Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 84

Stiffener Design for

Beam-to-Column Connections

Michelle L. Holland

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science
in
Civil Engineering

Dr. Thomas M. Murray, chair


Dr. W. Samuel Easterling
Dr. Siegfried M. Holzer

September 1999
Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Moment Connections, Stiffener Design, Column Stiffeners

Copyright 1999, Michelle L. Holland

Stiffener Design for


Beam-to-Column Connections

Michelle L. Holland

(ABSTRACT)

Stiffeners are used as a means of providing additional support to columns at beam


connection locations. They are added when the strength of the column is exceeded but
full moment strength of the beam section is desired. In determining the design of column
stiffeners, there are no specifications for determining the distribution of load between the
column web and stiffeners. The AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specifications
provides guidelines for determining the stiffener area but no specifications are given.
The actual loads taken by the stiffener and web are therefore not truly known.
In this study, experiments were done to determine the load supported by the stiffeners
and web when tensile forces are applied to the specimen. The initial stiffener design for
the test specimens was based on LRFD guidelines. The actual load distribution between
the column web and stiffeners is determined from strain data obtained during testing.
This distribution is compared with the assumed loads obtained from the initial LRFD
calculations. Finite element analysis is also utilized to confirm the consistency of the
results obtained from the experiments.

Using this information, a new method is

developed which better predicts the distribution of load between the column web and the
stiffener.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I owe a great deal of thanks to my family and friends who have always offered
their support and belief in me. I could not have made all the accomplishments throughout
my life without them. Dr. Thomas M. Murray has also provided guidance and has
challenged me during my graduate studies. For this, and for his patience, I extend my
greatest thanks. I also extend my thanks to Dr. W. Samuel Easterling and Dr. Siegfried
M. Holzer for their help, knowledge, and participation as members of my committee. To
Dennis Huffman and Brett Farmer, I also offer my appreciation for their help the
Structures Laboratory and for the hours of enjoyment.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ABSTRACT

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

vi

LIST OF TABLES

viii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of Design Problem


1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3

Background
Current Design Model
Objective of Study

1
1
4

1.2 AISC Column Side Limit State Design Strength

1.3 Force Distribution Prediction

10

1.4 Scope of Research

11

CHAPTER II. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

12

2.1 Scope of Test

12

2.2 Test Details

12

2.2.1
2.2.2

Test 1 Geometry and Design


Test 2 Geometry and Design

12
14

2.3 Instrumentation

14

2.4 Test Procedure

17

2.5 Test Results

17

2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3

General
Test 1
Test 2

17
17
21

2.6 Summary of Experimental Results

26

CHAPTER III. DEVELOPMENT OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL


AND COMPARISON WITH TEST RESULTS
3.1 Development of Finite Element Model

iv

28
28

3.1.1
3.1.2

Description of Finite Element Analysis


Shell Elements

3.2 Finite Element Results


3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

28
28
29

Test 1
Test 2
Additional Finite Element Models
Parametric Study of Stiffener Sizes

3.3 Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Data


CHAPTER IV. DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN MODEL

29
29
32
34
36
38

4.1 Development of Effective Length

38

4.2 Load Distribution Between Column and Stiffener

42

CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

45

5.1 Summary

45

5.2 Area Method Design Recommendations

46

5.3 Example Calculations

47

5.4 Recommendations for Further Research

49

REFERENCES

50

APPENDIX A. NOMENCLATURE

51

APPENDIX B. TEST 1 Results

54

B.1 Experimental Data


B.2 ABAQUS Input Data File

55
61

APPENDIX C. TEST 2 Results

66

C.1 Experimental Data


C.2 ABAQUS Input Data File

67
71

VITA

76

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Page

1.1 Moment Transfer Couple

1.2 Stiffener Force Based on AISC Manual Procedure

1.3 Local Flange Bending Stiffener Requirements

1.4 Local Web Yielding Stiffener Requirements

1.5 Effective Column Length and Load Distribution

11

2.1 Test 1 Specimen Geometry

13

2.2 Test 2 Specimen Geometry

15

2.3 Strain Gage Locations, Tests 1 and 2

16

2.4 Test 1 (W16x45) - Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Stiffeners R and L

18

2.5 Test 1 (W16x45) - Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener R

20

2.6 Test 1 (W16x45) - Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener L

20

2.7 Test 2 (W8x48) - Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Stiffeners R and L

22

2.8 Test 2 (W8x48) - Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Web R and L

23

2.9 Test 2 (W8x48) - Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener R

24

2.10 Test 2 (W8x48) - Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener L

24

2.11 Test 2 (W8x48) - Strain vs. Distance


Results for Web R and L

25

2.12 Comparison of Stiffener Force Ratios

27

3.1 FE Model for Test Specimens

30

3.2 Finite Element Results for Stiffeners


Stress vs. Distance - Test 1 and 2

31

3.3 Finite Element Results for Web - Test 2

32

3.4 W14x311 Finite Element Results

33

vi

3.5 W12x120 and W14x500 Finite Element Results

35

3.6 Comparison of Stiffener Force

37

4.1 Equivalent Load Distribution

39

4.2 Plot of Element Stresses


W14x311 Specimen

40

4.3 Equivalent Column Web Load Distribution

41

vii

LIST OF TABLES
Table

Page

2.1 Force Distribution - Test 1 (W16x45)

19

2.2 Force Distribution - Test 2 (W8x48)

26

3.1 Stiffener Force from FE Models

32

3.2 FEA Results for Additional Column Sections

34

3.3 FEA Results for W14x90 Stiffeners

36

3.4 Predicted versus Test Results

37

4.1 Effective Lengths

42

4.2 Effective Area Values

43

4.3 Comparison of Results

43

viii

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1

OVERVIEW OF DESIGN PROBLEM

1.1.1

Background
In a rigid steel moment connection most of the moment is transferred through the

beam flanges to the column in the form of a couple. The couple is formed from this
moment and acts at a moment arm equal to the depth of the beam (center-to-center of the
flanges if directly welded). The beam is therefore exerting a tensile force through one
flange and a compressive force through the other as shown in Figure 1.1.
The forces resulting from the transfer of moment from the beam to the column are
relatively large concentrated forces.

At the beam tension flange of the connection, the

pull created on the column flange may be great enough to cause slight deformation of the
flange.

The strength of the column will therefore be impaired.

Similarly, the

compressive force entering through the other flange may be large enough to cause
instability in the column web (Salmon and Johnson 1995). The connection can be
improved by providing additional strength to the column connection where the load is
being transferred in the form of stiffeners, Figure 1.1. Stiffeners are placed on the
column at the locations of the beam flange forces to prevent distortion of the column
flange where the beam exerts the tensile loading and web yielding and crippling at the
compression loading. Stiffeners are therefore designed to prevent local column failure
created by large beam forces at the moment connection (Segui 1994).
1.1.2

Current Design Model


Column stiffeners can be designed to prevent local flange bending, local web

yielding, local web crippling, and compression buckling of the column. The AISC Load
and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (1993)
contains design strengths for these limit states at the column in Chapter K. If the applied
factored force transmitted by the beam flange exceeds the column design strength, Rn,
for any limit state condition, stiffeners must be used for the full strength of the moment

Stiffener

Figure 1.1 Moment Transfer Couple

connection to be developed.
The AISC LRFD Specification (Load 1993) gives rules for sizing stiffeners based
on the applied loading and the controlling column side-limit state but does not provide
rules for assigning force values to the stiffeners. In Volume II of the AISC LRFD
Manual of Steel Construction (Manual 1993) a method is suggested for assigning
stiffener forces. It is noted that in this model, the column is assumed to support the total
applied moment until the limit state with the lowest design strength is exceeded. It is at
this moment that the force begins to be distributed to the stiffeners.

This method

therefore assumes that the stiffeners do not receive any load applied at the connection
until the lowest column limit state design strength is exceeded. Figure 1.2 shows the
force resisted by the stiffeners compared to the total applied load if the AISC procedure is
used.
Stiffener Load Distibution
0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Applied Flange Force, kips

Figure 1.2 Stiffener Force Based on AISC Manual Procedure

300

This model can not be correct because it does not follow the behavior of the
connection.

Moment connections are designed to transfer moments applied to the

column in the form of tensile and compressive forces. Stiffeners are therefore added to
the column at the application of the loads to provide support and stability. Welds are
used to provide a physical connection between the stiffeners and the column flanges and
web. These welds therefore provide a continuous load path between the column and
stiffeners allowing the stiffener to resist force as soon as loading is applied.
1.1.3

Objective of Study
To prove that the current model assumptions for assigning stiffener loads are

inadequate, testing was performed on two W-shaped column sections subjected to tensile
loading acting through a plate representing the beam flange. Stiffeners were added to the
column at the point of application of the load (at the plate location). Strain gages were
attached to the column stiffeners and web. During loading, strain readings were obtained
to monitor the distribution of load between the column and the stiffeners. Finite element
modeling was also performed to ensure the validity of the test and test procedure. Finite
element modeling was also done on a larger column section to support the accuracy of
the model for W-shaped sections of different geometry.
1.2

AISC COLUMN SIDE LIMIT STATE DESIGN STRENGTH


The current design procedures used for column stiffener design are found in the

LRFD Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Chapter K (Specifications 1993).


Chapter K of the Specifications includes the column strength requirements that must be
considered in beam-to-column connection design. Each of the applicable column limit
states are analyzed to determine if additional reinforcement is needed to support the load
on the connection.
The LRFD Specifications consider the flange and web strengths of the column
separately. The flange limit state is local flange bending while the web section includes
the following limit states because most of the compressive force is transmitted through
the web:
Local web yielding (tensile or compressive)

Web crippling
Compression buckling of the web
Panel zone web shear
The size of stiffener required depends on which limit state is exceeded.
Local flange bending can occur when concentrated tensile forces are applied to
the column. The design strength of the flange from Section K1.2 of the Specifications is
Rn, where:
= 0.90
Rn = 6.25tf2Fyf
and tf = flange thickness, Fyf = yield stress of the flange material.
Stiffeners that extend to at least half the depth of the column web are required
when this limit state is exceeded and should be located at the application of the tensile
force, Figure 1.3. These stiffeners must be welded to the loaded flange and the weld
between the stiffener(s) and the web must be large enough to allow the unbalanced force
in the stiffener to be transmitted to the web (Specifications 1993).
When a force is being transmitted through the web, local web yielding may occur.
The strength of the member depends upon the location of the concentrated force(s)
relative to the top of the column when considering this limit state, Figure 1.4. The design
strength of the web from Section K1.3 of the Specifications is as follows:
When the concentrated force is located at a distance greater than the depth
of the member away from the member end,
= 1.0
Rn = (5k + N) Fyw tw
where k = distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, N = length of
bearing, Fyw = yield stress of web material, tw = web thickness.
When the concentrated force is acting at a distance less than or equal to the
depth of the member d from the member end,

Column Web
d/2

Stiffener

P
Typ

Typ

Stiffener

Figure 1.3 Local Flange Bending Stiffener Requirements

Column Web
d/2

Stiffener

column end

d
P
Typ
Typ

Figure 1.4 Local Web Yielding Stiffener Requirements

= 1.0
Rn = (2.5k + N) Fyw tw
When tensile forces acting normal to the flange exceed this requirement, stiffeners must
be used and welded to the loaded flange. Similarly, for an excessive compressive force
acting normal to the flange, stiffeners are added and may either bear on or are welded to
the loaded flange. These stiffeners again must be at least one-half the depth of the web.
The stiffeners, in both cases, must be connected to allow the force to be transmitted to the
stiffener. The weld connecting the stiffener to the web is therefore designed to be large
enough to transmit this unbalanced force in the stiffener to the web (Specifications 1994).
Web crippling only applies to compressive concentrated forces. The strength of
the member required to prevent web crippling again depends of the location of the
applied force relative to the column end. From Section K1.4 of the Specifications:
If the compressive force is applied at a distance greater than or equal to one half
the depth of the member from the member end,
= 0.75
Rn =

135tw2{

_______
1 + 3(N/d)(tw/tf) } (Fywtf)/tw
1.5

where d = the depth of the column section


If the compressive force is applied at a distance less then d/2 from the member
end,
For N/d 0.2,
_______
Rn = 68tw2{ 1 + 3(N/d)(tw/tf)1.5}(Fywtf)/tw
For N/d > 0.2,
Rn =

68tw2{

________
1 + (4N/d - 0.2)(tw/tf) }(Fywtf)/tw
1.5

If this limit state is exceeded, transverse stiffeners at least one-half the depth of the web
are required at the application of the load and should either bear on or be welded to the
loaded flange. Again, the weld should be designed to allow the unbalanced force in the
stiffener to be transmitted to the web (Specifications 1993).

