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# How To Prove It 1 Sentential Logic 1.1 Deductive Reasoning and Logical Connectives 1.

Analyze the logic forms of the following statements: (a) Well have either a reading assignment or homework problems, but we wont have both homework problems and a test. (Solution) Let R stand for the statement we will have a reading assignment. Let H stand for the statement we will have homework problems. Let T stand for the statement we will have a test. The first half of the statement: R H . The second half: ( H T ). but: or: Therefore, the solution is ( R H ) ( H T ). (b) Either John and Bill are both telling the truth, or neither or [of?] them is. (Solution) Let J stand for the statement John is telling the truth. Let B for Bill is telling the truth. The first half of the statement: J B. The second half: J B. Either or: Therefore, the solution is ( J B) (J B). (c) You wont go skiing, or you will and there wont be any snow. (Solution) Let G stand for the statement You will go skiing. Let S stand for the statement there will be some snow. The first half of the statement: G . The second half: G S . or: Therefore, the solution is G (G S ). (d) Ill have either fish or chicken, but I wont have both fish and mashed potatoes. (Solution) Let F stand for the statement Ill have fish.

Let C stand for the statement Ill have chicken. Let M stand for Ill have mashed potatoes. The first half of the statement: F C . The second half: ( F M ). but: and: forming their disjunction, so the solution is ( F C ) ( F M ). (e) 7 / 2. (On MS Word, I am unable to type the symbol shown in the textbook.)

(Solution) (1) L Let stand for the expression 7 < 2. E Let stand for the expression 7 = 2. The first half of the statement: L. The second half: E . or: Therefore, the solution is L E . (2) We can re-express the statement as Let
G

7 > 2.

## stand for the expression 7 > 2.

Then the solution is G . (f) 3 is a common divisor of 6, 9, and 15. (Solution) Let S stand for the statement 3 is a divisor of 6. Let N stand for the statement 3 is a divisor of 9. Let F stand for the statement 3 is a divisor of 15. and: Therefore, the solution is S N F . 2. Which of the following expressions are well-formed formulas? (a) (P R). (b) ( P , Q, R). (c) P P . (d) ( P Q)( P R).

(Solution) (a) and (c). 3. What English sentences are represented by the following expressions? (a) ( P S ), where P stands for the statement I will buy the pants and S stands for the statement I will buy the shirt. (Solution) ( P S ) : I will buy the pants, and not the shirt.

## ( P S ) : I will not buy the pants, or I will buy the shirt.

(b) P S, where P and S mean the same thing as in (a). (Solution) I will not buy the pants, and I will not buy the shirt. (c) ( S G ) (S G ), where S stands for the statement Steve is happy and G stands for George is happy. (Solution) Either Steve or George is happy, and either Steve or George is not happy. (d) [ S (G S )] G, where S and G mean the same thing as in (c). (Solution) Either Steve is happy, or George is happy but Steve is not, or George is not happy. 4. Identify the premises and conclusions of the following deductive arguments and analyze their logical forms. Do you think the reasoning is valid? (Although you will have only your intuition to guide, you in answering this last question, in the next section we will develop some techniques for determining the validity of arguments.) (a) Jane and Pete wont both win the math prize. Pete will win either the math prize or the chemistry prize. Jane will win the math prize. Therefore, Pete will win the chemistry prize. (Solution) Premise: Jane and Pete wont both win the math prize. Pete will win either the math prize or the chemistry prize. Jane will win the math prize. Conclusion: Pete will win the chemistry prize. Let J stand for the statement Jane will win the math prize. Let P stand for the statement Pete will win the math prize. Let C stand for the statement Pete will win the chemistry prize. The first premise: ( J P ). The second premise: P C .

The third premise: J . The conclusion: C . The reasoning is valid. (b) The main course will be either beef or fish. The vegetable will be either peas or corn. We will not have both fish as a main course and corn as a vegetable. Therefore, we will not have both beef as a main course and peas as a vegetable. (Solution) Premise: The main course will be either beef or fish. The vegetable will be either peas or corn. We will not have both fish as a main course and corn as a vegetable. Conclusion: We will not have both beef as a main course and peas as a vegetable. Let B stand for the statement The main course will be beef. Since the main course will be either beef or fish, the statement The main course will be fish. can be expressed as B. Let P stand for the statement The vegetable will be peas. Since the vegetable will be either peas or corn, the statement The vegetable will be corn. can be expressed as P . The first premise: B B. The second premise: P P . The third premise: (B P ). Since there are only two choices for main course, not having beef means having fish. If the third premise is true, the conclusion cannot be true. The conclusion: B P . The reasoning is not valid. (c) Either John or Bill is telling the truth. Either Sam or Bill is lying. Therefore, either John is telling the truth or Sam is lying. (Solution) Premise: Either John or Bill is telling the truth. Either Sam or Bill is lying. Conclusion: Either John is telling the truth or Sam is lying.

Let J stand for the statement John is telling the truth. Let B stand for the statement Bill is telling the truth. Let S stand for the statement Sam is telling the truth. The first premise: J B. The second premise: S B. The conclusion: J S . The reasoning is valid. (d) Either sales will go up and the boss will be happy, or expenses will go up and the boss wont be happy. Therefore, sales and expenses will not both go up. (Solution) Premise: Either sales will go up and the boss will be happy, or expenses will go up and the boss wont be happy. Conclusion: Sales and expenses will not both go up. Let S stand for the expression Sales will go up. Let B stand for the expression The boss will be happy. Let E stand for the expression The expenses will go up. The premise: ( S B) ( E B). The conclusion: ( S E ). There is one case where Sales will go up and the boss will be happy, and expenses will go up but the boss will not be happy as well. Therefore, the reasoning is not valid.