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Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-1

1.3 - LARGE-SIGNAL BEHAVIOR OF BJTS


INTRODUCTION Objective The objective of this presentation is: 1.) Understand how the bipolar junction transistor works 2.) Develop large signal models for analysis and simulation Outline Large-signal models in the forward-active region Effects of collector voltage on the large-signal model in the forward-active region Saturation and inverse active regions Transistor breakdown voltages Dependence of transistor current gain on operation conditions

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-2

Notational Difference from Gray and Meyer These slides will use slightly different notation from the Gray and Meyer text. The differences are: 1.) Total, dc and ac variables. Consider the collector current of a transistor. iC total collector current consisting of both the ac and dc IC dc collector current ic ac collector current 2.) The thermal voltage which is kT/q and equal approximately to 26mV at room temperature will be given the symbol of Vt rather than VT which will be reserved for threshold of field-effect transistors.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-3

LARGE-SIGNAL BEHAVIOR OF BJTS Bipolar Transistor Symbol and Sign Convention The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal device whose symbol and sign convention (according to Gray and Meyer) is given below:
C iB B iC vBC+ + vBE + vBE iE E npn iB B C iC vBC+ + vBE + vBE iE E pnp
Fig.1.3-1

We will see that the names of the terminals of the transistor are descriptive of their function. Emitter - The emitter is the source of majority carriers that result in the gain mechanism of the BJT. These carriers which are emitted into the base are electrons for the npn transistor and holes for the pnp transistor. Base - The base is a region which physically separates the emitter and collector and has an opposite doping (holes for the npn and electrons for the pnp BJTs). The word base comes from the way that the first transistors were constructed. The base supported the whole structure. Collector - The collector serves to collect those carries injected from the emitter into the base and which reach the collector without recombination.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-4

Physical Aspects of an npn BJT A cross-section of an npn BJT is shown below:


Depletion Region E B

,,,,, ,,, ,,,,, ,,,


n+ p n

C Depletion Region

E A
Fig.1.3-2

n+

Depletion Depletion Region Region

,, ,,
B p

n A'

Comments: The emitter-base depeletion region is generally smaller in width because the doping level is higher and base-emitter junction is generally forward-biased. The next slide will examine the carrier concentrations see looking into the above A-A cross-section.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-5

Carrier Concentrations of the npn BJT The carrier concentrations (not to scale) for the npn BJT are shown below.

nnE

Depletion Region pnE(0) Emitter

pnE A

Comments: The above carrier concentrations assume that the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the basecollector junction is reverse biased. The above carrier concentration will be used to derive the large signal model on the next slide.

, , , , ,

Carrier Concentration pp(x)

np(0) np(x)

NA np(WB)

Base

x=0

x =WB

,, ,, ,, ,,

Depletion Region

nnC

NA pnC Collector x A'

Fig.1.3-3

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-6

Derivation of the BJT Large Signal Model in the Foward Active Region 1.) Carrier concentrations in the base on the emitter side. The concentration of electrons in the base on the emitter side (x = 0) is vBE np(0) = npo exp Vt The concentration of electrons in the base on the collector side (x = WB) is v BC np(W B) = npo exp 0 because vBC is negative and large. Vt 2.) If the recombination of electrons in the base is small, then the minority-carrier concentrations, np(x), are straight lines and shown on the previous page. From charge-neutrality requirements for the base, N A + np(x) = p p(x) n p(x) - p p(x) = N A 3.) The collector current is produced by minority-carrier electrons in the base diffusing in the direction of the concentration gradient and being swept across the collector-base depletion region by the field existing there. Therefore, the diffusion current density due to electrons in the base is Jn = qDn
dnp(x) dx

where Dn is the diffusion constant for electrons. From the previous page, the derivative is the slope of the concentration profile in the base which gives, Jn = -qDn
np(0) WB

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-7

Derivation of the BJT Large Signal Model in the Foward Active Region - Continued 3.) Continued If the collector current is defined as positive flowing into the collector terminal, then iC = qAD n
vBE np(0) qADnnpo exp V = WB t WB

where A is the cross-sectional area of the emitter. The desired result is iC


vBE = IS exp V t

where the saturation current, IS, is qAD nnpo IS = W B Since, ni2 = npoNA, we can rewrite IS as qADnni2 qADnni2 IS = W B N A = QB where QB is the number of doping atoms in the base per unit area of the emitter.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-8

Derivation of the Forward Current Gain of the BJT, F 1.) The base current, iB , consists of two major components. These components are due to the recombination of holes and electrons in the base, iB1, and the injection of holes from the base into the emitter, iB2. It can be shown that,
vBE 1 n poW B qA iB1 = exp V 2 b t

and

qAD p iB2 = L p

ni2 vBE exp V ND t

2.) Therefore the total base current is


1 n po W B q A q A D p ni2 vBE exp iB = iB1 + iB2 = + L b 2 p ND Vt

3.) Define the forward active current gain, F, as qADnnpo iC WB 1 F = i = 2 = W 2 Dp WB NA B 1 n po W B q A q A D p ni B + L 2 b 2bDn + Dn L p ND p ND Note that F is increased by decreasing WB and increasing ND/NA.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-9

Derivation of the Current Gain from Emitter to Collector in the Forward Active Region iC 1.) Emitter to collector current gain is designated as, F. = i . E 2.) Since sum of all currents flowing into the transistor must be zero, we can write that iC 1 iC iE = -(iC +iB) = - i C + = - iC 1 + F F F

F F. = 1 + = F

1 = T 2 1 WB Dp WB NA 1 + F 1 + 2 D + D L N b n n p D 1 1 W B2 1 + 2 D b n 1 Dp W B NA 1 1+ Dn L p ND

where

T Base Transport factor

and Emitter injection efficiency

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-10

Large Signal Model for the BJT in the Foward Active Region Large-signal model for a npn transistor:
iB B + FiB E v iB = Is exp BE F Vt Assumes vBE is a constant and iB is determined externally C vBE E + VBE(on) E B C FiB E
Fig.1.3-4

Large-signal model for a pnp transistor:


iB B + FiB E iB = - Is exp -vBE F Vt Assumes vBE is a constant and iB is determined externally C B FiB E
Fig.1.3-5

iB C VBE(on) + E

vBE E

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-11

COLLECTOR VOLTAGE INFLUENCE ON THE LARGE SIGNAL MODEL Base Width Dependence on the Collector-Emitter Voltage The large signal model so far has the collector current as a function of only the base-emitter voltage. However, there is a weak dependence of the collector current on the collector-emitter voltage that is developed here. Influence of the base-collector depletion region width:

Emitter

,, ,, ,, ,,

Carrier Concentration

Collector depletion region widens due to a change in vCE, VCE

np(0) = npo exp vBE Vt iC iC+iC WB Base

,,, ,,, ,,, ,,,


WB

Initial Depletion Region

x
Fig.1.3-6

Collector

Note that the change of the collector-emitter voltage causes the amount of charge in the base to change slightly influencing the collector current.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-12

The Early Voltage of BJTs Previously we saw that, qADnni2 vBE iC = Q exp V B t Differentiation of iC with respect to vCE gives, iC qADnni2 VBE QB IC QB = exp = - Q v vCE V t vCE Q B2 B CE For a uniform-base transistor, QB = WBNA so that the derivative becomes IC W B IC iC v CE = -W v -V V A = -W B W vCE B CE A B where VA is called the Early voltage.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-13

Illustration of the Early Voltage The output characteristics of an npn BJT:


iC VBE4 VBE3 VBE2 VBE1 VA vCE
Fig.1.3-7

Modified large signal model becomes, iC v B E vBE = I S 1 + V exp V A t

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-14

SATURATION AND INVERSE ACTIVE REGIONS Regions of Operation of the BJT If we consider the transistor as back-to-back diodes, we can clearly see the four regions of operation.
vBE Forward Active Region BE forward biased BC reverse biased Saturation Region BE forward biased BC forward biased vBC Cutoff Region BE reverse biased BC reverse biased Inverse Active Region BE reverse biased BC forward biased B

E
Fig.1.3-8

Note: While the back-to-back diode model is appropriate here, it is not a suitable model for the BJT in general because it does not model the current gain mechanism of the BJT. Essentially, the back-to-back diode model has a very wide base region and all the injected carriers from the emitter recombine in the base (F = 0).

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-15

Saturation Region In the saturation region, both the base-emitter and base-collector pn junctions are forward biased. Consequently, there is injection of electrons into the base from both the emitter and collector. The carrier concentrations in saturation are:

nnE

Electrons pnE(0)

pnE

Emitter

,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

Carrier Concentration pp(x)

np(0) np(x) iC np2(x) WB Base

np(WB)

np1(x)

,, ,, ,, ,,
Electrons

nnC

pnC x Collector
Fig.1.3-9

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-16

Typical Output Characteristics for an npn BJT

iC(mA) IB=0.04mA 5 4 3 Saturation 2 Cutoff -8 IB=0 -6 IB=0.01mA -4 -2 1 10 -0.02 Saturation -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -0.10 20 0.03mA

Forward active region

0.02mA 0.01mA IB=0 40 BVCEO VCE(V)

30 Cutoff

0.02mA 0.03mA Inverse active region 0.04mA

Fig.1.3-10

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-17

Large Signal Model in Saturation In saturation, both junctions are forward biased and the impedance levels looking into the emitter or collector is very low. Simplified model:
B VBE(on) E npn C VCE(sat) E B VBE(on) E pnp C VCE(sat) E
Fig.1.3-11

where VBE(on) 0.6 to 0.7V and VCE(sat) 0.2V

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-18

The Ebers-Moll Large Signal Model Consider the saturation condition with both pn junctions forward biased. 1.) The emitter injected current in the base resulting from np1(x) is, vBE iEF = -IES exp + 1 Vt where IES is a constant called saturation current (no connection with Is) 2.) The collector injected current in the base resulting from np2(x) is, vBC iCR = -ICS exp + 1 Vt where ICS is another constant called saturation current (again no connection with Is) 3.) The total collector current, iC, is equal to iCR plus the amount of iEF that reaches the collector, vBE vBC iC = iCR + FiEF = FIES exp + 1 -ICS exp V + 1 Vt t Also, we can write, vBE vBC iE = iEF + RiCR = IES exp V + 1 + R ICS exp V + 1 t t
WB Base np(0) np(x) iC np1(x) iCR np2(x) np(WB) iEF x
Fig.1.3-11A

R where R is the collector efficiency (as an emitter) and R = 1-R .


These two equations are the Ebers-Moll equations for the BJT.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-19

The Ebers-Moll Equations - Continued The reciprocity condition allows us to write, FIEF = RICR = IS Substituting into the previous form of the Ebers-Moll equations gives, vBE vBC IS iC = IS exp + 1 - exp V + 1 Vt R t and IS vBE vBC iE =- exp V + 1 +IS exp V + 1 F t t These equations are valid for all four regions of operation of the BJT.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-20

TRANSISTOR BREAKDOWN VOLTAGES Common-Base Transistor Breakdown Characteristics


iC(mA) 1.5 iC 1.0 IE VCB 0.5 IE=1.5mA IE=1.0mA IE=0.5mA IE=0
Fig.1.3-12

20

40

60

80

100 BVCBO

VCB(V)

As the collector-base voltage becomes large, the collector current can be written as, i C = - F i E M where M = - F i E 1 v CB n 1 - BV CBO

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-21

Common-Emitter Transistor Breakdown Characteristics Assume that a constant base current, iB, is applied. Using the previous result gives iC i C = - F i E M i E = - M F iC = -(iE + iB) 1 iC 1 - M = -iB F

FM iC = M i B 1- F

where, M= 1 v CB n 1 - BV CBO

Breakdown occurs when FM = 1. Assuming that vCE vCB gives, F =1 BVCEO n 1 - BV CBO BVCEO BVCBO 1/n BVCBO = 1-F F1/n

Note that BVCEO is much less than BVCBO. For F = 100 and n = 4, BVCEO 0.5BVCBO.

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-22

DEPENDENCE OF F ON OPERATING CONDITIONS Transistor F Dependence on Collector Current and Temperature Plot of F as a function of iC:
F 400 Region I T=125C 300 T=25C 200 T=-55C 100 Region II Region III

Region I: Low current region where F decreases as iC decreases. Region II: Midcurrent region where F is approximately constant. Region III: High current region where F decreases as iC increases.

0 0.1A

1A

10A

100A

1mA

10mA

iC
Fig.1.3-13

F dependence on temperature:
The temperature coefficient of F is, 1 F TCF = +7000ppm/C F

(ppm = parts per million)

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-23

Variation of Forward Beta with Collector Current Region II:


vBE iC = IS exp V t

and

IS vBE iB exp V FM t

where FM = the maximum value of F. Region I:


vBE iC = IS exp Vt vBE iBX = ISX exp mV due to recombination, m 2 t

and

for m = 2, Region III:

FL = i FL
iC

iC

IS vBE 1 I S iC[1-(1/m)] =I exp V 1 - m I I BX SX S X s t

vBE iC = ISH exp due to the high level injection 2V t

and

IS iB

vBE exp V FM t

ISH v B E ISH 2 1 FH I F exp- 2V I FM i S t S C

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen

Large-Signal Behavior of BJTs (5/12/00)

Page 1.3-24

Illustration of the Dependence of F on i C

ln i ln FH iC ln FM ln FL iB

ln Is
Fig.1.3-14

Region I

Region II

Region III vBE (linear scale)

ECE 4430 - Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems

P.E. Allen