
[ )U [B^2[ (^ (6)
[ U U [W Kb @U (7)
W A[W 1b W AW (8)
[
W Bb )^ AW (9)
R
[ Wf^ [+ W AW (10)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Seven Categories

With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven


categories, namely:
L1 y L0 y F y JK# y $( y H y ]i"
Definitions

Term Meaning Example


]i" A word whose root letters do
W 
W #W
not have a (s?š), ( PB P)13
or two letters of the same type
H A word having a ( PB P) =W 0W W
in the ( FBQ ,<)
$( A word having a ( PB P) ^ ^K
in the ( FBQ G0)
JK# A word having a ( PB P) W07W
in the ( FBQ %&)
F A word having a (s?P
Pš) as a W W (^
root letter – a hamzated verb
L0 A word having, as its root
letters, two letters of the same
=h W
type
L1 A word having two ( P
P ^KW
B) as the root letters

13
The ( B0 ) are (), (L) and (‰).

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1) The term (/PP*) refers to any verb that contains a

( B ).
2) If there is a ( PB ) in the ( PFBQ ,P<), it is called
(^1b /¦ *W[ X ) or (H), eg (=W 0W W ).
3) If there is a ( PB ) in the ( PFBQ GP0), it is called

([W b /
¦ *W[ X ) or ( $(), e.g. (^ ^K).
4) If there is a ( PB P) in the ( PFBQ %&), it is called

(%U B /
¦ *W[ X ) or (JK#), e.g. (W07W ).

5) If the ( PFBQ ,P<) has a (), it is called (‰ PH) eg


(=
W 0W W ).
6) If the ( PFBQ ,<) has a (‰), it is called (IP> PH). eg
(W
W W>).
7) If the ( PFBQ GP0) has a (), it is called (‰ P$( )
eg (
^ ^K).
8) If the ( PFBQ G0) has a (‰), it is called (IP> P$()
eg (
W W ).

9) If the ( PFBQ %&) has a (), it is called (‰ JKP#) eg

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(W07W ).

10) If the ( FBQ %&) has a (‰), it is called (IP> JKP#) eg


(WW ).

11) If the ( FBQ ,<) has a (s?Pš), it is called (P1 PF)


eg (W W (^).

12) If the ( PFBQ GP0) has a (s?Pš), it is called ( PF


G) eg (^ q^2W ).
13) If the ( FBQ %&) has a (s?š), it is called (%:P PF)

eg ((^W K^ ).

14) (LP1) is of two types: (rP1 LP1) and ( LP1


')).
15) (rP P1 LP P1) is when the two ( PB P
P) are
separate, e.g. (^K
W ).
16) ('P P) LP P1) is when the two ( P B P
P) are
adjacent to one another, e.g. (‰Wj ^ ).
17) If the ( PFBQ GP0) and ( PFBQ %&) are the same, it is

called (9:9 L0) e.g. (= h W ).

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18) If the ( ) and the first () and the () and the second

() are the same letters, it is called (0P  L0P) e.g.

(
^ ?W bW ).

Exercise 37

Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories:


X [ o X W> (1)
W UW (2)
h <^ (3)
%W =W [ 7W (4)
‰Wj^ (5)
X [>=U W> (6)
m^ MW (^ (7)
%W U W (8)
W FX W> (9)
W …U2W (10)

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The Rules of ( F)


Rule 1:
It is permissible to change a (s?PPš), that is alone and

(2) to correspond to the previous ( ).


That is,
(a) after a (;i*<), change the (s?š) into an (L).
Example
(\
` (VW )(head) becomes( \
` W. )

(b) after a ( F), change the (s?š) into a ().


Example
\
` ~[ X (destitute) becomes (\
` [ X).

(c) after a (s ), change the (s?š) into a (‰).


Example
d
` IbUv (wolf) becomes (d
` [>vU ).
nnnnn
Rule 2
If a hamzah mutaharrik (ZP
Pi* s?PPš) appears before a

(s?Pš) that is (P2), it becomes necessary to change the

(2) letter to the corresponding ( B ).


Examples

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W W (^ becomes W W ‚
W U bD becomes W U [ D
ƒ#WbU becomes ƒ#WF[>U .
nnnnn

Rule 3
(3.1) It is permissible to change a (s?Pš) that is (_P*1)

and is preceded by a ( F) to a ().


Example
'a ~W $X becomes 'a W $X
'a ~W $X is the plural of a #W~W $X which means a perfume holder.
(3.2) It is permissible to change a (s?Pš) that is (_P*1)

and is preceded by a (s ) into a (‰).


Example
` …^U becomes ` WU .
nnnnn

Rule 4
(4.1) If two (s?P
Pš)’s are (ZPPi*) and one of them is
(P Q), then it is permissible to change the second (s?Pš)

into a (‰).
Example

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a h @U^ can also be read as a Fh U>^ .


If there are two (s?Pš)'s which are (ZPi*) and none of

them are (PP Q), then it is necessary to change the

second (s?š) into a ().

Examples
i) %X 7U (^(^ will be read as %X 7U W^
ii) /D ¢ (^(D will be read as /D ¢ W (D

(,¡ W$) originally was (


a PU>$W ) (/P0< P2 of ,S PW$). The
(‰) which comes after (=PI LP) will change into a

(s?Pš). It becomes ( a PPUIW$). Now there are two ( s?Pš


ZPi*) and one of them is (P Q) . The second (s?Pš)
changes into a (‰) becoming ( ` IUPPW$) (according to the
rule of a P ¢ U^ - rule 4.1). (
` IUP
P$W ) can also be written as
[ X>,U PPW$. The ( FPP) on the (‰) is /PP)9 (difficult to
pronounce). Therefore it is removed and ([ [PP PUIW$)
remains. Now due to (GPP2 PPF*$@) (the coming

together of two [P2] letters), the (P2 ‰) is deleted.

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We are left with 


[ PIUW$ which can also be read as ,¡ W$ .
Step by Step
a PU>$W a IUW$ (
` IUW$) ([ X> ,U W$)
(
[ [> ,U W$) [ IU W$ (,¡ W$)
nnnnn

Rule 5
If a (s?Pš) comes after the () or (‰) that are s=P and
s=I or if a (s?Pš) comes after the (‰) of (5PA P2), it is
permissible to change the (s?P PPš) into the letter that
precedes it and then (%PPl7@) (incorporation of one letter
into another) is made.

Example of () s=I s=


a I^[ X )b X sa W [ X )b X sa h X )b X

The word (a I^


[ X )b X ) is the (1 2) of ((DW )b W> (^W K^).
Example (‰) s=I s=
a …^[fU MW a W[fU MW a hfU MW .

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Example of 5A 2


™
` …U[<^(D ™
` U[<^(D ™
` ¢<^(D .

The word (™
` …UP[<^(D) is the (5PA P2) of (\
` X Pb<(^) which is
the (O}) of (\
` qb <^) - meaning axe.
nnnnn

Rule 6
If there occurs a (s?Pš) after the (LP) of /P01 and before

a (¯), the (s?P


Pš) changes to ( P*1 P
P> ) and the (‰)

changes to (L).
Example
The word (W>^fM
W ) is the plural of (a …^[fU MW ).
The word (PW>^fM
W ) was originally (a U>P^fMW ). The (‰) which
comes after the (LP
P) of (OP
P}) as the second last letter,
changes into a (s?P
Pš).14 It becomes (,­ ,U P
Pf^ MW ). Now we

have two (ZPi* s?Pš)’s and one of them is (P Q).


The rule of (a P
PhFU>^) applies, whereby the second (s?PPš)
changes into a (‰) and becomes  ` IUP^fMW . Now there is a

14
This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of /* .

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(s?Pš) after the (LP) of /P01 and it is before a (‰). It


changes to ( P*1 P>) and the (‰) changes to (LP). The

word becomes (W>^fM


W ).

NOTE: This law is compulsory (ƒ $).

Step by Step

a U>f^ MW ,­ ,U ^fMW ` IU^fMW W>^fMW


nnnnn

Rule 7
If a (s?Pš) is (ZPi*) and it comes after a (P2) that is

not a ({=PI {=) nor is it (5PA ‰) , then the ( P) of


the (s?š) is given to the letter preceding it.

This law is permissible (ƒ$).


Examples
1) In the word (/
D …^P[ W>), the ( P) of the (s?Pš) is given to
the (\) and the (s?š) is then deleted. It becomes

(/
D
W W>).
2) In the words ]
W P^B<b (^ =[ K^ the ( P) of the (s?Pš) is given to
the (7) and the (s?š) is then deleted. It becomes

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(]
W B^<b =W K^ ).
3) In the words {X PWM(^ [ PU[ W> the ( P) of the (s?Pš) is
transferred to the (‰) and the (s?P Pš) is then deleted. It
becomes ({X WM 
W U [ W>).
nnnnn

Rule 8
The rule of (/
D …^PP[ W>) is compulsorily applied to all the
(P<() (verbs) of (¯W PW>) and (¯W PX>) ( P P
8).

Example
In (‰
X (^[ W>) the (
Pi*<) of the (s?Pš) is given to the () and the
(s?š) is deleted. It becomes (¯W W>).

NOTE:
It is permissible to apply this rule to the (N)*P
P+ ,P-)
(derived nouns) too.
The (›F =) can be read as (‰
ƒ [ W ) or (‰
ƒ W).
The ( ‚ 2) can be read as (sa ‚[U ) or (sa W U ).
The ( Pi*<) of the (s?Pš) of (sa ^([ PU) is given to the () and

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then the (s?š) is removed leaving (sa W U ).

The (1 2) can be read as ( IU[ W ) or (‰


 U W ).
nnnnn

Rule 9
If a (ZPi* s?Pš) is preceded by a (ZPi*) letter, then
both (dP >K GPP GP
P ) and (=P P GPP GP
P ) are both
permissible.
9.1 (dP>K G G ) is to read the (s?Pš) between its (eP|)
and the (e|) of the ( B ) corresponding to its

(hamza’s) .

9.2 (=P GP G ) is to read a letter between its (eP|) and

the (eP P|) of the ( PPB PP) corresponding to the


preceding ( ).

(G G ) is also known as / A.

Examples
When (G G ) is made on the word (^ q^2W ), then in both
(d>K G G ) and (=P ) the (eP|) will be that of (s?Pš)

and (L).

In the word (
W …UPW2) if (dP>K GP GP ) is made, then the

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(e|) will be between (s?š) and (‰). If (=P GP GP ) is


made, then the (e|) will be between (s?š) and

(L).

In the word (%W ~


X ^) if (d>K
G G ) is made, then the
(e|) will be between (s?š) and (). If (=P GP GP ) is

made then the (e|) will be between (s?š) and (L).

(9.3) If there is a ( PPi* s?PPš) after (LPP), it is


permissible to apply (d>K G G ) only. (=P GP GP ) is
not permissible in this case.

Examples

[1] In the word (,S hKD ), the (s?š) is (_*1). Therefore the

(s?š) will be read between the (e|) of the (s?š) and the

(L).

[2] If (,T hKD ) is read with a (


F), the (s?š) will be read
between the (e|) of the (s?š) and ().

[3] If (,U hKD ) is read with a (s ), the (s?š) will be read

between the (e|) of the (s?š) and (‰).

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Rule 10

If a (%1*2@ s?š) comes before a (s?š) as in the word


(
[ *X#[(^(^), then it is permissible to apply the rule of
(%X 7U W(^) (Rule 4). Thus, (
[ *X#[(^(^) will be read as ([ *X#[W (^) .
It is also permissible to make (/P A), whether (dP>K) or

(= ).

It is also permissible to bring an (L) between the two

(s?š)’s and read it as (


[ *X#[(^‚).
nnnnn

Exercise 38

(1) Apply rule no.1 to the following words:

` ~[ 2X (3) ` …b<U (2) \


W qb W&^ (1)

(2) Which rule applies to the word (m


a MU ‚) and how?
(3)Analyse the changes to the word (,¡ W„).

(4) Apply the rule of (F) to the word (a I^


[ !X[W ).
(5) What can (R
W #[(^(^) also be read as?

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The Orthography15 of the Hamzah

The following rules are general guidelines with regards to


how a hamzah is written:
(a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at
the beginning of a word, e.g. (W W (^), (W U (D) and ('
a W #[@U).
(b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of
prolongation (long vowel LP ), the latter is replaced by a

madd over the initial alif, e.g. (` U ‚) for (` U ^().
(c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi-
consonant ( PPB PP) corresponding to the vowel

( ) of the preceding letter.


Examples:
(X X qb W>), (X W ~
[ X>), (~W fD W), (R
X …bfU MW )

(d) Where the previous consonant has a ('QPP2), the


hamzah tends to be written over the semi-consonant
( B ) coinciding with its own vowel ( ).
Examples:
(
a [ ~X
[ W ), (a B^…U2[ (^), (%W q^„W )
This rule is applied for (P /P1) instead of (c) above.
Thus, (\
W ~X PW ) is written with a () and (
W …UPW2) with a (¯)
without dots.

15
the correct spelling

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The Paradigms of ( F)


jN k2 \,V! e . J
. B. )*  " ! :D
vD [ MX qb PW W PX<^ m̈P[M(^ mD PWM~[ X> m^ MU (DW ma MU ‚ W X <^ m̈[M(^ mD MX qb W> m^ MW (^
'U ^mPWMqb W ma PWMqb W ;X P[U X [ 4  mb MX qb AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW mb MX ;X [U X [ q^b^
'U WAm^ PW€[U sa m^ PW€[U W mD PUM£W 'U ^mPW€[U ma € W [U ;X [U D ^£bW mD MU £W
mD PWM‚ ;X P[U /U [PU1b *h /D PW<b (^W mD [UM£W 'U ^vW€[U va W€[U W mD MU £W
W ma PWM(D 'U W>m^ P[M(D ‰^mM[ (D ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW mD MU W(^W '^ [ mD MW ‚ 'U ^mMW ‚
N
` W>m^ M[ (D
Analysis of the changes

(1) The (P() of this (6P ) is (m


b PXM) which is an exception
from the normal method of constructing the (P(). (m
b PXM)
was originally (m
b MX [ (D).
(2) Similarly, the (P
P() of (/D PD b W> /^ P ^ (^) is (/
b PD ). It is
necessary to delete the (s?š) from both (m
b MX ) and (/b D ).
(3) In the verb, (X X qb PW> W PW(^), it is permissible to delete the

hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both ([ PPX) and

([ PPX
[ (D) are correct to use. If the verb is used at the
beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(s?š), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, (sU ^B


h U [ D 7W ^[ (^ [X X ).
(4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then
most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur’ânic verse,
(sU ^B
h U 
W B^p[ (^ [ X (bW ).
(5) In the word-forms of ( P P) of this (6P ),
besides the singular first person (BQ*P =P), the rule of

(\
` (bW ) has been applied. The same rule applies to the
(1 2) and ( 4 2).

(6) The rule of (` …b U) applies in the ( 3 2).

(7) The rule of (\ ` ~[ P X) applies in the (P


P P P)
except for the singular first person (BQ* =).

(8) In the singular first person (BQ*P =P) of ( P

) and the (/1* 2), the rule of (‚) applies.


(9) In the plural (OP}) of (/P1* P2), the rule of (%X 7U W(^)
applies.
(10) In the singular first person of the (P
P P
P),
the rule of (
W U [ (D) applies.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 39

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:


/^ ^ (^ (1)
W W (^ (2)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (PP8 PP) of

(6
W 7W (^)?
(c) What is the paradigm of the ( PP PP() of

(W W (^)?

(d) What is the paradigm of the ( PP PP) of

(/
^S ^ (^)?
(e) How has the word (X 2
U W(^) changed from its original?

R 2 \,V! e ). .  . )*  " ! :D


X [ q^Pb^ ` [ PX2qb W W PX<^ ƒ2[ (^ X 2W ~[ X> W 2U (DW ` 2U ‚ W X <^ ƒ 2[ (^ X 2U qb W> W 2W (^
X PU2£W 'U WPU2qb W ` 2U qb W ;X [U X [ 4  [ 2U qb AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ U [>@U ;X [U
` PW [U X PU2£W 'U WAW PU [U sa W W [U X 2U £W 'U W U [U ` W [U ;X [U D ^£bW
'^ [ X PW2‚ 'U WPW2‚ X PW2‚ ;X P[U /U [PU1b *h /D W <b (^W X [2U £W 'U WW [U
N
` W>W 2[ (D W ` 2W (D W 'U W>W 2[ (D ‰W2[ (D ;X [U w
D #h~W FX bW X 2U W(^W

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Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes of this (6P ) are similar to those of ( mPM(


mPMq>) except for the imperative (P() – ([ PU [>@U) – where the
rule of ('
a WF[>@U) applies.
(2) The other (6P P () of (7P
P8 P
P9:9) follow the same
pattern.

Exercise 40

Conjugate the following verbs:


W 9^(^ (1)
W U (^ (2)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (P


P PP) of

(
W U (^)?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (8 () of (;W ^(^)?
(d) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( W U (^)?
(e) How has the word ([X
U [>@U) changed from its original?

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R .-W2l-V!, e C4A )*  " ! :D


X [ q^b^ ` FW AW[ X W X <^ ƒWF*U[>@U X FW AW[ X> W FU AX[ (DW ` FU AW[ X W X <^ ƒWF*U[>@U X FU AWqb W> W FW *W[>@U
` FW AW[ X ;X [U X [ 4  [ FU AWqb AW &^ ;X [0W X [hW [ FU *W[>@U ;X [U
Analysis of the changes

(1) The rule of ('


a PWF[>@U) applies in the ( P P),
(  () and (=).
(2) The rule of (
W U [ (D) applies in the ( ).
(3) The rule of (\
` (bW ) applies in the (  ).
(4) The rule of (\ ` ~[ P X) applies in the (P P P
P),
(/01 2), (1 2) and ( 4 2).

N !,j'2 -2 lV!, e C4A )*  " ! :D


W X <^ ƒ#^m[*U2[ @ 'D v^ qb *W
[ X> '^ vU qb *X2[ (DW a'vU qb *W
[ X W X <^ ƒ#^m[*U2[ @ 'D vU qb *W
[ W> '^ v^ bq*W2[ @U
'a v^ qb *W
[ X ;X [U
X [ 4  'b vU qb *W [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW 'b vU qb *W2[ @U ;X [U X [q^b^ 'a v^ qb *W
[ X
Analysis of the changes

(1) Conjugate all the verbs of (;P< =P>? P9:9 6 () like
the conjugations of (m
^ MW (^) and (W FW *W[>@U).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 41

Conjugate the following verbs:


L
W #Wqb *W2[ @U (1)
W FW *WIb@U (2)
W j^ q^#[@U (3)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (P


P PP) of

(
W U (^)?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (8 () of (;W ^(^)?
(d) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( W U (^)?
(e) How has the word ([X
U [>@U) changed from its original?

Discussion of (G F)

(1) The rule of (GP GP ) or (/P A) applies to all the verbs


of () of (7P8 P9:9 GP F). Note that this rule
is optional.
(2) The rule of (/
D …^P[ W>) applies to the (P) and (P() of
(78 9:9 G F).
(3) (X IU?[ W> W (^W ) is from (6P 6P ), (/
D …^P[ W> ^ q^PW2) is from

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(]*< 6 ), (
X …^
[ W> W …U2W ) is from (O- 6 ), (%X ~X PbBW> %W ~X P^) is from
(% 6 ).

(4) In the imperative (PP(), after applying the rule of

(/
D …^P
[ W>), the (/P
P" s?P
Pš) is deleted. Therefore ([ P IU[ @U)

becomes ([ U ), (/
b …^P
P[2@U) becomes (/b P
PW2), (W …^P
P[2(U) becomes
(
[ 2W ) and ([ …Db(D) becomes ([ D).
The conjugation of the imperative second person ( PP(
 ) form is as follows:

'^ [ U WU ‰
[ U U [X U WU [ U
W Bb 2W ^B2W [ BU2W [BD2W ^B2W /b 2W
W F[ 2W WF2W [ FU 2W [ FX 2W WF2W [ 2W
W F[ D WFD [ FU D [FX D WFD [ D

Discussion of (%: F)

(1) In most of the word-forms of (%:P PF), the rule of


(G G ) or (/ A) applies, e.g. ((DW )b W> (^W K^).
(2) The rule of (` WU ) applies to (P P =P), e.g.

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(,S U KD).

(3) The rule of ( P2 s7P1 s?Pš), that is the rule of


(\
` (bW ) applies to all the word-forms of (P() and ( P
%?8). Accordingly, in the words ((bW PbK@U) and ((bW Pb)W> [ P^), the
hamzah can become (LP P), in the words (,V 7X [ (D) and ( [ P^
,V 7X [ PW>), the hamzah can become () and in the words (b PU!#[(^)
and ( b !U[W> [ ^), the hamzah can become (‰).

Exercise 42

Conjugate the following verbs:

/^ ph q^AW (6) qDX[ W> q^WpW (1)


q^j^ W€AW (7) \
X @U[ W> \ W (^W (2)
q^1^ Q^ #[@U (8) W h (^ (3)
(^=W *W [@U (9) m^ MW ‚ (4)
L
W #Wqb *W2[ @U (10) \
W q^ [(^ (5)

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The Rules Of ( /*)


Rule 1
(1.1) The () which appears between (
N:0) 16

which is (_*1) and the ( PFBQ GP0) which is (P Q),


falls off.

Example
The word =
X 0U [ W> becomes =X U W> .
Every () that comes between the

(_*1  N:0) and the ( FB ) which is


(_PP*1), the () falls off, on condition that either the

( FB ) or the ( FB ) is from the ()B ) . 17

Example
The word d
X pW [ W> becomes d
X W W>.
Note:
Every (¯ P
PH) on the scale of (6P
P) follows this
rule.
nnnnn

16
 N:0 are the following letters ' ‰ N L
17
The ›)B  are the following letters: x z _  { ,

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Rule 2
If a (=) is on the scale of (/
a [ <U) and its ( FBQ ,<) is a
(), that () is deleted and the ( FB ) is given a
(s ). A (s) is then added at the end of the word.

Step by Step Example

=` 0[ W =` 0[ =` 0U sa =W 0U
Note:
If the (P) has a ( Pi*<) on its ( PFB ), for example
in the word (O
X
W W>), the ( PFBQ ,P<) of the (=P) can also
be given a ( i*<).

Step by Step Example


The word ( a W 2W ) the (=) of (OX
W W> OW 2U W ).
Ò[2U Ò[2 ÒW2 a W 2W
Note:
It is also permissible to read (a W 2
W ) as (a W 2U ).
nnnnn

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Rule 3
(3.1) If a (2 ) is not (7C=+) and is preceded by a

(s ), it changes into a (‰).

Example
The word 7̀W0
[ U changes to 7̀W[U .
Exception
The word (` hPBU$
[ @U) will remain unchanged, because the ()
is l= (7C=+).

(3.2) If (P2 ‰) is not (l=P) and it is preceded by a


( F), the (‰) changes into a ().
Example
The word (`
U [X ) changes to (` 2U [ X ).
Exceptions
The word (?` ¢X ) remains unchanged because the (‰) is

(l=).

(3.3) If an (LP) is preceded by a ( FP), it will change

into a ().

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Step by Step Example

/^ AW^K /^ AUDK /^ AU[ KD


(3.4) If an (LP) is preceded by a (sP ), it will change

into a (‰).

Example
The plural of (6
` Wi
[ U ) is (6
X UWiW ). This changes to
(d
X [>U WiW ) because the (L) is preceded by a (s ).
nnnnn

Rule 4
FBQ ,<) of (*< 6 ) is a (›B"( ) or
If the (

(›B"( ‰), the () or (‰) will change into a (N) and

(%PPl7) will be made, that is, both the (N)’s will be


assimilated.

Step by Step Example of (‰ H)

=W )^ AW[ @U =W )^ *WPA[@U =W )^ PAh@U


Step by Step Example of (I> H)
W
W *WP[>U W
W *WPA[U W
W AhU

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nnnnn

Rule 5

(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a (%FP ), it

is permissible to change it into a (s?š).

Examples
({` 
[ PX$X – plural of ;` P[$W ) changes to ({` 
[ PX$D). (This is an
example of an 2).

(R
[ *WPK•X – the [ ] of R
` KA) changes to
(R
[ *WPK•D). (This is an example of a /<).

(5.2) If (P
P Q ) appears at the beginning of a word, it
is permissible to change it to a (s?š).

Example
(_
` W„U – swordbelt) can be read as (_
` W„@U).

(5.3) If a (P< ) appears in the middle of a word, it is

permissible to change it into a (s?š).

Example
(` 
X 7[ ^) can be read as (` ˆX 7[ ^).

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Rarely is a (_*1 ) changed into a (s?š).

Examples
(=
` W W - one) can be read as (=` W ^).
(sa W#
W – a lazy woman) can be read as (sa W#^).
nnnnn

Rule 6
When two (ZP
Pi* ˆ) come together at the beginning of

a word, it is compulsory (dP


P$) to change the first ()
into a (s?š).
Example
(/
D"
U WW ) is read as (/D "
U W^) (This is the plural of a B^"
U W).
(/
a
U [>W X ) is read as (/a PU[>W (D). This is the (PP5A P2@) of
(/
a"
U W).
nnnnn

Rule 7
(7.1) If () or (‰) (ZPi*) is preceded by a Pi*<, the ()
or (‰) is changed into an (L).

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Examples
Example of a (Zi* ) in the middle of a (/<):

(
^ W K^) changes to (^ ^K).
Example of a (Zi* ‰) in the middle of a (/<):

(O
W W W) changes to (
W W ).
Example of a (Zi*) at the end of a (/<):

(
W 0W 7W ) changes to (W07W ).
Example of a (Zi* ‰) at the end of a (/<):
(
W W W ) changes to (WW ).

Example of a (Zi*) in an (2):

(6
` W W) changes to (6
` W ).
Example of a (Zi* ‰) in an (2):

(d
` W#W) changes to (6
` W#).

Conditions for the above rule

This rule only applies if the following conditions are met:

[1] The () or (Zi* ‰) must not be in the place of the


( PFBQ ,P<). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word

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=W 0W W <^ - the () is in the place of the ( FBQ ,<) and the
( ) is a (Lf0 ). It will also not apply to (›< W AW)
because the () is in the place of the ( PFBQ ,P<) of ( 6P

/“1A).
It will also not apply to W h WAW - (‰) is in the place of the
( FBQ ,<) of (/“1A 6 ).

[2] The () or (‰) must not be in place of the ( PFB ) of


a word which is (LP1). (LP1 is that word which has two

PB P). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
(¯WP^j) . Here () is in the place of the ( PFB ). The

law will also not apply in the word (


W PUW ). Here (‰) is in
the place of the ( FB ).

[3] The () or (‰) must not come before the (LP
P) of
( PPPHPA). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
(WPW07W ), since there is a () before the (LP) of ( PPHPA)

and in the word (P PWW), since there is a (‰) before the
(L) of ( PHPA).

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[4] The () or (‰) must not come before a ({=P


PI {C=P).
Therefore this law will not apply to the word (/ a PP[>U j^ )
because the () is before a (‰) which is not a ( P P
BP"(). It will also not apply in the word (` [ PXl^ ) because
the () after the (‰) is not a (BP" P). Also in the

word (a P WWl
^ ), the (‰) is before an (LP
P) which is not a
(B" ).

