Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Adornoss famous saying, it seems, needs correction: it is not poetry that is impossible after Auchwitz, but rather prose.

(1) Violence: Six Sideways Reflections By Slavoj iek p.4 Adorno and iek are basically asking the same question: should violence be represented and if it is represented how should this be done? In the past several months, I have been studying three sets of images: 1. Goyas prints titled Los Deasatres de la guerra from 1808-1814; the Chapman brothers drawings, prints and sculptures also under the same titled but in English, Disasters of War from 1994 to 2004 and the Abu Grabi photographs from 2004, untitled. All of these images share a common denominator they had been made during times of war, which provide some of the connections that would answer my question: How do the exchanges between the representation of violence and violence exist in the image? By contrasting and comparing Francisco de Goya series Desastres de guerra, Jake and Dino Chapman interventions on these prints and the Abu Grabi photographs I offer an additional view on this pending question of violence and its representation. Before I continue, I feel that it is necessary to understand how I will develop the relationships between the imaged selected and the concepts of violence and the representation of violence using different means to produce images from traditional print making to image appropiation and amareur photographs. I will concluded by grounding my finds on ethical dimension that the topic of violence and its representation bring to the forefront.

: how does art and artists express at the crossroad of violence, war and art? I think that these expressions have two dimensions a personal and a public expression that often collapse into one dimension, but by reading the artwork as a letter it offers new possibilities of interpretation. in the moment that we confront these images from two different points of view, one as a direct witness of the violent act itself and, second as an indirect witness of this event mediated through its representation or in other words from the territory of the voyeur or spectator. I would start by narrowing the definition of violence, accordingly to Hanna Arendt and Violence is by nature instrumental; like all means, it always stands in the need of guidance and justification by something else can not be the essence of anything (2) Arendt p 51. The complex interaction of the three modes of violence: subjective, objective and symbolic. One should resist the fascination of subjective violence, of violence enacted by social agents, evil individuals, disciplined repressive apparatuses, fanatical crowds: subjective violence is just the most visible of the three p 11 Violence: Six reflections, iek Poetry and prose are relationships that occur when the exchange of flows take place between creative and destructive processes. (2) Deluze them how should the representation of violence must operate in the making of images? Images are idiological products always? Slavoj iek is a philosopher and Psychoanalyst from Ljubljana. His lecture on the specific roles of viewers and doers is entitled "The Spectators Malevolent Neutrality" and was held on June 8, 2004

The makers of images and the images they produce are exchanges of rapports of composition and decomposition. Goyas images are complex and allow for further composition of rapports chapman brother are complex with different intensity and Agu Grabi are rapports of descomposition or destruction. il se trouve que votre action est associe limage dune chose. Or de deux choses lune, limage de chose associe votre action est telle que ou bien votre action dcompose le rapport de cette chose, dcompose directement le rapport de cette chose, ou bien se compose directement avec le rapport de cette chose. Vous faites une action, l vous avez un critre trs solide et il me semble trs trs nouveau, prcisment parce que ce nest pas un critre substantiel, cest un critre de relation, cest un critre de rapport. Vous faites une action, eh bien vous ne chercherez pas dans laction si elle est bonne ou mauvaise. http://www2.univparis8.fr/deleuze/article.php3?id_article=18 Limage de chose en tant quelle sassocie laction en tant quelle est associe laction, il faut donc un mot, une image de chose en tant quassocie une action on lappellera une affection. Limage de chose en tant quaffection, en tant quassocie une action cest une affection de quoi ? Pas de laction mais de ma puissance. Cest une affection, en latin je dis le mot latin car a va tre trs important, vous verrez plus tard pourquoi, cest ce que Spinoza appelle "affectio" et que lon traduit, et quil faut traduire par affection. Donc, laffection cest exactement limage de chose associe une action ou ce qui revient au mme la dtermination de ma puissance sous telle ou telle action. http://www2.univparis8.fr/deleuze/article.php3?id_article=18 lune, limage de chose associe votre action est telle que ou bien votre action dcompose le rapport de cette chose, dcompose directement le rapport de cette chose, ou bien se compose directement avec le rapport de cette chose. http://www2.univparis8.fr/deleuze/article.php3?id_article=18 Bon, en quoi est-ce quelle est mauvaise ? Cest que cette action est associe une image de chose ou dtre "Clytemnestre" tel que cette action dcompose directement le rapport de la chose. http://www2.univ-paris8.fr/deleuze/article.php3?id_article=18 then can the representation of violence retain the guidance of justification of the event-act of violence? Or the representation like prose or poetry retain the force/puissance of the act in a transformative exchange to created artwork?

What is the results of a violent act? The across the expectrum outcomes of violence What makes the Goyas print master pieces? The theme and its execution?

Are the same force that make the Chapman Bothers sculptures and prints Art too? The producer/creators of these images/sentiments are classified as artists so what happen when images/sentiments are produce by amateurs, for example The Abu Grabi photos of 2004? Philip Shaw in his essay Abjection Sustained: Goya, The Chapman brothers and the Disaster of War (3) Shaw 2003 p 4479 categories these artists works under the title Disaster of War which as he remark refer to three sets of works: Goya engravings from 1748-1828, The Chapman brotherss sculptures from 1990 and finally their engravings also produced in 1990.

Amtrak penn station to hudson make a reservation if coming friday night (1) Ferrari, E Lafuente, Los desastres de la guerra de Goya y sus dibujos preparatorios, Goya dibujo mucho por intimo afan de dar expresion a las criaturas de su fantasia, a sus reacciones ante la realidad y ante sus suenos. (Goya drew a lot because of his own sake to give expression to the creatures in his fantasies, and his reaction facing reality in front of his dreams authors translation) p 9 Hanna Arendt wrote in her well known book titled On Violence that Violence is by nature instrumental; like all means, it always stands in the need of guidance and justification by something else can not be the essence of anything (2) Arendt p 51 I like to argue that the representation of violence according to this concept has the potential to retain the force puissance of the act itself by a metabolic exchange in the relationships between events violent action is an event and the representation of this act is the metabolic process that produce the next event the artwork.

My methodology starts with the ontological preoccupation of violence as a state of being or violence as a way of being. (Deluze: sur Spinoza sceance 1-02-12-80) Footnote 1Je prends le dbut de "lEthique". Comment est-ce quon peut commencer dans une ontologie ? Dans une ontologie, du point de vue de limmanence o, la lettre, lEtre est partout, partout o il y a de lEtre. Les existants, les tants sont dans lEtre, cest ce qui nous a paru dfinir lontologie dans nos trucs prcdents. Par quoi et comment peut-on commencer ? Historical Background Goya is well know for the broad range of his creative production form royal portraits to dark paintings. As an artist he was well aware of his audience and the limits and restriction he had due to historical context that he had to live. This awareness has evident in his artists production which could be divided in private (2) and public creations. The series Destres de la guerra are not so easily classified inn terms of the audience, they were not made for the royal family and they were not made just for himself, so did Goya have in mind when he engrave these plates? The Napolionic invasion to Spain and the followed spanish civil war of 1808 initiated the shift in the way warfare was fought would transformed from analogue to digital warfare signaling the slow but profound change in the process of warfare where place and body would be no longer be a direct relationship. This shift allows to establish the parallel between representation and presence of violence in modern times. Goya has been labeled the first modern artist by several scholars (1 Caghill, Bozal)

Spinoza appellera leffort de la raison ? Leffort de la raison, ce sera typiquement un effort pour slectionner dans les situations ce qui est apte me donner ce que Spinoza appelle de la joie et liminer ce qui est apte me donner de la tristesse. In my opinion the being of violence in art finds at least two paths in its representation which responds to direct correspondence or relationships (artists)between social and historical events and indirect reaction or decompositions (amateur). These two paths offer several outcomes I will focus for my analysis in the production of images during war time not necessary for the assume connection between war and violence but rather because of the shift in time and space that these events provide. It is important to keep in mind the tectonic shift between traditional or analogue warfare and modern or digital warfare. I consider the main difference between analogue and digital warfare as the product of increments in the speed of time and the decrees in space or territory. In other words these terms are used in my essay first to introduce the concepts of time that can be accessed in non linear fashion due to the use of technology. These two terms analogue-digital already offer a prepackage almost paradoxical definition which situates the body at the cross road of being and becoming. In the analogue warfare the body is always confronted to another body thru a confrontation in a designated place, the battlefield. Historical Background and the artist Goya began working in the Los Desartres de la guerra from 1808 to 1814 in the context of the Napolionic invasion to Spain. The Napolionic invasion to Spain and the followed Spanish Civil war marked a shift in the way warfare was fought. It is

important to keep in mind this shift between traditional warfare and modern warfare, which I would parallel rename these terms as analogue and digital warfare for two main reason. First is the difference between analogue and digital warfare as products of increments in the speed of time and the decrements in the amount of space in this case embodied in territory. In other words, these terms are used in my essay first to introduce the concepts of time that can be accessed in non linear fashion due to the use of technology. These two terms, analogue-digital, also offer the prepackage paradoxical definition that situates the body at the cross road of being and becoming. In the analogue warfare the body is always confronted to another body through physical confrontation in a designated place or the battlefield. These transformations from analogue to digital warfare continuously signal the slow but profound change in the process of warfare where place and body would be no longer in a direct relationship. This shift for me offers the opportunity to establish the parallel between representation and presence of violence in modern times as a consequence of similar effects of time and space. Goya is well known for the broad range of creative production form royal portraits to dark paintings. As an artist he was well aware of his audience and the limits and restriction he had due to the social and political conditions of his times. This awareness has evident in his artistic production, which could be divided in two broad categories private and public creations. The series titled Destres de la guerra are not so easily classified in terms of the relationship to audience; they were not made for the royal family or commissioned by the church or government, rather these series and his other two series: Caprichos and Tauromaquia seem to belong to the artist

himself, just for Goya to Goya, which raises the question what did he have in mind when he engrave these plates? Goya has been labeled the first modern artist by several scholars (1) Caghill, Bozal, Lafuente Ferrari) En la guerra solo al hombre ve; al hombre y la mujer que sufre, padecen y reciben los terribles coletazos que puede llamarse, segun el punto de vista, desartre o gloria. Lafuente Ferrrari p 23 Spinoza appellera leffort de la raison? Leffort de la raison, ce sera typiquement un effort pour slectionner dans les situations ce qui est apte me donner ce que Spinoza appelle de la joie et liminer ce qui est apte me donner de la tristesse. In my opinion the being of violence in art finds at least two paths in its representation which responds to direct correspondence or relationships (artists)between social and historical events and indirect reaction or decompositions (amateur). These two paths offer several outcomes I will focus for my analysis in the production of images during wartime not necessary for the assume connection between war and violence but rather because of the shift in time and space that these events provide.

Bibliography Arendt, Hannah, On Violence, Harcourt, Brace & World, inc., New York, 1970. Bozal, Valeriano, Vilar, Gerard, Ejercicios de la violencia en el arte contemporaneo, Cuadernos de la Catedra Jorge Oteiza, Universidad Publica de Navarra, 2002. Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,1987.

Derrida, Jacques, Bennington, Geoff and McLeod, Ian (translators), The Truth in Painting, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1987. Lafuente Ferrari, E., Los desastres de la guerra de Goya y sus dibujos preparatorios, Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispanico,Barcelona, 1952. Levinas, Emmanuel. Entre Nous. Trans. Michael B. Smith and Barbara Harshaw. New York: Columbia UP, 1998. Ludz, Ursula, ed.,Letters : 1925-1975 Hannah Arendt , Martin Heidegger, Andrew Shields (Translator) Hardcourt Inc. USA, 2004.