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DEFORM-3D Hot Forming Labs

Lab 1 Create a New Problem. Import and Manipulate Geometry

Basic information flow The basic icons used in setting up every problem are the preprocessor data settings, and the object data settings.

2: Preprocessor Data Settings Object Tree 1: Object Data Definition
2: Preprocessor
Data Settings
Object Tree
1: Object Data
Definition

Preprocessor data

Object Tree 1: Object Data Definition Preprocessor data Includes (in order from left to right) ∑

Includes (in order from left to right)

Simulation controls

Material library editing tool

Object positioning

Interobject relationships

Database generation

Create new problem

Create a problem named “Tee” and Open the preprocessor

Set simulation controls

Set simulation controls

preprocessor Set simulation controls Set simulation controls for “English Units” This will be a hot forging,

for “English Units”

This will be a hot forging, but for now, we will not consider temperature change, so Set simulation mode to “isothermal” (deformation on, heat transfer off)

Exit simulation Controls

Set initial object conditions

The object type is Plastic

Initial object temperature will be 2150F

Import object geometry

Import TeeBillet.stl

Check the geometry

Investigate view manipulation tools

Display Icons

Note: Some of the display functions (Pan, Zoom, Magnify, and Rotate) have easy keyboard/mouse combination hotkeys that allow the user to quickly perform these functions without any button clicking. These hotkeys are the same as those used in many solid modeling packages.

are the same as those used in many solid modeling packages. Measure Measure tool displays: (Display

Measure

Measure tool displays:

(Display Measure)

L

vector length

V

X,Y,Z component of measured distance

S

Starting point

E

Ending point

SelectDisplays details of vertex, node, element, or surface facet selected Pan (Display Select) (Display Pan)

Displays details of vertex, node, element, or surface facet selected

Pandetails of vertex, node, element, or surface facet selected (Display Select) (Display Pan) Shift + Left

(Display Select)

(Display Pan) Shift + Left Mouse Button

(Display Zoom) Alt + Left Mouse Button

(Display Magnify) Ctrl + Alt + Left Mouse Button

(Display Magnify) Ctrl + Left Mouse Button

ZoomMouse Button (Display Magnify) Ctrl + Left Mouse Button Magnify Rotate (unconstrained) Rotation about the X-axis

MagnifyButton (Display Magnify) Ctrl + Left Mouse Button Zoom Rotate (unconstrained) Rotation about the X-axis Currently,

Rotate (unconstrained)(Display Magnify) Ctrl + Left Mouse Button Zoom Magnify Rotation about the X-axis Currently, this rotation

Rotation about the X-axisCtrl + Left Mouse Button Zoom Magnify Rotate (unconstrained) Currently, this rotation is about the screen-based

Currently, this rotation is about the screen-based X-axis which is in the plane of the screen and points to the right.

(Display Rotate X)

Rotation about the Y-axisof the screen and points to the right. (Display Rotate X) Currently, this rotation is about

Currently, this rotation is about the screen-based Y-axis which is in the plane of the

screen and points upward.

(Display Rotate Y)

Rotation about the Z-axisplane of the screen and points upward. (Display Rotate Y) Currently, this rotation is about the

Currently, this rotation is about the screen-based Z-axis which is perpendicular to the

screen and points outward toward the user.

(Display Rotate Z)

View Icons

View Tool Box Windowoutward toward the user. (Display Rotate Z) View Icons View Tree Window Refresh View Fit View

View Tree Windowuser. (Display Rotate Z) View Icons View Tool Box Window Refresh View Fit View Back (View

RefreshRotate Z) View Icons View Tool Box Window View Tree Window View Fit View Back (View

View FitZ) View Icons View Tool Box Window View Tree Window Refresh View Back (View Tool Box

View BackIcons View Tool Box Window View Tree Window Refresh View Fit (View Tool Box Window) (View

(View Tool Box Window)

(View Tree Window)

(Viewport Refresh)

F2

(Viewport View Fit)

F3

(Viewport View Back)