Objection
In the words ([0
W 7W ), ('^ [ PW+€
[ W>), ('^ [ PW+€
[ AW) and (W [PW+€
[ AW), the
() and (‰) were not supposed to be changed to (LP
P)
because they came before a ({=PI {C=P), but yet this rule
has been applied.

Answer
The (‰) in these words is a separate word and it is the

(/0<) of the (/P<), while the ({=P) is not (=PI), therefore

the () or (‰) changes to (L) and then falls off due to

(G2 F*$@).

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Step by Step Examples


[X 0W 7W ([BDW <^) [W07W [0W 7W

'^ [ X+

[ W> ('^ [ BDW 1b W>) '^ [ W+€
[ W> '^ [ +

[ W>

'^ [ X+

[ AW ('^ [ BDW 1b AW) '^ [ W+€
[ AW '^ [ +

[ AW

W [U+

[ AW (W [BUW 1b AW) W [>W+€
[ AW W [+

[ AW

[5] The (ZPi* ‰) or (ZPi*) must not be before ( ‰


7C=PP+), for example, the word (‰ U PP^B0W ). The (‰) or
(ZPi*) must also not be before (=PA '), for example,
the word
(
h U+
W M[ @U).
[6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or
defect, for example,
(W 
U 0W ) (to be one-eyed),
(=
W U"
W ) (to have a crooked neck).

[7] The word must not be on the scale of ('


a P^BW <^), (›P^BW <^) or
(a B^W <^ ), for example

('
a WW 7W ) – ('a ^BW <^) – example of (). [meaning – rotation]

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('
a ^BW2W ) – ('a ^BW <^) example of (‰). [meaning – flowing]
(¯W
W PW") – (›P^BW <^) example of (). [meaning – name of a
spring of water]
(¯=
WPPWW ) – (›P
P^BW <^) example of (‰). [meaning – to walk
arrogantly – from =° 7]
and (a P^W W ) – (a P^BW <^) example of (). [meaning – weaver –
plural of 
` IUW]

[8] The word must not be from (P


P*<@ 6P P ) having the
meaning of (/01A 6P ). For example, the word W  W PW*$[ @U (in
the meaning of W  W PPWoAW ) and W W PPW*0[ @U (in the meaning of
W W WAW). Both words mean to take in turns.

(7.2) If after such an (LP) (which has been changed from

a  or ‰), there is a (2) letter, the (L) falls off.

Examples

[1] In the word ([


X PW07W ), the first () changes to (LP). It
becomes ([W07W ). Here (LP) has come before a (P2 ).

The (L) falls off and it becomes ([0


W 7W ).

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[2] In the word (


W [UPW[ AW), the first (‰) changes to an (LP).
Due to the (LP) coming before a (P2), it is deleted. It

becomes (
W [
W [ AW).

(7.3) If such an (LP


P) has come before a (wP
P#AN) of
(›P /P<), even if the (N) is (ZPi*), the (LP) is
deleted.

Examples
1. The word (N
[ W PW07W ) changes to (N
[ PW07W ). Now we have an
(LP) before (wP#A N) of (›P /P<). Therefore it is
deleted. It becomes (R
[ 0W 7W ).

2. The word (WA


W 0W 7W ) changes to (WAW07W ). There is a ( wP#WA PA
ZPi*) after the (LP). Therefore the (LP) is deleted. It
becomes *W0
W 7W .

(7.4) In the ( 5" ) of (  ), from ( wP#~ OP}


dPIl) until the end, if the word is (‰ P$), whether
the ( PFBQ G0) has a ( FP) or ( Pi*<), after deleting the

(L), the ( FBQ ,<) is given a ( F).

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Example in which ( FB ) has a ( i*<)

(
W bW P^K) changes to (W bP^K). The (LP) is now deleted because
it is followed by a (P2). It becomes (
W PbBK^). The (r) is
now given a ( FPP) because it is (‰ PP$). It

becomes (
W Bb KD). The word (W Bb KD) is from the (6 ) of (#).

Example in which ( FB ) has a ( F)

W bX j^ W b^j W Bb j^ W Bb jD

The word (
W Bb jD ) is from the (6 ) of (%X).

(7.5) In the (5P" P P), from ( wP#~ OP}


dPIl) till the end, after deleting the (LP), if it is ( P$
IP>) or there is a (sP ) on the ( PFB ) in ( P$
‰), the ( FBQ ,<) is given a (s ).

Example in which ( FB ) has a ( s )

In the word (
W [ WPW ), the (ZPi* ‰) is preceded by a ( Pi*<).
Therefore the (‰) changes to (LP
P). It becomes (W 0[ P
P W).

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The (LP) is deleted. It becomes (


W P[ W). Now the (6) is
given a (s ). It becomes (
W [ U).

Step by Step Example of (‰ $) with (s )


W <b U MW W <b WM W 1b MW W 1b MU

The word ( W 1b MU ) is from the (6 ) of (O-).

nnnnn

Rule 8

(8.1) If the letter before () or (‰) is (P2), the ( P)


of the () or (‰) is transferred to the preceding letter.

Example

[1] In the word (


D X Pb)W>), the (
P) of the () which is a
( FP) in this case, is given to the (r). It becomes (
D [ PD)W>).
(This is an example of ‰ $().

[2] In the word (O


X PU![W>), the (sP ) of the (‰) is given to the
(6). It becomes (O
X P[!UW>). (This is an example of P$(

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¯>).

(8.2) If the ( P) is a ( Pi*<), the () or (‰) is changed


into an (L).

Examples

[1] In the word (


D W Pb)X>), the (
Pi*<) of the () is given to the
(r). It becomes (
D [ P^)X>). Now due to the ( Pi*<), the () is
changed into an (L) becoming ( D ^)X>).

D W )b X> D [ )^ X> D ^)X>

[2] In the word (O


X PW![X>), the ( Pi*<) of the (‰) is given to the
(6) becoming (O X P[!WX>). Now due to the ( Pi*<) of the (6)
the (‰) changes into an (L), thus becoming ( X W!X>).
OX W![X> OX [!WX> 
X W!X>
Remember

The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as


well.

(8.3) If such a () or (‰) is followed by a (P2), in the

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case of ( F) and (s ), the () or (‰) will be deleted.

Example of (¯ $()

In the word (
b [ PD)W> [ ^) because of (GP2 PF*$@) the ()

is deleted. It becomes (/ b )D W> [ ^).

Example of ›I> $(

In the word (O
[ P[!UW>[ P^), the (‰) is followed by a (P2),
therefore the (‰) is deleted. It becomes (O [ !UW> [ ^).

(8.4) If a () or (‰) is followed by a (P2) and preceded

by a ( Pi*<), the (LP) (which was originally  or ‰) is


deleted.

Examples

(
b W )b X> [ ^) changes to (b P^)X> [ P^). After the (LP) is deleted,

it becomes (/
b )^ X> [ ^).
(O
[ WP[!X>
[ ^) changes to ( [ PW!X> [ P^). After the (LP) is deleted,
it becomes (O [ !WX> [ ^).
Important

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This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words (=


W PW0W [ PW)
because condition number one has not been fulfilled.
In the words (¯UPbfW>) and (›PWi
[ W>), the rule is not applied
because of condition number 2 - (L1 G0).

The words (
a W)b U ), (a Wi
[ AU) and (?` [PPUF[ AW) remain unchanged
because of the fourth condition - ({=I {= /!K).

However, the () of the (P1 P2) is an exception to

condition number 4. Despite there being a ({=PI {=P), the


( ) of the () or (‰) will still be given to the previous letter.

Example of (‰ $)


In the word (
a [ X )b W ) which is the (P1
2) of (PK), the
( FP) of the () is still transferred to the (r). It becomes

(
a [ [ PD)W ). Due to (GP2 PF*$@), the first () is deleted.
It becomes ( a [ )D W ).

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Example of (›I> $()

` [ X![W ) which is the (P1


In the word ( 2) of (W ^P ), the
( P ) of the (‰) is transferred to the (6). It becomes
(
` [ P[!XW ). Due to (GP2 PF*$@), the () is deleted and it
becomes (ÒP[!XW ). Since the corresponding ( P) of (‰)

is a (s ), the (6) is given a (s ). It becomes (Ò[!UW ).

Exception

In the words X W PP[W> (to be one-eyed), =X WPP[W> (to have a


crooked neck), 7X  W P 2[ (^ (black), ¬
X WP [(^ (white) and sa 7h W P
[ X
(black), due to condition number 6 (i.e. having the
meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs.

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( P P2@


/PP1A), that is those words on the scale of (
D W PPbK(^); or
(do* <(), like (;X P^
W Kb (^ W and ;U PU b U PbK(^); and words that
are (›0  giB), like (LW W>[ „W and W W [ $W ).
nnnnn

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Rule 9

(9.1) If there is a () in the (


PFB ) of (P P),
the preceding letter is made (P2) and the ( P) of the

() is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the ()

changes to (‰).

Example 1

^ U KD ^ [ KU /^ [KU.
Example 2

7W U )D #[(D 7W [ )U #[(D =W [)U #[(D

(9.2) If there is a (‰) in (P P) in the place of the


( P FB ), the preceding letter is made (PP2) and the
( P
P) of the (‰) is transferred to the preceding letter.
No other changes are made.

Example 1

In the word (O
W P U X) the (6) is made (P
P2). It becomes
(O
W U [). Now the ( ) of the (‰) is transferred to the

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(6), thus becoming (O


W [ U).
OW U X OW U [ OW [ U
Example 2

In the word (W U*XPP[M(D) the (N) is made (P2). It becomes

(W U*[ PP M
[ (D). P )
The ( of the (‰) is transferred to the

(N). It becomes (W [ *UPM


[ (D).

W U*XM[ (D W U*[M[ (D W [*UPM[ (D

(9.3) It is also permissable to retain the ( PP) of the


preceding letter and to make the () or the (‰) (P2). In

this case the (‰) changes to ().

Examples

^ U KD ^ [ KD
OW U X OW [ X W [ X
W U*XM[ (D W [*XM[ (D W [ *XM[ (D
7W U )D #[(D 7W [ )D #[(D
(9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with

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(%P±@). (%P±@) means to pronounce a ( P) in such a way


that it has the effect of another ( P ). For example in

the word (/^ P[KU), the (sPP ) of the (r) is pronounced in


such a way that it has the fragrance of a ( F).

Similar is the case with the (6) of (O


W P[ U). The (sP ) of
the (6) will have the effect of a ( FP). The condition for
this rule is that changes must have taken place in the
( P) form of the verb. Therefore, the word (W 
U PX*0[ (D)
will remain unchanged because the ( P
P) form of this
word, namely (W 
W *W0[ @U) was unaffected by any change.

(9.5) In (‰
$(), if the ( FB ) is (_*1) in
(  ), after the (‰) is deleted in the

( ), the ( FBQ ,<) is given a ( F) from the

( 5") of (dPIl w#~ O}) until the end (i.e. OP}  PHA

BQ* w#~  m).

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Step by Step Example

R
X bU KD R
X bU Kb R
X b[ KU R
X Bb [KU
R
X Bb KD

(9.6) In (›IP> $(), whatever the ( P) may be, or that


(¯ P P$() where the ( P FB ) is (P P Q) in the
( P ), after deleting the (‰), the ( PFBQ ,P<) is

given a (s ) from the ( 5") of (dPIl wP#~ O}) until

the end, that is, (BQ* w#~  m O}  HA).

Example of (›I> $()


R
X [ U X R
X [ U [ R
X [ [ U R
X [ U
Example of such a (¯ $() wherein the ( FBQ G0)
is ( Q)

W <b U MX W <b U M[ W <b [ MU W 1b MU

Note that the forms of ( P) and (P8) are now the

same. However the (/P"() - original form of each one will


be different:

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Original Form Changed


Form

(  ) R
X bW K^ R
X Bb KD
( ) R
X bU KD R
X Bb KD
(  ) R
X [ W W R
X [ U
( ) R
X [ U X R
X [ U
(  ) R
X <b U MW R
X 1b MU
( ) R
X <b U MX R
X 1b MU

Note:
In the (P8) of (1*P2( 6P ), the transferring of the

( P) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but


is due to rule number 8 (the rule of  D [ PD)W>). Therefore the
rule of ( ^ [ P
PDK) and (%P P±@) will not apply. For example
(W U€
[ *X2[ (D) becomes (W [€
U *X2[ (D).
nnnnn

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Rule 10
(10.1) If the ( PPFBQ %&) of the following word form’s
( 5P") is () or (‰), it becomes (P2) if it is preceded

by a ( F) or a (s ):

1. /D W 1b W>
2. /D W 1b AW
3. /D W <b (^
4. /D W 1b #W

Examples

(
X 0X =[ W>) becomes ([ 0X =[ W>) – example of (‰ JK#)
(
X U [ W>) becomes (›[ U [ W>) – example of (I> JK#)

If the () or (‰) of the (


PFBQ %&) is preceded by a ( Pi*<),
it becomes (L) in accordance with the rule of (
^ ^K).
Examples

(
X+W€
[ W>) becomes (›W+€
[ W>) – example of (I> JK#)
(
XW [ W>) becomes (›W[ W>) – example of (‰ JK#)

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(10.2) If a word has a () preceded by a ( FPP) and

followed by another (), that () falls off.

Example of ()

In the word '^ [ X 0X =[ PW> (dPIl mP OP}), before the ()
there is a ( FP P) and after the () there is another ().
Therefore, the first () is made (P2) and the second one

falls off due to (G2 F*$@). It becomes (' ^ [ 0X =[ W>).

If a (‰) is preceded by a (sP ) and followed by another

(‰), the first (‰) becomes (P


P2) and the other (‰) is
deleted because of (G2 F*$@).

Example of (‰)

In the word W [UU [ AW (P wP#~ =) there is a (sP )


before the (‰) and it is followed by a second (‰).

Therefore the first (‰) becomes (P P2) and the second
(‰) falls off. It becomes ( W [U [ AW).

(10.3) If a () is preceded by a ( FP


P) and followed by a

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(‰), the preceding letter is made (P2) and the ( P)


of the () is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the

() changes into a (‰) and falls off due to ( PPF*$@


G2).
Example

In the word (
W [>U 0X =[ PWA) the () is preceded by a (
FP) and
followed by a (‰), therefore the preceding letter () is

made (P2) and the ( P) of the () which is a (sP )

is transferred to the preceding letter, the (). It therefore

becomes ( W [>[ 0U =[ PWA). Due to the preceding (sP ), the ()
changes into a (‰). Now due to (GP2 PF*$@) the (‰)

is deleted. It becomes ( W [0U =[ AW).

(10.4) If a (‰) is preceded by a (sP ) and followed by a

(), the preceding letter is made (P2) and the ( P) of


the (‰) is given to the preceding letter. Then the (‰)

changes into a () and falls off due to (G2 F*$@).

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Example

In the word ('


^ [ PXU [ W>), the (‰) is preceded by a (sP ) and
followed by a (). Therefore, the preceding letter (%) is

made (2) and the ( P) of the (‰) which is a ( FP),


is transferred to the preceding letter (%). It becomes

('
^ [ P[X [ W>). Due to the preceding ( FP), the (‰) changes to
(). It becomes (' ^ [ [ PX[ W>). Now due to (GP2 PF*$@),
the () is deleted. It becomes (' ^ [ X [ W>).
Further Examples

[X)U ^ ([BDU <^ –  ) becomes [)D ^ .


[XU X ([BDU <D –  ) becomes [X X .

Step by Step

[X)U ^ [X)b ^ [[)D ^ [[ )D ^


[)D ^

[XU X [ X[ X [[X X [[ X X


[X X
nnnnn

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Exercise 43

(a) Identify the rules or changes of (/P*) in the following


words:

'^ ?W Ah@U (6) R


X [ 7X (1)

` [ KDX (7) ¤
D U W> (2)
[ X W (8) a W 
W ( 3)
W [ X (9) ¤
a W[U (4)
X [>=U W> (10) ²
a KU[ X (5)

Rule 11
If a () appears in the place of the ( PPFBQ %&) after a

(s ), the () changes into a (‰).


Example
In the word (
W PU07X ) the () appears in the place of the ( %&
PFBQ) after a (sP P ). Therefore the () changes into a

(‰). It becomes (
W 0U 7X ).

The same change occurs in (W0


U 7X ), ('U W0U W7) and (a W0U W7).

W 0U 7X W 0U 7X

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W0U 7X W0U 7X
'U W 0U W7 'U W0U W7
sa W 0U W7 a W0U W7
Rule 12

If a (‰) is in the place of the (


FBQ %&), preceded by a
( F), the (‰) changes into a ().

Example
In the word W X #W , which is (dPIl mP =) of ( 6P
%W X P^) from the masdar (sa W PW#W), meaning intellect, the (‰) is
in the place of the ( PFBQ %&), preceded by a ( FP). The

‰ 
( ) changes into a ( ). It becomes ( W X #W).
nnnnn

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Rule 13

(13.1) If a () comes in the place of the ( PFB ) preceded


by a (sPP ) in the (=P P), it changes into a (‰), on
condition that (/BA – a change) occurred in the (/<).

Examples

1. The word ƒWKU (which is the =P of %W P^K) was originally


ƒWKU.
2. The word ƒWP "
U (which is the =P
P of %W P
P"W) was

originally ƒW"
U.

However, the word (ƒWKU ) which is the (=) of (%W 


W ^K) of
( PPB01 6PP ) remains unchanged, because no (/P
PBA)
occurred in the (/<). The (/<) is (%W 
W ^K).

(13.2) The same (/P


PBA) occurs if a () comes in place of
the ( PFB ) of a word that is (OP}), on condition that ()
is (2) in the ( 5P" =P) or (/PBA) took place in the

() of the ( 5" =).

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Examples
1. The word Y
` WPU (the OP} of the word Y ` [ PW) changes
to Y
` PWU . This is an example of a (OP}) in which the () is
(2).

2. The word 7̀WPU$ (the OP} of the word = ` P¢$W ) changes to


7̀PW$U . This is an example of a (OP}) in which the () is
changed in the original (from 7̀U[ $
W to =` ¢$W ).
nnnnn

Rule 14
(14.1) If a () or (‰) which are are not changed from any
other letter, come together in one word, which is not
(›0P  gPiB) (on the scale of e
W W P[7W ) and the first of the
two, namely the () or (‰) is (P2), then the () changes

into a (‰). Then (%Pl7@) is made and the preceding ( FP)

is changed into (s ).

Examples

1. In the word 7̀U[PW2 , () and (‰) come together, and the

first of the two i.e. the (‰) is (P


P2). Therefore the ()
changes into a (‰), thereby becoming (=
` U[PPW2). After

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( %l7@) is made, it becomes (=` ¢2W ).

2. In the word (‰
` [ P
PX[ W ), () and (‰) come together, and
the first of the two i.e. the () is (P2). Therefore the ()

changes into a (‰), thereby becoming (


` PP[X [ W ). After
(%Pl7@) is made, it becomes (
 PX[ W ). The ( FP) of the (%)
is changed to a (s ), thereby becoming (
 U [ W ).

3. In the word (‰
` [ PXX ), (which is the =P of ›PWW
›[ PUF[ W>), the () and (‰) come together, and the first of the
two i.e. the () is (P2). Therefore the () changes into a

(‰) becoming  ` [P  X X . After (%P


Pl7@) is made, it becomes
(
 PX X ). The ( FP P) of the (%) is changed to (sP P )
thereby becoming (  PUX ). It is also permissible to read the
(%) with (sP P ) corresponding with the ( P P) of the
(Y), that is (U U ).

(14.2) The (P () of (P³>U (D P ¯


[ U qb PW> P ‰W(^ – to take
refuge) is (
U (b@U). The (,) changes to a (‰). It becomes U P[>@U, .
Because this (‰) has changed from a (s?Pš), rule 14.1 will

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not apply.

Another example where this rule will not apply is the word
('
a W [
W ). No change occurs because it is (›0  giB).

If the () and (‰) are in different words, no change will


occur.

Example
(1)

U W ‰
[ @U – the () will not change into a (‰).

(2)
U U PWFW b
U P[>U W [ PUIW - the (‰) of the word ([ PUIW) and
the () of the word (U P[>U  W ) are in different words and will
therefore remain unchanged.

nnnnn

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Rule 15

If a word is on the scale of (


a [ PX<D) and it has two ()’s at
the end of the word, then both the ()’s are changed into

(‰) and (%Pl7@) is made. The ( FP) of the preceding letter


( P
PFBQ GPP0) is changed into (sPP ) and it is also
permissible to give the ( FBQ ,<) a (s ).

Example
The word (
` [ PD7X ) - (OP} of ` Pb7W ) is on the scale of (a [ PX<D).
Therefore, according to the above rule, both the ()’s are

changed into (‰). It becomes (


` P[D7X ). Then (%Pl7@) is made
thereby becoming (
 PD7X ). After changing the ( FP) of the
preceding letter into (sP ), it becomes  PU7X . It is also
permissible to read it as 
 U7U .
nnnnn

Rule 16
(16.1) If there is a () in the ( P FBQ %&) of an (P
P2)
preceded by a ( FP
P), the ( FP
P) will be changed into a
(sP
P ) and the () into a (‰). The (‰) is then made

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(2). Due to (G2 F*$@), the (‰) is deleted.

Example
In the word (
` PD7[ (^) - (OP} of ` Pb7W ), the () is on the ( %&
PFBQ) of an (P2) preceded by a ( FP). Therefore the
( FP) will be changed into a (sP ) becoming ( ` PU7[ (^).
Then the () changes into a (‰), thereby becoming ( ` PU7[ (^),
which can also be written as ( [ XPPU7[ (^). After (‰) is made
(P2), due to (GP2 PF*$@), the (‰) is deleted. It

becomes (
[ U7[ (^) which can also be written as (¡ 7[ (^).
Step by Step Example

` D7[ (^ ` U7[ (^ ` U7[ (^ ([ XU7[ (^) [ U7[ (^


¡ 7[ (^

(16.2) The law of (16.1) will also occur on a =P, which


is from (/C1A 6 ) and is (‰ JK#).

Example
The word (
` PPP¦BW AW) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming (/́WAW).

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` B¦W AW ` B•W AW [ XB•W AW [ [B•W AW [ B•W AW


/́WAW

(16.3) The law of 16.1 will also occur on a (=P), which

is from (/01A 6 ) and is (‰ JK#).


Example
The word (
` DPPPWAW) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming (
¡ WAW).
` DWAW ` UWAW [ XUWAW [ [UWAW [ UWAW
¡ WAW

(16.4) If a (‰) comes in the ( PFBQ %&) of an P2 and is


preceded by a letter which has a ( FP
P), the ( FPP) is
changed into a (s ).

Example
The word (
` !XŠb (^) - (O} of ` P[!Š^ ) changes to (` PU!Šb (^) , which
can also be written as ( [ XPU!Šb (^). The (‰) is made (P2) so
it becomes ([ [PU!Šb (^). Due to (GP2 PF*$@), the (‰) is
deleted. It becomes ( [ !UPPbŠ(^), which can also be written as

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(d
¡ Šb (^).
Step by Step Example

` !XŠb (^ ` !UŠb (^ [ X!UŠb (^ [ [!UŠb (^


[ !UŠb (^ d
¡ Šb (^
nnnnn

Rule 17
(17.1) If a () or (‰) comes in the place of the ( PFB ) of
a word which is (/P0< P2), the () or (‰) changes into a
(,), on condition that change took places in the (/<).

Examples
1. The word (
a U P^K) changes to (/a PUI^K). (Changes took place
in its /< from 
^ W K^ to ^ ^K).
2. The word (ÒU>PW ) changes to (ÒUIPW ). (Changes took place

in its /< from O


W W W to 
W W ).

(17.2) Sometimes the ( PB P) is deleted as in the case


of (` PWp) which was originally (` IUPWp). This word is used in

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the Qur’ân: (¡ Wp


¡ X $X ^1„W ^B0W )

Exception

In the word ( ‰
[ U h) the () will not change into a (s?š) because no
change took place in the /< (‰
[ U [ W> ¯WW ).
nnnnn

Rule 18
If a ( =I ) or (=I ‰) or (=I L) appears after the (LP) of
(/
D 0U ^1W ), it changes into a (s?š).

Examples
1. The word (X 
U PWo0W ) changes to (?X IUPWo0W ) - (OP} of the
word ` 
[oX 0W ). This is an example of ().
2. The word (
X U WPW„) changes to (L
X IUWPW„) - (OP} of the
word a 1^ [>U „
W ). This is an example of (‰).
3. The word (
D UW2W ) changes to (/D IUPW2W ) - (OP} of the word
a ^W2U ). This is an example of (=I L).
Exception
The (OP}) of the word (a !W[ PUX ) is (d
X IUPWW ). Although the
(‰) is original, it changed into (s?Pš). This is an exception

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to the rule.
nnnnn

Rule 19
If a () or (‰) comes at the end of a word after (=PI LP),
they change into a (s?Pš). This rule applies to all kinds of

words, namely =, 71, O}, g*+ and =$.

Examples of =

i. ` W07X ,­ W07X (example of ) – ( ,­ PPW07X means


supplication).
ii. ‰
` WX ,­ WX (example of ‰) - ( ,­ WX means
pleasing appearance).

Examples of O}

i. ` W07U ,­ W07U (O} of 


¡ W7)
ii. ` WF2[ (^ ,­ WF2[ (^ (O} of ` P[2@U, which was originally
` F[ 2U ).
i. ‰ ` W[ (^ ,­ W[ (^ (O} of  W ).

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Examples of =$ 2


i. ` W U ,­ W U (example of ) 
ii. ‰
` W7U ,­ W7U (example of ‰)
nnnnn

Rule 20

(20.1) If a () comes in the fourth position or later in a

word and it is not preceded by a ( FP) or a (P2 ), it


changes into a (‰).

Examples
1. The word ('
U W0W =[ PX>) was originally ('U W0W =[ PX>). The () is
in the fourth position of the (/P
P<), thus it changes into a
(‰).

2. The word (R
X P[B^0[ (^) was originally (N
X [ P^B0[ (^). The () is in
the 4th position of the (/<), thus it changes into a (‰).

3. The word (R
X [B^[ *WP[2@U) was originally (N
X [ B^[ *WP[2@U). The ()
is in the sixth position of the (/P<), thus it changes into a

(‰).

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(20.2) The plural of (,­ W0=


[ PU) is ( 0U W=PW), which originally
was (
X [0U W=PW). In this word, the () is in the sixth position.
It changes into a (‰) and (%PPl7@) is made. It becomes

(
“ 0U W=PW). The rule of (=` ¢PW2) (Rule number 14, example 2)
is not applicable here because the (‰) has changed from

an (LP). The (7P1) of this word is (,­ W0=


[ PU). In Rule 14,
the condition was that the () or (‰) must not be changed
from another letter.
nnnnn

Rule 21
(21.1) The (LP) that comes after a ( FP) changes into a
().
Examples
1. The word (6
W U [ PPX) was originally (6
W U PPX) - (the
[8 ›] of 6 X U PWX> 6WPW). The (LP) is preceded
by a ( F), thus it changes into a ().

2. The word 6 ` U [>W P


X - (5PPA P P2) of (6
` U P
PW ) was
originally (6
` U [>PX). The (LP) is preceded by a ( FP),
thus it changes into a ().