Compression buckling of the web occurs when compressive forces are applied at
both flanges of a member in the same location. From Section K1.6 in the Specifications,
the required strength for this limit state is:
= 0.90
___
Rn = (1/h) 4,100 tw3 Fyw
where h is the clear distance between flanges less the fillet or corner radius. If the
concentrated force near the end of the column, however, is applied (less than d/2 from the
member end), the nominal strength Rn is reduced by 50 percent. Stiffeners must be used
if the limit state is exceeded and can either bear on or be welded to the loaded flange so
the force can be adequately transmitted to the stiffener. In this case, the stiffeners must
be designed as axially compressed members and therefore must extend the full depth of
the web. The weld is designed the same.
Panel-zone web shear and sidesway web buckling, when applicable, are also limit
states to be considered in determining the need for stiffeners. These limit states will not
be discussed in detail here since they are not part of the study. Design provisions are
provided in Sections K1.5 and K1.7 of the Specifications.
If stiffeners are required because a column limit state has been exceeded, AISC
provides some design guidelines. The following rules are found in AISC K1.9 of the
Specifications:
1. The width of each stiffener plus one-half the thickness of the column web should not
be less than 1/3 the width of the flange or moment connection plate delivering the
concentrated force.
2. The thickness of the stiffeners should not be less than tb/2, where tb = thickness of
beam flange or connection plate delivering the concentrated force.
3. When the concentrated force is only at one column flange, the stiffener length does
not need to exceed one-half the column depth.
Full depth stiffeners are required for cases where applied compressive forces exceed the
applicable column limit states. Half depth stiffeners may be used for the other cases.

1.3

FORCE DISTRIBUTION PREDICTION


The current design model in the AISC Manual of Steel Construction Vol. II

(Manual Vol. II 1993) assigns only the magnitude of the force that cannot be carried by
the column flange or web to the stiffener. The stiffeners are therefore designed to support
the difference in load between the applied force and the limiting state of the column. The
Specifications are silent regarding the distribution of load between the column and
stiffener. It has therefore been assumed that the stiffener does not support any of the
applied load until the column has exceeded its limit state, see Figure 1.2. As stated
previously, this can not follow the behavior of the connection.

It is therefore

advantageous to determine the distribution of force between the stiffener and column web
under loaded conditions.

Once this distribution is determined, an effective design

approach can be developed.


The force distribution can be predicted based on the theory that at yield, the
applied load is distributed over a certain distance along the column, Figure 1.5. At
failure, yield lines form in a pattern extending a prescribed distance from the application
of load. The column will therefore resist the applied load over the total distance, (c),
along its length. This distance is then used to determine the effective column area. The
distance, (c), is determined in this study through experimental testing and finite element
analyses.
The distribution of load resisted by the column web and the stiffener is estimated
by using the ratio of the stiffener area to the effective column web area. This ratio
provides force values for the stiffener for any given applied force and assumes the
stiffener resists force before the column reaches a limit state. The resisting force in the
stiffener is then:
Pstiff = (Astiff/Atot)Papplied

(1.1)

where Astiff = area of the stiffener cross section, Atot = total equivalent column/stiffener
area resisting the applied load, Papplied = applied load.

10

effective load distribution

Figure 1.5 Effective Column Length and Load Distribution

1.4

SCOPE OF RESEARCH
The current design model for assigning stiffener force does not follow the actual

behavior of the beam-to-column connection. It assumes that the stiffener is receiving no


force until the controlling limit state has been reached in the column. This assumption is
inaccurate because the stiffener is a force-resisting member in the moment connection
and will resist a portion of the force the instant it is applied. Research is therefore needed
to determine a method for predicting the distribution of force between the column and the
stiffeners. When this distribution is found, an accurate method for stiffener design can be
developed.

Beam and column W-shaped sections are the focus in the moment

connections requiring the use of stiffeners for this research.

11

CHAPTER II
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
2.1

SCOPE OF TESTING
The objective of this research is to determine the force distribution between the

column web and stiffener when the column flanges are subjected to tension loading as
caused by a welded beam-to-column moment connection. To this end, tests to simulate a
beam-to-column connection with column stiffening were conducted.

Two separate

specimens with different limit states were tested to determine the percentage of load
resisted by the stiffener.

Only W-shape column sections were considered in this

investigation. Each specimen was subjected to tensile forces simulating beam flange
loading.
Two W-sections with different limit states controlling the stiffener design were
chosen as test specimens. The material used for both column sections and the stiffener
plates was A36 steel. Both specimens were tested in tension only to simulate a gravity
type loading from the top flange of the beam. Test 1 was performed using a W16x45
column section with two full depth stiffeners. The controlling limit state for this column
section alone was local flange bending. Test 2 used a W8x48 column section also with
two full depth stiffeners. Web yielding was the controlling limit state for this test. The
limit states were calculated using the design criteria in the 1994 AISC LRFD
Specifications, Chapter K (Specifications 1994).
2.2

TEST DETAILS

2.2.1

Test 1 Geometry and Design


A W16x45 column section was used in Test 1. The geometry of the specimen is

shown in Figure 2.1. The column length was chosen to be adequate enough to avoid
bending of the section. A transition piece, simulating the beam tensile flange, was used
to allow the test specimen to fit into the testing machine. The universal testing machine
was then used to apply load to the system at the stiffener location.

12

7.0
3
Transition
Piece
6.0
0.57

W 16 x 45
PL 3/4 x 3 x 15"

5/16
7/16

ws=3.0

16.0

1.5

ts=0.75

Stiffener

Note: All dimensions are in inches, No Scale


Figure 2.1 Test 1 Specimen Geometry

13

Coupon tests were performed on both the flange and web material of the W16x45
section. From these tests, the flange yield stress was determined to be 47.2 ksi and the
web yield stress to be 50.7 ksi. These yield values were used in the LRFD calculations to
accurately represent the strength of the section. Local flange bending was determined to
be the controlling column side limit state with a resistance of Rn = 94.1 kips. The local
web yielding resistance was Rn = 130.5 kips.
The two stiffeners used were 3/4x3x15 in. plates and extended the full depth of
the column. The stiffeners were welded to the column flanges (7/16 in. fillet welds) and
web (5/16 in. fillet welds) to allow for full transfer of the load from the column to the
stiffener. The tension yield stress of the stiffeners was determined to be 38.6 ksi (yield
strength of 86.7 k).
2.2.2

Test 2 Geometry and Design


Test 2 used a W8x48 column section. The geometry of this specimen is shown in

Figure 2.2. The length of the column is sufficient in preventing bending of the column
section.
Coupon tests were performed on both the flange and web material to determine
the accurate strength of the section.

From these tests, the flange yield stress was

determined to be 45.2 ksi and the web yield stress to be 46.8 ksi. These yield values were
used in the LRFD calculations. The controlling column side limit state was found to be
column web yielding with a resistance Rn = 125.1 kips. The local flange bending
resistance was Rn = 132.9 kips.
Two 3/8x3x7-1/8 in. plates extending the full depth of the column were used. The
stiffeners in this case were also welded to the column flanges (1/4 in. fillet welds) and
web (3/16 in. fillet welds) to allow for full transfer of the load from the column to the
stiffener. The tensile yield stress of the stiffener plates was determined to be 54.0 ksi
(yield strength of 60.75 k per stiffener).
2.3

INSTRUMENTATION
Three strain gages were placed on both sides of each stiffener to determine the

strain distribution along the width (from the column web to the stiffener edge) for both

14

8.0
3

6.0
W 8 x 48
PL 3/8 x 3 x 7-1/8

0.69
3/16
1/4

ws=3.0

16.0

1.5

ts=0.375
Stiffener

Note: All dimensions are in inches, No Scale


Figure 2.2 Test 2 Specimen Geometry

15

Colum n
S ection

Stiffener R

S tiffener L

S train G age
(Typ)
0.75 (Typ)

0.75 (Typ)

(a) Section
1.0 (Typ)

W eb - L

W eb - R

1.0
(Typ)

(b) Elevation

Notes: 1. Strain gages were used only at one end of the stiffeners in Test 1
2. Web strain gages were used only in Test 2
3. All dimensions are inches

Figure 2.3 Strain Gage Locations, Tests 1 and 2

16

tests. In the subsequent discussion of test results the locations are referred to as Inner,
Middle and Outer. For Test 1, the gages were located on both ends of the stiffener
(near the column flanges) to assure the load was consistent through the depth of the
stiffener. Once this was shown, only one end of the stiffener was gauged for Test 2. The
strain gage locations are shown in Figure 2.3. Test Specimen 2 also had strain gages on
the column web to verify that the full load was being distributed between the column web
and the two stiffeners. Gages on the web were placed at 1-in. increments starting at the
stiffener and extend 5 in. in each direction from the stiffener.
2.4

TESTING PROCEDURE
The test specimen was loaded in tension using a Satec Universal Testing machine.

Each specimen was loaded from 0 to 260 kips of tension in 5 kip increments (at 2
kips/min). Load and strain values were recorded at each increment. The specimens in
both tests were loaded to 260 kips but not to failure due to the limitations of the testing
machine. Using the strain data obtained from the tests, the load supported by the stiffener
and web was determined.
2.5

TEST RESULTS

2.5.1

General
The strain gage readings at the same locations on the stiffener (one on each side)

were averaged to eliminate possible local bending effects. Each stiffener was considered
separately to account for unequal distribution of load (one stiffener supporting a greater
load than the other). Averages were taken in a similar manner for the strain gage
readings on the column web of Test 2. Again, the web readings on each side of the
stiffener were considered separately.

The linear load/strain relationships of the

experimental data provided in the following subsections shows that only minor yielding
of the test specimens occurred starting at about 250 kips.
2.5.2

Test 1
Figure 2.4 graphically shows the measured load verses strain relationship on the

stiffeners in Test 1. The relationships were determined from the average strain readings

17

Load vs. Strain


Test 1: Stiffener R
300
250

Load (k)

200
150

Inner
Middle
Outer

100
50
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Micro-strain

Load vs. Strain


Test 1, Stiffener L
300
250

Load (k)

200
150
100

Inner
Middle
Outer

50
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Micro-strain

Figure 2.4 Test 1 (W16x45) Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Stiffeners R and L

18

1400

obtained during testing. The graphs show that the strain gages provided consistent
measurements with no irregularities or inconsistent readings. The inner strain data was
that obtained from the gage closest to the column web. Similarly, the outer strain data
represents the strain from the gage furthest from the column web and the middle strain
data is from the gage between the two. It can be seen from Figure 2.4 that the stiffeners
take load as soon as it is applied to the test specimen. As stated previously, this is in
contrast with the AISC assumptions made about the behavior of the column/stiffener
system.
Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show the strain distribution of each stiffener at loads of 95 and
170 kips. The strain at each load is plotted as it varies with distance across the width of
the stiffener, from the column web to the free edge of the stiffener. Using the area under
the curve, the thickness of the stiffener, and a modulus of elasticity of 29,000 ksi, the
force resisted by each stiffener is:
P s = E A ts

(2.1)

where Ps is the force in the stiffener, A is the area under the curve and ts is the stiffener
thickness.
Table 2.1 gives force resisted by the stiffeners and column web for applied loads
of 95 kips and 170 kips. The stiffener forces were obtained using Equation 2.1. The web
force is the difference between the applied load and the calculated stiffener force. For
Test 1, the stiffener forces were 64% of the applied load with the web resisting the
remaining 36%. Strain gages were not applied to the column web for Test 1. The total
web force was therefore calculated by subtracting the stiffener load determined from the
experiment from the applied load.
Table 2.1 Force Distribution - Test 1 (W16x45)
Applied Load
(kips)
95

Total Stiffener Force


(Ps)
60.8

Total Web Force


(Pw)
34.2

% Stiffener
Load
64

170

109.15

60.85

64

19

Strain vs. Distance


Stiffener R

1000
800
600

95 kips

400

170 kips

200
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.)

Figure 2.5 Test 1 (W16x45) Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener R

Strain vs. Distance


Stiffener L

1000
800
600
400
200
0

95 kips
170 kips

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.)