F4

View Orientation Icons

Isometric ViewWindow) (Viewport Refresh) F2 (Viewport View Fit) F3 (Viewport View Back) F4 View Orientation Icons YZ

YZ Plane View(Viewport Refresh) F2 (Viewport View Fit) F3 (Viewport View Back) F4 View Orientation Icons Isometric View

Refresh) F2 (Viewport View Fit) F3 (Viewport View Back) F4 View Orientation Icons Isometric View YZ

X-axis either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-)

XZ Plane View Y-axis either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-)either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-) XY Plane View Z-axis

either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-) XY Plane View Z-axis

XY Plane View Z-axis either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-)either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-) Note: All of the

either pointing out of the screen (+) or into the screen (-) Note: All of the

Note: All of the above explanations of the View Orientation icons are based on the assumption that the Z-axis is pointing upward when the model is viewed in the Isometric view. This is the default setting. If the user wants, he can go to Display Screen Upward and select another direction to point upward.

Model Icons

View shaded objectsand select another direction to point upward. Model Icons View mesh only View shaded mesh View

View mesh onlydirection to point upward. Model Icons View shaded objects View shaded mesh View surface patch (feature

View shaded meshpoint upward. Model Icons View shaded objects View mesh only View surface patch (feature lines) only

View surface patch (feature lines) onlyIcons View shaded objects View mesh only View shaded mesh Toggle button to turn (Model Shading)

Toggle button to turnView shaded mesh View surface patch (feature lines) only (Model Shading) F5 (Model Mesh) F5 (Model

(Model Shading)

F5

(Model Mesh)

F5

(Model Shaded Mesh)

F7

(Model Surface Patch)

F8

(Model +Surface Patch)

surface patch on. This button will stay depressed so that surface patches can be

shown in the Shaded, Mesh, or Shaded Mesh view settings. Click the button again to toggle surface patches off.

Note: The above icons only change the appearance of the objects that are currently shown in the Display window. For example, if you are only showing the workpiece

and you click the

with shaded mesh. If you then turn on a die, the die will not have the shaded mesh applied to it

on a die, the die will not have the shaded mesh applied to it button to

button to view shaded mesh, then the workpiece will be shown

Save File and Exit

Save the keyword file using the File->Save option.

Note – the “save” button at the bottom of the screen only saves the CURRENT OBJECT.

Exit the preprocessor

Lab 2 – Import Tools – Manipulate Object Display

Open existing problem

Open the file “Tee” in the preprocessor

Add objects

If an object named Top Die does not currently exist, using the “add object” icon below the object tree, add a new object. It will default to the name “top die”. Set the temperature to 300F.

Add one more object. It will default to the name “bottom die.” Set the temperature to 300F for this object, as well.

Import tool geometry

Select “Top Die” from the object tree. Go to the “Geometry” screen and import TeeTop.stl.

Now select “Bottom Die” from the object tree and import the file TeeBottom.stl

Investigate object tree manipulation Object Display Modes DEFORM has 3 different object display modes:

Single Object mode – the selected object is displayed. All other objects are hidden

Multi Object mode – the selected object is displayed in solid color. All other objects are transparent

User Object mode – the user can set the display mode (on, transparent, or off) for each object independently.

User object Mode Multi object Mode Single object Mode
User object Mode
Multi object Mode
Single object Mode

Figure 1: Detail of Object Tree showing object mode selection icons

Tree levels and functions The right mouse button menu has functions associated with each level of the object tree.

The object tree levels are shown in Figure 2. which will be covered in later labs.

Many of these features relate to topics

Problem data Object data Material Data Mesh data Geometry Data
Problem data
Object data
Material Data
Mesh data
Geometry Data

Figure 2: Levels in the object tree. Right mouse selections at each level accesses a context appropriate menu.

The Problem Data menu contains the following commands:

Turn on all objects

Turn off all objects

Turn on all workpieces - Turns on any object which is not rigid. Turns off all rigid objects)

Turn on all dies - Turns on any object which is rigid. Turns off all other objects) Turn on transparency for all

Turn off transparency for all

Turn on backface for all - backface shows the interior or back surface of rigid objects

Turn off backface for all

The Object Data menu contains some or all of the following commands, depending on object type:

Turn on this only – turns on the selected object and turns off all other objects

Turn off – turns off the selected object

Show contact node – highlights any nodes which are in contact with any master object. This is a quick way to display contact. This is a toggle menu selection. Select it once to turn the contact node display on. Select it again to turn the display back off.

Show BCC – highlights any node with constrained velocity boundary conditions. This is also a toggle selection

Show geometry normal vector – displays vectors normal to each surface facet.

Make transparent

Show backface – backface shows the interior or back surface of rigid objects

The Material Data menu allows access to the material properties window (same window

as the preprocessor).

A meshed rigid object will contain both mesh data (for temperature calculations) and

rigid surface geometry data (for contact with deforming objects). The mesh and geometry data menus allow control of the mesh and geometry surface display.

The Mesh Data menu controls display of the object surface mesh description

Show Mesh / Hide Mesh shows or hides the display of the object surface mesh

Change shade color – changes the element fill color

Change line color – changes the color of the lines delineating element edges

The Geometry Data menu controls the display of the surface geometry description

Show Geometry / Hide Geometry shows or hides display of the surface geometry

Change shade color – changes the surface facet fill color

Change line color – changes the color of lines delineating facet edges

Additional Post Processing Functions When various post processing functions (state variables, load stroke curves, slicing, etc) are displayed, the respective icons will be added to the object tree. Right clicking on these icons allows editing of their respective properties

Object Control Bar All right mouse menu functionality is duplicated in a control bar at the bottom of the object tree.

Object Control Bar All right mouse menu functionality is duplicated in a control bar at the

Toggle object on/off (displays mesh, geometry, or both, depending on which is available and selected. Defaults to mesh if neither is selected)Toggle mesh on/off Toggle item on/off – may be any item, such as slicing, a

Toggle mesh on/offand selected. Defaults to mesh if neither is selected) Toggle item on/off – may be any

Toggle item on/off – may be any item, such as slicing, a curve or graph, etc.Defaults to mesh if neither is selected) Toggle mesh on/off Toggle geometry on/off Display contact nodes

Toggle geometry on/off

as slicing, a curve or graph, etc. Toggle geometry on/off Display contact nodes Toggle transparency Toggle

Display contact nodes

Toggle transparency

Toggle backfacing

Save the file, and Exit

Save the keyword file, and exit the preprocessor. We will work with a different geometry in the next lab.

Lab 3 – Bad Geometry & Geometry Repair

Depending on the CAD system used to generate STL geometry, the STL geometry may not be a legal surface. In this lab, we will investigate geometry checking and correction features in DEFORM.

Create a new problem Create a new problem called Crankshaft, and open the preprocessor.

Set unit system Open Simulation Controls and set the units to SI.

Import geometry

Add an object:

“Top Die”. Import the geometry “CrankshaftDie.stl”.

Check the geometry. A clean geometry should have 1 surface and no free edges. This file has 23 surfaces and 75 free edges.

Turn on the surface facet display, and visually examine the die cavity. Notice several tangled or irregular looking facet clusters.

Display free edges

button will display free edges in yellow, and good edges in another

color, depending on preprocessor settings. This can give the user an idea where the CAD file might need to be repaired. In the case of the crankshaft die, there are multiple invalid

The surface patch

crankshaft die, there are multiple invalid The surface patch surfaces. Attempt repair DEFORM has a “fix

surfaces.

Attempt repair DEFORM has a “fix GEO” option which will attempt to repair illegal geometries by stitching open edges together. For minor or localized problems, this works well. For more troublesome file such as this one, the repair may not produce a desirable result.

If the crankshaft surface is examined after “fixing” geometry, several spikes and irregular surfaces will be noticed.

It is possible, but difficult, to further edit these problem files. It is generally better to address the problem within the CAD software. Contact DEFORM support if this is not possible.

