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Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

UNIT-1 CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND COMPONENTS

OVERVIEW OF CONTROL SYSTEM:Control System An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response & minimize the Errors at their output.The comtrol system is used to controlloing the response of the system. The term "control system" may be applied to the essentially manual controls that allow an operator, for example, to close and open a hydraulic press, perhaps including logic so that it cannot be moved unless safety guards are in place. Process The device, plant, or system under control. The input and output relationship represents the cause-and-effect relationship of the process.

Open and closed loop systems:


When the output quentity of a control system is not feedback to the input quentaty.the control system is called openloop control system. In the open loop control system in which the control action does not depend on the output.

Block Diagram of Open Loop System

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Closed-Loop Control Systems :Utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response. In a closed loop control the system includes a sensor to measure the output and uses feedback of the sensed value to influence the control input variables.

Block Diagram of Close Loop System

Example of Close Loop Control System: Automatic Iron Box

Heating Element
Power Supply

Output
(Temperature)

(Sensor) ON-Off System

Response Signal

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Multivariable Control System: There are usually at least two control loops.Systems with more than one control loop are known as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) or multivariable systems. In this System such input is independently considered.

Multivariable Control System

Example of Multivariable Control System: Driving a Vehicle with Speed Control Wind+traffic Disturbance Desired Speed
BRAIN
Acclerator Pedal ENGIN

Actual Speed

Hands (Sterring Control)

Actual Direction

Desired Direction

Speed Meter

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Digital Control System:-A digital controller is usually cascaded with the plant in a feedback system. The rest of the system can either be digital or analog. Typically, a digital controller requires:

A/D conversion to convert analog inputs to machine readable (digital) format. D/A conversion to convert digital outputs to a form that can be input to a plant (analog) A program that relates the outputs to the inputs

Digital Control System

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Block Diagram Reduction Techniques: It is a representation of the control system giving the inter-relation between the transfer function of various components. The block diagram is obtained after obtaining the differential equation & Transfer function of all components of a control system. The arrow head pointing towards the block indicates the i/p & pointing away from the block indicates the o/p.

If G(s) is TF (Transfer Function), G(S)= C(S)/R(S) After obtaining the block diagram for each & every component, all blocks are combined to obtain a complete representation. It is then reduced to a simple form with the help of block diagram algebra. The following block diagram reduction algebra is used, when 1.Block in cascade (series) 2. Combining blocks in parallel 3. Eliminating a feedback loop 4. Moving a take-off point Before a block 5. Moving a take-off point After of a block

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

BLOCK DIAGRAMS REDUCTION OFCONTROL SYSTEMS

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering Signal Flow Graph Techniques:

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Signal Flow Diagrams are another method for visually representing a system. Signal Flow Diagrams are especially useful, because they allow for particular methods of analysis, such as Mason's Gain Formula. Signal flow diagrams typically use curved lines to represent wires and systems, instead of using lines at right-angles, and boxes, respectively. Every curved line is considered to have a multiplier value, which can be a constant gain value, or an entire transfer function. Signals travel from one end of a line to the other, and lines that are placed in series with one another have their total multiplier values multiplied together (just like in block diagrams). Signal flow diagrams help us to identify structures called "loops" in a system, which can be analyzed individually to determine the complete response of the system

Mason's Gain Formula


Mason's rule is a rule for determining the gain of a system. Mason's rule can be used with block diagrams, but it is most commonly (and most easily) used with signal flow diagrams.

Forward Paths
A forward path is a path in the signal flow diagram that connects the input (Source Point) to the output (Sink Point) without touching any single node or path more than once. A single system can have multiple forward paths.

Loops
A loop is a structure in a signal flow diagram that leads back to itself. A loop does not contain the beginning and ending points, and the end of the loop is the same node as the beginning of a loop. Loops are said to touch if they share a node or a line in common. The Loop gain is the total gain of the loop, as you travel from one point, around the loop, back to the starting point. Mason's Gain Formula is Given by as Follows

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Where: T=Overall Transmittance OR Gain =Forward Path Gain of Kth Forward Path =1-(Sum of all loop transmittance which are not touching to the Kth Forward Path) =Graph Transmittance =1- (Sum of all individual loop transmittance) + (Sum of loop gain products of all possible pairs of non touching loops)- (Sum of loop gain products of all possible Triplets of non touching loops)

Signal Flow Graph Representation:Example-(i)

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Example-(ii)

Prapered By-J.P Mishra

Subject-Control System Engineering

VIT-EAST

Class-ECE, 6th Sem

Example-(iii)

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Prapered By-J.P Mishra