Figure 2.6 Test 1 (W16x45) Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener L

20

2.5.3

Test 2
The loads vs. strain relationships for the stiffeners in Test 2 are shown graphically

in Figure 2.7. These relationships were again determined from the averages in the strain
gage readings at the same locations. The strain gages provided linear measurements to
260 kips except for the outer gage location on Stiffener R where yielding started at about
250 kips. Figure 2.7 shows that the strain gages for stiffener L provided consistent
measurements with no irregularities or inconsistent readings for the full range of the
loading. As seen from Figure 2.7, it is again apparent that the stiffeners take load as soon
as it is applied to the test specimen.
Strain gages were attached to the column web for Test 2 to show the assumption
that the web receives the remainder of the load not supported by the stiffeners. Figure 2.8
graphically shows the load vs. strain relationships for the column web on each side of the
stiffener. It can be seen from the graph that the strain readings obtained on the column
web were also consistent with no irregular readings and that the web takes load as soon as
it is applied to the test specimen. The 1-in. line represents the strain 1-in. away from the
stiffener. The additional lines represent similar values for the strain at 2, 3, 4, and 5 in.
away from the stiffener along the column web.
The force resisted by the stiffeners was also determined at applied loads of 95 and
170 kips for Test 2. The strain values at these loads are plotted in Figures 2.9 and 2.10
and vary with the distance along the width of the stiffener, from the column web to the
free edge of the stiffener. The force supported by each stiffener is calculated using
Equation 2.1 and the area under these curves.
Figure 2.11 shows the strain values along the web starting at the stiffener location
(at 0.0 inches) and extending 5 inches from the stiffener in each direction (Web R and
Web L reading). The strain values decrease as the distance from the stiffener increases as
expected. The force resisted by the column web is determined in the same manner as the
stiffener force (using Equation 2.1 for the column values). The column web forces were
also determined for loads of 95 and 170 kips to confirm that the full load was being

21

Load vs. Strain


Test 2: Stiffener R
300
250

Load (k)

200
150
100

Inner
Middle
Outer

50
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Micro-strain

Load vs. Strain


Test 2: Stiffener L
300
250

Load (k)

200
150
100

Inner
Middle
Outer

50
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Micro-strain

Figure 2.7 Test 2 (W18x48) Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Stiffeners R and L

22

2500

Load vs. Strain


Test 2: Web R
300
250

Load (k)

200

1 in.
2 in
3 in.
4 in.
5 in.

150
100
50
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Micro-strain

Load vs. Strain


Test 2: Web L
300
250

Load (k)

200
150

1 in.
2 in,
3 in.
4 in.
5 in.

100
50
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Micro-strain

Figure 2.8 Test 2 (W8x48) Load vs. Micro-strain


Results for Web R and L

23

1600

1800

Strain vs. Distance


Stiffener R

2000
1500
95 kips

1000

170 kips

500
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.)

Figure 2.9 Test 2 (W8x48) Strain vs. Distance


Results for Stiffener R

Strain vs. Distance


Stiffener L
2000
1500
1000

95 kips
170 kips

500
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.)
Figure 2.10 Test 2 (W8x48) Strain vs. Distance
Results for Stiffener L

24

Strain vs. Distance


Web R: Load = 95k
1000

Micro-strain

800

600

400

200

0
0

Distance (in.)

Strain vs. Distance


Web L: Load = 95k
1000

Micro-strain

800
600
400
200
0
0

Distance (in.)

Figure 2.11 Test 2 (W8x48) Strain vs. Distance


Results for Web R and L

25

accounted for in the measurements. When added, the forces obtained from the web and
stiffener measurements should equal the total load that is being applied.
Table 2.2 shows values for the force supported by the column web and stiffeners
for the specific applied loads. It can be seen, however, that the total stiffener force and
total web force do not add up to the applied load. These differences occur due to
assumptions and experimental variations. Because a strain gage could not be placed at
the web-stiffener connection, the web strain value at the connection was estimated from
the stiffener and web gage readings nearest to the weld, which introduces possible error.
The strain values in the stiffener vary linearly along the width allowing the readings at
web to be more accurately estimated. It is noted that the web strains, however, decrease
in a parabolic shape along the length of the web and the values could not be estimated as
easily.
Table 2.2 Force Distribution - Test 2 (W8x48)
Applied Load
(kips)
95

Total Stiffener Force


(Ps)
49.9

Total Web Force


(Pw)
38.8

170

90.5

63.5

% Total % Stiffener
Load
Load
93.4
53.0
90.5

53.0

It was therefore assumed that the stiffeners receive the force values calculated
from the experiment and the web receives the remaining applied load because of the error
that occurs from the estimation of strain in the web. For this test, the stiffeners resist
about 53% of the load for each of the load levels with the web resisting the remaining
47%.
2.6

SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


It is evident from the test results that force is distributed to the column stiffeners

as well as the column web at the instant that force is applied at the connection. If AISC
assumptions were accurate, yielding of the column would have occurred during the test
and the stiffener would not have taken any forces until the column limit state had been

26

exceeded as shown in Figure 2.12. Yielding of the column section, however, did not
occur during the experimental investigation due to the fact that the stiffeners received
load from the beginning of the test, before column failure.

Stiffener Load Distribution

Stiffener Force/Applied Flange Force

0.75

0.65

0.55

0.45

Test 2
AISC

0.35

0.25

0.15

0.05

50

100

150

200

250

Applied Flange Force

Figure 2.12 Comparison of Stiffener Force Ratios

27

300

CHAPTER III
DEVELOPMENT OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
AND COMPARISON WITH TEST RESULTS
3.1

DEVELPOMENT OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

3.1.1

Description of Finite Element Analysis


Finite element (FE) models were used in this research to analytically study

the behavior of the test specimens. A series of elements and nodes were used to represent
the geometry of the column/stiffener connection.

The material and cross-section

definitions applicable to the steel sections were defined within the model. Constraints
and boundary conditions were also applied to applicable nodes throughout the analysis.
Since the section was loaded equally on both ends of the specimen during testing, the
bottom flange of the column was restrained in the FE model at the equivalent line load
location while the load is applied across the top flange. Constraints were therefore placed
on the nodes representing the bottom flange of the column section. The behavior of the
specimen is simulated through these boundary conditions which restricted linear and
rotational movements of the applicable nodes in the model. The computer software
ABAQUS (ABAQUS/Standard 1994) was used for this study to analyze the specimens in
Test 1, Test 2 and additional column sections.
The tensile load was modeled as a distributed load acting across the flange width
of the column at the stiffener location. This simulates the load acting on the column by
the top beam flange in gravity type loading. The specimens in Test 1 and Test 2 were
subjected to this type of loading in the experimental investigation. The FE models were
considered elastic because only minor yielding occurred in the connections during the
experimental investigation. A modulus of elasticity of 29,000 ksi and a Poissons Ratio
of 0.3 were used. The files containing the ABAQUS input data and the analysis results
are contained in Appendices A and B for Test 1 and Test 2.
3.1.2

Shell Elements
Shell elements are provided in ABAQUS and allow for six degrees of freedom at

all nodes. The cross sectional properties of the shell including the thickness of the

28

material are required input to define the behavior (ABAQUS/Standard Vol. II, 1994).
S8R type shell elements were used in the models. These elements were 8-node doubly
curved thick shells and utilized reduced integration to minimize ABAQUS run time while
providing accurate results. This element type contains 4-sides with nodes at the 4 corners
and at the middle of each side. Triangular, or 3-sided, elements were not used because
they have a tendency to introduce a false stiffness in the model. S8Rs are thick elements
(when the thickness is more than about 1/15 of the surface length of the shell) and also
account for transverse shear flexibility.
The finite element model used in the Test 1 analysis is represented in Figure 3.1.
When Test 2 geometry is applied, the FE model is the same. The width of each stiffener
is represented by two elements (see Figure 3.1) and the stress values obtained at the
nodes of these elements were used to compute the stiffener force.
3.2

FINITE ELEMENT RESULTS

3.2.1

Test 1
The finite element model was run in ABAQUS for a load case of 170 kips. The

stresses in the stiffener and web elements were obtained for this load in order to calculate
the load distributed between the web and stiffener. The variation of stress along the
width of the stiffener is shown in Figure 3.2 for the stiffener elements closest to the
column flange. Because the stress vs. distance relationship is linear, the load can be
easily and accurately calculated using the area under the curve. The FE results used as a
comparison with the experimental results are provided in Table 3.1 for a load of 170k and
can be determined for any load variation because it is an elastic analysis.
3.2.2

Test 2
The finite element model for Test 2 is similar to that used in Test 1.

The

geometry of the model was modified to match the W section and stiffener dimensions
used in the Test 2 experiment. The stresses in the stiffener and web were again obtained
for a load of 170 kips. The variation of stress along the width of the stiffener is provided
in Figure 3.2 for the stiffener elements closest to the column flange at a load of 170 k.

29

Column Web 4 Elements deep

Column Flange
4 Elements wide

Stiffener Elements
2 wide per stiffener

Figure 3.1 FE Model for Test Specimens

30

S tress vs. Distance


Test 1, Load = 170 k
30

Stress (ksi)

25
20
FEA

15

EXP.
10
5
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.) from Face of Column Web

Stress vs. Distance


Test 2, Load = 170 k
60
Stress (ksi)

50
40

FEA

30

EXP.

20
10
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Distance (in.) from Face of Column Web

Figure 3.2 Finite Element Results for Stiffeners


Stress vs. Distance - Test 1 and 2

31

Figure 3.3 shows the variation of force along the length of the web at a load of 170 k.
The ratio of stiffener force to the applied load is shown in Table 3.1 for Test 1 and Test 2.
Table 3.1 Stiffener Force from FE Models

Test 1 W16x45

Applied Load
(kips)
170

Stiffener Force
(Ps)
111.4

% Stiffener
Load
65.5

Test 2 W8x48

170

94.9

55.8

Test

These values were obtained to confirm that the experimental data was consistent with the
results obtained from analytical methods. Because the results are consistent, an accurate
design procedure can be developed.
Fi ni te Ele m e n t R e s ul ts for W e b
25

Web Force (kips)

20
15

FEA
Tes t 2

10
5
0
0

D i s tanc e (i n.) fr om S ti ffe ne r

Figure 3.3 Finite Element Results for Web - Test 2


Additional FE models were performed on W-shaped column sections to show that
the results also apply to larger column section.
3.2.3

Additional Finite Element Models


Additional finite element model analyses were performed to confirm that the

results were consistent and could be applied to larger W-shaped sections. ABAQUS was

32

used to analyze a W14x311 designed for a factored load of 1196 kips using 7/8 in. by 7
in. full depth stiffeners on each side of the column web. As with Test 1 and 2 column
sections, the LRFD method was used for designing the W14x311 column stiffeners. The
same element type, boundary conditions, and load distribution used for the previous
analyses was applied to this section. A572, Grade 50 material properties (yield stress of
50 ksi) were used for the column and stiffeners. The stresses in the stiffeners were
obtained for this load case. The variation of stress along the width of the stiffener is
similar to that obtained from the ABAQUS output for Tests 1 and 2. The load can be
easily calculated using the area under the stress/distance curve. The distribution of
stiffener load along its length is shown in Figure 3.4 for an applied load of 1196 k.
W 1 4 x 3 1 1 S tiffe n e r F o r c e D is tr ib u tio n
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

D ista n c e (in .) fr o m F a c e o f C o lu m n W e b

Figure 3.4 W14x311 Finite Element Results


The results are as follows:
Applied Load = 1196 kips
Stiffener Force = 2(266.30) = 532.60 kips
% Stiffener Load (Ps/P)(100) = 0.45(100) or 45%
Thus, the ABAQUS results for the W14x311 column section are consistent with that
obtained from the smaller sections used in Tests 1 and 2.
The finite element program provided by I-DEAS Master Series 6 was used to
analyze a W12x120 and W14x500 column section.

33

All finite element definitions,

methodology, and procedure used for these models is the same as those used previously
for the ABAQUS analyses. The W12x120 was designed for a factored load of 400 kips
using 1/2 in. by 5 in. full depth stiffeners on each side of the column web (yield stress for
all material was 50 ksi). A factored load of 2500 kips was applied to a W14x500 column
section with 1-3/4 in. by 7 in. full depth stiffeners on each side of the column web. The
LRFD method was used for designing these column stiffeners. The forces in the stiffener
elements were recovered for the load cases in each column section. The element forces
along the stiffener width were then added together to determine the total stiffener force.
The variation of forces along the stiffener width is shown in Figure 3.5 and is similar to
the results obtained from the ABAQUS output for the W14x311 column section. The
results are summarized in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 FEA Results for Additional Column Sections
Column Section

Stiffeners 2 Plates

Ptot (kips)

Pstiff (kips)

Pstiff/Ptot

W14x311

7/8x7

1196

532.6

0.45

W12x120

1/2x5

400

196.4

0.49

W14x500

1-3/4x7

2500

1086.8

0.43

3.2.4

Parametric Study of Stiffener Sizes

Finite Element Analysis was used to examine the effects of stiffener size on load
distribution between the column web and stiffener. I-DEAS Master Series 6 was again
used to analyze the column section and stiffener as described in the previous section. A
factored load of 200 kips was applied to a W14x90 column section and analyzed three
times using a different stiffener size for each run. The forces in the stiffener elements
were recovered from each analysis for the load case. The element forces along the
stiffener width were then added together to determine the total stiffener force. The
variation of force along the width of the stiffener for these FEA runs was consistent with
the analysis results provided in the previous subsections. The results are provided in
Table 3.3.

