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# Important points and formulae

1. Percentages: Increase = new value original value Decrease = original value new value Profit = selling price cost price Loss = cost price selling price Discount = marked price sale price discount 100% % discount = markedprice profit / loss 100% % profit/ loss = originalprice 2. Congruence and similarity Two triangles are congruent if a) All sides of one triangle are equal to all sides of another triangle. (SSS property) b) Two sides and including angle of one triangle are equal to two corresponding sides and including angle of another triangle. (SAS property) c) Two angles and one side of one triangle are equal to two corresponding angles and one side of another triangle. (AAS property) d) A figure and its image under translation, rotation and reflection are congruent. When two polygons are similar, then a) All corresponding angles are equal, b) All corresponding sides are proportional. c) A figure and its image under an enlargement are similar. d) An enlargement with a scale factor greater than 1 produces an enlarged figure. An enlargement with a scale factor between 0 and 1 produces a diminished image. An enlargement with a scale factor 1 produces a congruent image. e) Two triangles are said to be similar if, All three angles of one triangle are equal to all corresponding angles of another triangle. (AA property) One angle of both the triangles is equal and two corresponding sides are proportional. (ASS property) f) If two shapes are similar, A1 l1 = ( )2 A2 l2 g) If two shapes are similar, v1 l1 = ( )3 v2 l2 h) If XY is parallel to BC then AX/ XB = AY / YC (see fig) 4. Algebraic identities a) (a+b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 , b) (a-b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 , c) (a+b)(a-b) = a2 b2 Quadratic formula

b b 2 4ac 2a 5. Pythagoras theorem For any right angled triangle Hypotenuse (h2) = base (b2) + perpendicular (p2) The converse of the Pythagoras theorem states that if h2 = b2 + p2 then the triangle is a right angled triangle. Hypotenuse is always greater than a base or a perpendicular. Height of any polygon is always a perpendicular distance. 6. Mensuration: Area, perimeter of two dimensional shapes. Shape perimeter area square 4 length Length2 rectangle 2(L+B) LB Triangle Sum of all three sides baseheight x= parallelogram Trapezium 2(L+B) Sum of all four sides baseheight base(sum of parallel sides)

## Volume and surface area of three dimensional shapes

shape Cube Cuboids Cylinder Prism Pyramid Volume Length3 LBH r2h Base area height 1/3 Base area height 1/3 r2h 4/3 r3 R2h r2h Surface area 6 length2 2(LB) +2(LH)+2(BH) 2r2+ 2rh (Perimeter of the base) h + 2(base area) Area of the base + area of the triangles on the surface. r2+ rl (curved surface area) 4 r2 External curved surface area+ internal curved surface area + area of 2 rings 2 r2 + r2

Cone sphere Hollow cylinder hemisphere 2/3 r3 7. Circle: Area of circle = r2 Perimeter of circle = circumference = 2 r Area of ring = R2 r2 Length of arc = x0/ 360 2 r Area of sector = x0/ 360 r2 Perimeter of sector = length of arc + 2 radius Area of segment = Area of sector area of triangle 1 revolution (in terms of angle) = 3600

1 revaluation(in terms of distance) = circumference= 2 r 8. Coordinate geometry The distance between the two points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is Distance between two points on a horizontal line. D = x 2 x1

## Distance between two points on a vertical line. D = y 2 y1

If A,B,and C are collinear points then Gradient of AB = gradient of BC = gradient of AC. The equation of a line which has gradient m and which passes through the point (x1, y1) is: y - y1 = m(x - x1) The equation of a line passing through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) can be written as: y - y1 = y2 - y1 x - x1 x2 - x1 In the coordinate plane, two lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is -1.

## is perpendicular to the line y = 2x 1. The product of

In the coordinate plane, two lines are parallel if their gradients are equal. Heron's Formula for the area of a triangle Also called Hero's Formula A method for calculating the area of a triangle when you know the lengths of all three sides.
Let a,b,c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. The area is given by:

where p is half the perimeter, or Graph of equation of the form y = c is parallel to x-axis and the gradient is 0. X = c parallel to y-axis and gradient is undefined.

Y = mx passes through the origin and has the gradient, m Y = mx + c has gradient m and intersect y-axis at c.

Area =

## x1( y 2 y 3) + x 2( y3 y1) + x3( y1 y 2) 2

To find the gradient of the line, equation of the line must be in the form y= mx+c. where m is the gradient. Gradient = y 2 y1 x 2 x1

Any point on x-axis is (x,0) Any point on y axis is (0, y) To find the coordinates of the point of intersection of two straight lines, solve equations of the two lines simultaneously.

9. Graphs The general form of Quadratic function is y= ax2 + bx + c The quadratic graph has the minimum point when a is negative. It has a maximum point when a is positive. The line of symmetry of the quadratic graph passes through the maximum or minimum point.

## 16. Laws of Indices:

am an = am+n am an = am-n (ab)m = am bm (a/b)m = am/ bm (am)n = amn a0 = 1 (a/b)-m = (b/a)m 17. Measure of central tendency: For simple distribution Mean = sum of numbers Number of numbers Mode = The most frequent number Median = the middle number (if n is odd) Sum of two middle numbers/ 2 (if n is even) For frequency distribution

Mean =

f ( x) f

Mode = The value of x, which has highest frequency Median = Add all frequencies, divide by 2, if answer is with decimal round it off and locate that number in the table. If answer is whole number, take the number and next number, locate these two numbers add and divide by 2. A+O = O+A = A Additive inverse of A is denoted by A Multiplicative inverse of A is denoted by A-1 10 A-1A = AA-1 = I where I = 01 AI = IA = A Sketches of some important graphs

19. Matrices: