Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

Question 1 a.

According to Slavin (2009), one of the key principles to educational psychology is that teachers cannot simply give students knowledge. He argues that students must construct knowledge in their own minds, while the teacher acts as a facilitator to this process by teaching in a manner that is meaningful and relevant to students (Slavin, 2003). This affords students the opportunity to apply or discover knowledge on their own and it helps the students to develop self awareness of the strategies they are using to construct knowledge. This view is further supported by (Jacobsen, 2003) citied in (Jacobsen, Eggen, & Kauchack, 2006) who argues that while constructivism is a multifaceted approach, many constructivist theorists suggest that the learning environment should be challenging and filled with authentic tasks which engage learners. The proponents further suggest that learning should incorporate areas such as shared responsibility and social negotiation; representation of the content in a multitude of ways along with a student centred approach to teaching based on the principles that knowledge is constructed. The main construct of constructivist theory is that learners must individually discover and transform complex information, if they are to make it their own. Constructivist theorist see learners as constantly building schema and revising schemata when it no longer works (Anderson, Green, Render & Simmon 2000, Waxman, Padron and Arnold 2001 cited in Slavin, 2009).

Constructivists argue that students must build their own knowledge through active engagement in their activities. Proponents such as Carter et al (2000) argue that there is no one best way to learn instead they are a number of learning styles and it is the teachers role as facilitator to tap into the multiple intelligences of their students (Gardner, 1983), (Gardner H. , 1991)and derive which strategies are best suited to make the learning environment as stimulating for their students. Constructivist theorists see teachers roles as facilitator in the classroom as key. They suggest teachers should encourage positive student expectations, keep student on task, while actively guiding the learning process, along with acting as guides to aid in the increase of student achievement. Constructivist proponents further argue teachers in their role as facilitators should not display or demonstrate information for students and then explain it, but instead should present carefully chosen examples, while acting as guides on the side to help students form their own understanding of the topic (Slavin, 2003). This is what (Slavin, 2003) refers to as the intentional teacher, he suggests this is an individual who is constantly reflecting on his or her practice in the classroom and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students. This view is further explained by (Epstein, 2007)she argues that intentional teaching does not happen by chance, but instead it is planned, thoughtful and purposeful. She further argues, that intentional teachers must use their judgement, knowledge and expertise to organise learning experiences for their students and when unexpected situations arise they are able to recognise a teaching opportunity and take advantage of it. (Epstein, 2007), contends intentional teaching means that teacher act

with specific goals in mind for children development and learning which tap into all the domains including academic, cognitive, social, emotional, creative and the physical domain (Epstein, 2007).

b. In addition, to being intentional teachers, they must also use a number of teaching strategies to help students derive meaning from their lessons. Constructivism purports several strategies, however for the purpose of this paper the focus will be on discovery learning. Discovery learning is a constructivist approach to learning in which students are encourage to discover principles for themselves (Slavin, 2003 p.261) (Slavin, 2003), further contends that discovery learning is one of the important stratagies of modern constructivist approaches. The proponent argues in discovery learning students are encourage to learn largely through their own active involvement with principles and concepts. Teachers encourage students to conduct experiments which permit students to discover principles for themselves, while deriving the benefit from teacher supported experiences. This view is also supported by (Bergstrom & O Brien, 2001; Wilcox, 1993) cited in (Slavin, 2003, p. 261) (Slavin, 2003), further asserts that discovery learning has several advantages. He argues, It arouses students curiosity, motivating them to continue to work until they find answers (Slavin, 2003, p. 262). He further suggests that students are encourage into developing independent problem solving and critical thinking skills so they can undertake analysis and derive meaning from information on their own.

Incidental learning is one of the key benefits of discovery learning. In this process students learn knowledge in passing (Schank & Cleary, 1994; Bicknell-Holmes & Hoffman, 2000) cited in (Castronova, 2002)). Learning is derived as a by- product of an Incidental Learning task, which in many instances takes the form of a game. The proponents further contend that examples of Incidental Learning would be a classroom game show or to construct a crossword puzzle based on the subject being taught. (Schank & Cleary, 1994; Bicknell-Holmes & Hoffman, 2000) cited in (Castronova, 2002) further contend that Incidental Learning because of its game like quality can be very motivational to students and students become engaged in the topic of study and search for answers because they want to participate in the activity and must have the knowledge to do. Further, Incidental Learning allows for the students to be involved in the creation process, hence providing additional discovery learning experiences. Another aspect of Discovery Learning is that of learning by exploration or conversing. This type of learning involves an organised collection of answers to questions individuals can pose about a particular topic or skill. This method involves questioning, answering and more questioning. An example of learning by exploring would be to show students a picture of an object and then engaging in directed questioning related to subject to be taught. Students would then be encouraged to tap into their prior knowledge, and formulate new information about the object being displayed in the picture. While, they are many benefits to be derived from Discovery Learning, many proponents argue that the current curricula does not allow for the adequate integration