34

W12x120 Stiffener Force Distribution


Total Applied Load = 400 k
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

Distance (in.) from Face of Column Web

W14x500 Stiffener Force Distribution


Total Applied Load = 2500 k

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

Distance (in.) from Face of Column Web

Figure 3.5 W12x120 and W14x500 Finite Element Results

35

Table 3.3 FEA Results for W14x90 Stiffeners


Column Section

Stiffeners

Ptot (kips)

Pstiff (kips)

Pstiff/Ptot

2 Plates

Area (in. )

W14x90 (a)

3/8x5

3.75

200

106.52

0.53

W14x90 (b)

1/4x6

3.00

200

105.54

0.53

W14x90 (c)

3/8x4-1/4

3.38

200

100.88

0.50

3.3

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL DATA


The results obtained from the finite element analysis and experimental tests

provided consistent data. The distribution of load between the stiffeners and column web
was similar in both types of investigations. The main difference between the results
obtained from the two methods of investigation was in the determination of load.
Stiffener load was calculated from strain values in the experimental method while the
finite element method used stress values.
The method for predicting the column and stiffener design load based on Load
and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) requirements was discussed in Chapter I. LRFD
requirements assign stiffener load based on limit state strengths of the column section.
The results of the predicted, experimental and analytical investigation are compared in
Table 3.4. These results are calculated in the same manner as discussed in Chapter II
(using the area under either the strain vs. distance curve for experimental data or stress
vs. distance curve for analytical data). The ratio of the stiffener load to the total load
(Ps/P) is given for the LRFD method, as determined experimentally, and from the finite
element results where P is the total load applied to the test specimen and Ps is the load
carried by both stiffeners. It can be seen from Table 3.4 that the differences between the
experimental and finite element results are small (less than 5%).
The Ps/P ratios are consistent between the experimental and finite element tests
and exhibit the same linear behavior. In all cases, the ratio of stiffener load to the applied
load remains constant for all load cases. The LRFD method for determining stiffener

36

Table 3.4 Predicted versus Test Results


Load
(kips)
170
170
1196
400
2500
200

Test
Test 1-W16x45
Test 2-W8x48
W14x311
W12x120
W14x500
W14x90

Ps/P:
LRFD
0.44
0.43
0.16
0.38
0.31
0.47

Ps/P:
Experiment
0.64
0.53
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

Ps/P:
Finite Element
0.65
0.56
0.45
0.49
0.43
0.53

load, however, does not demonstrate a linear relationship and therefore does not
correspond to the behavior of the connection. Figure 3.6 shows the difference between
the experimental results and the LRFD method for assigning the distribution of load to
the column stiffener. The results of the analyses provide a basis for accurately predicting
the load distribution between the stiffener and column that will follow the behavior of the
connection. The distribution of load between the stiffener and column web will be
dependent upon an effective column area and the area of its associated stiffener.

Stiffener Force/Applied Flange Force

Stiffener Load Distribution


0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
Testing

0.3

LRFD

0.2
0.1
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Applied Flange Force, kips

Figure 3.6 Comparison of Stiffener Force

37

300

CHAPTER IV
DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN MODEL
4.1

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE LENGTH


In the experimental and analytical investigations, there was a difference in the

proportion of load distributed to the stiffeners due to the differences in geometry between
the three column sections.

The load distribution was therefore determined to be

dependent upon the geometry of the column sections and their respective stiffeners. The
column area that supports the loading, or the area affected by the applied load, was
determined from the data obtained from experimental and analytical results.
From the experimental and analytical results, an effective length (the distance
along the length of the column web that the applied load was distributed) was determined
for each test specimen. Figure 4.1 graphically shows how the applied load is distributed
along the column length. The effective column length from the ABAQUS analysis for
the W14x311 section is shown in Figure 4.2 and displays the element forces for each
element. It can be seen that the load is distributed a prescribed distance across the flange
width at the application of the load and along the length of the web in a definite pattern.
As shown in Figure 4.3 for the W12x120 and W14x90 sections, the load is distributed at
a 45-degree angle along the length of the web from the point of load application. The
effective length (le) includes all elements that contain reaction force values. Using this
total distance (le), the column area affected by the loading was determined. The total area
affected will therefore include this column area and the area of the two stiffeners. Based
on a ratio of the stiffener area to the total calculated area, the percentage of load received
by the stiffener can be calculated.
Based on experimental and finite element results, the effective length was
determined to be 8.2k1 where k1 is the distance from the center of the web to the end of
the fillet radius connecting the column web to the flange. From on the plot in Figure 4.2
for the W14x311 column section, le was determined by finding the length across the
elements containing element forces and found to be 11.78 inches. Using the equation

38

Column Web
Stiffener

1/2 le

ts

1/2 le
tw

le

equivalent load distribution

Figure 4.1 Equivalent Load Distribution

39

Distribution of Stresses
along the Column Web

Figure 4.2 Plot of Element Stresses


W14x311 Specimen

40

Column Web

le by equation

450

(a) W12x120 - Element Forces Along Web


All Elements are 1/2 - Square

Column Web
le by equation

450

(b) W14x90 - Element Forces Along Web


All Elements are 1/2 - Square

Figure 4.3 Equivalent Column Web Load Distribution

41

le = 8.2(k1), the value for the effective length is 10.76 inches. The value obtained from
the contour plot is larger because of the element sizes. If the elements were smaller, the
effective length would approach this value of 10.76 inches. The same is true for the
W12x120 and W14x90 sections shown in Figure 3.3. Values for effective length were
calculated for all sections included in this research and are summarized in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Effective Lengths
Test

k1 (in.)

Test 1 W16x45
Test 2 W8x48
W14x311
W12x120
W14x500
W14x90

13/16
5/8
1-5/16
1
1-3/4
7/8

Calculated le (in.)
le = 8.2(k1)
6.66
5.13
10.76
8.20
14.35
7.18

The column area affected by the applied load can now be calculated and the distribution
of load between columns and stiffeners can be determined for all W-shaped column
sections.
4.2

LOAD DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN COLUMN AND STIFFENER


Load will be distributed along the column web and radiate a distance, le, from the

location where the load is applied. The column is then assumed to be affected through an
area of the effective length times the thickness (tw) of column web. The total area,
including the area of the stiffeners, can be calculated as follows:
Atot = Acol + Astiff
Atot = le(tw) + 2(ts)(ws)
Atot = 8.2(k1)(tw) + 2(ts)(ws)
where ts is the thickness of the stiffener and ws is the stiffener width.

(4.1)
Table 4.2

summarizes these values for each column section.


The distribution of load between the column and stiffener can be estimated by
using the ratio of the stiffener area to the effective column area. This ratio will provide
load values for the stiffener for any given applied force. It assumes, therefore, that the

42

Table 4.2 Effective Area Values


Section
W16x45
W8x48
W14x311
W12x120
W14x500
W14x90 (a)
W14x90 (b)
W14x90 (c)

Stiffeners
2 Plates
3/4x3
3/8x3
7/8x7
1/2x5
1-3/4x7
3/8x5
1/4x6
3/8x4-1/2

Astiff
(in.2)
4.50
2.26
12.25
5.00
24.50
3.75
3.00
3.38

8.2k1
(in.)
6.66
5.13
1.41
8.20
14.35
7.18
7.18
7.18

tw
(in.)
0.345
0.400
1.410
0.710
2.190
0.440
0.440
0.440

Aeffect
(in.2)
2.30
2.05
15.18
5.82
31.43
3.16
3.16
3.16

Atot
(in.2)
6.80
4.31
27.43
10.82
55.93
6.91
6.16
6.54

Astiff/Atot
0.66
0.52
0.45
0.46
0.44
0.54
0.49
0.52

stiffener does receive load before the column reaches a limit state. This equation is
consistent with the data obtained from testing and is contrary to the assumption made in
the LRFD Manual that the stiffener does not support any load until the column has
reached its limit state. The equation can be written as follows:
Ps = (Astiff/Atot)(Papplied)

(4.2)

This equation provides stiffener loads that follow the behavior of the connection and
therefore allows for the development of a more accurate design procedure. The ratios of
Ps/Papplied are compared in Table 4.3 for the experimental investigation, finite element
analysis, and the calculated values based on equations 4.1 and 4.2 for each section.
Table 4.3 Comparison of Results
Section
W16x45
W8x48
W14x311
W12x120
W14x500
W14x90 (a)
W14x90 (b)
W14x90 (c)

Astiff/Atot
Equation 4.1
0.66
0.52
0.45
0.46
0.44
0.54
0.49
0.52

Ps/Papplied
Experimental
Finite Element
0.64
0.65
0.53
0.56
N/A
0.45
N/A
0.49
N/A
0.43
N/A
0.53
N/A
0.53
N/A
0.50

43

Based on the consistency of the results obtained in the experimental and analytical
investigations, the new stiffener design procedure can be used to accurately predict load
distribution between the stiffener and column web. The Area Design Method is based on
the effective areas of the column and the stiffeners as calculated from Equation 4.1.
Using Equation 4.2, the load distributed to the stiffeners can be determined for any
applied load. The steps necessary for stiffener design using the Area Method will be
develop and provided in Chapter 5.

44

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1

SUMMARY
The current AISC design model for predicting stiffener load does not follow the

true behavior of the beam-to-column connection. This design procedure is based on


LRFD recommendations, which assume that the stiffener does not receive any of the load
applied to the connection until the controlling limit state load of the column section has
been reached. Once this load is reached, it is assumed that the stiffener supports load in a
nonlinear manner when compared to the total applied load.

Results obtained from

experimental and analytical investigations differ from the current design assumptions.
It was therefore found necessary to develop a more accurate procedure for
predicting the distribution of load between the stiffeners and column web. Experimental
and analytical tests were performed to develop a new procedure for predicting load
distribution based on the behavior of the connection. Analytical investigations were
performed to insure the accuracy of the results obtained from the experimental tests.
From experimentation, a ratio of the stiffener load to the applied load was
obtained to determine the amount of load the stiffener was receiving. It was found that
the stiffener received the same percentage of the applied load throughout the entire test
period (starting from load = 0.0 pounds). This load percentage (or ratio) was therefore
determined to be dependent upon the geometry of the column section and its
corresponding stiffener.
The results obtained from the experimental and analytical investigations were
compared to develop the necessary information to determine the effective areas of the
column/stiffener connection. It was found that the applied load affected the column over
a distance of le along its length. The total area affected by the applied load (Acolumn +
Astiffeners) was calculated and the relationship between the affected areas and the load
distribution could then be determined. A new procedure can now developed, the Area
Method, to accurately predict the load distribution between the column and stiffeners in a
beam-to-column connection.

45

5.2

AREA METHOD DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS


The design procedure for the area method is developed in accordance with

information obtained from experimentation as discussed in Chapter IV. The area method
procedure incorporates LRFD guidelines for determining minimum stiffener size. The
recommended area method design procedure is as follows:
1. Assume the applied load and column section are given.
2. Determine the column side limit states as described in Chapter K of the LRFD
Specifications. If the given applied load exceeds any limit state stiffeners must be
added and the following steps for its design should be utilized.
3. Determine the effective column length and area (k1 and tw are provided in the LRFD
for the section being analyzed).
le = 8.2(k1)
Acolumn = le(tw)
4. Determine the minimum stiffener size requirements based on the suggested following
rules for stiffener design (LRDF):
a. The width of each stiffener plus one-half the thickness of the column web should
not be less than one-third the width of the flange or moment connection plate
delivering the concentrated force.
b. The thickness of the stiffeners should not be less than tb/2 (where tb = thickness of
the beam flange or connection plate).
c. The stiffener length does not need to exceed one-half the column depth if the
concentrated force only acts on one column flange.
d. The weld joining the stiffeners to the column web should be sized to carry the
force in the stiffener caused by unbalanced moments on opposite sides of the
column.
5. Calculate the total stiffener area (Astiff) and its load capacity (Ps)allow.
Astiff = ws(ts)
(Ps)allow = Astiff(Fys)

where ws is the stiffener width, ts is the stiffener thickness


where Fys is the yield strength of the stiffener

6. Calculate the total area affected by the applied load.


Atot = Astiff + Acolumn
7. Calculate the percentage of load distributed to column and stiffener.