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(21.2) The (LP) that comes after a (sP ) changes into a

‰
( ).
Example
The word dX PP[>U WiW (plural of 6 ` WPP[iU ) was originally
6
X UP
PiW W . The (LP P) is preceded by a (sP P ), thus it
changes into a (‰). It becomes (d X [>U WiW ) .
nnnnn

Rule 22
If there is an (=I
LP) before the (LP) of ( PPHPA) or
(µ2 w#~ O}), it changes into a (‰).

Example

i. The ( HA) of (›P^B![X ) is ('U PWB^![X ). The end of the word


(›^B![ 
X ) has an (LP) which does not accept a ( P).
Therefore, the (L) is changed into (‰).

ii. The (O}) of (›^B![  X ) is (N ` WB^![X ). Here also the the (L)
of (›^B![ 
X ) is changed into (‰).
nnnnn

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Rule 23
If (‰) appears as the ( P FB ) of either a plural on the

scale of (/
a P[<D) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the
scale of (›^B[ <D), the preceding letter is given a (s ).
Examples
1. The word (¬
` [PPU ) (plural of ,T PPW[ W ¬
X WPP[ (^) was
and

originally ¬
` [PPX . The (‰) appears as the ( P
PFB ) of
(/
a PP[<D), thus the preceding letter is made (P P Q). It
becomes (¬
` [ U).
2. The word (›P
PQ^ [U – meaning ‘to walk arrogantly’) was
originally (›P^Q[ 
X ). The (‰) appears as the ( PFB ) of the
feminine (›P
PP^B[ <D), thus the preceding letter is made
( Q). It becomes (›^Q[ 
U ).

Note:
This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the (‰)

changes to (). Instead of changing the (‰) to (), the (‰)

is maintained and the ( FPP) which is the preceding

( ), is changed to (s ).

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The (/P1A P2) falls in the category of (Nv P2), that


is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities.
Examples
(W 
[PPDj) - the (wP
P#~) of (dP
Pj( ). It was originally
(W![ j
D ) - purer. The (‰) is changed to ().
(P
PW2[ D ) – the (wPP#~) of (™
X WPPb(^). It was originally
(W [ 
D ) - (more intelligent). The (‰) is changed to ().

Step by Step Examples

›!W[jD › W[ jD
›
W [D ›2W [ D
nnnnn

Rule 24
If a (=P) comes on the scale of (a P^
[ BD[ <^) and the ( PFB
) is a (), the () will change into a (‰).

Example
The word ( a #W[ X[^ ) was originally (a #W[ #X[ ^ ), the ( PFB ) is a (),
thus it changes into a (‰) thereby becoming (a #W [ X[^ ).
nnnnn
Rule 25

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The rule for words on the scale of (/


D 0U ^<(^) or (/D PU0^1W ), is that if
they end in (‰), and are (sQ#), [that is, they are neither ( 
%& ) nor ( )], then in (P‹ OP< ), the (‰) is
deleted. The (FB ) is now read with tanwīn.
In (d ), the word will remain (_*1).

Example of (sQ#), that is, they are neither (%&P ) nor

( ): (‰
` U W$W ) changes to (¡ W$W ).

m!   SJK !   m! ] !  


¡ Wo
W U N
X [ W W ƒ>U W$W R
X [>(^W ¡ W$W {U mU pW

<), the (‰) becomes (2) in


If they are (

(P‹ O< ) and in (dP P), the (‰) will be

(_*1).

Examples: (¯
X U W‹
^ ) changes to (¯
[ U W‹
^ ) or (¯
W U W‹
^ ).

m!   SJK !   m! ] !  


¯
[ U W‹
^  U N
X [ W W ¯
W U W‹
^ R
X [>(^W ¯
[ U W‹
^  {U mU pW

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All words having (Zi* ‰) preceded by a (s ) follow this


rule. Such words are called (n) 2@).
Examples:

sQ#
ƒ>7U WF*WX '^ ^ 'b @U W n
¡ W0 /• QD U 7¡ Wp W pX

6 8 <

<
¯
W 7U WF*WD  '^ ^ 'b @U W ›[ "
U W /• QD U ¯
[ 7U ^” W pX

6 8 <

Step by Step

sQ#
` U W [ XU W [ U W %¡ W

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<
X U h^ ›[ U h^
nnnnn

Rule 26
(26.1) If a () comes in place of the (
FBQ %&)of (›P^B[ <D) in a
word which is either (=$ 2@) or (/P1A 2@), it changes

into a (‰).

Examples

i. The word (W#[ 7X ) was originally (W#[ 7X ). A () comes in place

of the ( FBQ %&) of (›^B[ <D). Thus it changes into a (‰). It


becomes (W#[ 7X ). This is the (/1A 2@) from (¶#X7X  [ #X=[ W> W#7W )
– to be near, [# 6 ].

ii. The word (PWBb 0 X ) was originally (WPbB0X ). A () comes in


place of the ( FBQ %&) of (›P^B[ <D ). Thus it changes into a

(‰). It becomes (WBb 0 X ). This is the (/1A 2@) from ( ^B0W


¶BD0X [ BD[ W>)- to be high, [# 6 ].

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Exception
If this word is a ( 1P"), it remains unchanged e.g. ¯W?[ PTlD (a
female warrior).

(26.2) If a (‰) comes in place of the ( PFBQ %&) of a word on


the scale of (›^B[ <^ ), it changes into a ().

Example
The word (¯W)b AW) was originally (W)b AW). A (‰) comes in place of

the ( FBQ %&) of this word. Thus it changes into a ().

Exercise 44

(a) Apply the rules of (/*) to the following words:

,­ WF2W (6) ‰
W U 2X (1)
'U WFW [ X> (7)  
U [ W (2)
ÒUF[>W 2X (8) 
¡ W=AW (3)
=W pU [ $X (9) ` IUW (4)
'U WW [ X (10) ` IUW7 (5)

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The Paradigms of ( H)


N =. 4- V!. =R $2 . V! e )
. . 
. )*  <! CH
7̀[PX0[ W W PX<^ ƒ=P[0W =X PW0[ X> =W 0U X W =` 0U W W X <^ ƒ=0[ W =X U W> =W 0W W
'U W=PU0[ W =` PU0[ W ;X P[U X [ P4 =[ U AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW =[ 0U ;X [U X [ q^b^
7̀PW[U 'U WA=W PW[U sa =W PW[U =X PU0WW 'U W=W [U =` W [U ;X [U D ^£bW X=0U WW
'^ [ =X PW0[ (^ 'U W=PW0[ (^ =X PW0[ (^ ;X P[U /U [ U 1b *h /D W <b (^W =X [0U WW 'U W7W[U
N
` W>=W 0[ X W =` 0W X 'U W>=W 0[ X ‰W=0[ X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW =X 0U W(^W
Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of (‰ PH) are used in all the (6P ()

except (# 6 ).
(2) The () of ( P P) has been deleted due to

rule no.1 – the rule of (= X U W>).


(3) The () of the (=P P) has been deleted due to rule
no.2 – the rule of (sa =
W 0U ).
(4) In (P P), the () can be changed to (s?Pš)

according to rule no. 5 – the rule of ({`  [ P $X (D). Accordingly,


(=
W PU0X ) can be pronounced as (=W PU0(D). The same applies to the

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feminine of the (/PP1* PP2) – (‰W=PP[0


X ) can be
pronounced as (‰W=0
[ (D).
(5) The broken plural - (P Q OP}) of the ( /P01 P2
wP#~) which is (=X PU0W(^) was originally (=X PU0WW ). The first
() is changed to a (s?Pš) according to rule no. 6 - the rule

of (/
D"U W(^).
(6) The () of the ( P3 P2) has changed to (‰) according

to rule no. 3 – the rule of (7̀W[ U ).

(7) However, the () is unchanged in the dimunitive ( P2

5P*) of the ( P3 P2) – (=` P[U [>W X ) and in the ( OP}
P Q) – (=X P[0U WW ), because the reason for the change is not
found, namely the ( [ ) and a preceding (s ).

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- '2 . V! e )
. . 
. )*  6nW CH
;X [U X [ q^b^ ` [
X [W W X <^ ƒ U [W X 2W [ X> W
U X>W ` 2U > W X <^ ƒ
U [W X
U [W> W
W W>
[
U [AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ U [>@U
Analysis of the changes

(1) In this (6P


P ), the only change that has occurred is in
the (P P) where the (‰) has changed to a ()

according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` 2


U [ X ).

3N 2 . V! e ]. - . )*  <! CH


X [ q^b^ a [ $X [ W W X <^ B̈$[ W /D $W [ X> /^ $U X W /a $U W W X <^ B̈$[ W /D $W [ W> /^ $U W
/b $W [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW /b o
W [>@U ;X [U
Analysis of the changes

(1) In the imperative (P P() - (6P ) , the () has

changed to a (‰) according to rule no. 3 – the rule of

(7̀W[ U ). The same rule applies to the ( P3 2) – ( W /a PWo[U


a Wo[U W a B^o
W [U ).
(2) In the word (/
D PU$W(^), the () has changed to a (s?Pš)
according to rule no. 6 – the rule of (/
D"
U W(^).

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(3) It is permissible to change the () to a (s?Pš) in (/


^ PU$X )
– the (P P dPIl m =) and in (/a PW$X ) –
the broken plural of the (w#~ /1* 2).

There is no other change in this (6 ).

N 4. c
!. ]2. V! e ]. - . )*  ko <! CH
W X <^ ¨ W 2W W ƒ2[ W OX 2W [ X> OW 2U X W ÒU2W W X <^ ¨ W 2W W ƒ2[ W OX W W> OW 2U W
O[
W AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW O[ 2W ;X [U X [ q^b^ 
` [ 2X [ W

N ?.D- V! e p
. ., )*  <! CH
X [ q^b^ 6
` [ pX [ W W X <^ ¨ !WpU d
X pW [ X> d
W pU XW d ` pU W W X <^ ¨ !WpU d
X W W> d
W pW W
d
[ W AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW d
[ pW ;X [U

Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the above-mentioned (6P


P (), the () of the
(P
P) has been deleted due to rule no.1 – the rule of
(=
X PUW>). The changes in the other words are similar to ( =W PW0W
=X U W>).

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N ^, 7- !. gR . . V! e S
.

- . )*  <! CH


W X <^ ¨ )^ U W ¨)W W gX W [ X> gW U X W g̀UW W X <^ ¨ )^ U W ¨)W W V gX FU W> gW W W
g[ FU AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW g[ U ;X [U X [ q^b^ r̀[X [ W
Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes in this (6P ) are similar to those of ( =W PW0W


=X U W>).

FR ,^qOl-V! e C4A )*  <! CH


=[ )U Ah@U ;X [U X [ q^b^ =` )^ *hX W X <^ ƒ7^)¢A@UV =X )^ *hX> =W )U A“(D W =` )U *hX W X <^ ƒ7^)A¢U@V =X )U *hW> =W )^ Ah@U
=[ )U *hAW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW

R .
qOl-V! e C4A )*  6nW CH
X [ q^b^ `
W *hX W X <^ ƒW A¢@UV X
W *hX> W
U A“(D W `
U *hX W X <^ ƒW A¢@UV X
U *hW> W
W Ah@U
[
U *hAW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [
U Ah@U ;X [U
Analysis of the changes

(1) According to rule no. 4 – the rule of (=


W P^)Ah@U), the () and
(‰) have changed into (N) and have been assimilated into

the (N).

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FR ,^W2l-V! e C4A )*  <! CH


;X [U X [ q^b^ =` K^[ X W X <^ ƒ7^)[>@U =X K^[ X> =W KU[ (D W =` KU[ X W X <^ ƒ7^)[>@U =X KU[ X> =W K^[ (^
=[ KU[ AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW =[ KU[ (^

FR ,^'2 -2 l-V! e C4A )*  <! CH


ƒ7^)[*U2[ @U =X K^[ *W
[ X> =W KU[ *X2[ (D W =` KU[ *W
[ X W X <^ ƒ7^)[*U2[ @U =X KU[ *W [ W> =W K^[ *W[2@U
=[ KU[ *W
[ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW =[ KU[ *W2[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ =` K^[ *W
[ X W X <^
Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the paradigms, the () has changed into (‰)

according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (7̀W[ U ).

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Exercise 45

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:

OW  W W (1)
W *WW> (2)
W W Ah@U (3)
²
^ )^ [>(^ (4)
²
^ )^ [*W2[ @U (5)
W 2W W> (6)
6W W W$ (7)
7W ^)#[@U (9)
=W h W (10)

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The Paradigms of ( $()


CN 2 ^, V! e . J
. B. )*  <! 5+
/b KD ;X [U X [ q^b^ a [ )D W W X <^ &¨ [ K^ D ^)X> /^ [KU W /a IU^K W X <^ &¨ [ K^ D [ )D W> ^ ^K
a W )b U ;X [U D ^£bW D U ^) 'U ^^)W a ^)W ;X [U X [ 4  /b )D AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
/D W <b (^W /DT [>U ^)W 'U ^W)b U a W)b U D U^) 'U W*^W )b U a ^W )b U D U ^) 'U ^W )b U
'U W^[ KD ^[ KD ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW D U ^K(^W '^ [ DW bK(^ 'U ^W Kb (^ D W Kb (^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h
N
` W^[ KDW a W KD

There is no change in the words (


a W PPb)U ) and (a PP^W )b U )
because they were originally (
a WP
Pb)U ). No change occurred
in (
a WP )b U ) because of the exception in rule no. 8, namely
that the () should not be followed by an (L).

Hereunder follow the paradigms of the (P


PP) and
(P
P). All other verbs which are (‰ P
PH) from this
(6 ) follow the same pattern.

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] 6K ! =' \O  ] 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


CD  5 4
CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!
^ ^)X> [ ^ ^ [ )D W> [ ^ D ^)X> D [ )D W> /^ [KU ^ ^K
^^)X> [ ^ ^[ )D W> [ ^ 'U ^^)X> 'U ^[ )D W> ^B[KU ^^K
[D^)X> [ ^ [D[ )D W> [ ^ '^ [ D^)X> '^ [ D[ )D W> [BD[KU [D^K
^ ^)AX [ ^ ^ [ )D AW [ ^ D )^ AX D [ )D AW R
[ B^[KU R
[ ^^K
^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^ 'U ^^)PXA 'U ^[ )D PWA W*B^[KU W*^^K
W Bb )^ X> [ ^ W Bb )D W> [ ^ W Bb )^ X> W Bb )D W> W Bb KD W Bb KD
^ ^)AX [ ^ ^ [ )D AW [ ^ D ^)AX D [ )D AW R
W Bb KD R
W Bb KD
^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^ 'U ^^)PXA 'U ^[ )D PWA WF*XBb KD WF*XBb KD
[D^)AX [ ^ [D[ )D AW [ ^ '^ [ D^)AX '^ [ D[ )D AW [ *XBb KD [ *XBb KD
[ U^)PXA [ ^ [ U[ )D PWA [ ^ U [U^)PXA U [U[ )D PWA R
U Bb KD R
U Bb KD
^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^ 'U ^^)PXA 'U ^[ )D PWA WF*XBb KD WF*XBb KD
W Bb )^ AX [ ^ W Bb )D AW [ ^ W Bb )^ AX W Bb )D AW h *XBb KD h *XBb KD
^ ^KD [ ^ ^ [ KD^ [ ^ D ^KD D [ KD^ R
X Bb KD R
X Bb KD
^ ^)PX# [ ^ ^ [ )D PW# [ ^ D ^)PX# D [ )D PW# WBb KD WBb KD

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CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CD 5 4
h ^^)X^ h ^[ )D W^ /b )^ X> [ ^ /b )D W> [ ^
'• ^^)X^ '• ^[ )D W^ ^^)X> [ ^ ^[ )D W> [ ^
h D^)X^ h D[ )D W^ [D^)X> [ ^ [D[ )D W> [ ^
h ^^)*X^ h ^[ )D *W^ /b )^ AX [ ^ /b )D AW [ ^
'• ^^)PX*^ '• ^[ )D PW*^ ^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^
'• WBb )D X^ '• WBb )D W^ W Bb )^ X> [ ^ W Bb )D W> [ ^
h ^^)*X^ h ^[ )D *W^ /b )^ AX [ ^ /b )D AW [ ^
' ^^)PX*^ ' ^[ )D PW*^ ^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^
h D^)*X^ h D[ )D *W^ [D^)AX [ ^ [D[ )D WA [ ^
h U^)PX*^ h U[ )D PW*^ [ U^)PXA [ ^ [ U[ )D PWA [ ^
'• ^^)PX*^ '• ^[ )D PW*^ ^^)PXA [ ^ ^[ )D PWA [ ^
'• WBb )^ *X^ '• WBb )D *W^ W Bb )^ AX [ ^ W Bb )D AW [ ^
h ^^KD^ h ^[ KD^^ /b K^D [ ^ /b KD^ [ ^
h ^^)PX^ h ^[ )D PW^ /b )^ PX# [ ^ /b )D PW# [ ^

y [ ^[ )D *W^ y [ D[ )D W^ y [ ^[ )D W^ : 11· ' O  
^[ )D W^ y [ ^[ KDq^^ y [ U[ )D *W^ y [ D[ )D *W^ y [^[ )D *W^
[ ^^)*X^ y [ ^^)*X^ y [ D^)X^ y [ ^^)X^ : 11· ' O  
[ ^^)X^ y [ ^^KqD^ y [ U^)*X^ y [ D^)X*^ y

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] CDG! 9! ] 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h ^^)XU h ^[ )D WU /b )^ XU /b )D WU
'• ^^)XU '• ^[ )D WU ^^)XU ^[ )D WU
h D^)XU h D[ )D WU [D^)XU [D[ )D WU
h ^^)*XU h ^[ )D *WU /b )^ *XU /b )D *WU
'• ^^)PX*U '• ^[ )D PW*U ^^)PX*U ^[ )D PW*U
'• WBb )D XU '• WBb )D WU W Bb )^ XU W Bb )D WU
h ^^)*XU h ^[ KD /b )^ *XU /b KD
'• ^^)PX*U '• ^[ KD ^^)*XU ^[ KD
h D^)*XU h D[ KD [D^)*XU [D[ KD
h U^)PX*U h U[ KD ›[ U^)*XU [ U[ KD
'• ^^)PX*U '• ^[ KD ^^)*XU ^[ KD
'• WBb )^ *XU '• WBb KD W Bb )^ *XU W Bb KD
h ^^KDU h ^[ KD^U /b K^DU /b KD^U
h ^^)PXU h ^[ )D PWU /b )^ XU /b )D WU

[ ^[ KD y [ ^[ )D *WU y [ D[ )D WU y [ ^[ )D WU : 11· ' O  .
[ ^[ )D WU y [ ^[ KDq^U y [ U[ KD y [ D[ KD y
y [ ^^)*XU y [ ^^)*XU y [ D^)XU y [ ^^)XU : 11· ' O  .
[ ^^)XU y [ ^^KqDU y [ U^)*XU y [ D^)*XU

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 6DK ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h ^^)X> &^ h ^[ )D W> &^ /b )^ X> &^ /b )D W> &^
'• ^^)X> &^ '• ^[ )D W> &^ ^^)X> &^ ^[ )D W> &^
h D^)X> &^ h D[ )D W> &^ [D^)X> &^ [D[ )D W> &^
h ^^)AX &^ h ^[ )D AW &^ /b )^ AX &^ /b )D AW &^
'• ^^)PXA &^ '• ^[ )D PWA &^ ^^)PXA &^ ^[ )D PWA &^
'• WBb )D X> &^ '• WBb )D W> &^ W Bb )^ X> &^ W Bb )D W> &^
h ^^)AX &^ h ^[ )D AW &^ /b )^ AX &^ /b )D AW &^
'• ^^)PXA &^ '• ^[ )D PWA &^ ^^)PXA &^ ^[ )D PWA &^
h D^)AX &^ h D[ )D AW &^ [D^)AX &^ [D[ )D AW &^
h U^)PXA &^ h U[ )D PWA &^ [ U^)PXA &^ [ U[ )D PWA &^
'• ^^)PXA &^ '• ^[ )D PWA &^ ^^)PXA &^ ^[ )D PWA &^
'• WBb )^ AX &^ '• WBb )D AW &^ W Bb )^ AX &^ W Bb )D AW &^
h ^^KD &^ h ^[ KD^ &^ /b K^D &^ /b KD^ &^
h ^^)PX# &^ h ^[ )D PW# &^ /b )^ PX# &^ /b )D PW# &^

y [ ^[ )D AW &^ y [ D[ )D W> &^ y [ ^[ )D W> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ ^[ )D #W &^ y [ ^[ KD(^ &^ y [ U[ )D AW &^ y [ D[ )D AW &^ y [ ^[ )D AW &^
&^ y [ ^^)AX &^ y [ D^)X> &^ y [ ^^)X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ ^^)#X &^ y [ ^^K(D &^ y [ U^)AX &^ y [ D^)AX &^ y [ ^^)AX

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! 1! 3$ ! 1!


C47!
a W )b U a ^)W a [ )D W /a IU^K
'U ^W )b U 'U ^^)W 'U ^[ )D W 'U ^BIU^K
D U ^)W D U ^)W '^ [ D[ )D W '^ [ BDIU^K
a ^W )b U a ^[ )D W a B^IU^K
'U W*^W )b U 'U W*^[ )D W 'U W*B^IU^K
D U ^)W N
` ^[ )D W N
` ^BIU^K
a W)b U
'U ^W)b U
/D [>U ^)W
Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to the words from (
^ ^K) till (W*^^K).
(2) Rule no. 7.4 applies to the words from (
W PbBKD) till (PWBb KD) in
the (  ).
(3) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from (/
^ [KU) till (W*B^[KU).
(4) Rule no. 9.5 applies to the words from (
W PbBKD) till (PWBb KD) in
the ( ).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(5) In the paradigm of (


D [ PD)W>), rule no. 8.1 applies to all the
words, while rule no. 8.2 applies to all the words of
(
D W )b X>).
(6) The imperative (P
P() is made from (D [ PPD)AW). After
deleting the (P
P PP:0), the last letter is rendered

(2). The () is deleted due to (GP  PF*$@) – two


sâkins coming together.
(7) Where the (GP
P  PPF*$@) no more remains, the

deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of ( PB)H 'P#),


e.g. (
h ^[ KD).
(8) Rule no. 17 applies to the paradigm of (/P01 P2),
e.g. (/
a IU^K).
(9) Rule no. 8 applies to the paradigm of (P
P1 P
P2),
e.g. (
a [ )D W ).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 46

(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P


PQ PP) of the
following verbs:

r
X [ X W> r W W (1)

X [ o X W>  W W$ (2)
r
X [ mD W> r W ^v (3)
D [ oX W> ^ W$ (4)
%X [ X W> %W W (5)

(b) Name the word-forms (—W"


U ) of the following verbs:

W €[ 2X (1)
'^ [ <D[ fD W> (2)
‰
[ U [ oX AW [ ^ (3)
' X [ HD*W^ (4)
[X [ D (5)

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Paradigm of (I> $()

]R '2 ?.V! e )
. . 
. )*  6nW 5+
O[ U ;X [U X [ q^b^ Ò[!UW W X <^ ¨[ W X W!X> OW [ U W ÒUIW W X <^ ¨[ W OX [!UW>  W W
ÒW![U ;X [U D ^£bW OX U>W! 'U W[!UW Ò[!UW ;X [U X [ 4  O[ !UAW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
/D W <b (^W OX [U>^!W 'U W0W![U ` W![U OX U>W! 'U W*W W![U a W W![U OX U>W! 'U W W![U
'U W0W [ X W W0[ X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW OX U>W (^ W '^ [ X W [(^ 'U WW [(^ OX W [(^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h
N
` W0W [ XW ÒW XW
Analysis

The (P1 2) and ( P4 P2) have become similar


after changes were made. However, the original form of
each word is different. The original form of the ( PP2
P1) was ( ` [ PX![W ) while the original form of the ( P2
4) was (ÒU![W ).
Hereunder follow the paradigms of this (6 ).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] 6K ! =' \O ] 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


CD  5 4 
CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!


W W!X> [ ^ OW [!UW> [ ^ 
X W!X> OX [!UW> OW [ U 
W W
0W W!X> [ ^ W[!UW> [ ^ 'U 0W W!X> 'U W [!UW> W [ U W0W
[ 0X W!X> [ ^ [ X [!UW> [ ^ '^ [ 0X W!X> '^ [ X [!UW> [X [ U [0X W

W W!AX [ ^ OW [!UAW [ ^ 
X W!AX OX [!UAW R
[ W [ U R
[ 0W W
0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^ 'U 0W W!AX 'U W [!UAW W*W [ U W*0W W
W [ !WX> [ ^ W [ !UW> [ ^ W [ !WX> W [ !UW> W [ U W [ U

W W!AX [ ^ OW [!UAW [ ^ 
X W!AX OX [!UAW R
W [ U R
W [ U
0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^ 'U 0W W!AX 'U W [!UAW WF*X[ U WF*X[ U
[ 0X W!AX [ ^ [ X [!UAW [ ^ '^ [ 0X W!AX '^ [ X [!UAW [ *X[ U [ *X[ U
[ 0U W!AX [ ^ [ U [!UAW [ ^ U [0U W!AX U [U [!UAW R
U [ U R
U [ U
0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^ 'U 0W W!AX 'U W [!UAW WF*X[ U WF*X[ U
W [ !WAX [ ^ W [ !UAW [ ^ W [ !WAX W [ !UAW h *X[ U h *X[ U

W W D [ ^ OW [ U(^ [ ^ 
X W D OX [ U(^ R
X [ U R
X [ U

W W!#X [ ^ OW [!U#W [ ^ 
X W!#X OX [!U#W W[ U W[ U

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CD 5 4
h 0W W!X^ h W [!UW^ O[ !WX> [ ^ O[ !UW> [ ^
'U̧ 0W W!X^ 'U̧ W [!UW^ 0W !WX> [ ^ W[!UW> [ ^
h 0X W!X^ h X [!UW^ [0X W!X> [ ^ [ X [!UW> [ ^
h 0W W!*X^ h W [!U*W^ O[ !WAX [ ^ O[ !UAW [ ^
'U̧ 0W W!*X^ 'U̧ W [!U*W^ 0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^
'• W[ !WX^ '• W[ !UW^ W [ !WX> [ ^ W [ !UW> [ ^
h 0W W!*X^ h W [!U*W^ O[ !WAX [ ^ O[ !UAW [ ^
'U̧ 0W W!*X^ 'U̧ W [!U*W^ 0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^
h 0X W!*X^ h X [!U*W^ [0X W!AX [ ^ [ X [!UAW [ ^
h 0U W!*X^ h U [!U*W^ [ 0U W!AX [ ^ [ U [!UAW [ ^
'U̧ 0W W!*X^ 'U̧ W [!U*W^ 0W W!AX [ ^ W [!UAW [ ^
'• W[ !W*X^ '• W[ !U*W^ W [ !WAX [ ^ W [ !UAW [ ^
h 0W W D^ h W [ Uq^U O[ WD [ ^ O[ U(^ [ ^
h 0W W!X^ h W [!UWU O[ !W#X [ ^ O[ !U#W [ ^

y [ W [!U*W^ y [ W [!U*W^ y [ X [!UW^ y [ W [!UW^ : 11· ' O  


[ W [!UW^ y [ W [ Uq^^ y [ U [!U*W^ y [ X [!U*W^
y [ 0W W!*X^ y [ 0W W!*X^ y [ 0X W!X^ y [ 0W W!X^ : 11· ' O  
[ 0W W!X^ y [ 0W W qD^ y [ 0U W!*X^ y [ 0X W!*X^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 9! ] 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !

h 0W W!XU h W [!UWU O[ !WXU O[ !UWU


'• 0W W!XU '• W[!UWU 0W W!XU W[!UWU
h 0X W!XU h X [!UWU [0X W!XU [ X [!UWU
h 0W W!*XU h W [!U*WU O[ !W*XU O[ !U*WU
'• 0W W!*XU '• W[!U*WU 0W W!*XU W [!U*WU
'• W[ !WXU '• W[ !UWU W [ !WXU W [ !UWU
h 0W W!*XU h [ U O[ !W*XU O[ U
'• 0W W!*XU '• W [ U 0W W!*XU W [ U
h 0X W!*XU h X [ U [0X W!*XU [ X [ U
h 0U !W*XU h U [ U [ 0U W!*XU [ U [ U
'• 0W W!*XU '• W [ U 0W W!*XU W [ U
'• W[ !W*XU '• W[ U W [ !W*XU W [ U
h 0W W DU h W [ Uq^U O[ WDU O[ Uq^U
h 0W W!XU h W [!UWU O[ !WXU O[ !UWU

y [ U [ U y [ X [ U y [ W [ U y [ W [!U*WU y [ X [!UWU y [ W [!UWU : 11· ' O  .


