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Overview Overview of EAE 138 for Airbreathing Propulsion and MAE 248 for Advanced Turbomachinery

Prof. Roger L. Davis Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering University of California, Davis

Applications of Gas Turbine Engines EAE 138 - Airbreathing Propulsion Extensions of the Basic Principles to Other Applications in Rotating Machinery (MAE 248) Summary

Gas Turbine Applications

Why is EAE 138 Important?

EAE 138 Airbreathing Propulsion

Course Description

Aircraft Jet Engines

Commercial Turbofan Military Turbojet, Turbofan, Ramjet, Scramjet

Small Commuter Aircraft


Helicopters and Tanks


Power Generation!!
Turboshaft, MicroTurbines

Overview of Gas Turbine Engines Thermodynamics Review Compressible Flow Review Gas Turbine Engines and Components Ideal Engine Cycle Analysis Component Performance Real Engine Parametric Cycle Analysis Engine Performance Analysis

High-Bypass Turbofan Engines

52-115,000 lbs Thrust Range

Turbojet Engines
20-30,000 lbs Thrust

General Electric GE90

Pratt & Whitney 4000

General Electric F101

Pratt & Whitney F100

30,000 lbs thrust B-1 Bomber 76,000 - 115,000 lbs thrust Boeing 777 52,000 - 98,000 lbs thrust 94 - 112 inch diameter fan Airbus A330, Boeing 777

20,000 - 30,000 lbs thrust F15, F16


Turboprop Engines
1,800-2,750 Shaft Horsepower

Turboshaft Engines
Rolls-Royce 250 General Electric T700

General Electric CT7

Pratt & Whitney 100

1,870 - 1,940 shaft horsepower Saab 340, LET L610, Sukhoi S-80

1,800-2,750 shaft horsepower 30-70 passenger transport

1,500-2,500 Shaft horsepower

1,500-2,600 shaft horsepower UH-60 Black Hawk, AH-64 Apache, Bell 214ST, Sikorsky 2-70

Gas Turbine Engine Components

Inlet Reduces the Entering Air Velocity to a Level Suitable for the Compressor Often Considered Part of Nacelle Critical Factors:
Mach Number Mass Flow Attached Flow

Subsonic Inlet
Divergent area used to reduce velocity

Supersonic Inlet
Shocks often used to achieve reduced velocity and compression
Engine Inlet

Axial-Flow Fan Axial-Flow Compressor
Low-Pressure High-Pressure
From Mattingly

Designed to Burn a Mixture of Fuel and Air and Deliver to Turbine
Uniform Exit Temperature Complete Combustion Exit Temperature Must Not Exceed Critical Limit Set By Turbine Metal + Cooling Design

Centrifugal Compressor
Mixed Axial/Radial Flow
Fan Low-Pressure Compressor

From Mattingly

From Mattingly

11 High-Pressure Compressor


Extracts Kinetic Energy form Expanding Gases and Converts to Shaft Horsepower to Drive the Compressor/Fan
Axial Flow Turbine
High Flow Rates Low-Moderate Pressure Ratios High-Pressure Turbine

Increase the Velocity of the Exhaust Gas Before Discharge from the Nozzle and Straighten Gas Flow From the Turbine

From Mattingly

Convergent Nozzle Used When Nozzle Pr < 2 (Subsonic Flow) Convergent-Divergent Nozzle Used When Nozzle Pr > 2
Often incorporate variable geometry to control throat area

Thrust-Vectoring Nozzles for High-Maneuverability


Centrifugal Turbine
Lower Flow Rates Higher Pressure Ratio

13 Low-Pressure Turbine


Thrust Augmentation
Thrust Augmentation Through Addition of Heat or Mass
Additional Heat Through Use of Afterburner
Additional Fuel Injected and Burned Behind Turbine Usually Used in Military Engines

Gas Turbine Thrust or Power

e d

f g Vo, Ao h i Vj, Aj

Additional Mass Through Water Injection

Water Injected in Compressor or Combustor to Increase Mass of Flow Not Used Very Much Due to Added On-Board Weight of Water and Durability Degradation

A Control Volume Analysis of the Forces Around a Jet Engine Shows that Thrust is:

& Thrust mengine (Vexit Vinlet ) + ( Pexit Pinlet ) Aengine


cross sec tion 16

Gas Turbine Thermodynamics

Review of Thermodynamics Theory
Work and Heat Interaction Property, State, Processes Thermally Perfect Gas, Calorically Perfect Gas Enthalpy and Stagnation Enthalpy Gibbs Equation Entropy, Isentropic Flow and Relationships Stagnation Pressure and Stagnation Temperature

Ideal Gas Turbine Thermodynamics

Brayton Cycle Used in Gas Turbine Engines:
From Mattingly

T or H
Combustor Heat Addition

mb Co or ust


& & Qc = m c p (Tt 4 Tt 3 )

& & Wc = m c p (Tt 3 Tt 2 )

Inlet Dynamic Head
2 Vinlet 2

Compressor Work



& & PT5= PT9 Wt = m c p (Tt 4 Tt 5 )

Turbine Work = Compressor Work


P0= P9

Exit Dynamic Head

2 Vexit 2


& Thrust mengine (Vexit Vinlet ) + ( Pexit Pinlet ) Aengine


Gas Turbine Compressible Flow

Review of Compressible Flow Theory
Total Enthalpy and Total Temperature Mass Flow Parameter Area Ratio Velocity-Area Variation Wave Propagation Subsonic, Transonic, Supersonic, Hypersonic Flow Normal and Oblique Shock Relations
Shocks in Turbines

Losses in Component Performance

Figures of Merit are Defined for Each Component to Describe its Non-Ideal Performance
Inlet and Fan
Total Pressure Losses Associated with Viscous Flow and Shocks

Compressor and Turbine

Viscous Flow Total Pressure Losses Accounted for with Polytropic Efficiency
Viscous Wakes in Turbine

Combustor and Afterburner

Inlet Shocks

Total Pressure and Temperature Losses Associated with Incomplete Combustion Total Pressure Losses Associated with Viscous Flow Mixing

Total Pressure Losses Associated with Viscous Flow and Over/Under Expanded Nozzle and Shocks
Over-Expanded Nozzle



Real Gas Turbine Thermodynamics

Losses Due to Viscous Flow Effects, Heat Transfer, and Shocks Alter Cycle
From Mattingly

Parametric Cycle Analysis

Equations are Derived for Each Engine Class to Determine:
Specific Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption Fuel/Air Ratio Thermodynamic, Propulsive, and Overall Efficiency
V9 Rt T9 T0 1 P F 1 a0 1 0 = (1 + f ) M 0 + (1 + f ) & m0 1 + g c a0 Rc V9 a 0 c P9 + T T 1 P0 a 0 V19 1 M 0 + 19 0 V19 a 0 g c P19 1+ g c a0

T or H
Combustor Heat Addition


& & Wt = m c p (Tt 4 Tt 5 )
Exit Dynamic Head and Thrust is Smaller than Ideal Due to Losses
2 Vexit 2

S =

& mf F

= =

& & Qc = m c p (Tt 4 Tt 3 )

PT3i PT3 PT5i PT5 PT0=PT2 P0= P9

Turbine Work = Compressor Work

With Design Inputs:

Flight Conditions (Mach Number, Altitude, etc.) Component Figures of Merit Design Choices (Tradeoffs for Aircraft Design)
& net Wout T = & Qin =

& & & m 0 mC ( F m 0 )

& & m f mC f

(1 + ) F

& m0

& & Wc = m c p (Tt 3 Tt 2 )

Inlet Dynamic Head
2 Vinlet 2

Compressor Work

2 2 2 2 a 0 (1 + f ) V92 a 0 + V19 a 0 (1 + ) M 02 2 f g c hPR

P =

& Thrust mengine (Vexit Vinlet ) + ( Pexit Pinlet ) Aengine


Tradeoffs are Examined Parametrically with Cycle Design Code

T V0 & net Wout

2 M 0 [(1 + f )(V9 a 0 ) + (V19 a 0 ) (1 + ) M 0 ]

[(1+ f )(V

a 0 ) + (V19 a 0 ) (1 + ) M 02 22
2 2

Cycle Design is Performed for Hypothetical New Aircraft

New Engine is Designed Using Preliminary Cycle Analysis for Hypothetical New Aircraft
Commercial or Military Application Design to Required Specific Thrust, Endurance, and Range Alternate Designs Examined

Tour of United Airlines Maintenance Facility



Tour of United Airlines Maintenance Facility

Gas Turbine Theory Useful for Applications/Design of Turbomachinery

Principals Learned in EAE 138 Are Also Basis for Applications in Rotating Machinery (Turbomachinery) MAE 248 is Offered for Those Students Interested in Design of Turbomachinery


Airconditioning Fan

Gas Turbine Compressor, Fan, Turbine Airconditioning and Automotive Fans Electronic Cooling Fans Centrifugal Pumps, Chillers, and Radial Turbines
Radiator Cooling Fan

Air-Breathing Propulsion is an Important Subject for MAE Students
EAE 138 Covers the Basic Engineering Principles
Thermodynamics, Compressible Flow, and Design of Modern Gas Turbine Engines Parametric Design of Different Gas Turbine Engines Fieldtrip to United Airlines Maintenance Facility for HandsOn View of Gas Turbine Components

Principles are Basis for Any Type of Fluid Machinery Design (Covered in MAE 248)
Compressors, pumps, fans, turbines, blowers, etc. that add or extract work to a flow