46

Pstiff/Ptot = Astiff/Atot or
Pstiff = (Astiff/Atot)Ptot
Pcolumn = Ptot - Pstiff
8. Compare these loads (Pcolumn and Pstiff) with the limiting values for the column and
stiffener.
9. If these loads exceed the limiting values, increase the stiffener size and repeat the
procedure. If these loads do not exceed the limiting values, then the stiffener size is
adequate.
10. Design the welds between the stiffener and the column web and flange.
5.3

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS
The following example uses the procedure described above for a W10x88 column

connection. It will be necessary to design column stiffeners given the following loading
and material information:
Given:
1.

Column: W10x88
tw = 0.625 in.
d = 10.875 in.
k = 1.625 in.
bf = 10.25 in.
tf = 1.0 in.
k1 = 13/16 in.
Fyf = Fyw = 36 ksi
Connector plate width bf = 9.5 in.
Connector plate thickness, N = 1.0 in.
Fys = yield stress of stiffener material = 36 ksi
Design Load:
Papplied = 300 kips in tension
The load is applied at a distance greater than d/2 from the member
end and acts all column flanges.

Solution:
2. Calculate column side limit states.

Local Flange Bending:


Rn = 6.25(tf)2(Fyf)
= 6.25(1.0)2(36)

47

= 225 k < 300 k

Local Web Yielding:


Rn = (5k + N)(Fyw)(tw)
= [5(1.625) + 1.0](36)(0.625)
= 205 k < 300 k

Web Crippling:
Rn = 135tw2[1 + 3(N/d)(tw/tf)1.5](Fywtf)/tw
= 135(0.625)2[1 + 3(1/10.875)(0.625/1) 1.5](36x1)/0.625
= 455 k

Web Buckling:
Rn = [4,100tw3Fyw]/h
h = d - 2(tf) = 8.875
Rn = [4,100(0.625)336]/8.875
= 677 k

Web yielding controls: Rn = 205 k < 450 k, therefore stiffeners are required.
3. le = 8.2(k1) = 8.2(13/16) = 6.66 in.
Acolumn = le(tw) = 6.66(0.625) = 4.16 in.2
4. (a). ws + 1/2(tw) > 1/3(bf)
ws > 1/3(9.5) - 1/2(0.625)
ws > 2.85 in.
Use ws = 3.5 in.
(b). ts > N/2
ts > 1/2
Use ts = 5/8 in.
(c). Use 2 full depth stiffener (concentrated force is acting on all column
flanges).
5. Astiff = ws(ts) = 2(3.5)(0.625) = 4.375 in.2
(Ps)allow = Fys(Astiff) = 36(4.375) = 157.5 kips

48

6. Atot = Astiff + Acolumn


= 4.375 + 4.16 = 8.535 in.2
7. Pstiff

= (Astiff/Atot)Ptot
= (4.375/8.535)300 = 153.8 kips

Pcolumn = Ptot - Pstiff


= 300 - 153.8 = 146.2 kips
8. Pcolumn = 146.2 < 205 kips
Pstiff = 153.8 < 157.5 kips
9. Stiffener and column section are adequate since the limiting values were not
exceeded.
10. From the LRFD Specifications, Section J2, Table J2.4, the weld size should be
a minimum of 1/4 in length.
From the Area Method, two 5/8 in. x 3.5 in. full depth stiffeners were used. If the LRFD
design procedure were used, two 1/2 in. x 2.85 in. stiffeners would have been sufficient.
5.4

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH


The current design procedure for assigning stiffener force does not follow the

behavior of a beam-to-column connection. This research was therefore performed to


develop a method that would accurately predict the distribution of force between a
column and its associated stiffeners. Column W-shaped sections were the focus for
moment connections requiring the use of stiffeners for this research. Experimentation
was limited to one section type subjected to tensile loading only. Laboratory testing was
only performed on two of the W-shaped specimens. Additional experimentation would
be necessary in order to validate the use of the Area Method over the current LRFD
procedure for the design of column stiffeners.

It is also recommended that further

research be done to incorporate different column-shaped sections such as angles or


channels. Compressive forces could also be introduced into the experiment separately or
in combination with the tensile force.

Future research is needed to extend the

applicability of the Area Method Design Procedure to other column sections subjected to
compressive and tensile loads.

49

REFERENCES:
ABAQUS/Standard Users Manual, Vol. I & II (ver. 5.4), (1994). Hibbit, Karlsson &
Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, (1993).
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Manual of Steel Construction: Load & Resistance Factor Design, 2nd ed., (1994).
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Salmon, C. G., and Johnson, J. E. (1995). Steel Structures, Design and Behavior (4th
ed.). HarperCollinsPublishers Inc., New York, New York.
Segui, William T. (1994). LRFD Steel Design. PWS Publishing Company, Boston,
Massachusetts.

50

APPENDIX A
Nomenclature

51

General Nomenclature
A

Area under a strain/distance curve, in.2

Acolumn

Area of column web affected by an applied load, in.2

Astiff

Area of a stiffener cross section, in.2

Astiffeners

Total area of all stiffener cross sections used in a column connection, in.2

Atot

Total column/stiffener area affected by an applied load, in.2

Modulus of elasticity, ksi

Fyf

Yield stress of flange material, ksi

Fys

Yield stress of stiffener material, ksi

Fyw

Yield stress of web material, ksi

Length of bearing, in.

Total applied load, kips

Papplied

Applied load, kips

Pcolumn

Force in column, kips

Ps

Force in stiffener, kips

(Ps)allow

Allowable stiffener load based on yield of material, kips

Pstiff

Force in stiffener, kips

Ptot

Total applied load, kips

Pw

Force in column web, kips

Rn

Nominal resistance, kips

bf

Flange width, in.

Length of the effective load distribution along the column web, in.

Depth of column section, in.

Clear distance between flanges less the fillet or corner radius, in.

Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in.

k1

Distance from the web center line to flange toe of fillet, in.

le

Distance along the length of column affected by the applied load, in.

tb

Thickness of beam flange or connection plate delivering the concentrated


force, in.

52

tf

Flange thickness, in.

ts

Stiffener thickness, in.

tw

Web thickness, in.

ws

Stiffener width, in.

Resistance factor

53

APPENDIX B
TEST 1 Result

54

B.1

Experimental Data
AVERAGE STRAIN GAGE READINGS
BOTTOM FLANGE - LEFT STIFF. (micro-strain)

LOAD

Inner
Middle
Outer
at 0.25" at 2.75"
0
1E+30
1E+30
1E+30
0.001
0.001
0 -9.61538 -12.499999 -8.65384 1.923077 2.884615
5.2 12.98077
4.326925 19.71154 5.769231 -40.3846
10.2 34.61539 24.999995 41.34618 13.46154
-62.5
15.2 53.84614
44.23076 59.13462 25.96154 -71.1538
20.1 76.92306 67.307695 82.69228 44.23077 -66.3462
25.2 100.9615 91.826925 105.7692
62.5 -60.5769
30.2 120.6731 112.98076 128.3654 82.6923 -52.8846
35.2
143.75 138.46153 152.8846 101.9231 -42.3077
40.2 167.3077 162.49998 176.9231 124.0385 -29.8077
45.18 188.9423 185.09612
200 145.1923 -17.3077
50.1 212.0192 210.09614 222.5961 167.3077 -2.88462
55.13 235.0962 235.09613 245.6731 189.4231 10.57692
60.05 255.7693
259.1346 270.1923 211.5384 27.88461
65.1 282.6923
287.0192 298.0769 236.5384 49.03846
70.06 307.2116 313.46155
325 260.5769 65.38461
75.03 333.1731
340.3846 351.4423 285.5769 84.61538
80.16 360.577 368.74995 377.8846 310.5769 103.8461
85.14 386.0577
395.1923 404.3269 336.5384
125
90.15 408.1731 418.74995 427.8846 360.5769 141.3462
95.16 437.0192
448.0769 456.7308 386.5384 164.4231
99.9 460.0961 471.63455 479.8077 410.5769 180.7692
105.11 485.5769 499.03845 507.2115 438.4615 204.8077
110.01 511.5385 525.48075 533.6538 464.4231 226.9231
115.22
537.5
551.4423 559.6153 491.3461 245.1923
120.12 561.5385 576.92305 585.0961 518.2692 268.2692
125.09 587.9808 603.36535 611.5384 546.1538 291.3461
130.07 615.8654 631.24995 637.0192 574.0384 311.5384
135.04 640.3846 656.24995 662.0192 602.8846 334.6154
140.02 669.2308 684.61535 688.9423 630.7692 357.6923
154.94 744.2307
759.1345 758.6538
712.5 424.0384
155.17 750.4808 763.94225 762.0192 722.1153 429.8077
160.07
775 788.46145
787.5
750 451.9231
165.05 803.3653
816.3461 814.423 779.8076 475.9615
170.02 827.4038
840.3846 838.4615 807.6923 499.0384
175.23 853.3653
865.8653 864.9038
725 525.9615
180.05 876.4423 893.26915 880.2884 764.4231 557.6923
185.18 900.9615
919.2307 908.6538 799.0384 588.4615
190.11 923.5577
944.7115 941.3459 848.0768 620.1923
195.05 947.5961
972.1153 969.7117 884.6153 648.0768

55

199.9
205
210.05
215.18
220.42
225.36
229.13
235
240.17
245.08
250.2
255.02
268

970.1922
997.5961
1021.634
1048.077
1074.039
1080.289
1119.231
1152.885
1177.885
1194.712
1228.365
1252.885
1318.27

999.03815
1030.2885
1056.25
1085.577
1112.019
1117.3075
1160.096
1195.673
1223.077
1241.827
1277.404
1303.3655
1370.673

996.6345
1025.961
1052.404
1081.731
1108.654
1113.462
1158.654
1149.039
1171.154
1193.269
1226.443
1243.269
1296.635

913.4614
949.9999
985.5768
999.9999
1039.423
1047.115
1084.615
1129.808
1162.5
1225
1280.769
1327.885
1411.538

675.9615
708.6538
730.7692
753.8461
775.9615
782.6923
831.7307
854.8076
882.6922
902.8845
939.423
965.3845
1033.654

AVERAGE STRAIN GAGE READINGS


BOTTOM FLANGE - RIGHT STIFF. (micro-strain)
LOAD
0
0
5.2
10.2
15.2
20.1
25.2
30.2
35.2
40.2
45.18
50.1
55.13
60.05
65.1
70.06
75.03
80.16
85.14
90.15
95.16
99.9
105.11
110.01
115.22
120.12

Inner
Middle
Outer
at 0.25" at 2.75"
1E+30
1E+30
5E+29
0.001
0.001
-5.28846 -6.73077
-6.25 0.961538 1.923077
23.07692 23.55769 24.03846 22.11538 5.769231
52.40384 53.84615 53.36538 38.46154 3.846154
79.32694 81.73078 80.76925 55.76923 8.653846
106.25 109.1346 107.6923 76.92308 23.07692
133.1731
137.5 135.5769 98.07691 35.57692
157.2115 161.5384 159.1346 117.3077 49.03846
183.1731
187.5 184.1346 138.4615 63.46154
209.1346 213.9423 209.1346 159.6154 78.84615
233.6539 238.9423 232.2115 179.8077 95.1923
258.6539 263.9423 257.6923 201.9231
112.5
283.6539 288.4615 281.7308 223.0769 129.8077
307.2115 313.4615 307.2116 244.2308
150
333.1731 338.4615 332.6923 266.3461 173.0769
359.1346 365.3846 359.1346 289.4231 192.3077
384.6154 390.8654 383.1731 311.5384 214.4231
411.5385 417.7885 409.6154 335.5769 234.6154
436.0577 442.3077 432.6923 358.6538 256.7308
460.5769 467.3077 455.7693 381.7308 275.9615
486.5385 493.2692 480.2885 405.7692 298.0769
511.0577 517.3077 501.9231 427.8846 316.3461
536.5385 541.8269
525 452.8846 339.423
561.5384 565.8654 547.5961 476.9231 361.5384
587.5 590.8654 569.7115 501.9231 382.6923
611.5385 613.4616 590.3846 525.9615 405.7692

56

125.09
130.07
135.04
140.02
154.94
155.17
160.07
165.05
170.02
175.23
180.05
185.18
190.11
195.05
199.9
205
210.05
215.18
220.42
225.36
229.13
235
240.17
245.08
250.2
255.02
268

637.0192
662.9808
686.5384
712.0192
782.6923
789.423
812.5
837.9807
864.423
889.4231
908.6538
931.25
951.923
975.9613
996.1538
1017.308
1037.981
1058.173
1079.808
1082.212
1109.616
1129.808
1141.827
1147.115
1167.789
1183.173
1231.25

637.9808
662.5
685.0961
709.1346
775.4808
781.2499
802.8846
826.4423
851.4422
874.0384
892.3077
913.4613
933.173
956.25
974.519
995.6728
1014.904
1033.654
1053.846
1055.288
1083.173
1102.885
1122.116
1130.288
1155.289
1184.135
1241.827