[ W [!UWU y [ W [ Uq^U
[ 0W W!XU y [ 0W W qDU y [ 0U W!*XU y [ 0X W!*XU y [ 0W W!*XU y [ 0W W!*XU y [ 0X W!XU y [ 0W W!XU : 11· ' O  .

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 6DK ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h 0W W!X> &^ h W [!UW> &^ O[ !WX> &^ O[ !UW> &^
'• 0W W!X> &^ 'U̧ W [!UW> &^ 0W W!X> &^ W[!UW> &^
h 0X W!X> &^ h X [!UW> &^ [0X W!X> &^ [ X [!UW> &^
h 0W W!AX &^ h W [!UAW &^ O[ !WAX &^ O[ !UAW &^
'• 0W W!AX &^ 'U̧ W [!UAW &^ 0W W!AX &^ W [!UAW &^
'• W[ !WX> &^ '• W[ !UW> &^ W [ !WX> &^ W [ !UW> &^
h 0W W!AX &^ h W [!UAW &^ O[ !WAX &^ O[ !UAW &^
'• 0W W!AX &^ 'U̧ W [!UAW &^ 0W W!AX &^ W [!UAW &^
h 0X W!AX &^ h X [!UAW &^ [0X W!AX &^ [ X [!UAW &^
h 0U W!AX &^ h U [!UAW &^ [ 0U W!AX &^ [ U [!UAW &^
'• 0W W!AX &^ 'U̧ W [!UAW &^ 0W W!AX &^ W [!UAW &^
'• W[ !WAX &^ '• W[ !UAW &^ W [ !WAX &^ W [ !UAW &^
h 0W W D &^ h W [ U(^ &^ O[ WD &^ O[ U(^ &^
h 0W W!#X &^ h W [!U#W &^ O[ !W#X &^ O[ !U#W &^

[ W [!UAW &^ y [ W [!UAW &^ y [ X [!UW> &^ y [ W [!UW> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ W [!U#W &^ y [ W [ U(^ &^ y [ U [!UAW &^ y [ X [!UAW &^ y
[ 0W W!AX &^ y [ 0W W!AX &^ y [ 0X W!X> &^ y [ 0W W!X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ 0W W!#X&^ y [ 0W W (DT &^ y [ 0U W!AX &^ y [ 0X W!AX &^ y

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! 1! 3$ ! 1!


C47!
ÒW![U Ò[!UW Ò[!UW ÒUIW
'U WW![U 'U W [!UW 'U W [!UW 'U W IUW
OX U>W!W OX U>W!W '^ [ X [!UW '^ [ X IUW
a W W![U a W [!UW a W IUW
'U W*W W![U 'U W*W [!UW 'U W*W IUW
OX U>W!W N
` W [!UW N
` W IUW

` W![U
'U W0W![U
OX [U>W!W
Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to all the words from (
W PPW ) till
(W[ U).

(2) Rule no. 9 applies to all the words of ( ).


(3) In the (  ), rule no. 8 has been applied.
(4) Rule no. 17 applies to the (/01 2).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5
R 2 t
. V!, e ]. - . )*  <! 5+

` [ €
X W W X <^ ¨<[MW
X W€X> L W [MU W L` IUWM W X <^ ¨<[MW X W€W> W WM

` W€W ;X [U X [ 4  L
[ €
W AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW L
[ MW ;X [U X [ q^b^
3N '2 cK !, e ]. - . )*  6nW 5+
/b #W ;X [U X [ q^b^ /a [UW W X <^ :¨ [#W D WX> /^ [#U W /a IUW# W X <^ :
¨ [#W D WW> ^ W#
a WW ;X [U
X [ 4  /b WAW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW

To distinguish between the (P() of (PF) in which the

(s?Pš) is deleted and the (P() of ( P$(), one will notice

that in ( $(), besides the (m =) and (wP#~ OP}),


the ( FBQ G0) remains in all the words. Examples:
(
[ <UPWM [<DWM ^<WM [ U [ U [X [ U W[U [ U[ KD [DDK ^[ KD). The ( GP0
PFBQ) returns in the words attached to ( PB)9 'P#) and
( 11M '#) as well. Examples: ( h <^WM h W [ U h ^[ KD)
However, in (GP PF), the ( PFBQ GP0) is deleted
from all the words. Examples:
(
SC B^2
W y [ BU2W [BD2W ^B2W y ' W U y ‰
[ U U [X U WU )

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of (


W WM).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

5 47! 9! 9! 87! 87! 67! 67!


K ! ]
5 47! CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!
'^H !

h <W€WU L
[ €
W WU
X W€X>
X W€W> L
W [MU
W WM
'• ^<W€WU ^<W€WU 'U <^W€X> 'U <^W€W> 1^ [MU <^WM
h <DW€WU [ <DW€WU '^ [ <DW€X> '^ [ <DW€W> [1D [MU [<DWM
h <^W€*WU L
[ €
W *WU
X W€AX
X W€AW R
[ 1^ [MU R
[ <^SWM
'U̧ <^W€*WU <^W€*WU 'U <^W€AX 'U <^W€AW W*1^ [MU W*<^WM
'• W1b €
W WU W 1b €
W WU W 1b €
W X> W 1b €
W W> W 1bV MU W 1bV MU
h <^MW L
[ MW
X W€AX
X W€AW R
W 1bV MU R
W 1bV MU
'• <^WM <^WM 'U <^W€AX 'U <^W€AW WF*X1bV MU WF*X1bV MU
h <DWM [ <DWM '^ [ <DW€AX '^ [ <DW€AW [ *X1bV MU [ *X1bV MU
h <UWM [ <UWM U [<UW€AX U [<UW€AW R
U 1bV MU R
U 1bV MU
'• <^WM <^WM 'U <^W€AX 'U <^W€AW WF*X1bV MU WF*X1bV MU
'• W1b MW W 1b MW W 1b €
W AX W 1b €
W AW h *X1bV MU h *X1bV MU
h <^WMq^U L
[ MW q^U
X WM(D
X WM(^ R
X 1bV MU R
X 1bV MU
h <^W€WU L
[ €
W WU
X W€#X
X W€#W W1bV MU W1bV MU

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

FR .'-MV l-V!, e C4A )*  <! 5+


X [ q^b^ 7̀W*)b X W X <^ ¨7W*UKb @U 7X W*)b X> =W [*UKb (D W 7̀W*)b X W X <^ ¨7W*UKb @U 7X W*)b W> 7W W*Kb @U
7̀W*)b X ;X [U
X [ 4  =[ *W)b AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW =[ *WKb @U ;X [U
Analysis
(1) The forms of the (/P01 2) and (P1 P2) have
become the same, namely (7̀P PW*)b X ). However, the original
form of each word is different. The (/P P01 PP2) was
(7̀U*W)b X ) while the (P1 P2) was (7̀WPW*)b X ). Note that the

( P4 2) is also the same as the (P1 P2) as in all

other (6 () of (78 9:9 l).

(2) The verbs of the perfect tense (P P) in the form of
(dIl m HA) and (dPIl mP OP}) are the same as

the (P mP HA) and (P mP OP}) of the

imperative (P(), that is (7W PW*Kb @U) and ([7X PW*Kb @U). However, the

originals of the (P) were (W7 W PW*Kb @U) and ([7X W PW*Kb @U) while
the originals of the (P() were (W7 U PW*Kb @U) and ([7X U PW*Kb @U). The
(P() is constructed from the (P) which is (' U W7U PW*)b AW).
Therefore the () is ( Q).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

R .'-k2 l-V!, e C4A )*  6nW 5+


` W*€
[ X W X <^ ¨W*UM[ @U X W*€
[ X> W [*UM[ D( W ` W*€
[ X W X <^ ¨W*UM[ @U X W*€ [ W> W W*M[ @U
` W*€
[ X ;X [U
X [ 4  [ *W€ [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ *WM[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^

This (6 ) is similar to (7W W*Kb @U) – (‰ $().

Nu . v^, 2l-V!, e C4A )*  <! 5+


W X <^ ¨ W S)^ *U2[ @U %X S)U *W
[ X> W [)U *X2[ (D W ` [)U *W
[ X W X <^ ¨ W S)^ *U2[ @U X [)U *W
[ W> %W ^)*W2[ @U
%̀^)*W
[ X ;X [U X [ 4  [ )U *W [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ U)*W2[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ %̀^)*W [ X
Analysis

(1) The word (%W ^)*WP[2@U) was originally (%W 


W )b *WP[2@U). Rule no. 8
is applied and it changes to (%W ^)*W2
[ @U).
(2) Rule no.8 and rule no. 3 have been applied to (
X [)U *WP[ W>)
which was originally (%X 
U )b *W
[ W>).
(3) The word (ƒW)b *UP[2@U) has been changed due to rule no. 8

to (¨ W S)^ *U2
[ @U).
(4) The change in (
` [)U *W
[ X ) is similar to that of (X [)U *W
[ W>).
PFBQ GP0) is deleted from the (P(), (P¹) and
(5) The (

(%?8 ), e.g. (


[ )U *W
[ W> [ ^ y [ )U *W
[ AW &^ y [ )U *W2[ @U).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(6) When ( B)9 '#) or ( P11M '#) is attached to the (P()


or (¹), the deleted letter returns, e.g.

(
h FW [)U *W
[ AW &^ y h FW [)U *W2[ @U).

Nu . .t-2 l-V!, e C4A )*  6nW 5+


s̈WW€*U2[ @U X W€*W [ X> W [€
U *X2[ (D W ` [€
U *W [ X W X <^ s̈WW€*U2[ @U X [€ U *W
[ W> W W€*W2[ @U
;X [U
X [ 4  [ €
U *W
[ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW [ €U *W2[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ ` W€*W
[ X W X <^
` W€*W
[ X

This (6 ) is similar to (%W ^)*W2


[ @U).

Nu . ,Ml-V!, e C4A )*  <! 5+


[ KU(^ ;X [U X [ q^b^ %̀^)X W X <^ ¨ W ^K@U %X ^)X> W [KU(D W ` [)U X W X <^ ¨ W ^K@U X [ )U X> %W ^K(^
%̀^)X ;X [U
X [ 4  [ )U AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW

The changes of this (6 ) are similar to those of (%W ^)*W2


[ @U).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 47

(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P


PQ PP) of the
following verbs:

X [>=U W> '^ W7 (1)


—D [>?U W> z
^ W (2)
d
X [>U W> 6 W W (3)
–
X [o U W> « W W$ (4)
¬
X [1U W> Y W ^< (5)

(b) Name the word-forms (—W"


U ) of the following verbs:

[?X hFW AW (1)


W 
[ W>^)*WW> [ ^ (2)
[X [1U *W WA [ ^ (3)
h + U [oU *W^ (4)
[ !U[>U (5)

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Paradigms of ( JK#) and (L1)


N . $2 c=V!. "u .$b= !, e . J
. B. )*  <! wMB

X 7[ (D ;X [U X [ q^b^  0X =[ W W X <^ ,® W07X W0=[ X> W 0U 7X W  ¡ W7 W X <^ ,® W07X [ 0X =[ W> ^0W7
;X [U D ^£bW  ¡ W=W 'U W0W =[ W ƒ0=[ W ;X [U X [ 4   X =[ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
“ 0U W=W 'U W>^0[=U ,­ W0=[ U  ¡ W=W 'U W0W =[ U sa W0=[ U ¡ W=W 'U W0W =[ U ƒ0=[ U
›W0[ 7X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW '^ [ 0W 7[ (^W  ¡ W7(^ 'U W0W 7[ (^ W07[ ^( ;X [U /U [ 
U 1b *h /D W <b (^W
N
` WW0[ 7X W ƒ07X 'U WW0[ 7X
Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of (IP> JKP#) and (IP> P$() do not


come on the (6 ) of (#).

(2) The () in the ( P4 2) – (ƒ0= [ PW) and in the ( P2
P3) – (ƒ0=[ PU) is deleted due to rule no. 7. If these words
are used with ( b (^) or as a ( P), the (LP) is retained,
e.g. (
[ D W0=[ U W [ D W0=[ W W W0=[ FU bW W0=[ FW b^).
(3) The () in the word (,­ W0= [ PU) has changed to (s?Pš) as in
the (=).

(4) In the plural of the ( P4 P2) – ( ¡ W=PW) and the

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

plural of the (/P1* P2) – (


¡ W7(^), rule no. 25 has been
applied.
(5) In the word (
“ 0U W=PW) which is the plural of the ( P2
3), the () has changed to a (‰) due to rule no. 20.
(6) Rule no. 26 has been applied to (›W0 [ 7X ).
(7) In the words (' U P
PWW0[ 7X ) and (N
` P
PWW0[ 7X ), the (LP
P) has
changed to a (‰) due to rule no. 22. This applies to all the

words which are (wP#~ HA) of the (/P1* P2) and the

(µP2 w#~ O}) of the (/P1* P2), whether the words

are (]i"), (JK#) or (/ E *).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 ] 6K ! =' \O  ] 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


CD 5 4
CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!

W0=[ X> [ ^ W 0X =[ W> [ ^ W0=[ X> [ 0X =[ W> W 0U 7X W07W


W0W =[ X> [ ^ W 0X =[ W> [ ^ 'U W0W =[ X> 'U W 0X =[ W> W0U 7X W0W 7W
[ 0W =[ X> [ ^ [ 0X =[ W> [ ^ '^ [ 0W =[ X> '^ [ 0X =[ W> [0X 7X [0W 7W
W0=[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^ W0=[ AX [ 0X =[ AW R
[ W0U 7X R
[ 0W 7W
W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^ 'U W0W =[ AX 'U W 0X =[ AW W*W0U 7X W*0W 7W
W [0W =[ X> [ ^ '^ [ 0X =[ W> [ ^ W [0W =[ X> '^ [ 0X =[ W> W [0U 7X '^ [ 0W 7W
W0=[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^ W0=[ AX [ 0X =[ AW R
W [0U 7X N
W [ 0W 7W
W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^ 'U W0W =[ AX 'U W 0X =[ AW WF*X[0U 7X WFAX[ 0W 7W
[ 0W =[ AX [ ^ [ 0X =[ AW [ ^ '^ [ 0W =[ AX '^ [ 0X =[ AW [ *X[0U 7X [ AX[ 0W 7W
[ 0W =[ AX [ ^ [ 0U =[ AW [ ^ W [0W =[ AX W [0U =[ AW R
U [0U 7X N
U [ 0W 7W
W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^ 'U W0W =[ AX 'U W 0X =[ AW WF*X[0U 7X WFAX[ 0W 7W
W [0W =[ AX [ ^ '^ [ 0X =[ AW [ ^ W [0W =[ AX '^ [ 0X =[ AW h *X[0U 7X h AX[ 0W 7W
W07[ (D [ ^ W 0X 7[ (^ [ ^ W07[ (D [ 0X 7[ (^ R
X [0U 7X N
X [ 0W 7W
W0=[ #X [ ^ W 0X =[ #W [ ^ W0=[ #X [ 0X =[ #W W[0U 7X W#[ 0W 7W

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 5 47!
h W0W =[ X^ ' W 0X =[ W^ 
W =[ X> [ ^ 
X =[ W> [ ^
'• W0W =[ X^ '• W 0X =[ W^ W0W =[ X> [ ^ W 0X =[ W> [ ^
' X 0W =[ X^ h 0X =[ W^ [ 0W =[ X> [ ^ [ 0X =[ W> [ ^
h W0W =[ *X^ ' W 0X =[ *W^ 
W =[ AX [ ^ 
X =[ AW [ ^
'• W0W =[ *X^ '• W 0X =[ *W^ W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^
'• W[0W =[ X^ '• #W[ 0X =[ W^ W [0W =[ X> [ ^ '^ [ 0X =[ W> [ ^
h W0W =[ *X^ ' W 0X =[ *W^ 
W =[ AX [ ^ 
X =[ AW [ ^
'• W0W =[ *X^ '• W 0X =[ *W^ W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^
' X 0W =[ *X^ h 0X =[ *W^ [ 0W =[ AX [ ^ [ 0X =[ AW [ ^
h U0W =[ *X^ h 0U =[ *W^ [ 0W =[ AX [ ^ [ 0U =[ AW [ ^
'• W0W =[ *X^ '• W 0X =[ *W^ W0W =[ AX [ ^ W 0X =[ AW [ ^
'• W[0W =[ *XU '• W#[ 0X =[ *W^ W [0W =[ AX [ ^ '^ [ 0X =[ AW [ ^
h W0W 7[ qD^ ' W 0X 7[ q^^ 
W 7[ (D [ ^ 
X 7[ (^ [ ^
h W0W =[ X^ ' W 0X =[ W^ 
W =[ #X [ ^ 
X =[ #W [ ^

y 'b W 0X =[ *W^ y 'b W 0X =[ *W^ y [ 0X =[ W^ y 'b W X0=[ W^ : 11· ' O  
'W0X =[ W^ y 'b W 0X 7[ q^^ y [ 0U =[ *W^ y [ 0X =[ *W^
y [ W0W =[ *X^ y [ W0W =[ *X^ y 'b X 0W =[ X^ y [ W0W =[ X^ : 11· ' O  
[ W0W =[ X^ y [ W0W 7[ qD^ y [ U0W =[ *X^ y 'b X 0W =[ *X^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 9! ] 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h W0W =[ XU ' W 0X =[ WU 
W =[ XU 
X =[ WU
'• W0W =[ XU '• W 0X =[ WU W0W =[ XU W 0X =[ WU
' X 0W =[ XU h 0X =[ WU [ 0W =[ XU [ 0X =[ WU
h W0W =[ *XU ' W 0X =[ *WU 
W =[ *XU 
X =[ *WU
'• W0W =[ *XU '• W 0X =[ *WU W0W =[ *XU W 0X =[ *WU
'• W[0W =[ XU '• #W[ 0X =[ WU W [0W =[ XU '^ [ 0X =[ WU
h W0W =[ *XU ' W 0X 7[ (DS 
W =[ *XU 
X 7[ (DS
'• W0W =[ *XU '• W 0X 7[ (DS W0W =[ *XU W 0X 7[ (DS
' X 0W =[ *XU h 0X 7[ (DS [ 0W =[ *XU [ 0X 7[ (DS
h U0W =[ *XU h 0U 7[ (DS [ 0W =[ *XU [ 0U 7[ (DS
'• W0W =[ *XU '• W 0X 7[ (DS W0W =[ *XU W 0X 7[ (DS
'• W[0W =[ *XU '• #W[ 0X 7[ (DS W [0W =[ *XU '^ [ 0X 7[ (DS
h W0W 7[ qDU ' W 0X 7[ q^U 
W 7[ qaU 
X 7[ q^U
h W0W =[ XU ' W 0X =[ WU 
W =[ `U 
X =[ WU

y 'b W 0X 7[ (DS y 'b W 0X =[ *WU y [ 0X =[ WU y 'b W 0X =[ WU : 11· ' O  .
'W0X =[ WU y 'b W 0X 7[ q^U y [ 0U 7[ (D y [ 0X 7[ (DS
y [ W0W =[ *XU y [ W0W =[ *XU y 'b X 0W =[ XU y [ W0W =[ XU : 11· ' O  .
[ W0W =[ XU y [ W0W 7[ qDU y [ U0W =[ *XU y 'b X 0W =[ *XU

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 6DK ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h W0W =[ X> &^ ' W 0X =[ W> &^ 
W =[ X> &^ 
X =[ W> &^
'• W0W =[ X> &^ '• W 0X =[ W> &^ W0W =[ X> &^ W 0X =[ W> &^
' X 0W =[ X> &^ h 0X =[ W> &^ [ 0W =[ X> &^ [ 0X =[ W> &^
h W0W =[ AX &^ ' W 0X =[ AW &^ 
W =[ AX &^ 
X =[ AW &^
'• W0W =[ AX &^ '• W 0X =[ AW &^ W0W =[ AX &^ W 0X =[ AW &^
'• W[0W =[ X> &^ '• #W[ 0X =[ W> &^ W [0W =[ X> &^ '^ [ 0X =[ W> &^
h W0W =[ AX &^ ' W 0X =[ AW &^ 
W =[ AX &^ 
X =[ AW &^
'• W0W =[ AX &^ '• W 0X =[ AW &^ W0W =[ AX &^ W 0X =[ AW &^
' X 0W =[ AX &^ h 0X =[ AW &^ [ 0W =[ AX &^ [ 0X =[ AW &^
h U0W =[ AX &^ h 0U =[ AW &^ [ 0W =[ AX &^ [ 0U =[ AW &^
'• W0W =[ AX &^ '• W 0X =[ AW &^ W0W =[ AX &^ W 0X =[ AW &^
'• W[0W =[ AX &^ '• W#[ 0X =[ AW &^ W [0W =[ AX &^ '^ [ 0X =[ AW &^
h W0W 7[ (D &^ ' W 0X 7[ (^ &^ 
W 7[ (D &^ 
X 7[ (^ &^
h W0W =[ #X &^ ' W 0X =[ #W &^ 
W =[ #X &^ 
X =[ #W &^

&^ y 'b W 0X =[ AW &^ y [ 0X =[ W> &^ y 'b W 0X =[ W> &^ : 11· ' O  
'W0X =[ #W &^ y 'b W 0X 7[ (^ &^ y [ 0U =[ AW &^ y [ 0X =[ AW &^ y 'b W 0X =[ AW
&^ y [ W0W =[ AX &^ y 'b X 0W =[ X> &^ y [ W0W =[ X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ W0W =[ #X &^ y [ W0W 7[ (D &^ y [ U0W =[ AX &^ y 'b X 0W =[ AX &^ y [ W0W =[ AX

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 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! 1! 3$ ! 1!


C47!
ƒ0=[ U ƒ0=[ W  0X =[ W 
¡ W7
'U W0W =[ U 'U W0W =[ W 'U h 0X =[ W 'U W0U W7

¡ W=W 
¡ W=W '^ [ “ 0X =[ W '^ [ 0X W7
sa W0=[ U sa h 0X =[ W a W0U W7
'U WAW0=[ U 'U WAh 0X =[ W 'U W*W0U W7

¡ W=W N
` h 0X =[ W N
` W0U W7
,­ W0=[ U
'U S,W0=[ U
“ 0U W=W
Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7 has been applied to (W07W ).

(2) If an (LP) is changed from a (), it is written in the

form of an (LP), e.g. (PW07W ). If the (LP) is changed from a

(‰),it is written in the form of an (‰), e.g. (œW ).

(3) If an (LP) is deleted due to (GP  PF*$@) or


(>P
PA), if (b ^) is attached or the word is ( PP), the

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(LP) will be written in the form of a (‰) in all three cases

– (P‹ dP O< ), e.g. If the word (ƒ0=[ PW) has
(
b ^) attached to it or it is ( PP), the (LPP) will be
written in the form of a (‰) e.g. ( [ QD œ0=[ PW W W0=[ PWFb mPp),
(
[ QD œ0=[ P
PW W œ0=[ P PWFb R
X P P[>(^W ) and ( W œ0=[ P PWFbU N
X [ W P
PW
[ QD œ0=[ PPW). According to the grammarian, Sībawayh, in
(dP P), the (sP) LP) will be written in the

form of an (L), e.g. ( [ D W0=[ W R


X [>(^W ).
(4) In the dual form (WP PW07W ), the () remains unchanged
because it appears before the (L) of ( HA).

(5) From (' ^ [ PPW07W ) till the end, all the words are in their
original form.
(6) In the (P P), rule no. 11 has been applied to
all the words whereby the () changes to (‰). In the word

(
[ 0X 7X ), the (‰) is deleted.
(7) In words like (
[ 0X =[ PW>), the () has become (P2) due
to rule no. 10.1. In ('
^ [ 0X =[ PW>), ('^ [ 0X =[ PWA) and (W [0U =[ PWA), the ()
is deleted due to rule no. 10.2 and 10.3. Besides the ( OP}
wP#~) and all the forms of ( PHA), all the remaining words

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are unchanged.
(8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the
masculine and feminine, namely ('
^ [ 0X =[ W>) and ('^ [ 0X =[ AW).
(9) In the (P P), the () has changed to (‰) due
to rule no. 20, e.g. (W0= [ X>).
(10) The ( w#~ =) and (P wP#~ O}) have

the same word-forms, namely ( W [0W =[ P PXA). However, the


original form of the (P PP wP PP#~ =P PP) was
(
W [>U 0W =[ AX) while the original form of the (P wP#~ OP})
was (' ^ [ 0W =[ AX).
(11) In words like (›œ0= [ PX> [ P^), due to the (LP) at the end,
the effect of the ( [ ^) is not visible.
(12) If at the time of (GP P  P PF*$@), the first sâkin
letter is a (s=P), it is deleted. If it is not a (s=P), the () is

rendered a ( FP) and the (‰) a (sP ), e.g. ('  X 0W =[ PX^) and
(
h U0W =[ *X^).
(13) Rule no. 11 has been applied to all the words of
(/P01 P2). Rule no. 10 applies to ( ¡ W7). The rules of

(n) 2‘) mentioned previously apply to it.

(14) Only (%l7@) has been applied to the (1 2).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 48

(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P


PQ PP) of the
following verbs:

[ FX [ W> WF2W (1)


[ X [ W> W X 2W (2)
[ 1D [ W> ^10W (3)
[ BD![W> :
^ W (4)
[ BD€[ W> : ^ MW (5)

(b) Name the word-forms (—W"


U ) of the following verbs:

›œW AW (1)
W 1U [ *W2[ (^ [ ^ (2)
/• € W AX [ ^ (3)
h WBU*W![W^ (4)
W F[ KU(^ (5)

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6R 2 c !, e )
. . 
. )*  6nW wMB
%U [ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^  U [ W W X <^ ƒ[ W ›œ[ X> W U X W %¡ W W X <^ ƒ[ W [ U [ W> ›œW
›ƒ[ U ;X [U D ^£bW %¡ WW 'U WW [ W ›ƒ[ W ;X [U X [ 4  %U [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
/D W <b (^W “ U WW 'U W>^[U ,­ W[ U W %¡ WW 'U WAW[ U sa W[ U %¡ WW 'U WW [ U
'U WW[ X ›œ[ X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW '^ [ X [ (^ W %¡ W(^ 'U WW [ (^ ›œ[ (^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h
N
` WW[ X W ›ƒX
Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] 6K ! =' \O ] 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


CD  5 4 
CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!

›œ[ X> [ ^ W U [ W> [ ^ ›œ[ X> [ U [ W> W U X ›œW


WW [ X> [ ^ WU [ W> [ ^ 'U WW [ X> 'U WU [ W> WU X WW W
[ W [ X> [ ^ [ W [ X> [ ^ '^ [ W [ X> '^ [ X [ W> [X X [W W
›œ[ AX [ ^ W U [ AW [ ^ ›œ[ AX [ U [ AW R
[ WU X R
[ W W
WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^ 'U WW [ AX 'U WU [ AW W*WU X W*W W
W [W [ X> [ ^ W [U [ W> [ ^ W [W [ X> W [U [ W> W [U X W [W W
›œ[ AX [ ^ W U [ AW [ ^ ›œ[ AX [ U [ AW R
W [U X R
W [W W
WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^ 'U WW [ AX 'U WU [ AW WF*X[U X WF*X[W W
[ W [ AX [ ^ [ X [ AW [ ^ '^ [ W [ AX '^ [ X [ AW [ *X[U X [ *X[W W
[ W [ AX [ ^ [ U [ AW [ ^ W [W [ AX W [U [ AW R
U [U X R
U [W W
WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^ 'U WW [ AX 'U WU [ AW WF*X[U X WF*X[W W
W [W [ AX [ ^ W [U [ AW [ ^ W [W [ AX W [U [ AW h *X[U X h *X[W W
›œ[ (D [ ^ W U [ (^ [ ^ ›œ[ (D [ U [ (^ R
X [U X R
X [W W
›œ[ #X [ ^ W U [ #W [ ^ ›œ[ #X [ U [ #W W[U X W[W W

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 5 47!
h WW [ X^ h WU [ W^ %W [ X> [ ^ %U [ W> [ ^
'• WW [ X^ '• WU [ W^ WW [ X> [ ^ WU [ W> [ ^
' X W [ X^ h X [ W^ [ W [ X> [ ^ [ X [ W> [ ^
h WW [ *X^ h WU [ *W^ %W [ AX [ ^ %U [ AW [ ^
'• WW [ *X^ '• WU [ *W^ WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^
'• W[W [ X^ '• W[U [ W^ W [W [ X> [ ^ W [U [ W> [ ^
h WW [ *X^ h U [ *W^ %W [ AX [ ^ %U [ AW [ ^
'• WW [ *X^ '• WU [ *W^ WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^
' X W [ *X^ h X [ *W^ [ W [ AX [ ^ [ X [ AW [ ^
h UW [ *X^ h U [ *W^ [ W [ AX [ ^ [ U [ AW [ ^
'• WW [ *X^ '• WU [ *W^ WW [ AX [ ^ WU [ AW [ ^
'• W[W [ *X^ '• W[U [ *W^ W [W [ AX [ ^ W [U [ AW [ ^
h WW [ qD^ h WU [ q^^ %W [ (D [ ^ %U [ (^ [ ^
h WW [ X^ h WU [ W^ %W [ #X [ ^ %U [ #W [ ^

y [ WU [ *W^ y [ WU [ *W^ y [ X [ W^ y [ WU[ W^ : 11· ' O  
[ WU [ W^ y [ WU [ q^^ y [ U [ *W^ y [ X [ *W^
y [ WW [ *X^ y [ WW [ *X^ y 'b X W [ X^ y [ WW [ X^ : 11· ' O  
[ WW [ X^ y [ WW [ qD^ y [ UW [ *X^ y 'b X W [ *X^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 9! ] 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h WW [ XU h WU [ WU %W [ XU %U [ WU
'• WW [ XU '• WU [ WU WW [ XU WU [ WU
' X W [ XU h X [ WU [ W [ XU [ X [ WU
h WW [ *XU h WU [ *WU %W [ *XU %U [ *WU
'• WW [ *XU '• WU [ *WU WW [ *XU WU [ *WU
'• W[W [ XU '• W[U [ WU W [W [ XU W [U [ WU
h WW [ *XU h WU [ @U %W [ *XU %U [ @U
'• WW [ *XU '• WU [ @U WW [ *XU WU [ @U
' X W [ *XU h X [ @U [ W [ *XU [ X [ @U
h UW [ *XU h U [ @U [ W [ *XU [ U [ @U
'• WW [ *XU '• WU [ @U WW [ *XU WU [ @U
'• W[W [ *XU '• W[U [ @U W [W [ *XU W [U [ @U
h WW [ qDU h WU [ q^U %W [ qaU %U [ q^U
h WW [ XU h WU [ WU %W [ XU %U [ WU

y [ X [ @U y [ WU [ @U y [ WU [ *WU y [ X [ WU y [ WU [ WU : 11· ' O  .
[ WU [ WU y [ WU [ q^U y [ U [ @U
y [ X [ *XU y [ WW [ *XU y [ WW [ *XU y [ X [XU y [ WW [ XU : 11· ' O  .
[ WW [ XU y [ WW [ qDU y [ UW [ *XU

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 6DK ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h WW [ X> &^ h WU [ W> &^ %W [ X> &^ %U [ W> &^
'• WW [ X> &^ '• WU [ W> &^ WW [ X> &^ WU [ W> &^
' X W [ X> &^ h X [ W> &^ [ W [ X> &^ [ X [ W> &^
h WW [ AX &^ h WU [ AW &^ %W [ AX &^ %U [ AW &^
'• WW [ AX &^ '• WU [ AW &^ WW [ AX &^ WU [ AW &^
'• W[W [ X> &^ '• W[U [ W> &^ W [W [ X> &^ W [U [ W> &^
h WW [ AX &^ h U [ AW &^ %W [ AX &^ %U [ AW &^
'• WW [ AX &^ '• WU [ AW &^ WW [ AX &^ WU [ AW &^
' X W [ AX &^ h X [ AW &^ [ W [ AX &^ [ X [ AW &^
h UW [ AX &^ h U [ AW &^ [ W [ AX &^ [ U [ AW &^
'• WW [ AX &^ '• WU [ AW &^ WW [ AX &^ WU [ AW &^
'• W[W [ AX &^ '• W[U [ AW &^ W [W [ AX &^ W [U [ AW &^
h WW [ (D &^ h WU [ (^ &^ %W [ (D &^ %U [ (^ &^
h WW [ #X &^ h WU [ #W &^ %W [ #X &^ %U [ #W &^

[ WU [ AW &^ y [ WU [ AW &^ y [ X [ W> &^ y [ WU [ W> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ WU [ #W &^ y [ WU [ (^ &^ y [ U [ AW &^ y [ X [ AW &^ y
[ WW [ AX &^ y [ WW [ AX &^ y 'b X W [ X> &^ y [ WW [ X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ WW [ #X &^ y [ WW [ (D &^ y [ UW [ AX &^ y 'b XW [ AX &^ y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! 1! 3$ ! 1!


C47!
›ƒ[ U ›ƒ [ W  U [ W %¡ W
'U WW [ U 'U WW [ W 'U hU [ W 'U WU W
%¡ WW %¡ WW '^ [ “U [ W '^ [ X W
sa W[ U a hU [ W a WU W
'U WAW[ U 'U *WhU [ W 'U W*WU W
%¡ WW N
` hU [ W N
` WU W
,­ W[ U
'U S,W[ U
“ U WW
Analysis

(1) The ( 4 2) – (›Pƒ[ W ) is (GP _P*1) if the verb


is (JK#).

(2) When the word (›PPƒ[ W ) is used with (


b ^) or as a
( ), the (L) reverts, e.g. (›œ[ F
W b^) , ([ QD œ[ W ).
(3) Rule no. 25 applies to (%¡ WW ) and (%¡ W(^).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(4) Rule no. 7 has been applied to (›P


Pœ[ (^) whereby the
(‰) has changed to an (L).

(5) In the broken plural (›PƒX ), the (‰) was changed to an

(LPP) and was thereafter deleted due to ( PPF*$@


G ).
(6) In the words (›PœW ) and ([PWW ), the (‰) was changed to

an (L) due to rule no. 7.

(7) In the words (R


[ PWW ) and (PW*W W ), the (LP) was deleted
due to (G  F*$@).
(8) Rule no. 10 has been applied to ([X X ).

(9) Rule no. 10 has also been applied to (


[ PU[ W>), ([ PU[ AW),
(
[ U [ (^), ([ PU[ #W), ('^ [ PX[ W>), ('^ [ PX[ AW), (W [U [ PWA). After changes
were made in the singular feminine second person -
(
W [U [ AW) – it became like the plural feminine second person.
(10) Rule no. 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs
like (›œ[ X>) etc.

(11) In the word (%¡ W), the (‰) was made sâkin and then

deleted due to (G  F*$@).


(12) In the word ('
^ [ PPXW), the harakah of the (‰) was

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

transferred to the preceding letter, the (‰) was changed to

() and then deleted.


(13) Rule no. 14 has been applied to all the words of
(1 2), e.g. ( U [ W ).

N !.
2 q !. 6.q !, e ]. - . )*  <! wMB
X [ q^b^  
U [ W W X <^ ƒU ›œ[ X> W  U X W Y ¡ W W X <^ ƒU ›œ[ W> W  U W
Y
¡ WW 'U W W [ W › ƒ [ W ;X [U
X [ 4  YW [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW Y W [ @U ;X [U
,­ W[ U Y¡ WW 'U WAW[ U sa W[ U Y ¡ WW U'W W [ U › ƒ [ U ;X [U D ^£bW
W '^ [ 
W [ (^ 'U WW [ (^ ›œ[ (^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h /D W <b (^W “ 
U WW 'U W>^[U
N
` WW
[ X W › ƒ X 'U WW[ X ›œ [ X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW Y¡ W(^
Analysis

(1) The same changes as (›œ0=


[ PX> W PU07X ) have occurred in the
active tense of this verb. The other words are affected in
the same way as (VX0=
[ W> W07W ).
(2) As an exception to the rule, the rule of (
 PU7U ) has been
applied to the word (
U [ W ).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

N '.Q
2t
. V!, e ]. - . )*  6nW wMB
 + U€ [ W W X <^ ¨ W+
[ MW ›œ+€ [ X> W + U MX W « ¡ WM W X <^ ¨ W+[ MW ›œ+€ [ W> W +U MW
'U W+W€ [ W ›+ ƒ€ [ W ;X [U
X [ 4  – W € [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW – W M[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^
«
¡ W€W 'U WAW+€ [ U sa W+€ [ U «¡ W€W 'U W+ W€[ U ›+ ƒ€ [ U ;X [U D ^£bW «
¡ W€W
'U W+W M[ (^ ›œ+M[ (^ ;X [U /U [ U 1b *h /D W <b (^W “ „U W€W 'U W>^+[€U ,­ W+€ [ U W
N
` WW+ [ MX W ›+ ƒ MX 'U WW+ [ MX ›œ+ [ MX ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW «
¡ WM(^ W '^ [ + W M[ (^
The verbs of this category are very similar to those of
(
[ U [ W> ›œW ).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 49

(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P


PQ PP) of the
following verbs:

[ QU ![W> ›œQ W (1)


‰
[ U =[ W> ¯œ7W (2)
›œ)![W> W )U W (3)
[ )U [ W> ›œ)2W (4)
[ 5U ![W> ›œ5 W (5)

(b) Name the word-forms (—W"


U ) of the following verbs:

›œ)Bb AW (1)
W U![AW [ ^ (2)
[ 1U Qb AW [ ^ (3)
'• W[W
[ *W^ (4)
[+ X [ @U (5)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

N W.,M- V!, e )
. . 
. )*  x  y'
r
U ;X [U X [ q^b^  KU[ W W X <^ ¨ W>^KU ›œK[ X> W KUX W r ¡ W W X <^ ¨ W>^KU [ )U W> ›œKW
›¨)[U ;X [U D ^£bW r ¡ WW 'U WK^S[ W ›K̈[W ;X [U X [ 4  gU AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
/D W <b (^W “ KUWW 'U W>^)[U ,­ ^)[U W r ¡ WW 'U WAS)^ [U sa^)[U r ¡ WW 'U W)^S [U
'U WWKb X ›œKb X ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW r ¡ W(^ W '^ [ K^S[ (^ 'U WK^[ (^ ›œK[ (^ ;X [U /U [
U 1b *h
N
` WWKb X W ›K̈X

In this category of verbs, the rules of (P


PH) have been
applied to the ( PFBQ ,P<) while the rules of (JKP#) have
been applied to the ( PFBQ GP P0). Most of the paradigms
are similar to those of (
[ U [ W> ›œW ).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 ] 6K ! =' \O ] 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


CDG! 5 47! 
CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!

›œK[ X> [ ^ W )U W> [ ^ ›œK[ X> [ )U W> W KUX ›œKW


WK^[ X> [ ^ W)U W> [ ^ 'U WK^[ X> 'U W)U W> WKUX WK^W
[ K^[ X> [ ^ [)D W> [ ^ '^ [ K^[ X> '^ [ )D W> [KDX [K^W
›œK[ AX [ ^ W )U AW [ ^ ›œK[ AX [ )U AW R
[ WKUX R
[ K^W
WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^ 'U WK^[ AX 'U W)U AW W*WKUX W*K^W
W [K^[ X> [ ^ W [)U W> [ ^ W [K^[ X> W [)U W> W [KUX W [K^W
›œK[ AX [ ^ W )U AW [ ^ ›œK[ AX [ )U AW R
W [KUX R
W [K^W
WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^ 'U WK^[ AX 'U W)U AW WF*X[KUX WF*X[K^W
[ K^[ AX [ ^ [)D AW [ ^ '^ [ K^[ AX '^ [ )D AW [ *X[KUX [ *X[K^W
[ K^[ AX [ ^ [ )U AW [ ^ W [K^[ AX W [)U AW R
U [KUX R
U [K^W
WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^ 'U WK^[ AX 'U W)U AW WF*X[KUX WF*X[K^W
W [K^[ AX [ ^ W [)U AW [ ^ W [K^[ AX W [)U AW h *X[KUX h *X[K^W
›œK[ (D [ ^ W KU(^ [ ^ ›œK[ (D [ KU(^ R
X [KUX R
X [K^W
›œK[ #X [ ^ W )U #W [ ^ ›œK[ #X [ )U #W W[KUX W[K^W

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 5 47!
h WK^[ X^ h W)U W^ r
W [ X> [ ^ gU W> [ ^
'• WK^[ X^ '• W)U W^ WK^[ X> [ ^ W)U W> [ ^
' X K^[ X^ h )D W^ [K^[ X> [ ^ [ )D W> [ ^
h WK^[ *X^ h W)U *W^ r
W [ AX [ ^ gU AW [ ^
'• WK^[ *X^ ' W)U *W^ WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^
'• W[K^[ X^ '• W[)U W^ W [K^[ X> [ ^ W [)U W> [ ^
h WK^[ *X^ h W)U *W^ r
W [ AX [ ^ gU AW [ ^
'• WK^[ *X^ '• W)U *W^ WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^
' X K^[ *X^ h )D *W^ [ K^[ AX [ ^ [ )D AW [ ^
h UK^[ *X^ h )U *W^ [ K^[ AX [ ^ [ )U AW [ ^
'• WK^[ *X^ '• W)U *W^ WK^[ AX [ ^ W)U AW [ ^
'• W[K^[ *X^ '• W[)U *W^ W [K^[ AX [ ^ W [)U AW [ ^
h WK^[ qD^ h WKUq^^ r
W [ (a [ ^ r
U (^ [ ^
h WK^[ X^ h W)U W^ r
W [ #X [ ^ gU #W [ ^

y [ )D *W^ y [ W)U *W^ y [ W)U *W^ y [ )D W^ y [ W)U W^ : 11· ' O  
[ W)U W^ y [ WKUq^^ y [ )U *W^
y [ WK^[ *X^ y [ WK^[ *X^ y [ KD[ X^ y [ W^K[ X^ : 11· ' O  
[ WK^[ X^ y [ WK^[ qD^ y [ KU[ *X^ y [ KD[ *X^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 9! ] 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h WK^[ XU h W)U WU r
W [ XU gU WU
'• WK^[ XU '• W)U WU WK^[ XU W)U WU
' X K^[ XU h )D WU [K^[ XU [)D WU
h WK^[ *XU h W)U *WU r
W [ *XU gU *WU
'• WK^[ *XU '• W)U *WU WK^[ *XU W)U *WU
'• W[K^[ XU '• W[)U WU W [K^[ XU W [)U WU
h WK^[ *XU h WKU r
W [ *XU r
U
'• WK^[ *XU '• WKU WK^[ *XU WKU
' X K^[ *XU h KD [ K^[ *XU [ KD
h UK^[ *XU h KU [ K^[ *XU [ KU
'• WK^[ *XU '• WKU WK^[ *XU WKU
'• W[K^[ *XU '• W[KU W [K^[ *XU W [KU
h WK^[ qDU h WKUq^U r
W [ qaU r
U q^U
h WK^[ XU h W)U WU r
W [ XU gU WU

y [ KU y [ KD y [ WKU y [ W)U *WU y [ )D WU y [W)U WU : 11· ' O  .
[ W)U WU y [ WKUq^U
'b X K^[ *XU y [ WK^[ *XU y [ WK^[ *XU y 'b X ^K[ XU y [ WK^[ XU : 11· ' O  .
[ WK^[ XU y [ WK^[ qDU y [ UK^[ *XU y

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

] CDG! 6DK ! ] 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! '^H ! K !
h WK^[ X> &^ h W)U W> &^ r
W [ X> &^ gU W> &^
'• WK^[ X> &^ '• W)U W> &^ WK^[ X> &^ W)U W> &^
' X K^[ X> &^ h )D W> &^ [ K^[ X> &^ [)D W> &^
h WK^[ AX &^ h W)U AW &^ r
W [ AX &^ gU AW &^
'• WK^[ AX &^ '• W)U AW &^ WK^[ AX &^ W)U AW &^
'• W[K^[ X> &^ '• W[)U W> &^ W [K^[ X> &^ W [)U W> &^
h WK^[ AX &^ h W)U AW &^ r
W [ AX &^ gU AW &^
'• WK^[ AX &^ '• W)U AW &^ WK^[ AX &^ W)U AW &^
' X K^[ AX &^ h )D AW &^ [ K^[ AX &^ [)D AW &^
h UK^[ AX &^ h )U AW &^ [ K^[ AX &^ gU AW &^
'• WK^[ AX &^ '• W)U AW &^ WK^[ AX &^ W)U AW &^
'• W[K^[ AX &^ '• W[)U AW &^ W [K^[ AX &^ W [)U AW &^
h WK^[ (D &^ h WKU(^ &^ r
W [ (a &^ r
U (^ &^
h WK^[ #X &^ h W)U #W &^ r
W [ #X &^ gU #W &^

&^ y [ W)U AW &^ y [ W)U AW &^ y [ )D W> &^ y [ W)U W> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ W)U #W &^ y [ WKU(^ &^ y [ )U AW &^ y [ )D AW
[ WK^[ AX &^ y [ WK^[ AX &^ y 'b X K^[ X> &^ y [ WK^[ X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ WK^[ #X &^ y [ WK^[ (D &^ y [ UK^[ AX &^ y 'b X K^[ AX &^ y

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! 1! 3$ ! 1!


C47!
›)¨ [U ›K̈[W  KU[ W r
¡ W
'U W)^ [U 'U WK^[ W 'U hKU[ W 'U WKUW
r
¡ WW r
¡ WW '^ [ “KU[ W '^ [ KDW
sa ^)[U a hKU[ W a WKUW
'U WA^)[U 'U *WhKU[ W 'U W*WKUW
r
¡ WW N
` hKU[ W N
` WKUW
,­ ^)[U
'U S,^)[U
“ KUWW
Analysis

(1) The () of (


[ PPU)W>) and all the other verbs has been
deleted due to the rule of (=
X U W>).
(2) The rule of (
[ PPU[ W>) has been applied to the (‰) of
(
[ )U W>).
(3) The imperative (r
U ) was constructed from ([ P )U AW). After

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deleting the (P


P PP:0), the last letter which is a

( B ) was deleted. It became (r


U ).

N W.%, - V!, e S
.

- . )*  x  y'
U ;X [U X [ q^b^  U[ W W X <^ ¨ W>&^ U ›œ[ X> W UX W ¡ W W X <^ ¨ W>&^ U [ BUW> UW
›B̈[U ;X [U D ^£bW ¡ WW 'U W^[ W ›¨[ W ;X [U X [ 4  /U AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW
/U [U 1b *h /D W <b (^W “ UWW 'U W>^B[U ,­ ^B[U W ¡ WW 'U WASB^[U sa ^B[U ¡ WW 'U WB^S[U
›¨X 'U WWbX ›œbX ;X [U w D #h~W FX bW ¡ W (^ W '^ [ ^[ (^ 'U W^[ (^ ›œ[ (^ ;X [U
N
` WWbX W

The paradigms of this category is similar to (


[ )U W> ›œKW ).

b6dz !, e )
. . 
. )*   ^ y'
;X [U X [ q^b^ ‰
 U fb W W X <^ ¶j^ ¯œfb X> ‰W U jD W ¡ ^j W X <^ ¶j^ ‰ [ U fb W> ¯œj^
;X [U D ^£bW ¡ ^fW 'U W>W fb W ¯ƒ fb W ;X [U X [ 4  U fb AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW U jb @U
'U W>Wfb U ,­ Wfb U W ¡ ^fW 'U WAWfb U sa Wfb U ¡ ^fW 'U W>W fb U ¯ƒ fb U
w
D #h~W FX bW ¡ ^j(^ W '^ [ W jb (^ 'U W>W jb (^ ¯œjb (^ ;X [ U /U [
U 1b *h /D W <b (^W ‰
“ U ^fW
N
` WW>[ jD W ¯ƒ jD 'U WW>[ jD ›œ>[ jD ;X [U

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

"u .?-2 l-V!, e C4A )*  <! wMB


&^ ;X [0W X [ hW d
U *W[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ ¡d*WP[iX W X <^ ®,W!*U[ @U [ !U*Wi
[ W> ›œ!*W[ @U
›!ƒ*Wi [ X ;X [U X [ 4 ^ d
U *Wi
[ AW

"u .?-2 l-V!, e C4A )*  6nW wMB


W X <^ ®,W!*U$[ @U ›œ!*Wo
[ X> W !U*X$[ (DW d
¡ *WP[oX W X <^ ®,W!*U$[ @U [!U*Wo [ W> ›œ!*W$[ @U
›!ƒ*Wo[ X ;X [U X [ 4 ^ d
U *Wo [ AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW d
U *W$[ @U ;X [U X [ q^b^ ›!ƒ*Wo
[ X

"u ,$2 l-V!, e C4A )*  <! wMB


;X [U X [ q^b^ ›B̈[ X W X <^ ®,:^ 0[ @U ›B^[ X> W BU0[ (D W /¡ [ X W X <^ ®,:
^ 0[ @U [ BU[ X> ›^B0[ (^
›B̈[ X ;X [U
X [ 4 ^ /U [ AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW /U 0[ (^

N '.-

2 c !, e 3'4O )*  <! wMB


›F¶
W X W X <^ ¨ WFU
[ AW ›œFC
W X> W F¢ 2X W ³ W X W X <^ ¨ WFU
[ AW [ F¢ W X> ›œFC 2W
›F¶ W X ;X [U X [ 4 ^ ¢
W AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW ¢ 2W ;X [U X [ q^b^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

N '.^- V c !, e 3'4O )*  6nW wMB


g¢ ^ ;X [U X [ q^b^ ›)º B^X W X <^ ¨ W)U Bb AW ›) B^X> W )• D W g³ B^X W X <^ ¨ W)U Bb AW [ )• B^X> ›)^
›)º B^X ;X [U X [ 4 ^ g¢ B^AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW

N W.- ^V c !, e 3'4O )*   ^ y'


;X [U X [ q^b^ ¯¶ )^ X W X <^ ¨ W>U )b AW ¯h )^ X> ‰
W ¢ KD W ³ )^ X W X <^ ¨ W>U )b AW ‰
[ ¢ )^ X> ¯hK^
¯¶ )^ X ;X [U X [ 4 ^ ¢ )^ AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW ¢ K^

N %, .&R V!, e $ )*  <! wMB


X [ q^b^ ›¨W5X W X <^ s̈^&W5X ›^W5X> W U[ lD W ¡ W5X W X <^ s̈^&W5X [ UW5X> ›^^l
ݬW5X ;X [U
X [ 4 ^ U W5AX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW U ^l ;X [U

N ,!. R V!, e $ )*  6nW wMB


X [ q^b^ ›ƒ WX W X <^ s̈^WX ›W WX> W U [ X W %¡ WX W X <^ s̈^WX [ U WX> ›W W
›ƒ WX ;X [U X [ 4 ^ %U WAX &^ ;X [0W X [ hW %U W ;X [U

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

62 {4. c !, e 3|4O )*  <! wMB


;X [U X [ q^b^ ›BºW *WX W X <^ ƒB•W AW ›BW *WX> W B•X AX W /́W*WX W X <^ ƒB•W AW [ BW *WW> ›BW AW
›BºW *WX ;X [U X [ 4 ^ /• W AW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW /• W AW

The () of the verbal noun (=P) changed to (‰) due to

rule no. 16. In (P


P‹ OP
P< P ) it is deleted due to

(G  F*$).

62 ,,4c !, e 3R$O )*  <! wMB


^ W*WAW &^ ;X [0W X [ hW ^ ^WA ;X [U X [ q^b^ ¡ W*WX W X <^ ƒU^WA ›^S^W*W> ›^WAW
ݬW*WX ;X [U X [ 4 ^

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Exercise 50

(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P


PQ PP) of the
following verbs:
[ 1U W> ›œ<W (1)
›œi [ W> W UW (2)
›œW> W #UW (3)
‰
[ U W> ‰ W U W (4)
[ "
U [ X> ›œ"[ (^ (5)

(b) Name the word-forms (—W"


U ) of the following verbs:

‰
[ 7¢ W #X (1)
‰
W U WAX [ ^ (2)

h W *WAW [ ^ (3)
h W>W W=*W*W^ (4)
‰
[ U ?W #[@U (5)

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Combination of ( F) and (/*)


JB )*  <! 5+  ! :D
 b D ; & a [ ~X W < &¨ [ (^ D £X> /^ [>@U /a IU‚ < &¨ [ (^ D [ ~X W> ^ ‚
b ~X AW&^ ;0

The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of (


D [ )D W> ^ ^K).
The rules of (F) have to be applied to the (s?š) while the

rules of (/*) apply to the (). Wherever there is a conflict of

the two, the rules of (/*) will be given preference. For

example, (
D [ ~X W>) was originally (D X qb W>). It required the rule of
(\
` (bW ) to change the (s?š) to (L), whereas the rules of (/*)
required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter.
Preference was awarded to the latter.

Similarly, (
D [ ˆX (^) was originally (D X ,V (^). The rule of (W W ‚)
required changing the (s?š) to (L). However, the rule of

(/*) of transferring the harakah was preferred. It became

(
D [ ˆX (^). Thereafter, the second hamzah was changed to () due to
the rule of (%X 7U W(^). It became (
D [ X (^).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

)  )*  6nW 5+  ! :D


;0  7[ @U ; & =` […UW < ¨=[>(^ 7X £X> =W [>@U W =` IU‚ < ¨=[>(^ =X […UW> 7W ‚
=[ …UAW &^

This (6 ) is similar to (O


X [!UW> 
W W ). The above-mentioned rule has
to be considered here as well. Consequently, in the word (= X […UW>),
the rule of (O X [!UW>) is given preference to the rule of (\
` bW ). The rule
of (a F
h IU(^) applies to (=X [IU(^).

JB )*  <! wMB  ! :D


 D [ (D ; &  Dqb W < ƒb(^ ›^qb X> W U(D W ¡ ‚ < ƒb(^ [ Dqb W> &^ (^
D qb AW &^ ;0

The rules of (F) apply to the hamzah while the rules of

(JK#) apply to the ().

)  )*  6nW wMB  ! :D


R
U [>@U ; &  AUqb W < ƒ#WA[@U ›œAqb X> W AU(D W N
¡ ‚ < ƒ#WA[@U [ AUqb W> ›œA(^
N
U qb AW &^ ;0 

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

This paradigm is similar to (


[ U [ W> ›œW ).

p )*  6nW wMB  ! :D


d
U [>@U ; &  Uqb W < ®,W @U ›œ qb X> W U(D W 6
¡ ‚ < ,® W @U ›œ qb W> ›œ (^
6
U qb AW &^ ;0 

)  )*   ^ y'   ! :D


U [>@U ; & ‰
 U qb W < ¶>(^ ¯œqb X> ‰
W U (D W ¡ ‚ < ¶>(^ ‰
[ U qb W> ¯œ(^
U qb AW &^ ;0 

)  )*  CH #4 ! :D


7[ @U ; & 7̀[ˆX [ W < ƒ7(bW 7X (^[ X> =W IUX W =` IUW < ƒ7(bW =X …UW> 7W (^W
=[ …UAW &^ ;0 

p )*  6nW wMB #4 ! :D


W ; &  IU[ W < ¨ W>ˆ[ X ¯œX> W IUX W ,¡ W < ¨ W>ˆ[ X ¯œW> ¯^(W
¯(¨[ U ; 3 ,¡ WW 'U W>(^[ W ¯(¨[ W ; 4 W AW &^ ;0 
 ,¡ W(^ 'U W>,S [ (^ ¯œ,[ (^ ; /1* /<( “ IUW W 'U W>(^[ U ,­ ‚[U sa ‚[U

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

N
` WW>ˆ[ X  ¯(¨X 'U WW>ˆ[ X œ¯ˆ[ X ; w#~ '^ [ (^[ (^

As mentioned previously, the rule of (/


D …^
[ W>) is compulsory in the
verbs of this (6 ). Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of
this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have
been applied to it, it should be thoroughly learnt.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

6K ! =' \O 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


 ]  ] CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!
CDG! 5 47!
¯œX> [ ^ ¯œW> [ ^ ¯œX> ¯œW> W IUX ¯(^W
W>W X> [ ^ W>W W> [ ^ 'U W>W X> 'U W>W W> WIUX W>(^SW
[ W X> [ ^ [ W W> [ ^ '^ [ W X> '^ [ W W> [ˆX X [(^SW
¯œAX [ ^ ¯œAW [ ^ ¯œAX ¯œAW R
[ WIUX N
[ (^SW
W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^ 'U W>W AX 'U W>W AW W*WIUX WA(^SW
W [>W X> [ ^ W [>W W> [ ^ W [>W X> W [>W W> W [IUX W [>(^SW
¯œAX [ ^ ¯œAW [ ^ ¯œAX ¯œAW R
W [IUX R
W [>(^SW
W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^ 'U W>W AX 'U W>W AW WF*X[IUX WF*X[>(^SW
[ W AX [ ^ [ W AW [ ^ '^ [ W AX '^ [ W AW [ *X[IUX [ *X[>(^SW
‰
[ W AX [ ^ ‰
[ W AW [ ^ W [>W AX W [>W AW R
U [IUX R
U [>(^SW
W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^ 'U W>W AX 'U W>W AW WF*X[IUX WF*X[>(^SW
W [>W AX [ ^ W [>W AW [ ^ W [>W AX W [>W AW h *X[IUX h *X[>(^SW
¯œ(D [ ^ ¯œ(^ [ ^ ¯œ(D ¯œ(^ R
X [IUX R
X [>(^SW
¯œ#X [ ^ ¯œ#W [ ^ ¯œ#X ¯œ#W W[IUX W[>(^SW

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 5 47!
h W>W X^ h W>W W^ W X> [ ^ W W> [ ^
'• W>W X^ '• W>W W^ W>W X> [ ^ W>W W> [ ^
' X W X^ ' X W W^ [ W X> [ ^ [W W> [ ^
h W>W *X^ h W>W *W^ W AX [ ^ W AW [ ^
'• W>W *X^ ' W>W *W^ W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^
'• W[>W X^ '• W[>W W^ W [>W X> [ ^ W [>W W> [ ^
h W>W *X^ h W>W *W^ W AX [ ^ W AW [ ^
'• W>W *X^ '• W>W *W^ W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^
' X W *X^ ' X W *W^ [ W AX [ ^ [ W AW [ ^
h U>W *X^ h U>W *W^ ‰
[ W AX [ ^ ‰
[ W AW [ ^
'• W>W *X^ '• W>W *^ W>W AX [ ^ W>W AW [ ^
'• W[>W *X^ '• W[>W *W^ W [>W AX [ ^ W [>W AW [ ^
h W>W qD^ h W>W q^^ W (D [ ^ W (^ [ ^
h W>W X^ h W>W W^ W #X [ ^ W #W [ ^
'b X W *W^ y [ W>W *W^ y [ W>W *W^ y 'b X W W^ y [ W>W W^ : 11· ' O  
[ W>W W^ y [ W>W q^^ y [ U>W *W^ y
y 'b X W *X^ y [ W>W *X^ y [ W>W *X^ y 'b X W X^ y [ W>W X^ : 11· ' O  
[ W>W X^ y [ W>W qD^ y [ U>W *X^

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 9! 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ]
h W>W XU h W>W WU W XU W WU
'• W>W XU '• W>W WU W>W XU W>W WU
' X W XU ' X W WU [ W XU [ W WU
h W>W *XU h W>W *WU W *XU W *WU
'• W>W *XU '• W>W *WU W>W *XU W>W *WU
'• W[>W XU '• W[>W WU W [>W XU W [>W WU
h W>W *XU h W>W W *XU W
'• W>W *XU '• W>W W>W *XU W>W
' X W *XU ' X W [ W *XU [ W
h U>W *XU h U>W ‰
[ W *XU ‰
[ W
'• W>W *XU '• W>W W>W *XU W>W
'• W[>W *XU '• W[>W W [>W *XU W [>W
h W>W qDU h W>W q^U W qDU W q^U
h W>W XU h W>W WU W XU W WU
[ U>W y 'b X W y [ W>W y [ W>W *WU y 'b X W WU y [ W>W WU : 11· ' O  .
[ W>W WU y [ W>W q^U y
y 'b X W *XU y [ W>W *XU y [ W>W *XU y 'b X W XU y [ W>W XU : 11· ' O  .
[ W>W XU y [ W>W qDU y [ U>W *XU

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ]
h W>W X> &^ h W>W W> &^ W X> &^ W W> &^
'• W>W X> &^ '• W>W W> &^ W>W X> &^ W>W W> &^
' X W X> &^ ' X W W> &^ [ W X> &^ [ W W> &^
h W>W AX &^ h W>W AW &^ W AX &^ W AW &^
'• W>W AX &^ ' W>W AW &^ W>W AX &^ W>W AW &^
'• W[>W X> &^ '• W[>W W> &^ W [>W X> &^ W [>W W> &^
h W>W AX &^ h W>W AW &^ W AX &^ W AW &^
'• W>W AX &^ '• W>W AW &^ W>W AX &^ W>W AW &^
' X W AX &^ ' X W AW &^ [ W AX &^ [ W AW &^
h U>W AX &^ h U>W AW &^ ‰
[ W AX &^ ‰
[ W AW &^
' W>W AX &^ '• W>W AW &^ W>W AX &^ W>W AW &^
'• W[>W AX &^ '• W[>W AW &^ W [>W AX &^ W [>W AW &^
h W>W (D &^ h W>W (^ &^ W (D &^ W (^ &^
h W>W #X &^ h W>W #W &^ W #X &^ W #W &^
y [ W>W AW &^ y [ W>W AW &^ y 'b X W W> &^ y [ W>W W> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ W>W #W &^ y [ W>W (^ &^ y [ U>W AW &^ y 'b X W AW &^
&^ y [ W>W AX &^ y [ W>W AX &^ y 'b X W X> &^ y [ W>W X> &^ : 11· ' O  
[ W>W #X &^ y [ W>W (D &^ y [ U>W AX &^ y 'b X W AX

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! C47! 1! 3$ ! 1!


¯(¨[ U ¯(¨[ W  IU[ W ,¡ W
'U WI^[ U 'U W>(^[ W 'U hIU[ W 'U WIUW
,¡ WW ,¡ WW '^ [ “IU[ W '^ [ ˆX W
sa ‚[U a hIU[ W a WIUW
'U WA‚[U 'U *WhIU[ W 'U W*WIUW
,¡ WW N
` hIU[ W N
` WIUW
,­ ‚[U
'U (^‚[U
“ IUWW

Analysis
(1) The verb (¯œW>) was originally (‰
X (^[ W>). The rule of (/D …^
[ W>) is
first applied after which the (‰) is changed to (L) due to rule
no. 7. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual
form in which only the rule of (/
D …^
[ W>) applies. In the plural
masculine forms and the singular second person feminine, the
(L) is deleted due to (G  F*$).
(2) In words like (¯œW> [ ^), no visible change has taken place
because the (L) does not accept any harakah.

(3) The (L) is deleted from words like (W W> [ ^) because of the
(
[ ^).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(4) In words like (


h W>W W^), the (‰) reverts in place of the (L)
because the latter cannot accept a harakah. The ( B)9 '#)
requires a ( i*<) before it.
(5) In ('  X W W^), due to (G  F*$) between the () and the
('), and the () is not a (s=). Therefore a ( F) is rendered to it

to indicate the deletion of the ().

(6) The imperative (W ) is constructed from (¯œAW). After deleting

the ( :0), the (L) is deleted from the end. It becomes

(W ).

(7) The imperative ( h W>W ) was originally (W ). The ( B )
which was deleted due to a (LK) now reverts. However, the

(L) was not capable of upholding a harakah. Hence, the (‰)

which changed into (L) reverts so that it can carry the ( i*<)

which the ( B)9 '#) requires before it. It becomes ( h W>W ). In (' X W )
and ( h U>W ), the () and (‰) are rendered a dammah and kasrah
respectively because they are not (s=). A harakah is not

permissible on a (s=). The dammah indicates the deletion of the

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

() from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a

(‰).

)  )*  6nW 5+ ; ! :D


; & a [o
U W < ¨…[o
U W ,T WoX> ^ [$U W ,¡ W$ < ¨…[o
U W D [o
U W> ,S W$
a [o
U W ; 4 b o U AW &^ ;0  b $U

(1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to (TO[!UW> 


W W ).
(2) The verb (,T W+W> ,S W„) which is (I> $( %: F) can
be from (O- 6 ) or (]*< 6 ). A letter from the ( )B )

is present in the ( FBQ %&). The (s ) of the ( /1) is

not visible. In the verbs before ( W …b„U ), the (‰) was changed to
(L). The original of the (L) could therefore be either ( ‰

s Q) or ( *1 ‰). The question arises as to why the verbs
from (W …b„U ) till (W…b„U ) have been rendered a kasrah. The answer to
this is that if this verb is from (O- 6 ), the kasrah of the ( ,<

FBQ) indicates the kasrah of the ( FBQ G0). If this verb is


from (]*< 6 ), the kasrah of the ( FBQ ,<) indicates the

deleted (‰) as in ( W [ U).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(3) In the imperative (


b $U ) and the words affected by (%?$) like

boU W> [ ^), the hamzah can be changed to (‰). In (qb „W ) and ( [ ^
W W>), the hamzah can be read as an (L). The ( B ) will
qb +
however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root
letter. In (%:
F) the ( FBQ %&) is not deleted.
(4) The hamzah of ( a [ o
U W ) and (a …^[+
U W ) cannot be changed to (‰)
and then (%l7@) be applied because the (‰) is an original letter.

Therefore the rule of ( …fM) cannot be applied here as this is not

a (s=I s=).

(5) The (‰) of (D U>WoW ) and similar words is not changed to a
hamzah because it is a root letter. The rule of (?X IUWo0W ) only applies

to a (s=I ) or (s=I ‰).

Exercise 51
(a) List the detailed paradigms (!P
PQ PP) of the
following verbs:
[ IU[ X> ¯(^[ (^ (4) ›œ qb W> ›œ (^ (1)
¯œvqb W> ‰W vU (^ (5) ‰
[ †UW> ¯^(W (2)
qDf^ W> ^ jU W (3)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Rules of (L0)

Rule 1
If there are two letters of the same type (™#Po*) or they

are similar (6P


P)*) and the first is (P
P2), it will be
assimilated into the second letter. That is, (%P
Pl7@) will be
applied.
This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word
or in two separate words.

Examples of (%l7@) in the same word

i. 7̀[=W = W (Example of [G #o*] letters, that is “7”)


ii. 7̀[=„W = „W (Example of [G #o*] letters, that is “7”)
iii. [ P
T A[=!W0W [ A“=W!0W (Example of [G PPPP)*]
letters, that is “7” and “N”)

In the case of (G P)*), the first letter is changed into the second
letter before (%l7@) is applied. In the above example, (7) is changed

to (N) first, and then the two (N)’s are assimilated. However, the (7)
is still written, although not pronounced.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Examples of (%l7@) in two words

W U d
[ pW vb @U W ¢ d
[ pW vb @U
[#X^ W [ W 0W [#X^ h [ W 0W
Exception

In two words, if the first word is a ({C=)1, the letters will not be

assimilated, that is, (%l7@) will not be applied.

Example

%¡ [ W> ›[ <U

However, if the ({C=P) is in the same word, (%Pl7@) will be


applied.

Example

` [>U 7W ‰
 U 7W
nnnnn

1
A ({W=P) is either a () preceded by a ( FC P), a (‰) preceded by a (sP ) or
a (L) preceded by a ( i*<)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Rule 2
If two letters of the same type are (ZPi*), and the letter

preceding the first (C( /!K ) is also (ZPi*), the first letter
will be made (2) and then the two letters will be assimilated,

that is, (%l7@) will be applied.

Example

7W =W PW 7W =[ PW =h W

C( /!K 
Zi* Zi*
2nd 1st letter
letter

W W <^ W [ <^ h <^


C( /!K 
Zi*
Zi*
1st letter
Zi*
2nd
letter

However, if a noun ( 2@) has a ( ) on the ( PFBQ G0), the


letters will not be assimilated. In this case, (%l7@) will not apply.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Example

` W „W
` X 2X
nnnnn

Rule 3
If the letter preceding the first ( C( /P!K ) is (P2) and not a
({C=), the ( ) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter
and then (%l7@) will be applied.

Example

7X =X F[ W> 7X =[ FX W> =“ FX W>


(C( /!K ) preceding letter

(W() first letter


C( /!K 
(»9) second letter

X U 1b W> X [ 1U W> “ 1U W> (6 6 )


¬X  W [ W> ¬X  [ W W> ¬
“ W W> (O- 6 )
Exception
This rule does not apply to the words of (giB).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Example
d
W !WBb $W (No change is made.)

nnnnn

Rule 4

If the preceding letter is a ({C=P


P), without transferring the
( P), the first letter will be made (P2) and both will
be assimilated, that is, (%l7@) will be applied.

Examples

¼W PW$W (  › /<) of ( B01 6 )


1st {C=
2nd

¼W $W W ¼W $[ W e
h W
7W 7U [ X (8 › /<) of ( B01 6 )

7W 7U [ X 7W 7[ [ X 7h [ X
nnnnn

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Rule 5

If after applying (%P


Pl7@), there is a (LP
PK-pause) due to
(P(), or there is a (%?P$), the following are permissible in
the second letter:

i. i*< – because it is the lightest letter (Nc LM().


ii. s  – whenever any (2) letter is rendered a harakah, it is

rendered a kasrah. The rule is ( U


[ Q^ bU ZW ¢ X ZW ¢ X v@ X  ).
iii. %l7@ 
“ <^ – (no %l7@ takes place).
Example

The ( 5" () of (“ 1U W> h <^) is:


[ U <b @U y ¢ <U y h <U
If the preceding letter (C( /P!K ) is (%FP), then ( FP)
is also permissible.

Example

7[ =X F[ W> [ ^ y =“ FX W> [ ^ y =h FX W> [ ^ y =¢ FX W> [ ^

When the final letter has ('Q2), either because of a suffix, or

because it is in the jussive case (%?‹ ) or it is the imperative

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(.), the two letters must be written separately, e.g. (W#7[ =


W W ) and
(7[ =
X [ (D).
When the final letter is (Zi*) – it is vowelled – the two are

coalesced.18 This does not apply to the (=) – verbal noun,

where the (L) interposes between the two final letters, e.g.

(7̀W=[ @U).

Exercise 52

(1) Which rule has been applied to the word (


h PP^Š) and
how?
(2) Explain the rule applied in the word ('
^ [ QD #h [ ^).
(3) Analyse the rule applied in the word (d
“
X W>).
(4) Apply rule no. 4 to the word (7W 7W W).
(5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative
singular form of the following words?

h Š^ (1)
¬
h <^ (2)
=h „W (3)

18
joined and made into one.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

JB )*  y$
=“ X =¢ X =h X ; & 7̀[=X F[ W < ¶=W =“ FW X> =h X W 7 W < ¶=W =“ FX W> =h W
= FW W ; 4 7[ =X F[ AW &^ =“ FX AW &^ =¢ FX AW &^ h=FX AW &^ ;0  7[ =X [ (D
7̀W=F[ U 7“ WFW 'U WA=h FW U sa =h FW U 7“ WFW 'U h=FW U = FW U ; 3 7“ WFW 'U h=FW W
7“ W(^  '^ [ =“ W (^ 'U h=W (^ =“ W (^ ; /1* /<( =X [>7U WFW 'U W7W=F[ U
N
` W>=h X  7̀W=X 'U W>=h X ¯œ=C X ; w#~
Analysis
(1) Rule no. 2 has been applied to (=
h W ).
(2) In the words (=
h X ), (=“ FX W>) and (=“ FW X>), rule no. 3 has been
applied.
(3) Rule no. 4 has been applied to (7 W), (7“ WFW ) and (7“ W(^).

(4) In the imperative and prohibition ( .), rule no. 5 has
been applied.

Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb.

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

6K ! =' \O 6K ! =' \O 87! 87! 67! 67!


 ]  ] CDG! 5 47! CDG! 5 47!
CDG! 5 47!
=h FW X> [ ^ =h FX W> [ ^ =“ FW X> =“ FX W> =h X =h W
h=FW X> [ ^ h=FX W> [ ^ 'U h=FW X> 'U h=FX W> =h X h=W
[ =“ FW X> [ ^ [ =“ FX W> [ ^ '^ [ =“ FW X> '^ [ =“ FX W> [=“ X [=“ W
=h FW AX [ ^ =h FX AW [ ^ =“ FW AX =“ FX AW N
[ =h X N
[ =h W
h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^ 'U h=FW AX 'U h=FX AW WA=h X WA=h W
'^ 7[ =W F[ X> [ ^ '^ 7[ =X F[ W> [ ^ '^ 7[ =W F[ X> '^ 7[ =X F[ W> '^ 7[ =U X '^ 7[ =W W
=h FW AX [ ^ =h FX AW [ ^ =“ FW AX =“ FX AW N
W 7[ =U X N
W 7[ =W W
h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^ 'U h=FW AX 'U h=FX AW WFAX7[ =U X WFAX7[ =W W
[ =“ FW AX [ ^ [ =“ FX AW [ ^ '^ [ =“ FW AX '^ [ =“ FX AW [ AX7[ =U X [ AX7[ =W W
‰
[ =¢ FW AX [ ^ ‰
[ =¢ FX AW [ ^ W [>=¢ FW AX W [>=¢ FX AW N
U 7[ =U X N
U 7[ =W W
h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^ 'U h=FW AX 'U h=FX AW WFAX7[ =U X WFAX7[ =W W
'^ 7[ =W F[ AX [ ^ '^ 7[ =X F[ AW [ ^ '^ 7[ =W F[ AX '^ 7[ =X F[ AW h AX7[ =U X h AX7[ =W W
=h W (D [ ^ =h X (^ [ ^ =“ W (D =“ X (^ N
X 7[ =U X N
X 7[ =W W
=h FW #X [ ^ =h FX #W [ ^ =“ FW #X =“ FX #W W#7[ =U X W#7[ =W W

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 87! 5 47! 87! r ] 6K ! r ] 6K !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ] CDG! 5 47!
' =h FW X^ ' =h FX W^ =h FW X> [ ^ =h FX W> [ ^
'• h=FW X^ '• h=FX W^ h=FW X> [ ^ h=FX W> [ ^
' =“ FW X^ ' =“ FX W^ [ =“ FW X> [ ^ [ =“ FX W> [ ^
' =h FW *X^ ' =h FX *W^ =h FW AX [ ^ =h FX AW [ ^
'• h=FW *X^ '• h=FX *W^ h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^
'• W#7[ =W F[ X^ '• W#7[ =X F[ W^ '^ 7[ =W F[ X> [ ^ '^ 7[ =X F[ W> [ ^
' =h FW *X^ ' =h FX *W^ =h FW AX [ ^ =h FX AW [ ^
'• h=FW *X^ '• h=FX *W^ h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^
' =“ FW *X^ ' =“ FX *W^ [ =“ FW AX [ ^ [ =“ FX AW [ ^
' =¢ FW *X^ ' =¢ FX *W^ ‰
[ =¢ FW AX [ ^ ‰
[ =¢ FX AW [ ^
'• h=FW *X^ '• h=FX *W^ h=FW AX [ ^ h=FX AW [ ^
'• W#7[ =W F[ *X^ '• W#7[ =X F[ *W^ '^ 7[ =W F[ AX [ ^ '^ 7[ =X F[ AW [ ^
' =W W qD^ ' =h X q^^ =h W (D [ ^ =h X (^ [ ^
' =h FW X^ ' =h FX W^ =h FW #X [ ^ =h FX #W [ ^
y 'b =h FX *W^ y 'b =h FX *W^ y 'b =“ FX W^ y 'b =h FX W^ : 11· ' O  
'b =h FX W^ y 'b =h X q^^ y 'b =¢ FX *W^ y 'b =“ FX *W^
y 'b =h FW *X^ y 'b =h FW *X^ y 'b =“ FW X^ y 'b =h FW X^ : 11· ' O  
'b =h FW X^ y 'b =h W qD^ y 'b =¢ FW *X^ y 'b =“ FW *X^

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 9! 5 47! 9! CDG! 9! 5 47! 9!


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ]
' =h FW XU ' =h FX WU =h FW XU =h FX WU
'• h=FW XU '• h=FX WU h=FW XU h=FX WU
' =“ FW XU ' =“ FX WU [ =“ FW XU [ =“ FX WU
' =h FW *XU ' =h FX *WU =h FW *XU =h FX *WU
'• h=FW *XU '• h=FX *WU h=FW *XU h=FX *WU
'• W#7[ =W F[ XU '• W#7[ =X F[ WU '^ 7[ =W F[ XU '^ 7[ =X F[ WU
' =h FW *XU ' =h X =h FW *XU =h X
'• h=FW *XU '• h=X h=FW *XU h=X
' =“ FW *XU ' =“ X [ =“ FW *XU [ =“ X
' =¢ FW *XU ' =¢ X ‰
[ =¢ FW *XU ‰
[ =¢ X
'• =h FW *XU '• h=X h=FW *XU h=X
'• W#7[ =W F[ *XU '• W#7[ =X [ (D '^ 7[ =W F[ *XU '^ 7[ =X [ (D
' =W W qDU ' =h X q^U =h W qDU =h X q^U
' =h FW XU ' =h FX WU =h FW XU =h FX WU
y 'b =“ X y 'b =h X y 'b =h FX *WU y 'b =“ FX WU y 'b =h FX WU : 11· ' O  .
'b =h FX WU y 'b =h X q^U y 'b =¢ X
'b =“ FW *XU y 'b =h FW *XU y 'b =h FW *XU y 'b =“ FW XU y 'b =h FW XU : 11· ' O  .
'b =h FW XU y 'b =h W qDU y 'b =¢ FW *XU y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK ! CDG! 6DK ! 5 47! 6DK !


'^H ! K ! ] '^H ! K ! ]
' =h FW X> &^ ' =h FX W> &^ =h FW X> &^ =h FX W> &^
'• h=FW X> &^ '• h=FX W> &^ h=FW X> &^ h=FX W> &^
' =“ FW X> &^ ' =“ FX W> &^ [ =“ FW X> &^ [ =“ FX W> &^
' =h FW AX &^ ' =h FX AW &^ =h FW AX &^ =h FX AW &^
'• h=FW AX &^ '• h=FX AW &^ h=FW AX &^ h=FX AW &^
'• W#7[ =W F[ X> &^ '• W#7[ =X F[ W> &^ '^ 7[ =W F[ X> &^ '^ 7[ =X F[ W> &^
' =h FW AX &^ ' =h FX AW &^ =h FW AX &^ =h FX AW &^
'• h=FW AX &^ '• h=FX AW &^ h=FW AX &^ h=FX AW &^
' =“ FW AX &^ ' =“ FX AW &^ [ =“ FW AX &^ [ =“ FX AW &^
' =¢ FW AX &^ ' =¢ FX AW &^ ‰
[ =¢ FW AX &^ ‰
[ =¢ FX AW &^
'• h=FW AX &^ '• h=FX AW &^ h=FW AX &^ h=FX AW &^
'• W#7[ =W F[ AX &^ '• W#7[ =X F[ AW &^ '^ 7[ =W F[ AX &^ '^ 7[ =X F[ AW &^
' =W W (D &^ ' =h X (^ &^ =h W (D &^ =h X (^ &^
' =h FW #X &^ ' =h FX #W &^ =h FW #X &^ =h FX #W &^
'b =h FX AW &^ y 'b =h FX AW &^ y 'b =“ FX W> &^ y 'b =h FX W> &^ : 11· ' O  
'b =h FX #W &^ y 'b =h X (^ &^ y 'b =¢ FX AW &^ y 'b =“ FX AW &^ y
'b =h FW AX &^ y 'b =h FW AX &^ y 'b =“ FW X> &^ y 'b =h FW X> &^ : 11· ' O  
'b =h FW #X &^ y 'b =h W (D &^ y 'b =¢ FW AX &^ y 'b =“ FW AX &^ y

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

 s! 1! 5 X ! 1! C47! 1! 3$ ! 1!