Note that even thought this geometry is bad, DEFORM will generally produce results. The problems which occur will be spikes or distortions in the workpiece mesh during forming.

Exiting Close the problem and exit the preprocessor. This file will not be used again, so it is not necessary to save it.

Lab 4 – Mesh Generation

Open an existing problem Open the problem “Tee”.

Generate a default mesh Go to the “Mesh” screen and generate a mesh with the default number of elements (8000). Note how many elements were actually generated.

Use the measure tool to measure larger and smaller elements

Change the number of elements to 16000. elements.

Generate a mesh and measure some

Change the number of elements to 32000. Repeat the measurements. Note the actual number of elements.

Generate mesh with absolute density Change to the “Detailed Settings” tab on the mesh generation screen.

Change “Type” from “Relative” to “Absolute.”

generate a surface mesh, then a solid mesh. Note the element size, and total number of elements.

Set minimum element size to 0.1” and

Change the size ratio to 1, and generate a surface mesh. Note the max and min element sizes.

Change the size ratio to 5 and generate a mesh.

Set the minimum element size to 0.05, and generate a mesh

Set the minimum element size to 0.2 and generate a mesh.

Take some time, and experiment with different combinations of mesh size, size ratio. Note the max and min size, and total number of elements generated.

Generate a mesh for use with simulations

The final mesh we generate will be used with subsequent simulations.

Be sure mesh density is set to absolute. Set the minimum element size to 0.10” and use a maximum size ratio of 3. Generate a surface mesh, then a solid mesh.

Save and Exit Save the problem, then exit the preprocessor.

Lab 5 – Completing Pre Processing

The first operation will be a Bust operation. The billet will be positioned vertically, and upset from a height of 3.3” to a height of 1.5.”

Open existing problem Open the problem “Tee” Assign Material Select Stainless Steel 316 from the

Open existing problem Open the problem “Tee”

Assign Material

Select Stainless Steel 316 from the material library. Assign this to the workpiece.

Assign Movement Controls

Select the top die from the object tree.

Assign a velocity of 10in/sec, and set the direction to –Z.

The “Current Die Stroke” is the distance this die has already moved. Right now, that value should be set to zero.

Assign Simulation Controls

Step controls

The first operation will be an upset. We will take the billet from 3.300” to 1.500”. The

change in height is 1.8”.

For a simple upset, 50 steps is appropriate.

Set the “Solution Steps Definition” to “With Constant Die Displacement”. Use a value of

0.036 inches/step

(1.8” / 50 steps).

Set the “Step increment to save” to 5.

Stopping controls Under the “Stop” screen, select the “Die Distance” tab.

Select the Top Die for Reference 1, and pick a point on the bottom corner of the top die.

Select the Bottom Die for Reference 2, and pick a point on the top corner of the bottom die.

Set the measurement “Method” to “Z Distance” and enter a distance of 1.500”

Positioning the workpiece We will perform this operation with the workpiece vertical

We will first position the workpiece on the bottom die. To make it easier to see, change to “User Defined Object Display” mode in the control bar at the bottom of the object tree.

Then right click on the Top Die, and turn it off.

Go to object positioning, and select “rotational” positioning. Select the workpiece.

Use the mouse to pick a point around the center of the workpiece, then select the “x” axis as the axis of rotation. Enter an angle of 90 degrees, and “Apply”. The workpiece should now be vertical.

Switch to “Mouse Driven” positioning. Click on the “X” or “Y” axis and use the mouse to drag the billet to a flat spot on the die, not too close to either the forming cavity or the edge of the billet.

Use “Interference” positioning to place the billet on the bottom die.

positioning to place the billet on the bottom die. Right click on the Top Die to

Right click on the Top Die to turn it back on, then use Interference Positioning to place it in contact with the billet.

Assigning interobject conditions

Select the Inter-Object Icon. You will get a message indicating that there are no interobject relationships defined, and asking if you want to create them. Say yes.

Within the interobject window, select “Edit.” From the drop-down box next to friction “Value” select “Lubricated Hot Forming”. The system will assign a friction value of 0.3, which is appropriate for the conditions.