611.0577
633.6538
653.3653
675.4808
736.0576
739.9038
760.5769
781.25
804.8076
824.5192
840.3845
860.0961
882.6924
904.8077
921.1539
936.0576
956.2499
975.0002
999.5192
1006.731
1036.538
1063.461
1077.885
1084.135
1112.019
1140.866
1175.481

550.9615
575.9615
600.9615
625.9615
698.0768
707.6923
731.7307
757.6923
785.5768
813.4615
838.4615
864.423
887.4999
913.4614
937.4999
963.4614
986.5384
1009.615
1034.615
1043.269
1072.115
1094.231
1107.692
1115.385
1137.5
1151.923
1192.308

428.8461
450
473.0769
497.1154
567.3076
575.3076
600
625
655.7692
680.7692
703.8461
728.8461
753.8461
778.8461
797.1153
821.1538
842.3076
832.6923
830.7692
835.5768
979.8076
1100.961
1305.769
1425.961
1538.461
1544.231
1600.961

AVERAGE STRAIN GAGE READINGS


TOP FLANGE - LEFT STIFF. (micro-strain)
LOAD
0
0
5.2
10.2
15.2
20.1
25.2
30.2
35.2
40.2
45.18
50.1

Inner
Middle
Outer
at 0.25" at 2.75"
1E+30
1E+30
1E+30
0.001
0.001
-16.3462 -12.980767 -15.8654 0.961538 0.961538
2.40385
6.25 2.884615 13.46154 -6.73077
24.51923
26.92308 22.59616 22.11538 -24.0385
43.75 47.596127 42.30771 34.61538 -28.8462
65.86539 71.153854 66.34616 51.92308 -20.1923
89.90385
94.71152 90.38462 70.1923 -8.65385
110.0961 115.86537 111.5385 87.49999 2.884615
132.2116 139.42308 136.0577 107.6923 16.34615
155.7692 162.98077 160.0962 127.8846 32.69231
176.9231 186.05765 183.1731 148.0769
50
199.5193
209.1346 205.2885 169.2308 68.26923

57

55.13
60.05
65.1
70.06
75.03
80.16
85.14
90.15
95.16
99.9
105.11
110.01
115.22
120.12
125.09
130.07
135.04
140.02
154.94
155.17
160.07
165.05
170.02
175.23
180.05
185.18
190.11
195.05
199.9
205
210.05
215.18
220.42
225.36
229.13
235
240.17
245.08
250.2
255.02
268

223.0769
244.2308
268.2692
294.2307
318.75
344.2308
367.7885
390.3846
417.7885
439.4231
463.4615
488.4615
512.0193
535.0961
562.9808
587.5
610.5769
636.5385
706.7307
712.0192
735.0962
762.5
786.5384
811.5384
834.6154
859.1345
886.0577
911.5384
938.4615
966.3459
994.7115
1023.077
1050.962
1057.693
1092.308
1114.904
1133.173
1153.366
1187.981
1210.096
1263.942

233.6538
255.7692
281.24995
307.21155
335.5769
361.05765
386.05765
410.5769
438.94225
462.0192
487.0192
513.46155
538.46155
562.98075
592.7884
619.2307
642.7884
670.19225
743.26915
746.15375
769.71145
798.55765
822.1153
846.63455
872.59605
898.5576
930.28835
958.6536
990.8654
1021.1536
1053.846
1084.615
1113.4615
1120.673
1160.096
1189.9035
1219.2305
1247.596
1274.519
1299.519
1367.7885

228.8461
250.9616
276.9231
302.4038
330.2885
356.7307
381.25
406.25
434.6154
458.1731
481.7308
509.1346
533.6539
558.6538
587.9808
614.4231
638.9423
663.4615
735.5769
737.4999
761.0576
787.4999
808.6538
831.25
854.8076
882.2115
912.9807
937.0192
970.673
999.5192
942.3076
958.1733
892.7886
884.1343
916.8269
938.4614
1216.346
1275.481
1339.423
1404.327
1497.596

190.3846
211.5384
234.6154
257.6923
278.8461
302.8846
326.923
349.0384
373.0769
394.2308
420.1923
443.2692
467.3077
491.3461
517.3077
542.3076
566.3461
592.3076
661.5384
670.1923
696.1538
723.0768
750
777.8845
806.7307
832.6923
859.6153
886.5384
917.3076
944.2307
975.9614
1005.769
1036.538
1046.154
1077.885
1103.846
1124.038
1139.423
1173.077
1192.308
1243.269

58

88.46153
108.6538
131.7308
155.7692
179.8077
202.8846
228.8461
251.9231
277.8846
300.9615
328.8461
355.7692
380.7692
408.6538
435.5769
462.5
490.3846
518.2692
595.1923
604.8076
632.6923
663.4615
692.3076
777.8845
806.7307
832.6923
859.6153
886.5384
917.3076
944.2307
975.9614
1005.769
1036.538
1046.154
1077.885
1103.846
1124.038
1139.423
1173.077
1192.308
1243.269

AVERAGE STRAIN GAGE READINGS


TOP FLANGE - RIGHT STIFF. (micro-strain)
LOAD
Inner
Middle
Outer
at 0.25" at 2.75"
0
1E+30
1E+30
1E+30
0.001
0.001
0 -14.9038 -7.21154 -5.28846 0.961538 0.961538
5.2 11.0577 22.11539 24.51923
12.5 -28.8462
10.2 39.90384 52.40387 56.24998 26.92308 -32.6923
15.2 65.86539 80.28844 84.6154 45.19231
-25
20.1 92.78846 108.6539 113.4615 66.34615 -7.69231
25.2 120.1923 137.0192 142.3077 88.46153
12.5
30.2 142.3077 162.0192 167.3077 110.5769 30.76923
35.2 167.7885 187.9807 192.7885 131.7308 50.96154
40.2 192.7885 214.4231 219.2308 154.8077 72.11538
45.18 215.3846 239.4231 242.7885 177.8846 93.26922
50.1 239.4231 264.4231 268.2692 200.9615 116.3462
55.13 263.4616 290.3846 292.3077 224.0384 139.4231
60.05 286.0577 315.3846 316.3461 247.1154
162.5
65.1 312.0192 340.3846 341.3462 271.1538
187.5
70.06 338.4616 366.8269 366.3462 296.1538
212.5
75.03 364.9039 392.3077 390.8654 319.2308
237.5
80.16 390.8654 420.1923 416.8269 345.1923 264.4231
85.14 414.9038 443.2692 438.9423 369.2308 289.4231
90.15 438.9423 467.7885 462.0192 394.2308 315.3846
95.16 465.8654
493.75 486.0577 419.2308 341.3461
99.9 488.4615 517.3077 507.6923 443.2692 366.3461
105.11 511.5384 540.8654 530.2885 469.2307 392.3077
110.01 535.5769 564.9038 552.4038 493.2692 418.2692
115.22 558.6538 589.4231 578.3654 520.1923
450
120.12 581.7308 611.5385 598.5576 545.1923 475.9615
125.09 607.6923 635.5769 620.1923 571.1538 501.9231
130.07 632.2115 659.6154 642.7884 597.1154 528.8461
135.04 654.8076 681.7308
662.5 623.0768 554.8076
140.02 680.2884
706.25 686.0577 649.0384 583.6538
154.94 749.5192 773.0768 748.0768 722.1153 660.5768
155.17 755.2885 777.4038 751.4423 731.7307 671.1538
160.07 777.8846 799.0384 771.1538 757.6923 697.1153
165.05 801.4423 821.1538 791.3461 783.6538 726.9231
170.02 829.3269 849.0384 817.3077 813.4615 764.4231
175.23 851.923 869.7115 837.0192 840.3845 792.3076
180.05 867.3076 887.0192
850 866.3461 821.1538
185.18 888.4615 908.6538 872.5961 889.423 850.9615
190.11 907.2115 929.8076 897.5961 911.5384 890.3845
195.05 930.7692 952.4038 921.1538 935.5768 920.1922
199.9 949.5192 969.7115 937.9807 959.6153 960.5768

59

205
210.05
215.18
220.42
225.36
229.13
235
240.17
245.08
250.2
255.02
268

970.1923
987.0192
1007.212
1027.885
1031.731
1060.577
1083.173
1101.923
1111.539
1128.366
1166.347
1247.116

988.9422
1006.731
1022.597
1040.866
1042.308
1069.231
1088.943
1104.327
1112.019
1150.481
1176.923
1219.712

953.8461
972.1153
988.4615
1007.212
1009.615
1035.577
1057.693
1074.519
1082.212
1085.577
1112.02
1148.077

983.6538
1005.769
1030.769
1055.769
1065.385
1096.154
1125
1149.038
1162.5
1225.961
1247.115
1324.038

60

985.5768
1025
1054.808
1086.538
1102.885
1124.038
1116.346
1137.5
1133.654
1166.346
1192.308
1211.538

B.2

ABAQUS Input Data File

*HEADING
W16X45 COLUMN WITH 2 3/4X3X14-7/8" STIFFENERS
S8R ELEMENTS
6/19/96
LOAD = 150 kips
Test 1
*NODE
**BOTTOM FLANGE NODES
1,1.0,0.5,0.2825
25,17.0,0.5,0.2825
26,1.0,2.2588,0.2825
50,17.0,2.2588,0.2825
51,1.0,4.0175,0.2825
75,17.0,4.0175,0.2825
76,1.0,5.7763,0.2825
100,17.0,5.7763,0.2825
101,1.0,7.535,0.2825
125,17.0,7.535,0.2825
**WEB NODES
126,1.0,4.0175,4.315
150,17.0,4.0175,4.315
151,1.0,4.0175,8.3475
175,17.0,4.0175,8.3475
176,1.0,4.0175,12.38
200,17.0,4.0175,12.38
201,1.0,4.0175,16.413
225,17.0,4.0175,16.413
**TOP FLANGE NODES
226,1.0,0.5,16.413
250,17.0,0.5,16.413
251,1.0,2.2588,16.413
275,17.0,2.2588,16.413
276,1.0,5.7763,16.413
300,17.0,5.7763,16.413
301,1.0,7.535,16.413
325,17.0,7.535,16.413
**STIFFENER NODES
401,9.0,7.0175,0.2825
425,9.0,7.0175,16.413
426,9.0,5.5175,0.2825
450,9.0,5.5175,16.413
451,9.0,4.0175,0.2825
475,9.0,4.0175,16.413
476,9.0,2.5175,0.2825
500,9.0,2.5175,16.413
501,9.0,1.0175,0.2825
525,9.0,1.0175,16.413
**FLANGE INTERMEDIATE NODES
13,9.0,0.5,0.2825
38,9.0,2.2588,0.2825
63,9.0,4.0175,0.2825
88,9.0,5.7763,0.2825
113,9.0,7.535,0.2825
238,9.0,0.5,16.4125

61

263,9.0,2.2588,16.413
288,9.0,5.7763,16.413
313,9.0,7.535,16.413
**WEB INTERMEDIATE NODES
138,9.0,4.0175,4.315
163,9.0,4.0175,8.3475
188,9.0,4.0175,12.38
213,9.0,4.0175,16.413
**SUPPLEMENTAL NODES
1001,1.0,1.0175,0.2825
1025,17.0,1.0175,0.2825
1026,1.0,2.5175,0.2825
1050,17.0,2.5175,0.2825
1051,1.0,5.5175,0.2825
1075,17.0,5.5175,0.2825
1076,1.0,7.0175,0.2825
1100,17.0,7.0175,0.2825
**
2001,1.0,1.0175,16.413
2025,17.0,1.0175,16.413
2026,1.0,2.5175,16.413
2050,17.0,2.5175,16.413
2051,1.0,5.5175,16.413
2075,17.0,5.5175,16.413
2076,1.0,7.0175,16.413
2100,17.0,7.0175,16.413
**INTERMEDIATE NODES
1013,9.0,1.0175,0.2825
1038,9.0,2.5175,0.2825
1063,9.0,5.5175,0.2825
1088,9.0,7.0175,0.2825
2013,9.0,1.0175,16.413
2038,9.0,2.5175,16.413
2063,9.0,5.5175,16.413
2088,9.0,7.0175,16.413
*NGEN,NSET=BOTFLG
1,13
26,38
51,63
76,88
101,113
1001,1013
1026,1038
1051,1063
1076,1088
*NGEN,NSET=NBOTFLG
13,25
38,50
63,75
88,100
113,125
1013,1025
1038,1050
1063,1075

62

1088,1100
**WEB INTERMEDIATE NODES
*NGEN,NSET=NWEB
138,150
163,175
188,200
213,225
*NGEN,NSET=WEB
126,138
151,163
176,188
201,213
**TOP FLANGE INTERMEDIATE NODES
*NGEN,NSET=TOPFLG
226,238
251,263
276,288
301,313
2001,2013
2026,2038
2051,2063
2076,2088
*NGEN,NSET=NTOPFLG
238,250
263,275
288,300
313,325
2013,2025
2038,2050
2063,2075
2088,2100
**NODES FOR STIFFENER 1
*NGEN,NSET=LSTIFF
401,425
426,450
451,475
**NODES FOR STIFFENER 2
*NGEN,NSET=RSTIFF
451,475
476,500
501,525
**NODES TO BE LOADED
*NSET,NSET=NLOAD
425,525
*NSET,NSET=SLOAD
450,475,500
**NODES FIXED AT WALL
*NSET,NSET=NFIXED
NBOTFLG,BOTFLG,401,426,451,476,501
**GENERATE ELEMENTS
*ELEMENT, TYPE=S8R
1,1,3,28,26,2,1003,27,1001
13,26,28,53,51,27,1028,52,1026
25,51,53,78,76,52,1053,77,1051

63

37,76,78,103,101,77,1078,102,1076
49,51,53,153,151,52,128,152,126
61,151,153,203,201,152,178,202,176
73,226,228,253,251,227,2003,252,2001
85,251,253,203,201,252,2028,202,2026
97,201,203,278,276,202,2053,277,2051
109,276,278,303,301,277,2078,302,2076
121,401,403,453,451,402,428,452,426
133,451,453,503,501,452,478,502,476
*ELGEN,ELSET=EBOTFLG
1,12,2,1,1
13,12,2,1,1
25,12,2,1,1
37,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=EBOTFLG
0.565
*ELGEN,ELSET=EWEB
49,12,2,1,1
61,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=EWEB
0.345
*ELGEN,ELSET=ETOPFLG
73,12,2,1,1
85,12,2,1,1
97,12,2,1,1
109,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=ETOPFLG
0.565
*ELGEN,ELSET=ESTIFF
121,12,2,1,1
133,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=ESTIFF
0.75
*ELSET,ELSET=EOUTPUT,GENERATE
121,145,1
*NSET,NSET=DEFLECT
LSTIFF,RSTIFF
**TIE STIFFENER NODES TO FLANGE NODES
*MPC
TIE,1088,401
TIE,1063,426
TIE,63,451
TIE,1038,476
TIE,1013,501
TIE,2088,425
TIE,2063,450
TIE,213,475
TIE,2038,500
TIE,2013,525
*MATERIAL,NAME=STEEL
*ELASTIC
29000.0,0.3
*BOUNDARY
NFIXED,1,3

64

*STEP
*STATIC
*CLOAD
NLOAD,3,18.75
SLOAD,3,37.5
*EL PRINT,ELSET=EOUTPUT,SUMMARY=NO,POSITION=NODES
S11
*END STEP

65

APPENDIX C
TEST 2 Results

66

C.1

Experimental Data

Load
(kips)
0
5.35
10.5
15.18
20.5
25.2
30.2
35.1
40
45.1
50
55
60
64.95
70.1
75.13
80
85.1
90
95.1
100
105
110
115.16
122.8
125
130
135
140.1
145
150.2
155.2
165.5
170.1
175
180
186.3
190.3
195
201

Micro-strain: Stiffener R
0.75 in.
1.5 in.
2.25 in.
3.5
3.5
3.5
41.34616 45.19231 49.51923
80.76923 86.05769 93.26922
112.9808 119.7115 128.3654
152.4039 161.0577 171.6346
187.9808 198.5577 211.5385
225.9616 238.9423 255.2885
262.9808 278.8461 298.5577
300.4808 319.7115 341.3462
338.9423 360.0961 385.0961
376.4423 400.4808 428.3654
413.9423 441.3461 472.1154
452.4038 481.7308 515.3846
490.8654 523.5577 559.6154
531.25 566.8269 606.7307
570.1923 608.6539 650.4808
607.6922 649.0384 693.75
647.1154 690.8654 737.9808
684.6154 731.25
781.25
723.0769 772.5961 825.9615
762.0192 813.4615 869.2307
800
854.3269 913.4615
838.9422 897.1153 958.6538
879.3269 939.423 1004.807
938.4615 1003.365 1073.077
956.2499 1022.596 1093.269
995.1923 1064.423 1138.462
1034.135 1106.731 1183.654
1074.52 1148.558 1229.808
1112.981 1191.346 1275.481
1155.288 1237.019 1325.962
1195.192 1281.25 1373.077
1276.443 1368.269 1467.308
1312.981 1408.173 1510.577
1347.116 1444.712 1549.519
1390.866 1492.308 1600.481
1440.385 1544.712 1657.212
1472.596 1578.846 1693.27
1510.096 1619.231 1737.019
1557.211 1669.712 1790.866

Load
(kips)
0
5.35
10.5
15.18
20.5
25.2
30.2
35.1
40
45.1
50
55
60
64.95
70.1
75.13
80
85.1
90
95.1
100
105
110
115.16
122.8
125
130
135
140.1
145
150.2
155.2
165.5
170.1
175
180
186.3
190.3
195
201

67

Micro-strain: Stiffener L
0.75 in.
1.5 in.
2.25 in.
8.5
9.5
10.5
37.5
38.46154 39.42308
77.40385 81.73077 84.61538
112.9808 120.6731 126.4423
155.7692 166.3462 174.5192
190.8654 203.8461 213.9423
228.8461 243.75 254.3269
265.3846 282.6923 295.1923
302.8846 322.1154 335.5769
341.3461 362.0192 376.9231
378.3654 401.4423 416.8269
416.3462 440.3846 457.2115
454.3269 480.2884 497.5962
491.8269 519.7116 538.4616
532.2115 562.0192 581.7307
570.673 602.4038 623.0769
608.6538 641.8269 663.4615
646.6346 681.7308 704.8077
684.6154 721.6346 745.1923
723.0769 762.0192 787.0192
760.5769 801.4423 826.923
798.5576 841.3461 868.2692
837.5
881.7307 909.1346
876.923 923.0769 950.9615
935.0961 983.6538 1013.461
952.4038 1001.442 1031.731
990.8653 1042.308 1072.596
1028.846 1081.731 1113.462
1068.269 1122.596 1155.289
1104.808 1161.058 1193.75
1144.231 1200.961 1232.212
1181.731 1239.423 1271.635
1259.616 1319.712 1353.366
1294.231 1355.288 1389.423
1326.923 1389.423 1423.077
1369.712 1433.654 1468.269
1418.269 1484.135 1520.192
1449.039 1515.866 1552.404
1485.577 1553.366 1589.423
1531.731 1601.442 1638.462

204.5
210.06
215.42
220.1
225.05
230.12
235.2
240
245
250.5
255.1
260
0

1584.135
1627.885
1670.673
1707.693
1747.116
1787.019
1827.404
1866.346
1907.692
1952.885
2011.539
1991.346
-72.5962

1699.039
1746.635
1792.308
1832.212
1874.52
1918.269
1961.539
2004.808
2051.442
2100.962
2130.769
2169.712
-3.36538

1822.596
1873.558
1922.596
1965.866
2012.019
2060.096
2107.692
2159.135
2212.981
2270.192
2460.096
2723.558
359.1346

204.5
210.06
215.42
220.1
225.05
230.12
235.2
240
245
250.5
255.1
260
0

Load
(kips)
0
5.35
10.5
15.18
20.5
25.2
30.2
35.1
40
45.1
50
55
60
64.95
70.1
75.13
80
85.1
90
95.1
100
105
110
115.16
122.8
125
130
135
140.1

1 in.
28
11.53846
27.88462
45.19231
68.75
89.90384
112.9808
136.0577
160.577
185.577
211.0577
236.5384
262.9808
288.9423
317.3077
343.75
370.6731
397.1154
423.5577
449.5193
476.4423
502.8846
530.2885
557.6923
598.5577
611.0577
637.9807
665.3846
693.2692

2 in.
29
3.846156
11.53846
19.71154
31.73077
42.78846
54.80769
67.30769
80.76925
94.23075
108.6539
122.5962
137.0193
151.9231
167.7885
182.2115
197.1154
212.0192
226.9231
240.8654
255.7692
270.6731
286.0577
300.9616
324.0385
330.7692
346.6346
361.5384
377.4038

Micro-strain: Web R
3 in.
4 in.
5 in.
30
31
32
-0.48077 -1.92308 -1.92308
2.403845 -1.44231 -3.36538
4.80769 -0.96154 -4.32692
10.09616 0.961535 -4.32693
15.38462 2.403845 -3.84616
20.67308 4.32692 -3.84616
25.96153
6.25
-3.84616
32.69231 9.615385 -3.36539
38.46154 11.53847 -3.36539
45.19231 15.38461 -2.40385
51.4423 17.30769 -1.92308
58.65384 20.67308 -0.96154
65.8654 23.55769 -0.48077
73.07691 26.92308 0.48077
80.28845 29.8077 0.48077
87.50001 33.17308 1.923075
94.71155 36.05769 2.403845
101.4423 39.42308 2.88461
108.1731 42.30769 3.84615
115.3846 45.1923 4.80769
122.1154 48.55768 5.28846
129.8077 51.44232
6.25
137.5
54.32691 6.730765
148.5577 60.09614 8.653845
151.4423 61.05771 8.17308
159.6154 64.90387 9.61538
166.3462 67.30768 9.615385
174.0385 71.15384 11.05769

68

1557.693
1600.481
1641.827
1678.365
1716.827
1756.25
1796.154
1834.616
1875.962
1920.673
1958.173
1982.212
-26.4423

1628.366
1672.116
1715.865
1752.885
1792.788
1833.654
1875
1915.385
1959.615
2007.212
2041.346
2048.558
-59.6154

6 in.
33
-1.92308
-2.88462
-4.8077
-5.28846
-5.76923
-6.73077
-8.17308
-8.65385
-9.61539
-9.61538
-11.5385
-11.5385
-12.5
-12.5
-13.9423
-13.9423
-14.9038
-14.4231
-15.8654
-16.3462
-16.8269
-17.3077
-17.7885
-18.75
-19.2308
-19.7115
-20.6731
-21.1538

7in.
34
-1.92308
-3.84616
-5.76923
-7.69231
-8.65385
-11.0577
-12.9808
-14.4231
-16.3462
-17.7885
-20.1923
-21.6346
-23.0769
-25
-26.9231
-28.3654
-30.2885
-31.7308
-34.1346
-35.5769
-37.0192
-38.4615
-40.8654
-42.7885
-44.2307
-45.6731
-47.5962
-49.0385

1665.385
1709.135
1753.366
1791.827
1831.25
1873.077
1916.827
1957.693
2003.846
2053.846
2085.096
2110.577
-70.6731

145
150.2
155.2
165.5
170.1
175
180
186.3
190.3
195
201
204.5
210.06
215.42
220.1
225.05
230.12
235.2
240
245
250.5
255.1
260
0
Load
(kips)
0
5.35
10.5
15.18
20.5
25.2
30.2
35.1
40
45.1
50
55
60
64.95
70.1
75.13
80
85.1

719.7116
748.5577
775.4807
831.25
857.2115
880.7692
912.4999
947.5961
970.1922
997.596
1031.731
1051.923
1084.615
1116.346
1144.231
1174.039
1204.808
1236.058
1266.827
1298.558
1333.654
1370.673
1423.077
66.82692

1 in.
35
51.44231
95.67306
130.2885
168.2693
200.4808
234.6154
266.8269
298.5577
330.2884
361.0577
391.3462
421.6346
451.9231
483.6539
514.4231
543.75
574.0385

392.3077
408.6539
423.5577
454.8077
470.1923
483.6539
500.9615
521.1538
533.6538
550
569.2308
580.7692
599.5192
617.7884
634.1346
651.4422
669.7115
687.5
705.2884
723.5577
744.7115
765.8653
795.673
37.98077

181.25
188.9423
196.1539
211.5385
218.75
225.4808
233.6539
243.75
250
258.1731
267.3077
273.0769
282.6923
291.3462
300
308.1731
317.7885
326.4423
335.5769
344.7116
355.2885
365.8654
380.2885
18.26923

74.03848
77.88462
80.76921
87.98076
90.86539
94.71155
98.07691
102.8846
105.2885
109.1346
113.9423
116.3461
121.1538
125
128.8462
133.1731
137.9808
142.3077
146.6346
150.9615
155.7692
161.0577
167.7885
8.653846

12.01923
12.5
12.98077
15.38462
15.86538
17.78846
18.26923
19.71153
20.19231
21.15384
22.59615
23.55769
25
26.44229
27.88461
28.36536
29.80768
31.73077
33.17307
34.61539
37.01922
38.46153
39.90384
2.884615

-21.6346
-22.1154
-22.5962
-24.0385
-24.5192
-25
-25.4808
-25.4808
-26.4423
-26.4423
-26.9231
-27.4038
-27.8846
-28.8462
-28.8462
-29.3269
-29.3269
-29.8077
-29.8077
-30.2885
-30.7692
-31.25
-31.25
0

-50.4808
-52.4039
-54.3269
-57.6923
-59.6154
-60.5769
-62.9808
-64.9039
-65.8654
-67.3077
-69.7115
-71.1538
-72.5962
-74.5192
-75.9616
-77.8846
-79.3269
-81.25
-82.2115
-84.1346
-86.0577
-88.4615
-90.8654
-3.36538

2 in.
36
32.21154
60.09616
80.76923
103.3654
122.5962
142.3077
161.0577
179.3269
197.1154
214.9038
231.25
249.0385
266.3462
284.6154
300.9615
318.2692
335.0962

Micro-strain: Web L
3 in.
4 in.
5 in.
37
38
39
17.78846 8.653845 3.84615
33.17308 15.86539 7.21154
44.23077 21.15384 8.653845
56.73077 26.44231 10.57693
66.82692 31.73077 12.98077
77.40384 36.05769 14.90385
87.5
40.38462 16.34615
96.63461 44.71154 17.78846
106.25 49.03846 19.23077
115.3846 53.36538 20.67308
124.0385
56.25
21.63462
133.1731 60.57692 23.07692
142.3077 63.9423 24.03846
151.4424 68.26923 25.96154
160.0962 72.11538 26.44231
169.2308 75.96153 28.36538
177.4038 79.32693 29.80769

6 in.
40
0
0.480765
0
0.48077
0
0
-0.48077
-0.48077
-0.48077
-0.96154
-1.44231
-1.92308
-2.40385
-2.88462
-2.88462
-3.36538
-3.84615

7 in.
41
-2.40385
-3.84616
-6.73077
-8.17308
-9.13462
-10.5769
-12.9808
-14.4231
-16.3462
-17.7885
-20.6731
-22.5962
-23.5577
-25.9615
-27.8846
-29.3269
-30.2885

69

90
95.1
100
105
110
115.16
122.8
125
130
135
140.1
145
150.2
155.2
165.5
170.1
175
180
186.3
190.3
195
201
204.5
210.06
215.42
220.1
225.05
230.12
235.2
240
245
250.5
255.1
260
0

603.8462
635.0961
664.4231
694.7115
724.9999
755.7692
801.923
814.9038
844.7115
874.5192
904.8076
933.173
964.423
994.2309
1055.289
1082.212
1106.731
1139.423
1175.962
1199.039
1225.481
1260.096
1278.366
1309.135
1338.462
1364.423
1390.865
1417.788
1444.231
1471.635
1499.038
1528.846
1562.5
1614.423
83.17308

352.4039
369.7115
386.5385
403.3654
420.6731
438.4615
463.9423
471.1539
488.4615
504.8077
522.1154
538.4616
555.7692
573.0769
606.7307
622.1154
635.5768
653.8462
674.5192
687.5
701.923
721.1538
730.7692
748.0769
764.423
778.3653
793.2692
807.6923
822.1153
836.5384
850.9615
867.3077
885.0961
912.9809
44.23077

186.5385
195.1923
204.3269
212.9808
221.6346
230.7692
244.2308
248.0769
257.2115
265.3846
273.5577
281.7308
290.8654
300
317.3077
324.5192
331.7308
340.8654
351.9231
357.6923
365.8654
375
379.8077
388.4616
396.6346
403.3654
410.0962
417.3077
424.5192
431.25
438.4615
446.6346
455.2885
469.2308
23.55769

83.65383
87.50001
91.34615
94.71153
99.03848
102.8846
108.6538
109.6154
113.4616
116.8269
120.6731
124.0385
128.3654
131.7308
139.4231
142.7885
145.1923
149.5193
153.8462
156.25
159.6154
163.4616
165.3847
169.2308
172.1154
175
177.8846
180.2885
183.1731
186.0577
188.9423
191.3462
195.1923
200.4808
11.05769

70

30.76923
31.73077
33.17307
34.13461
36.05769
37.01923
38.94231
39.42307
40.86538
41.82692
43.26923
44.23077
45.67307
46.15384
49.03846
50
50.96154
52.40384
53.84615
54.32692
55.28846
56.25
57.21154
58.17307
58.65385
59.61538
60.09615
60.57692
61.05769
62.01923
62.5
63.46153
64.42308
65.86538
5.28846

-3.84616
-4.32693
-4.80769
-5.28847
-5.28847
-5.76923
-6.25
-6.25
-6.25
-7.21154
-7.21154
-8.17308
-8.17308
-9.13462
-9.13462
-10.0962
-10.0962
-10.5769
-11.0577
-11.5385
-11.5385
-12.0192
-12.9808
-13.4615
-13.9423
-14.4231
-14.9039
-15.8654
-16.3462
-16.8269
-18.2692
-18.75
-19.2308
-20.1923
0

-32.2115
-34.6154
-36.0577
-37.9808
-39.4231
-41.3462
-43.75
-44.7115
-46.1538
-48.0769
-50
-51.9231
-53.3654
-55.2885
-58.6539
-60.0961
-61.0577
-63.9423
-65.8654
-67.3077
-68.2692
-70.6731
-71.6346
-73.5577
-75.4808
-77.4039
-78.8462
-80.7692
-82.6923
-84.1346
-86.5385
-87.9808
-90.3846
-93.2693
-2.40385

C.2

ABAQUS Input Data File

*NODE
W8X48 COLUMN WITH 2 3/8X3X7-1/8" STIFFENERS
S8R ELEMENTS
6/19/96
LOAD = 150 kips
Test 2
**BOTTOM FLANGE NODES
1,1.0,0.5,0.3425
25,19.0,0.5,0.3425
26,1.0,2.5275,0.3425
50,19.0,2.5275,0.3425
51,1.0,4.555,0.3425
75,19.0,4.555,0.3425
76,1.0,6.5825,0.3425
100,19.0,6.5825,0.3425
101,1.0,8.61,0.3425
125,19.0,8.61,0.3425
**WEB NODES
126,1.0,4.555,2.4675
150,19.0,4.555,2.4675
151,1.0,4.555,4.5825
175,19.0,4.555,4.5825
176,1.0,4.555,6.7175
200,19.0,4.555,6.7175
201,1.0,4.555,8.8425
225,19.0,4.555,8.8425
**TOP FLANGE NODES
226,1.0,0.5,8.8425
250,19.0,0.5,8.8425
251,1.0,2.5275,8.8425
275,19.0,2.5275,8.8425
276,1.0,6.5875,8.8425
300,19.0,6.5875,8.8425
301,1.0,8.61,8.8425
325,19.0,8.61,8.8425
**STIFFENER NODES
401,10.0,7.555,0.3425
425,10.0,7.555,8.8425
426,10.0,6.055,0.3425
450,10.0,6.055,8.8425
451,10.0,4.555,0.3425
475,10.0,4.555,8.8425
476,10.0,3.055,0.3425
500,10.0,3.055,8.8425
501,10.0,1.555,0.3425
525,10.0,1.555,8.8425
**FLANGE INTERMEDIATE NODES
13,10.0,0.5,0.3425
38,10.0,2.5275,0.3425
63,10.0,4.555,0.3425
88,10.0,6.5825,0.3425
113,10.0,8.61,0.3425
238,10.0,0.5,8.8425
263,10.0,2.5275,8.8425

71

288,10.0,6.5825,8.8425
313,10.0,8.61,8.8425
**WEB INTERMEDIATE NODES
138,10.0,4.555,2.4675
163,10.0,4.555,4.5925
188,10.0,4.555,6.7175
213,10.0,4.555,8.8425
**SUPPLEMENTAL NODES
1001,1.0,1.555,0.3425
1025,19.0,1.555,0.3425
1026,1.0,3.055,0.3425
1050,19.0,3.055,0.3425
1051,1.0,6.055,0.3425
1075,19.0,6.055,0.3425
1076,1.0,7.555,0.3425
1100,19.0,7.555,0.3425
**
2001,1.0,1.555,8.8425
2025,19.0,1.555,8.8425
2026,1.0,3.055,8.8425
2050,19.0,3.055,8.8425
2051,1.0,6.055,8.8425
2075,19.0,6.055,8.8425
2076,1.0,7.555,8.8425
2100,19.0,7.555,8.8425
**INTERMEDIATE NODES
1013,10.0,1.555,0.3425
1038,10.0,3.055,0.3425
1063,10.0,6.055,0.3425
1088,10.0,7.555,0.3425
2013,10.0,1.555,8.8425
2038,10.0,3.055,8.8425
2063,10.0,6.055,8.8425
2088,10.0,7.555,8.8425
*NGEN,NSET=BOTFLG
1,13
26,38
51,63
76,88
101,113
1001,1013
1026,1038
1051,1063
1076,1088
*NGEN,NSET=NBOTFLG
13,25
38,50
63,75
88,100
113,125
1013,1025
1038,1050
1063,1075
1088,1100

72

**WEB INTERMEDIATE NODES


*NGEN,NSET=NWEB
138,150
163,175
188,200
213,225
*NGEN,NSET=WEB
126,138
151,163
176,188
201,213
**TOP FLANGE INTERMEDIATE NODES
*NGEN,NSET=TOPFLG
226,238
251,263
276,288
301,313
2001,2013
2026,2038
2051,2063
2076,2088
*NGEN,NSET=NTOPFLG
238,250
263,275
288,300
313,325
2013,2025
2038,2050
2063,2075
2088,2100
**NODES FOR STIFFENER 1
*NGEN,NSET=LSTIFF
401,425
426,450
451,475
**NODES FOR STIFFENER 2
*NGEN,NSET=RSTIFF
451,475
476,500
501,525
**NODES TO BE LOADED
*NSET,NSET=NLOAD
425,525
*NSET,NSET=SLOAD
450,475,500
**NODES FIXED
*NSET,NSET=NFIXED
NBOTFLG,BOTFLG,401,426,451,476,501
**GENERATE ELEMENTS
*ELEMENT,TYPE=S8R
1,1,3,28,26,2,1003,27,1001
13,26,28,53,51,27,1028,52,1026
25,51,53,78,76,52,1053,77,1051
37,76,78,103,101,77,1078,102,1076

73

49,51,53,153,151,52,128,152,126
61,151,153,203,201,152,178,202,176
73,226,228,253,251,227,2003,252,2001
85,251,253,203,201,252,2028,202,2026
97,201,203,278,276,202,2053,277,2051
109,276,278,303,301,277,2078,302,2076
121,401,403,453,451,402,428,452,426
133,451,453,503,501,452,478,502,476
*ELGEN,ELSET=EBOTFLG
1,12,2,1,1
13,12,2,1,1
25,12,2,1,1
37,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=EBOTFLG
0.685
*ELGEN,ELSET=EWEB
49,12,2,1,1
61,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=EWEB
0.4
*ELGEN,ELSET=ETOPFLG
73,12,2,1,1
85,12,2,1,1
97,12,2,1,1
109,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=ETOPFLG
0.685
*ELGEN,ELSET=ESTIFF
121,12,2,1,1
133,12,2,1,1
*SHELL SECTION,MATERIAL=STEEL,ELSET=ESTIFF
0.375
*ELSET,ELSET=EOUTPUT,GENERATE
121,145,1
*NSET,NSET=DEFLECT
LSTIFF,RSTIFF
**TIE NODES
*MPC
TIE,1088,401
TIE,1063,426
TIE,63,451
TIE,1038,476
TIE,1013,501
TIE,2088,425
TIE,2063,450
TIE,213,475
TIE,2038,500
TIE,2013,525
*MATERIAL,NAME=STEEL
*ELASTIC
29000.0,0.3
*BOUNDARY
NFIXED,1,3
*STEP

74

*STATIC
*CLOAD
NLOAD,3,18.75
SLOAD,3,37.5
*EL PRINT,ELSET=EOUTPUT,SUMMARY=NO,POSITION=NODES
S11
*END STEP

75

VITA

Michelle L. Holland

Michelle L. Floyd was born on January 23, 1972 in Norfolk, VA. After graduating from
high school in Newport News, she enrolled at Virginia Tech in 1990. She obtained a Bachelor of
Science in Civil Engineering in December of 1994.

In January 1995, she enrolled in Civil

Engineering graduate program, Structures Division, at Virginia Tech in pursuit of a Master of


Science Degree. In July of 1996 she began working as an Associate Engineer for Newport News
Shipbuilding, Submarine Division and was married to R. Cameron Holland IV in September of that
year.

76