= FW U = FW W 7̀[=X F[ W 7 W
'U h=FW U 'U =h FW W 'U 7W [ =X F[ W 'U h7W
7“ WFW 7“ WFW '^ [ 7X [ =X F[ W '^ [ 7“ W
sa =h FW U sa 7W [ =X F[ W sa 7h W
'U WA=h FW U 'U AW7W [ =X F[ W 'U WA7h W
7“ WFW N
` 7W [ =X F[ W N
` h7W
7̀W=F[ U
'U W7W=F[ U
=X [>7U WFW

Analysis
(1) From ('
^ 7[ =W W ) till the end, no (%l7@) of the first (7) applies
because the second radical is (2).

(2) However, from (N


h 7[ =W W ) onwards, (%l7@) applies because the
(7) and (N) are (e€ d>K) – close in source of
pronunciation.
(3) Rule no. 5 has been applied to (=
h FX W> [ ^) etc.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 53

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:

d
“ X W> d h 2W (1)
“ 4D W> h Š^ (2)
d
“ X W> d h pW (3)
d
“ BDW> d h ^ (4)
d
“ QD W> d h ^ (5)

(2) What is the word-form ( 5") of the following words:

'^ [ 1¦ BDW> (1)


'^ 7[ =X [ AW [ ^ (2)
[ ¢mD AW [ ^ (3)
h F“ + X W^ (4)
h 7X (5)

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

)  )*  y$
¢ 1U AW &^ h 1U AW &^ ;0  [ U <b @U ¢ <U h <U ; &  ^< < ƒW<U “ 1U W> h <^
 1U W ; 4 [ U 1b AW &^

]} )*  y$
; & \
` X F[ W < ¶ W ™ “ FW X> ™
h X  \
 W < ¶ W ™ “ FW W> ™
h W
4 ™[ W F[ AW &^ ™
¢ FW AW &^ ™
h FW AW &^ ;0  [™ W [ @U ™
¢ W ™ h W
™
 FW W ;

C4A )*  y$


< ƒWfU [ @U “ f^ 
[ X> h fD 
[ (D   f^ 
[ X < ƒWfU  [ @U “ f^ 
[ W> h f^ 
[ @U
&^ h f^ 
[ AW &^ ;0  [ U f^  [ @U ¢ f^ 
[ @U h f^ 
[ @U ; &  f^  [ X
 f^ 
[ X ; 4 [ U f^  [ AW &^ ¢ f^ [ AW

In this (6 ), the (/P01 2), (P1 P2) and ( P2


PP4) have become similar in form but the original of
the (/P01 P2) was (GP P Q) while the ( P2

1) and ( 4 2) was (G _*1).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

C4BA )*  y$


 7[ =U
W #[@U =¢
W #[@U =h
W #[@U ; & = W [X < ƒ7W= U #[@U =“
W [W> =h
W #[@U

W [X ; 4 7[ =U W [AW &^ =¢
W [AW &^ =h
W [AW &^ ;0

C4A )*  y$


[ U )b *W2[ @U ¢ )U *W2[ @U h )U *W2[ @U ; &  )U *W [ X < ƒW)b *U2[ @U “ )U *W
[ W> h )^ *W2[ @U
 )^ *W
[ X ; 4 [ U )b *W [ AW &^ ¢ )U *W
[ AW &^ h )U *W
[ AW &^ ;0 

C4A )*  y$


=h U (^ ; & = FW X < ƒ7W=[ @U =“ FW X> =h U D(  = FU X < ƒ7W=[ @U =“ FU X> =h W (^
= FW X ; 4 7[ =U F[ AX &^ =¢ FU AX &^ =h FU AX &^ ;0  7[ =U [ (^ =¢ U (^

3'4O )*  y$


7̀h=o
W X < ƒ=[>=U o
[ AW 7X =h o
W X> 7W =¢ $X  7̀¢=o
W X < ƒ=[>=U o
[ AW 7X =¢ o
W X> 7W =h $W
7̀h=o
W X ; 4 7[ =¢ o W AX &^ ;0  7[ =¢ $W ; &

3b4O )*  y$


< 1̈¦1€
W AW L
X 1 €
W *WX> L
W 1• €
X AX  L
` 1U̧ €
W *WX < 1̈¦1€
W AW L
X 1 €
W *WW> L
W 1 €
W AW

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

; 4 L
[ 1 €
W *WAW &^ ;0  L [ 1 €
W AW ; & L
` 1 €
W *WX
L
` 1 €
W *WX

The rules of (%P


Pl7@) have not been applied in these two
paradigms.

$ )*  y$


e
 WiX < ¨ $h WiX e
“ WiX> e
h [ X  e
 WiX < ¨ $h WiX e
“ WiX> e
h W
&^ e
¢ WiAX &^ e
h WiAX &^ ;0  ¼[ $U W e¢ W e h W ; &
e
 WiX ; 4 ¼[ $U WiAX

Wherever (%Pl7@) has been applied in this (6P ), it is due


to rule no. 4.

3$O )*  y$


7 W*WX < ƒ77X WAW 7“ W*WX> 7h [ 
X AX  7 W*WX < ƒ77X WAW 7“ W*WW> 7h WAW
&^ 7¢ W*WAW &^ 7h W*WAW &^ ;0  7[ 7W WAW 7¢ WAW 7h WAW ; &
7 W*WX ; 4 7[ 7W W*WAW

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

A Combination of ( L0), (F) and (/*)


JB )*  y$  ! :D
%“ (D %¢ (D %h (D ; & %̀[X qb W < ¨ W W@U “%q^X> %h (D  % ‚ < ¨ W W@U %“ ~X W> %h (^
% q^W ; 4 [ X qb AW &^ %“ qDAW &^ %¢ qDAW &^ %h qDAW &^ ;0  [ X [ (D
Analysis
(1) The rules of (P
PF) apply to the hamzah while the
rules of (L0P) apply to the doubled letters (GP #o*).

At the time of conflict, the rules of (L0P) will be given


preference.
(2) In the word (%“ ~
X P W>), the rule of (\
` (bW ) was not applied.
Rather the rule of (=
“ FX W>) was given preference.
(3) After applying (%P
Pl7@) to the word (%“ ˆX (^), the rule of
(%X 7U W(^) was applied whereby the hamzah changed to (). It

becomes (%“ 
X (^).

]} )*  y$ CH


7[ =W [>@U 7¢ W 7h W ; & 7̀[7X [ W < ¶7X “7W X> 7h X  7 W < ¶7X 7“ W W> 7h W
7“ WW 'U h7W W 7 W W ; 4 7[ 7W [ AW &^ 7¢ WAW &^ 7h W AW &^ ;0 
=X [>7U WW 'U W7W=[U 7̀W=[U 7“ WW 'U WA7h W U sa 7h W U 7“ WW 'U h7W U 7 W U ; 3

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

¯7h X ; w#~ 7“ W(^  '^ [ 7“ W (^ 'U h7W (^ 7“ W (^ ; /1* /<(
N
` W>7h X  7̀W7X 'U W>7h X
Analysis
(1) The rules of (L0PP) apply to the doubled letters

(GP #o*) while the rules of (/


E P*) apply to the (). At the
time of conflict, the rules of (L0PP) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (7 
W U ), the rule of (/E *) required the () to be
changed to (‰) while the rule of (L0) requires the

transferring of the harakah of the first (7) to the (). The latter
has been given preference.

]} )*  y$ CH


; &  AW~[ X < ƒWF*U[>@U “ AW~[ X> h AX[ (D   AW~[ X < ƒWF*U[>@U “ AWqb W> h *W[>@U
 AW~[ X ; 4 [ FU AWqb AW &^ ¢ AWqb AW &^ h AWqb AW &^ ;0  [ FU *W[>@U ¢ *W[>@U h *W[>@U

If there is a (P2 'P#) in one word followed any of the


letters of ('PB>) in another word, (%Pl7@) will be applied

to the (2 '#).

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Examples

W ¢h [ U ), (h#=X ^), (d
X l^ [ h> [ W ), (` [U h
` [ ,T W ) and
(¡ 
^ v^ [ ¢ ƒiUW"). (The tanwīn is a nūn sākin in reality).
If the letters are in one word, (%P Pl7@) will not apply, e.g.

(W#[ 7X ), ('a W["


U ).

The () of the definite article () becomes assimilated in

the ( ± ), e.g. (™


U F[ +
h W).
The (  ± ) are:

('  ª © Y n « \   v 7 ¤ N)
It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the
alphabet, e.g. (U F
W )^ bW)
The remaining letters are called ( >FK ).
Exercise 54

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:


¬
“ W W> ¬ h 0W (1)
/¦ 4^ W> / Š^ (2)
h Š @U (3)
¯h W [ @U (4)
W h K^ (5)

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Special Meanings of Each (6 )

6 . N"M

The ( "M) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its


literal meaning, e.g. (e W W M[ (^) means to expel. The verb is
transitive. Here ( "M) refers to the latter meaning, namely that
of being transitive.
The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the
(N"M) due to the fact that one verb can have so many
different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different
categories (6 ().

The ('(k) of ( JB )*)

(a !W^W5X ) – to mention a verb after (


B01 6 ) to show that one
object overpowers another, e.g. (;X *XF
[
W€W <^ /D $X h  [ UFW "
W WM) – The
man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute.

The ('(k) of ()  )*)

The ( "M) of this category is also (a !W^W5X ) on condition it is


either (H), (I> $() or (I> JK#).
Example:

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(;X A“=
[ 0W W <^ =` [„U W [ #U=W 0W W) – I and Rashīd made a mutual promise
and I was predominant in the promise.

The ('(k) of (]} )*)

This (6 ) most often has verbs which have the meaning of

illnesses, grief, joy, colours, defects or physical forms, e.g. (


W )U 2W )
– to become ill.
('
^ ?U W ) – to be grieved.
(_
W U <^) – to become happy.
(W =
U ^ ) – to be blackish.
(W 
U 0W ) – to be one-eyed.

W BU W) – to have broad eyebrows.
This (6 ) is mostly intransitive.

The ('(k) of ( )*)

This (6 ) is always intransitive. It refers to the natural qualities


of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature
achieved by experience.
Examples: (
W X W ) – to be handsome, (]W !XK^) – to be ugly,
(;W )D <^ ) – to have understanding,

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Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Derived Categories

The ( "M) of (< 6 )

(1) (/ W.=


- 42 O.) – to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is
already transitive, to make it doubly transitive, e.g.
(
^ ?W #W) – to descend, (^ ?W #[(^) – to send down;
(O
W FU 2W ) – to hear, (OW FW 2[ (^) – to make someone hear.

(2) (­ 2''-J
2 O.) – to make the doer (/0<) or the object (1)
obtain the root (mMq) of the verbal noun (=) from which the

verb is formed, e.g. (/


^ [ h R
X b W „[ (^) – I provided the shoe with
shoelaces. The (mMq - root) is (Z̀W„ U ) meaning shoelaces.
(W F
W 9b(^) - to bear fruit. The (mMq) is (` FW 9^) meaning fruit.

(3) (~
0 W2 - 42 O.) – to take the object to the place of the noun (mMq),
e.g. (;X *X[ W(^) – I took it to the place of selling, that is the market.

The (mMq) is (O ).

(4) (
/ !.=2 - ) – to find something described with the (mMq), e.g.
(;X *XBb €
W [(^) – I found him to be stingy; (;X *X[ W b (^) - I found him to be
noble; (;X A“=
[ FW [ (^) – I found him to be praiseworthy.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(5) (Uj.k\V 
. V! S
R V . ) – to remove the (mMq) from something. This
is of two types:
[1] if the verb is intransitive, the (mMq) will be removed from

the doer e.g. (/


D $X h  ž
^ W Kb (^) – the man removed oppression from
himself, that is, he was just.
[2] if the verb is transitive, the (mMq) will be removed from the

object e.g. (/
U $X h  W [0W R
X [>m^ Kb (^) –I removed dirt from the eye of
the man.

(6) (Uj.k\V 
. V! "u ,z$2 A-) – the doer gives the object the (mMq), e.g.
(d
W Bb Q^ b R
X F[ 4^ 0[ (^) – I gave the dog a bone.

(7) (
/ 2 N *R) – the doer reaches the (mMq) or enters it, e.g. ( ]W !W"
[ (^
/D $X h ) – the man reached in the morning; (/D $X h  r
W W 0[ (^) – the
man reached Iraq.

(8) (/ . 
2 R '2 (
. ) – It has three meanings:
[1] to become the possessor of the (mMq), e.g. (sD W )^ !Wb R
U W!Wb(^) –
the cow became one with milk.
[2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described
by the (mMq), that is, it has the quality of the (mMq), e.g. ( 6
W W $[ (^
/D $X h ) – the man became the owner of mangy19 camels.
19
A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

[3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or


time of the (mMq), e.g. (sD h+ R
U <^W M[ (^) – the goat bore offspring
in the autumn season.

(9) (x
0 ,^
2 -2 A-) – the doer becomes entitled to the (mMq), e.g.
(=
` [pU R
[ $W W [ (^) – Hind was entitled to be married.

(10) (/ B.


2 KR'2 . ) – the doer reaches at the time of the (mMq), e.g.
(
X [ ?h  =W 
W [ (^) –the crop was ready to be harvested.

(11) (/ &. ,.?R ) – the meaning of the (mMq) is strengthened, either
by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider
in application, e.g. (/
D€[ h W FW 9b(^) – the date palm bore much fruit;
(]
X ![
“  W 1^ 2[ (^) – the morning became very bright.

(12) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – the verb is initially used from (<@ 6 ). This
can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form
(78), e.g. (/
^ K^[ (^) - to hasten; or the verb is used in the root form
but for another meaning, e.g. (g
W 1^ „[ (^) – to fear while the root form
(g
W 1^ „W ) means to be compassionate.

(13) (/ ^, , !.R ) – to be synonymous with another verb, e.g.

(W$7[ (^ W /D [B W$7W ) – both mean: the night spread.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(14) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – to mention a verb after another verb to indicate
the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer, e.g.
(W +
W [q^S<^ ;X AX[ +
h W) – I gave him glad tidings so he became happy.

(15) (/ ?.

2 B-) - making a relationship of something to the (mMq),


e.g. (/
^ $X h  N
X [ 1^ b (^) – I made a relationship of disbelief to the
man.

(16) (0 !.V A-) – to make a transitive verb intransitive, e.g.

S ` UW2 =W FU W ) – Sālim praised Allâh. (` UW2 =W FW [ (^) – Sālim was


praiseworthy.

The (>'(k) of (3'4O )*)

(1) (W=4O) – Example: (/


^ $X h  N
“ =[ h K^) - I made the man sit.

(2) (S) – Example: (^ 


W U ^1 N
X [ +
h K^) - I removed the peel of
the fruit.

(3) (€'JO) – Example: (W =


[ )U  hi<^) – He placed spices in the
pot.

(4) (€() – Example: (X o


W+
h  W h #W) – The tree bloomed.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(5) (*) – Example: (


U Bb U b U< d
X Uf gW Fh 0W ) – The students
reached the depths of knowledge.
(
W hMW ) – He came into the tent.

(6) (& ?) – This is of three types:

Intensity in the verb, e.g. (m


D [FU Bb *¢ ^ h $W ) – The student roamed a
lot.
Intensity in the doer, e.g. (/
D U†Ub
R
U AWh W ) – Many camels died.
Intensity in the object, e.g. (6
W W [q^b R
U )U Bl^ ) – She locked many
doors.

(7) (?
B) – Example: (/
^ $X h  R
X )b
h <^) – I made a relationship of
transgression to the man.

(8) (
0 .?VA-) – to make something don the (mMq), e.g.
(\
W W 1^ b R
X Bb B$W ) – I draped the horse with a horse cloth.20

(9) (‚
/ '2 - t
2 O.) – to join the (mMq) to something, e.g. ( R
X ![ph v^
L
W [
h ) – I applied gold to the sword.

(10) (3
/ W2- 
2 O.) – to make something into the (mMq) or similar to
the (mMq), e.g. (/
^ $X h  W 
h #W) – He converted the man into a

20
A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold.

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Christian; (,S W7¢  R


X F[ hMW ) – I made the sheet like a tent.

(11) (
0J2 M, ) – to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of
a single verb, e.g. (/
^ BpW ) – to say ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh’; (]W !h2W ) - to
say ‘Subhānallâh’.

(12) (/ ^, , !.R ) – to have a similar meaning as (78), (<@ 6 )


and (/C1A 6 ).
Examples: (;X AX[ F W AW ;X AX[ Fh AW) – I gave him a date.
(W F
W A[(^ W Fh AW) – The date dried out.
(\W h *WAW \ W h AW) – He used the shield.

(13) ("!=*A) – Example: (;X *XF


[ B^ ) – I spoke to him. This meaning
is new in (/1A 6 ) because the (78) of the verb means to
injure.

The (>'(k) of ($ )*)

(1) (/
, . .QR ) – the relation or application of the act to another
person, e.g. (d
W *W^ ) – to write; (d
W AW^) – to write to someone, that
is, to correspond.

(2) (/ ^, , !.R ) – to have the same meaning as (78), (<@ 6 ),

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(/01A 6 ) and (/1A 6 ).


Examples: (W 1^ 2 W  W <^W2) – He travelled.
(;X A“=
[ W [(^W ;X A“=[ 0W W ) – I distanced him.
(WFAWW+AW ½¾ ' U ^B$X h  W AWW„) – The two men abused one another.
(;X *X1b h 
W  ^S [+ h  R X 1b 0W W) – I doubled the thing.

(3) (
0 '2 '-J
2 O.) – e.g. ( <0 v
 B$ ‰(

T  ZW ^<W0) – May Allâh


grant you well-being.

(4) ("i !.=-*2 !-) – e.g. (s^ =


h+
¢  {U mU pW W2^K) – He bore this hardship. The
(78) which is (sa 
W [ K^) means to be hard-hearted.

The (>'(k) of (C4A )*)

(1) (ƒ
/ .tqOA-) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (mMq), e.g. (W i
W *W$[ @U) – He made a hole.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (mMq), e.g. (d
W W*W$[ @U) – He held
the side.
(c) to make the object into the (mMq), e.g. (s^ h+ ‰^m*Wlb @U) –
He made the sheep into food.
(d) to hold the object in the (mMq), e.g. ({X =
W
W *W0[ @U) – He held it
in his armpit.

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(2) (5
0 b J
. O.) – to attempt to achieve an act, e.g. (d
W
W *Wb @U) – He
attempted to earn wealth.

(3) (
0 '2 '-t
2 O.) – to do an act for oneself, e.g. (W [U +
W  ^ W*b @U) – He
measured the barley for himself.

(4) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (h *Wlb ^< ;X *XF[ FW l^ ) – I made him grieve, so
he began grieving.

(5) (/ ^, , !.R ) – Examples: (¼


W B^ W ¼W B^*W [@U) – It became bright.
(?W o
W [ (^
?W o
W *W[ (U) – He entered Hijāz.
(‰h7W AW ‰W=AW[ @U) – He donned the sheet.

(WF"
W W€AW 'U ^B$X h  W 
W *WM[ @) – The two men disputed among
themselves.
(W $
W qb *W2[ @U W o
W *W[>@U) – He sought a rental.

(6) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – This is of two types.

(a) there is no (78), e.g. (%W W* [ @U) – to slaughter a hungry goat.

(b) the (78) has a different meaning, e.g. (


W B^*W2[ @U) – He
kissed the stone, (
W BU2W ) – He was safe.

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The (>'(k) of (C4BA )*)

(1) (0 
2 R N) – to be intransitive, e.g. (W
W Q^ #[@U) – It broke.

(2) („
0;, $- ) – to perceive something with the senses, that is, the
acts are related to the external limbs.

(3) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Examples: (W
W Q^ #[^< ;X AX[
W ^ ) – I broke it, so it
broke.
(g
W B^5W #[^< 6
W W!b R
X )b B^lb (^) – I locked the door and so it was locked.

(4) (/ ^, , !.R ) – Example: (?W o


W [ (^ ¿¾ ?W o
Wi
W #[@U) - He reached Hijâz.
This meaning is seldom used.

(5) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – Example: (g


W B^f^ #[@U) – He went away. (gW B^j^ ) – to be
cheerful.

The (>'(k) of (C;4A )*)

(1) (0 
2 R N) , (/ &. ,.?R ), ( / 2 ,) - colours and (S
0 '2 $. ) – defects.
Examples: (h F
W [ @U) – It became very red.
(
 W [ @U) – He became one-eyed.

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The (>'(k) of (3|4O )*)

(1) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (OW f )^ *W<^ ;X *X[ f K^) – I cut it into pieces and
so it became pieces.

(2) (y
0 … , O.) – to think or to represent oneself to have a certain
quality or status, e.g. (W !h
W AW) – He represented himself as having
patience.

(3) (S
0 bK†
. O.) – to refrain from the (mMq), e.g. (6
W h i
W AW) – He
refrained from sin.

(4) (‡
0 ?2 ,) – to don the (mMq), e.g. (W *h€
W AW) – He wore a ring.

(5) (3
/ b4. O.) – Example: (W ph =W AW) – He used the oil.

(6) (ƒ
/ .tqOA-) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (mMq), e.g. (R
X F[ h€
W AW) – I made the tent.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (mMq), e.g. (d
W ho
W AW) – He held
the side.
(c) To make the object into the (mMq), e.g. (W o
Wi
W b =W 2h W AW) –
He used the stone as a pillow.
(d) To hold the object in the (mMq), e.g. (U!
h  ž
^ hq^AW) – He
held the child in his armpit.

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(7) (ˆ
0 W2- =2 O.) – to do an act slowly and several times. This is then
of two types.
(a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it
slowly, e.g. (
W h o
W AW) – He drank in sips.
(b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once, e.g.
('
^ ‚[)D b ²
^ 1 i
W AW) – He memorized the Qur’ân a little at a
time.

(8) (C
/ b
. O.) – to become the (mMq) or similar to the (mMq),

e.g. (W 
h WAW) – He became a Christian; (W i
h !WAW) – He became like the
ocean.

(9) (/ . 
2 R '2 (
. ) – Example: (^ h FW AW) – He became wealthy.

(10) (/ ^, , !.R ) – to have the same meaning as the (7C8), ( 6


<@) and (1*2 6 ). Examples: (/^ !UK^  /^ !h)^ A) – He accepted.
(=
W W $[ (^ =W oh W AW) – He remained awake.
(e
W W i [ *W2[   e W h i
W AW) – He sought a need.

(11) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – This is of two types. Either there is no (78) or

there is a (78) but it has a different meaning.

Examples: (™
W Fh +
W AW) – He stood in the sun.
(
W BQ^ AW) – He spoke. (W BU^ ) – to injure.

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The (>'(k) of (3R$O )*)

(1) (
0 R .QO.) – This is similar to ( +) of ( B01 6 ).
However, the difference between the two is that in ( B01 6 ),
one is mentioned as the doer (/0<) while the other is mentioned

as the object (1) while in (/01A 6 ), both are mentioned


as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object,
e.g. ('
D W[ <^ W 'D Wi[>W W AWW+AW) – Rayhân and Farhân abused each
other.

(2) (3
/ '2 '-t
2 O.) – to simulate a state or status or representing oneself
to have it, e.g. (Y
W W WFAW) – He pretended to be sick.

(3) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (=W 0W W!*W<^ ;X A“=[ 0W W ) – I distanced him so he
was at a distance.

(4) (/ ^, , !.R ) – Examples: (:


^ 0W ½¾ W ^WAW) – to be high;
(
W FW [>(^ ½¾ W W WAW) – to enter the right side.

(5) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – Example: (Z


W W W!AW) – Allâh is most blessed.
(Z
W W W) – The camel sat.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The (>'(k) of (C4A )*)

(1) (S
0 , ‰, ) – To seek the (mMq), e.g. (
S  N
X [ 1^ 5[ *W2[ @U) – I sought
forgiveness from Allâh.

(2) (/ M, .'- + x


0 ,^
2 -2 A-) – to be entitled to the (mMq), e.g. ( OW K^[ *W2[ @U
6
X [ H) – The clothing was entitled to a patch.

(3) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – (/ $. . ,zR ) – Example: (%W ^)*W2[ ^< ;X *XF[ K^(^) – I made him
stand, so he stood up.

(4) (
/ !.=2 - ) – Example: (;X *X[ W Qb *W2[ @U) – I found him to be noble.

(5) (
/ .?

2 - ) – to regard something as being described by the


(mMq), e.g. (;X *X[
Wi
[ *W2[ @U) – I thought him to be good.

The difference between ('


a W=$[ U ) and ('a W!
[ U ) is that there is
certainty in the former and doubt in the latter.

(6) (C
/ b
. O.) – to become the (mMq) or to become similar to the
(mMq), e.g. (
X [f•  W o
Wi
[ *W2[ @U) – The mud became a stone.

(7) (ƒ
/ .tqOA-) – Example: (=W [”U  W j^ [ *W2[ @U) – He made India his
homeland.

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(8) (
0J2 M, ) – to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. (OW $W [ *W2[ @U) – to say ( ;U BEU h#@U
'^ [ X $U W ;U [^@U h#@UW ).

(9) (C4A  3|4O  C4!  F  N ^, , !.R ) – Examples: ( h )^ *W2[ @U


h K^) – to settle down, (6 W W$(^  6 W Wo*W2[ @U) – to reply, (  W !WQb *W2[ @U
W !hQ^ AW) – to be arrogant, (SW*W0[ @U W 
W [ *W2[ @U) – to resist a temptation.

(10) ("i !.=-*2 A-) – Example: (sU 7W W2


U b ^B0W ?W $W qb *W2[ @U) – He leaned over
the pillow.

The (>'(k) of (C4'4A )*)

(1) (0 
2 R N) – This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be
transitive, e.g. (;X *X[ ^[ B^
[ @U) – I regarded it as sweet.

(2) (/ &. ,.?R ) – Example: (Y


X [ q^b d
W „W [ +
W 0[ @U) – The land became
full of grass.

(3) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (W#[ W9b^< ;X *X[W9^) – I wrapped it so it was
wrapped.

(4) (/ ^, , !.R ) – Example: (;X *X[ B^i


[ *W2[ @U  ;X *X[^[ B^[ @U) – I thought it to be
sweet.

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The (>'(k) of (C;'4A )*)

Like (:<@ 6 ), this category also has the following four


meaning patterns:
(0 
2 R N) , (/ &. ,.?R ), ( / 2 ,) and (S
0 '2 $. )
Examples: (6
h W„[ @U) – It became very white.
(
 W[ @U) – He became one-eyed.

The (>'(k) of (C!|4A )*)

(1) (/ &. ,.?R ) – Example: (v^ 


h B^[ @U) – He ran very fast.

This category is (dW*)), that is, a word which has no (/"()


origin nor something similar to the origin.

There are two differences between (6*K@) and (,=* @). It is a

condition for (6*K@) that it must not be used in (78 9:9).


For (,=* @), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for

(6*K@) to be free of letters of (rc@) and extra letters brought

for a particular meaning (½FB=I ).


An example of a letter of (rc@) is the () of the verb (/
^ B^F[ „W )

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which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of (e


W W [ 7W ).
An example of a letter of (½FB =I ) is the hamzah of
(%W W 
b (^) which was added to the verb to render it transitive.

The (>'(k) of (/ , , 42 , )*)


This category has many meaning patterns some of which are:
(1) (
0J2 M, ) – Example: (/^ FW
[ W) – He recited ‘Bismillâh…’.

(2) (
0 .?VA-) – Example: (;X *X[ K^[ W) – I made him don a burqa’.

(3) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: («
W W fb 5W <^ /D [B «
W W fb l^ ) – The night hid
his sight so it became hidden.
This category is used mostly as (]i") and (L0) and

sometimes as (F), e.g. (


^ ?W bW ), (\
W W 2[ W ).

The (>'(k) of (3
/ N 42 , O. )*)

(1) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (e
W W [ =W *W<^ ;X *X$[ W [ 7W ) – I rolled it so it
began rolling.

(2) ()MA) – Example: (\


W W ![W AW) – He walked conceitedly.

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(3) (/ ^, , !.R ) – Example: (W W =


[ l^ ½¾ W W =[ 5W AW) – He screamed.

The (>'(k) of (C;K4A )*)

(1) (0 
2 R N) – Example: (W o
W #[W [ @U) – to gather.

(2) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (W o
W [W 9b^< ;X AX[ o
W [ 9^) – I made his blood
flow and so it began flowing.

The (>'(k) of (CŠ4A )*)

(1) (0 
2 R N) – Example: (h W +
W Kb @U) – to shudder.

(2) (/ $
. . ,zR ) – Example: (' q^FW jb ^< ;X *X#[q^F[ j^ ) – I pacified him so he
was calmed.

(3) ()MA) – Example: (


Xo[ h h W 1^ b @U) – The star shone.

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Application of the Special Meanings

Quote 1:
(
W [UU ~[ FX b ^ ^?U [W ^B0[ (^ ‰
[ mU  ;U BEU =X F[ i
W b^) – excerpt from ( "(
„+)
Translation: “All praises are due to Allâh who raised the status of
all the believers.”
Teacher: What special meaning of (<@ 6 ) is found in the
verb (^B0
[ (^)?
Student: The meaning of ( >=A) – to be transitive is found in this
verb because the (78) of this verb is (: ^ 0W ) which means to be
high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to (<@ 6 ), it
became transitive, having the meaning of ‘raising’.

Quote 2:
(U [ !UQ
b *h
OW W ;U [>=W W> OW <^W W /^ BpW W W !h^ R
W [!Wb W W>W0 ^v†U<^) – excerpt from
(‰=))
Translation: “When he sees the Ka’bah, he should say ‘Allâhu
Akbar’ and ‘Lâ-ilâha illallâh’...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (/1A 6 ) is found in the
verb (W !h
^ ) and (/^ BpW )?
Student: The meaning of (K) – to abbreviate - is found in this
verb.

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Quote 3:
(
W [U W W U *h2U ^B0W r
W =h 
W AW ,S W„ 'b @W) – excerpt from (‰=))
Translation: “If he wants, he can give charity to six poor
persons...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (/C1A 6 ) is found in the
verb (r
W =h 
W AW)?
Student: The meaning of (,=* @) is found in this verb because the

(78) is (r
W =W "
W ) which means ‘to speak the truth’.

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Challenging Words

A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur’ân and other verbs will be
mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and
syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur’ân. An
explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one’s knowledge
of morphology.

The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and


not according to their Qur’ânic script so that the student can
exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the
analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided.

'[)D *h<^
Analysis: This is the imperative (() of the verb (K), the

( 5") being ( m O}). The original word was ( W


[ #U[ )D AhU), from the (6 ) of (*<@). It was constructed from the
word (' ^ [ )D *hAW) which was originally ('^ [ X)U *hAW). The ( F) of the
(‰) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its

harakah. Due to (G  F*$), the (‰) which was then

changed to () was deleted. Due to the entry of the ( ), the ( s?š

/") of ([)D Ah@U) was deleted. The final (') is not (60‘ '#)
but ( >K '#) which enters the end of a verb between the verb

and the (BQ* ‰) to protect it from receiving a (s ). It was

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originally (
[ #U[ )D Ah^<). The (BQ* ‰) was deleted and the (s )
of the ( >K '#) was sufficed upon. This occurs very often.
Due to a (LK), the (s ) is also not pronounced. It becomes

('
U [ )D Ah^<).

'[!XpW [ <^

Analysis: This is similar to ('


U [ )D AhPP^<). The original word
was (
[ #U[ PX!pW [ U
W ). It is the imperative of the verb (d
W PUpW ),
the (6 ) being (O-). It is written as ('
U [ !XpW [ ^<).

Most often confusion arises in verbs where (LK) or (%?$)

occurs, a (>K '#) is added to the end of the word and (LK)
is made on the ('#) after deleting the (BQ* ‰). The student is

perplexed to find a (60‘ '#) in spite of (LK) or (%?$)

whereas the ('#) is ( >K '#).

Similarly, a verb can sound confusing when the (/" s?š) is


deleted from the middle of a sentence, especially when a student
is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading
them to him, e.g. in the verse (
[ U $U [  D h…UFW fb FX b ™
X 1b h W*Xh>(^W>) to

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[ U $U [ AX), in ([=X !X0[ 


read it as ( \
X h W“>(^W>), to read the verb as
(
[ =X !X[ 2X ), in ([ X $U [  /^ [KU), to read the verb as ([ X $U [ ^) and in ( 6
¢ W
'U [ X $U [ ), to read the verb as ('U [ X $U [ U).

When (W) or (&


^ ) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having
(/" s?š), the alifs of the (W) and (&^ ) are also not pronounced
just as the (/" s?š) is not pronounced. The verbs therefore

sound confusing when read as (d W W*Wo


[ W ), (W f^ 1^ [W ), (W o
W 1^ [^) and
(7W U 
[ *X [ W ). This confusion is intensified in (1# 6 ) because
the entry of (&) creates the word ( [ ^) while the entry of ()
creates the word ( [ W ). The same rule applies to the word
(W [U[ BDi
[ W ). Besides being the (m O}) of (1 2) from
(a [ BDX ), it can also be (dIl w#~ O}), the tense being ( 1#
JK# 8 ) from (<@ 6 ).
Similarly, the word ( W ![ U[ X 
[ W ) is from (<@ 6 ).

[ AX(bW h=<^

Analysis: It was originally (


[ AX(bW h7U<^), the word-form being ( O}
 m), the tense (R!H  ). It is ( F

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%:) from (/0<@ 6 ). It was ([ AX(bW h7U). Due to the entry of the
( ), the (/" s?š) is deleted.

[
“ 1^ [^
Analysis: This verb is (dIl m O}), the tense being ( 
R!H ) from (1# 6 ). The () of emphasis entered
the verb, thereby deleting the (/" s?š).

N
W [ 1^ 5[ *W2[ (^

Analysis: Due to the entry of (%1*P2‘ s?Pš), the ( s?Pš


/PP") was deleted. The original word was (N
W [ 1^ 5[ *WPP[2@U)
from (1*2@ 6 ).

'^ [ X pW ^4AW

Analysis: This was originally ('


^ [ X pW ^4*WAW). It is (
mP OP}
P), the tense being ( P P). One (N) was
deleted according to the rule of (/01A 6 ).

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N
U qb *WbW
Analysis: This is from the verb (
[ AUqb P
PWA), (wPP#~ =P
P
dPIl), the tense being ( P P(). It is ( P1 PF
I> JK#). Due to the (), the () became (2).

After (), it is compulsory (Pƒ $) to make the (P. %&)


sâkin. The compulsion is due to excessive usage. After
( ), it is permissible to do so (ƒ$).

;U )b *hW>W

Analysis: This verb is from (*< 6 ). It is ( m =


dIl), the tense being (R!H  ). It was originally
(
[ )U *hW>). Due to the jussive mood (%?‹ ), the (‰) at the end is
deleted. A pronoun (F) was then attached to the verb which

created the scale of (/ U U <^) – (;U )U AW). Therefore the (r) became
(2) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of (/
a U <^) into (/a [ <^) as
in (L
` *U^ ). It is pronounced (L
` *[^ ).

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;[ $U [ (^
Analysis: This is the imperative (e
U [ (^) of (< 6 ), the word-
form being ( m =). The pronoun was added to the
end of the verb making it (;U $ U [ (^). In the Qur’ân, after this word,
the words ({X WM(^
W ) appear. Therefore the form of (/^ U <U) – (W U $U )
was formed, similar to (/ ^ U@U). The Arabs make the middle letter of
such scales also (2). Consequently, the ({) became (2).

It becomes (;[ $
U [ (^).

h 
W 0W

Analysis: This verb is similar to ([W W ), the word-form being

(dIl m O}) of the verb (W0W ). The tense is ( 


). It was succeeded by a (Lf  ). The rule of
assimilation (%l7) was applied. Therefore it became

([#X^
h [
W 0W ).
h FX #h(^
Analysis: The verb is (
“ FX #W) with ('b (^) attached to it. The word-

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form is (BQ* O}) while the tense is (  ). Because


of ('
b (^) it is in the accusative case (d ). It is from ( 6
#) like (=“ FX #W). Assimilation of both the nûns has taken place.

[ Uh*XF[ D

Analysis: The verb is (


h *XF[ D), the word-from being (w#~ O}
), the tense being (R!H  ). It is from ( 6
#) like (h *XBb KD). The ( >K '#) and (BQ* ‰) have been
attached to the end.

h U>W AW h@U

Analysis: From the verb (‰‚W), this is the ( w#~ =)
word-form with the tense being (R!H  ). It is

(I> JK# G F). It was originally ( W [>W AW). Due to the
( B)9 '#), the (6 '#) was deleted. The (‰), not being a

(s=), was rendered a (s ).

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W AW [ ^(^

Analysis: From the verb (‰WPWA), this is the (


mP =P
) word-form while the tense is ( P /!)*P  1#
µ OPP). A (%1*PP2& s?P Pš) and (µ) have been attached
before the verb, changing it into the jussive mood ( P
P
%?‹).

W [U^K

Analysis: This is the (/01 2) of the verb (^BK^), from the
(6 6 ). It was originally (W [UU^K). Changes occurred in the
word just as in (
W [U W).
A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of
(
[ U^)X>
^^K) from ( PB01 6P ), the word-form being ( OP}
 w#~).
It could also be ( w#~ =) of the same (6 ). A ( '#
>K) and (BQ* ‰) are attached to the end of the word. The
(BQ* ‰) was deleted and the (s ) of the ( >K '#) was

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deleted due to (LK).

The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a


word has a similar form in another language, confusion can arise.
This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps
cause confusion.

‰
[ =¢ U W>

Analysis: This verb was originally (‰


[ =U *W[ W>) from (*<
6 ),
the word-form being (dIl m =) and the tense ( 

JK# ). The rule of (*< 6 ) has been applied to it.

'^ [ FX 
¢€
U W>

Analysis: From (*< 6 ), it was originally ('^ [ FX 


U *W€
[ W>), the
word-form being (dIl m O}) and the tense ( 

). The rule of (*< 6 ) has been applied to it.

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W ^ 7h W

Analysis: It is (dIl m =) from (*< 6 ), the tense


being (  ). It was originally (W Q
^ AWvb @U). The rule of
(*< 6 ) has been applied to it.

'^ [ 0X =h AW

Analysis: From (*<


6 ), it is (P mP OP}), the
tense being (  ). It was originally ('
^ [ XU AW=[ AW).

` $W 7W ?[ X

Analysis: This is the verbal noun (PF =P) of ( 6P


P*<), originally being (` PWoAW?[ X ). It can also be the ( P2
1) or ( 4 2).

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h fD 
[ UFW <^

Analysis: From (*< 6 ), this is the (dIl m =)


word-form, the tense being (L0  ). It was

originally (h f
D
[ (D [ FW <^). The (/" s?š) was deleted because of
the precedence of the ( ). The ('#) of the word ( [ W ) was
rendered a (s ) according to the rule ( Z W ¢ X ZW ¢ X v@  
 Q ). The (N) of (*<) was changed to (©).

[ AX[ U fD 
[ W

Analysis: This was (


[ AX[ U fD 
[ DW). From (*<
6 ), this is the
( m O}) word-form, the tense being (  

L0). The (/" s?š) was deleted because of the


precedence of the (). The (L) of the () is not pronounced

due to (G  F*$).

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[0X ^f
[ FW <^

Analysis: It was originally ([0


X ^f*W2[ @UWF<^). It is (dIlm O})
from the (1*2 6 ), the tense being (  ).The

(N) of (1*2) was deleted.

O[ fU
[ AW [ ^

Analysis: It was originally (O


[ fU *W
[ AW) from (1*2 6 ). The

(N) of (1*2) was deleted.

ƒ1^
[ W^
Analysis: It was originally (
[ W 1^
[ W^) on the scale of ([ B^W 1b W^) with
( 11M '#). It is (BQ* O}) from (]*< 6 ). Sometimes the
( 11M '#) is written in the form of tanwîn.

—U ![#W

Analysis: It was originally (


[ PU5![#W) like ([ PU[ #W), from ( 6P
6P). It is permissible to delete the (‰) from the end of a

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word that is (JK#).

[ pX [ FX *X[>(^W =[ )^ <^
Analysis: This was originally (
[ *X[>(^W ) like ([ *XBb W <^). When a
pronoun is added to (
[ AX), an extra () is first added to the verb
after the (%). This rule applies to (
[ AX), ([ pX ) and ([ D ) when
suffixed by a (F).

Sometimes a (;2 ‰) is suffixed to a verb that is ( w#~ =


) when a pronoun is attached to it, e.g. the words of a

hadîth, (;U [ A¢=


[ $W W ^ ;U [AU(bW K^ [ ^).

Wp[ FX QD X ?U Bb #X(^

Analysis: The verb is (%X ?U Bb #X) from (< 6 ). A (%1*2& s?š)


is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun (p) is suffixed to it.

Subsequently a second pronoun (


[ D ) is attached to the verb,
thereby requiring a () and making the (%F %).

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W*[U

Analysis: This is like the verb (W1b M


U ), the word-form being ( O}
BQ*) and the tense (  ). The question that arises
here is that the () of this verb is used (G %F) in the

Qur’ân. Consequently, the () supposed to be (W*[ X ) like

(WBb KD) because the word-form is (> #). The scholars of tafsîr
have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both
on the scale of (OF > O-) and (> #). In the Qur’ân, the
() is used from (O- 6 ) and the () from (#).

R
[
Wo
W !WF[ <^

Analysis: The verb is (R


[
Wo
W !W#[^<) from (1# 6 ), the word-
form being (dIl w#~ =) and the tense ( 

).The (/" s?š) was deleted because of the


precedence of the ( ). Because the (') is succeeded by a (6), it

is pronounced as a (%).

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Wh27W

Analysis: This verb was originally (™


W 2h 7W ) from (/1A 6 ).
The final doubled letter was changed to a ( B ). The
Arabs often do this.

[ *XBb 4^ <^

Analysis: It was originally (


[ *XBb BU4^ <^) from (O- 6 ). The word-
form is ( m O}) and the tense is (  ).
Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters. In this
case, the first () was deleted. Sometimes it is pronounced

(
[ *XBb 4U <^) after transferring the harakah of the first () to the (ª).

'^ [ K^

Analysis: According to some scholars, this verb was originally


('
^ [ W Kb @U). According to the previously mentioned rule, the first ()
was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for
the (/" s?š). Therefore it was deleted. The word ('
^ [ K^)
remains.

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[ B• U

Analysis: This is the ( w#~ =) of (/¦ !UW> / W) from the
(6 6 ). It is (L0). It was originally ( [ BUBU [@U). The rule
of assimilation applies. Similar to this is the word (
[ •7U ).

'^ [ QD W>

Analysis: First Possibility: It is the () of (') in the

accusative case (d ).

Second Possibility: It is ( L1   dIl m O}


r1) of (6 6 ). It was originally ('^ [ XU [ W>). The rule of
(=X U W>) first applies to delete the (). Then the rules of ([ 0X =[ W>) and
(X 2
W [ X>) apply to change it to ('^ [ QD W>).

Third Possibility: It is ( L1   dIl w#~ O}


r1) from (%X). Its paradigm of the perfect tense ( 
) is as follows:

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(À '^ W QD W> WAW QD W> N


[ W QD W> [ QD W> WQD W> W QD W>)

[D^KW

Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb ([D^K) from

(# 6 ), this is made up of two words (›œKW ) and ([D). The


former is (r1 L1   dIl m =) from

(6) while the latter is ( L1  .  m O}

')) from (O- 6 ).

Second Possibility: The verb is (


^ W Kb W ). It is ( dIl m O}
r1 L1  ) from the ( BB< 6 ). It was

originally ([D
W Kb W ). The rule of ()>) was applied whereby the
harakah of the () was transferred to the (r) and the () was

changed to (L). It became ([D^K W ).

^^^

Analysis: From (:<@ 6 ), this is (  dIl m HA


), the verbal noun being (Z̀Wb U b @U). It was originally

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(^
W b W b @U) like (^)+
W #[W [@U). The rule of ()>) was applied. The
(/" s?š) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent

letter being (Zi*). It became (^^^).

W [U

Analysis: This is from the verb (


[ FU W>
WW ) from the (6 6 ).
It is (r1 L1  w#~ O}). The paradigm of the
imperative is as follows:
(
W [U WU [ U [X WU %U )

[ X 
[ #W

Analysis: This is from the verb (


[ X 
[ W>
‰W"
W ). It is ( BQ* O}
I> JK#  ). It was originally (‰ X X 
[ #W). The rule
of (0=>) was applied and the (‰) was changed to ().

Wp[ X W7

Analysis: This is from the verb (‰


[ U =[ W> ‰W7W ). It is ( m O}

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/01 2). It was originally ('^ [ X>U W7). The rule of (0=>) was
applied and the (‰) was changed to (). One () was then

deleted. It became (' ^ [ X W7). When ( <@) was applied to the


pronoun (Wp), the (') was deleted.

¶>W

Analysis: From the verb (‰


[ U [ W>
‰WW ), this is the verbal noun in
the singular form. It is (') L1) from the (6 6 ). It

was originally (ƒ>[ W ). The () was changed to (‰) and


assimilated. It became (¶>W ).

W#[ BD2W

Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative (() of (


^ q^2W ), the
word-form being ( m O}) with a pronoun (W#) attached
to it.

Second Possibility: It is from the verb (


X BD
[ W> W BD2W ). It is ( O}
‰ JK#   BQ*).

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[ ¢W"

Analysis: This is the imperative (() of (6


h W"), the word-form
being ( w#~ =) of ( B01 6 ). It was originally

(
[ !U UW"). The rule of (%l7@) was applied.

6
h W W

Analysis: From the (E:<@ 6 ), this is the (dIl m =).


It was originally (6 h W W 
[ @U) like (h W +
W Kb @U).The rule of ()>) was
applied. It becomes (6 h W W@U). The (/" s?š) is deleted. It
becomes (6h W W).

W FW ^

Analysis: This was (


X I^[ (^
[ ^), from the (]*< 6 ). It is ( =
I> JK# G F µ O 1 BQ*). The rule of (K)
was applied. Due to the ( $ µ), the ( B ) is deleted

from the end. It becomes (,S [ (^ [ ^). Subsequently, the rule of

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()>) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. It becomes (W F


W ^).

^ WB^[>@U

Analysis: From the (:<@), this is (  dIl m =


r1 L1 ). It was originally (^ W [^[ @U) like (g+# @).
The rule of ()>) is first applied whereby the () changes to

(L) and then the rule of (7) to change the () to (‰).

{[ †Up[ (^

BB< 6 ), this is ( (  m =


Analysis: From the (

L0 78 0  ). It is like (b ?U bW ).

U [l^

Analysis: This is the ( 78 0   (  m =
') L1) from the ( BB< 6 ). It was originally (‰ X U [5W AX) like
(e
X U [ =W AX). The rule of (0=>) was first applied, followed by

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deleting the (N) when constructing the imperative ((). The

( B ) was finally deleted from the end. It becomes (U [l^ ).

&^

Analysis: From the (O- 6 ), this is the ( (  m =
') L1 ), the verb being (‰WBb W> ‰ W U ^). It was
originally (
W b@U) like (–
W M[ @U). The harakah of the () is transferred
to the () and the () is changed to (L). The (/" s?š) is

no more required. It becomes (& ^ ).

' @U

Analysis: From the (6 6 ), this is the ( dIl w#~ O}


I> $( 1 F  ), the verb being ( X [>†UW> '^ ‚
ƒ[>(^). It was originally (W #[@U) like (W [ U). The rule of (%l7@) is
applied. It becomes ('
 @U). The paradigm of (  ) is as
follows:
(h#@U R
X #[ @U h *X#[@U WF*X#[@U R
U #[@U [ *X#[@U WF*X#[@U R
W #[@U ' @U W*#W‚ R
[ #W‚ [#X‚ W#‚ '^ ‚)

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' @U ' @U
Analysis: From the (6 6 ), this is the (  BQ* O}
L0 ), the verb being ('¦ †UW> ' (^). It was originally
(
X #Uqb #W) like (6X U  [ #W). The rule of (%l7@) is applied to the ('). It
becomes (' ¦ †U#W). Then ( j„ 'b @U) is inserted before the verb ( 'b @U
'¦ †U#W). The rule of (%l7@) is again applied because the two nûns are
adjacent to each other while the final nûn becomes (6). It

becomes ('  @U ' @U).

6
h W 
W

Analysis: It is ( =>? 0    dIl m =


G F) from (:U <b @U 6 ). The verb is (6 h W q^
[ @U) like
(h W +
W Kb @U). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (/" s?š) is deleted. It becomes

(6h W  W ).

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'WF2W ‚

Analysis: This is the (1 F /1* 2 m HA) from
(O- 6 ). It was originally ('
U WF2W ,V (^). The rule of (‚) is
applied and the end is read as sākin due to (LK).

Wh27W

Analysis: This word was originally (™


W 2h 7W ). There were three
sîns together which caused the word to become heavy in
pronunciation. Therefore the third (\) was changed to (‰)

which then changed to (L). The same rule applies to the word

(h)^ AW) which was originally (¬


W 
h )^ AW).

;[ h
W *WW> [ ^

Analysis: This word was originally (


X h
W *WW>). The third (\) was
changed to (‰) which then changed to (L) due to the rule of

(
^ ^K). When ($ µ) entered the verb, the ( B ) was
deleted from the end. A ({) was added for (LK).

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W=W [$W

Analysis: It is ( G F   dIl m HA)


from (^:[ U <b @U 6 ). The verb is (W=
W […^$[ @U) like (WFo
W #[W [ @U). The
harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while
the (/" s?š) is deleted. It becomes (W=W [$W ).

[ o
U [D

Analysis: It is ( G F   dIl m =


I> JK#) from (^:[U <b @U 6 ). The verb is (W o
U […Db (D) like
(
WoU #[X [ (D). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (/" s?š) is deleted. Waqf is made

at the end. It becomes ( [o


U [D ).

›^WA

Analysis: It is ( ‰ JK#   dIl m =)


from ( B01 6 ). The verb was (W ^WA). The rule of (W0=[ X>) was

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applied to change it to (›^WA).

‰
W [ 7W

Analysis: It is ( I> JK#   dIl m =


0  giB) from ( BB< 6 ). The verb was (W W>[ 7W ). The rule
of (K) was applied to change it to (‰
W [ 7W ).

[ U[ X

Analysis: It is (‰ $(  (  w#~ =)


from (# 6 ). The paradigm of this verb is (& ¨ [ W D [ FX W> ^ W).
The paradigm of the (() is as follows:

(
W Bb X &^ [ X [ U[ X [D[ X &^ [ X /b X )

N
X [ FX W>
Analysis: Besides the common verb (N
X W FX W> N
W W), there is a
second possibility. It could be ( L1   BQ* =

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r1) from (% 6 ). The paradigm of this verb is ( [ FX [W> W FX W>


ƒF[ W>). The paradigm of the (  ) is as follows:
(N U [ FX W> [ AX[ FX W> WFAX[ FX W> NW [ FX W> '^ [ FX W> WAW FX W> N
[ W FX W> [FX W> WFX W> W FX W>
W#[ FX W> N
X [ FX W> h AX[ FX W> WFAX[ FX W>)

gX [>U [ X>

Analysis: This is the ( $(   dIl m =


‰) from the (<@ 6 ). It was originally (gX [>U X>). A ({) was
added between the first and second letter against the rule ( :M

\)).

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Appendix A

Morphology or Etymology?

What is the subject of ( P PB0) called in English? Is it


Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the
definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary
works.

The following definition of Morphology appears in “The


Oxford Companion to the English Language”.

“In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as


opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words
in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The
two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study
of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of word-
formation).” 21
The following has been mentioned under the term,
‘syntax’:
“The ways in which components of words are combined
into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and
morphology together are generally regarded as the major
constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses,
grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes
morphology.”22

We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary:


“2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a
language including inflection, derivation, and
compounding – distinguished from syntax.
B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in

21
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992.
22
Ibid, p. 1016.

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a language.” 23

Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition:


“In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar
which examines the forms of words as well as the
principles of word-formation and inflection.” 24

The following definition is found in the World Book:


“Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of
words.” 25

As for Etymology, the following are some of the


definitions one may come across:

“Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a


statement of the origin and history of a word, including
changes in its form and meaning.” 26

“…that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to


determining the origin of words.” 27

Websters Dictionary provides the following definition:


“The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic
form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its
phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its
earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is
found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one
language to another by analysing it into the component
parts from which it was put together, by identifying its
cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its

23
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,.
24
Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818.
25
World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992.
26
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992.
27
Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia
Britannica vol. 8 p. 804.

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cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded


or assumed ancestral language.28

The World Book states:


“Etymology is the study of the origins and development of
words.” 29

In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following


definition:
“…that part of linguistics which is concerned with the
origin or derivation of words.” 30

The Students Encyclopedia states:


“… the study of the origins and history of words.”31

The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following:


“… that branch of philology which deals with the origin
and derivation of words, and with the comparison of
words in different members of the same language
group.”32

Under the word, ‘morphology’ in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an


English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as ( PB0
PP) while under the entry ‘etymology’, the meaning

provided is (r)*„‘ B0).33


In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under

28
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 782.
29
World Book, vol. 18 p. 518.
30
Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804.
31
Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970.
32
Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956.
33
Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997.

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morphology, we find the term ( P


P P
PB0) while under

etymology, we find the term (NFBQ /"qA B0).34

In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic,


under the entry ( P
P PPB0), we find the following:
“morphology (gram.).” 35

These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals


with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with
the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate
term for ( P PB0) would be Morphology and not
Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books.

34
An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000.
35
Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P.513, Third
Edition 1976.

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Bibliography

 'F 1 Á( %Â L>* à 7) _„ 6Bf


ÃQ R 9
‰  › 0 v*2Ä _+ _
 >= Å B0   =FÅ >= >? 4#. '@
B!
%+p 
 =!0 >= F‹    1( ’@   ](
‰#.
;*0} „p = ( *=B  i à Nm
‰:Fc = ( v*2Ä  < à  m„
7   B0  = (  +B _. _
_== 'f#( 1 B   <. L>A o
,FB  L1 ’v„   *=B  i
= ( >0 Æ1FB 5 B0
B0 5"( =FÅ ‰)B 5 B0 _„ à / A
‰p:   =FÅ #& ?>? 
'M *  =!0 #& •B  Á0
= ( r*+ #&  B0

Page 356 - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

‰ A   =!0 ²<iB  6*


-) %) =!0 #&  7„@ _„  

Page 357 - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

  


    

Page 358 - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown