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1 DEVELOPMENTAL TASK of PARENTS TO BE : Early Child Bearing Family (0-30 months ol d) ` ` ` ` ` ` Emphasize the importance of pregnancy and immunization.

Learn the concept of parenting. Income adjustment Re-adjustment Linkage with extended fam ily Role shift Developmental Task of Parents to be: Mothering and Fathering Fina ncial preparation for the existence of additional member in the family (child). Prepare a safe environment for the upcoming child. Managing a residence or home. Establishing a more intimate bond with spouse. Separation from parents. (Mercers Theory) ` Four Stages of Acquisition of Becoming a Mother Anticipatory social a nd psychological adaptation to role; learning expectations. 2. Formal assumption of role at birth; behaviors guided by others in social system/network. 3. Infor mal mother develops own ways of mothering. 4. Personal Joy of motherhood; harmon y, confidence and competence in maternal role. 1. ` ` Rubins Theory Maternal resp onsibility includes: Nurturing Protecting Care-taking Managing the affairs of th e household (defining attribute of maternal role) ` ` ` ` ` Latin word = parens Caretaker of the offspring in their species Humans mother or father figure of a child or offspring. ` Achievement of independence and decisi onmaking. ` Attend seminars or counseling for parenting lessons. ` Learn to live with a partner and with an upcoming baby. ` Have a stable job with a stable sal ary. ` Establishing goals for upcoming children. Theory of Maternal Role Attainm ent Mercers Theory x Rowana T. Mercer (1995) x Formulated to serve as framework f or nurses A. To provide appropriate health care intervention for nontraditional mothers. ` B. To assist nontraditional mothers to attain a strong maternal ident ity. ` Primary Concept (Mercers Theory) - Developmental and interactional process occur over a period of time wherein there is bonding between mother and infant. Acquire the ff: -Competence in caretaking task -Enjoys and expresses joy -Pleas ure in the role Antecedents to the maternal role Pregnancy Birth experience Maternal identity Wi llingness to assume the role Child bonding ` (Mercers Theory) ` Objective: Determ ine the current state of knowledge of nursing interventions that foster the proc ess of becoming a mother. Maternal behavior in the process of becoming a mother during pregnancy or during the first 4 months following birth or both. (Mercers T heory) Instruction for infant care giving building awareness of and responsivene ss to capabilities. Promoting maternal-infant attachment. Maternal/social role p reparation Interactive therapeutic nurse-client relationships.

2 Theory of Maternal Role Attainment Rubins Theory Reva Rubin The dynamic interacti on That occurs within the dyad of mother and child can have a significant impact on the entire family system and its subsystems. ` Rubins Theory ` Focus on tradit ional mothers. ` Dealt with maternal role attainment from the point of acceptance of the pregnancy to one month postpartum. Developed theory of: Maternal Identity and experience-the womans efforts aimed at becoming a mother. -Affects people emotionally, physically, and financially. ` Maternal identity culmination or end point of maternal role attainment. Characte rize by the womans comfort in her role. Maternal Task during pregnancy Seeking safe passage. Ensuring the acceptance of the child by others. Bonding with fetus. Learning to give ones self. Situational Crisis Affecting Parental Assumption of their Role Single parenthood Birth of ha ndicapped child Adopting a child Separation/divorce Hospitalization/death of spo use Working mother/absentee of parent(s)

Effect of Childless Marriage Positive -Brings the couple stronger and closer -Ca n always lead a happy life if they want to - Avoid putting the blame on your par tner. -Accept the fact that you wont have an offspring, facing the truth is the o nly way to go. -Blaming your spouse will just lead to more guilty feeling and de pression. -Involve yourself with children of the family -Cherish, love, and deep en the bonds that tie you both. Negative: -Definitely a painful experience -Be t he end of their marriage -Cause grievous pain, shame (the blaming game begins on whose fault it is that the marriage is childless.)