Close the definition window, and select the “Apply to other relations” button.

Use the “hammer” to set the contact bcc tolerance, then click “generate all.”

Generate Database

Check and Generate the database.

Save a keyword file, and close the preprocessor.

Lab 6 – Run Simulation and Postprocess

From the main window, select “Run”

The log file will indicate “end of simulation” when it is completed.

After the simulation is completed, open the database in the postprocessor.

Step selection The step selection list allows the user to select the steps that will be displayed during play and animation capture. Negative steps indicate remeshing or operation starting steps.

State Variables From the state variable menu, plot strain. In the object tree, right click on the “strain” icon and select properties. In this screen, you can display line or shaded contours. It is also possible to select solid shading, or element shading. Experiment with each of these settings.

Using “User defined global” state variable definition, the range of the contour bar can be adjusted.

Slicing Use slicing to slice the workpiece and dies. Display state variables on the sliced surface. By clicking “add” on the slicing menu, you can add multiple slicing planes.

The slider bar allows you to dynamically move the slicing plane.

Point tracking Select point tracking. Select a few points on the object, and track the points. If a state variable is displayed, the values of the variables will be graphed at these points.

Exit the postprocessor There is no need to save data in the postprocessor. Just close the postprocessor

Lab 7 – Restarting Simulation

In this lab, we will open an existing file, reposition the workpiece, and run a second operation.

Open existing file Select the file Tee.DB in the main window, and open the preprocessor. Select the last step from the database

main window, and open the preprocessor. Select the last step from the database Workpiece positioning for

Workpiece positioning for second operation

Reposition the billet Change to “user object display mode” in the object tree. Turn off the top die, to give a better view of the workpiece and the bottom die.

Go to object positioning. Using Mouse positioning, drag the workpiece over the die cavity.

Now use interference positioning to be sure the workpiece is properly seated in the bottom die.

Reposition the top die Turn the top die back on. Use interference positioning to be sure it is positioned correctly on the billet

Reset simulation controls For a fast simulation of this part, we will use 100 steps. We will forge the part from a height of 1.500 to a height of 0.250”, for a stroke of 1.250.” Set the step definition to constant die displacement of .0125.

Reset stopping controls We will use stopping distance again, and stop at a flash thickness of 0.250”

Write the database Generate the database. When you are writing, the system should indicate that this is an “old” database – that is – you are appending to the end of an existing file. If it were set to “New” you would be creating a new file, or erasing and overwriting an existing file.

Exit and Run the Simulation Exit the preprocessor. Run the simulation. Watch the log file to indicate completion.

Postprocess the results After the simulation is completed, select the database file and open the postprocessor.

Play through the simulation. Did the part fill the die cavity? You may want to turn dies on and off, and use transparency to better visualize the part.

Right click on the workpice icon in the object tree, and display contact. Watch how contact evolves as the part fills out

Plot the load-stroke curve. Observe how the load increases as the part fills out the die and forms flash.

Plot the strain rate during forming. Observe what happens in the flash area.

Display the mesh on the workpiece. Measure a few elements in the radius area, and in flat areas. Does the mesh do an adequate job of resolving geometry?

Lab 8 – Simulating Temperature Effects

Create a new problem Create a new problem called TeeNonIso

Set simulation controls Open simulation controls and turn on heat transfer and deformation.

Import workpiece Import the file TeeBillet.stl. Set the temperature to 2150F.

Generate mesh Set an absolute density of 0.1”, and a side ratio of 3. Generate the surface and solid race.

Assign thermal boundary conditions Assign heat exchange with the environment boundary conditions to “all surfaces” of the billet.

Set target volume Under object properties, assign the target volume.

Import tools Import the top die (TeeTop.stl). Assign a uniform object temperature of 300F.

Generate mesh Generate a mesh on the die with 15,000 elements.

Assign movement controls Assign a constant die movement of 10 in/sec in the –Z direction

Assign boundary conditions Assign heat exchange with the environment over the entire surface of the die.

Import bottom die Import TeeBottom.stl. Assign a uniform object temperature of 300F.

Generate mesh Set 15,000 elements with relative density, and generate a mesh on the bottom die.

Assign die material Assign H-13 as the die material.

Assign boundary conditions Assign heat exchange with the environment over the entire surface of the die.

Position the billet Turn off the upper die to better visualize the billet in the lower die.

Use mouse positioning to rotate and drag the billet into position. Then use drop positioning to position the billet in the bottom die.

to rotate and drag the billet into position. Then use drop positioning to position the billet

Position the top die Use interference positioning to position the top die against the billet.

Interobject boundary conditions Assign default master-slave relationships between the workpiece and dies. Use lubricated hot forming friction, and assign interface heat transfer friction.

Simulation controls We will forge to a flash thickness of 0.250”. Measure the distance between the top and bottom die, subtract 0.250, and use this as an estimate of the forging stroke. Divide the distance by 100, and use this for a stroke per step.

Set the stopping distance to 0.250, and set reference points on the top and bottom die.

Generate database and run the simulation

Generate a new database.

Close the preprocessor and run the simulation.

Postprocessing After the simulation is completed, open the database in the postprocessor.

Make the dies transparent, and play through the simulation. Observe fill.

Display contact nodes, and observe the fill pattern.

Plot workpiece temperature.

Now click on the File->Open menu, and open the Tee.DB. Use the Window->Tile option to display both databases at the same time.

By clicking in a window, the postprocessing controls influence that window. Plot load- stroke in both windows, and compare the load-stroke curves for the two windows.

Close the postprocessor.

Lab 9 – Symmetry

To demonstrate the use of symmetry, we will simulate only the top half of the Tee forging. We will also use this lab to illustrate using an existing database file as a starting point for a new problem.

Creating a problem and importing an existing database Create a new problem called TeeSymmetry. From the preprocessor, open the database TeeNonIso.DB, and load the -1 step into the preprocessor.

We will make the following changes to the database:

Delete the bottom die

Import a new half-symmetry billet, and remesh it

Use appropriate boundary conditions to define symmetry

Adjust die velocity to account for symmetric movement.

Delete the bottom die Using the object delete button, delete object 3 (the bottom die). Because it is symmetric to the top die, it will not be used in this simulation

Import and mesh the symmetric billet Select object 1, and go to Geometry. Do not extract geometry from current object when prompted. Import the geometry TeeBilletSym.stl.

Go to mesh generation, and using the mesh settings already loaded from the existing database, generate a new mesh on the billet.

Assign symmetry boundary conditions From the boundary conditions menu, assign symmetry boundary conditions to the symmetric face. Assign heat exchange with the environment boundary conditions to all faces except the symmetry face.

Reassign target volume The billet volume has changed, so reassign the target volume

Change die velocity The symmetry definition means that the virtual bottom die is moving upward at the same speed that the top die is moving downward. To compensate for this, we will reduce the top die velocity by 50%. Change it from 10 to 5 inches/second.

Reset stopping controls Since there are no longer two objects, stopping distance cannot be used. Measure the Z distance from the bottom of the die to the symmetry plane of the billet. Subtract 0.125 (half of the flash thickness) from the total distance, and use this as the stopping stroke.

Write the database and run the simulation

Postprocessing After the simulation is completed, open the database in the postprocessor. Use the mirror option, and click on the symmetry plane of the billet. Load the TeeNonIso.DB file, and compare the results. Study temperature, load-stroke, and other options.

Lab 10 – Die stress

We will run a die stress analysis on the top die from TeeNonIso.DB

Create a new problem called TeeDie

Load the final step from TeeNonIso.DB.

Delete the workpiece and bottom die.

Make the top die elastic.

Go to boundary conditions. Using the velocity boundary conditions, set the X, Y, and Z velocity equal to zero on the top surface of the top die.

Now go to Force boundary conditions, and interpolate forces from the workpiece in TeeNonIso.DB onto the die.

Set simulation controls to 1 step at 1 second, generate the database and run the simulation.