of Discovery Learning. In Barbados while there is an emphasis on employing a Constructivist approach to teaching the curriculum does not outline broad concepts to be taught but instead details facts and skills students must achieve by the certain age as outlined in the Attainment Targets. Also given the timeframe for the learning of content, teachers cannot afford the time some students would require and whom would benefit from this learning experience need if they still to be held accountable for their teaching (Schank & Cleary, 1994). Hence teachers need to able take advantage of more incidental learning experience and integrate the facts and skills into all their lessons. One example would be a lesson on Social Studies which should also incorporate Language Art skills so students are able to make the linkages in their writing and still discover interesting facts about their environment. Another disadvantage to the full integration of discovery learning strategies in teaching is class sizes (Rice & Wilson, 1999) also cited in (Castronova, 2002). In Barbados where classroom sizes range from five in special needs to upwards of thirty in regular primary school setting. Discovery Learning prescribes the advantages of one-toone interaction. In a class of thirty students that interaction can be very limited, while in a Special Needs class of five with students diagnosed with multiple disabilities, the collective experiences that may be gained from group experiences would be lost. However key to overcoming this dilemma falls with teachers who as intentional teachers are able to plan and manipulate situations which redound to the benefit of their students, hence using their class sizes to their benefit and not seeing it as a disadvantage (Bonwell, 1998) cited in (Castronova, 2002).

Question 2 Date: 2010 40 mins. Class: Group 1 Age: 11-13 (5-7) Time:11:20 a.m. Duration of Lesson:

Subject: Science Topic: The Human Body

Generalisation: Taking Care of our Body is important for us to function in our environment

Objectives: List the specific areas of the body that we need to take care of State two ways we take care of our body Appreciate the importance of taking care of the body by demonstrating bad hygienic practices Identify by pointing at least 2 areas of the body we need to take care of

Teaching Strategies Questioning, Demonstrating, Cooperative Grouping, Discussion, Guided Di Technologies/Materials Video, Educational Charts, label, Cards

Set Induction

Have students watch a video of an individual that does not take care of his or her body

Learning Experiences Question students on the video to elicit information about caring for the body. Have students identify by pointing to the various areas in the body they need to take care of and say them. Engage students in a discussion on the importance of care of the body. Have students work in groups (STAD) to discuss and outline one area of the body and share their finding by demonstrating to their peers.

Assessment Procedures Have students respond orally to questions related to taking care of the body

Closure Have students describe one means of taking care of the body

Evaluation .............. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

Question 3 (Jacobsen, Eggen, & Kauchack, 2006) purport Classroom management include the actions that create and maintain an orderly learning environment (Jacobsen, Eggen, & Kauchack, 2006) The trio further argue that there is an interdependency between management and instruction. Proponents (Good & Brophy, 2007), suggest teachers must lay the groundwork if they are to achieve successful classroom management strategies. Both proponents argue that effective teachers are efficient, they have the ability to earn the respect and affection of students, value and enjoy learning and expect students to do so too; teachers assume responsibility for seeing their students learn, but overall teacher must be consistent, therefore achieving a level of credibility and dependability With regards, to the first principle set out by (Good & Brophy, 2007), that of earning the respect and affection of student, (Petty, 2004) states good-teacher student relationships are based on mutual respect (p.96). He further argues that it is important to realise gaining the respect of individual students is not automatic from the first lesson but instead teachers need to build a rapport which passes through two phases. The first phase is that of formal authority, this is where teachers earn the respect of student by virtue of their role as teachers; this is normally established from the first lesson. The second phase is that of personal authority. In this phase the focus moves to the students wanting to please the teacher. (Petty, 2004) purports, this is gained through teachers showing an active interest in students work, using praise and recognising the individual contribution of each student. Be consistent, credible and dependable is the second principle as outlined by (Good & Brophy, 2007). The proponents argue this is done through clear rules and procedures. Teachers must establish rules through a thorough discussion with your class, including topic ranging from the use of the bathroom facilities, use of special equipment and classroom behaviour during work periods. (Good & Brophy, 2007) argue students should be given a sense of ownership of the rules, they state, if the

rules are too rigid it can lead to the creation of negative expectations and prevent the students from productively managing their own behaviours. (Good & Brophy, 2007), also suggest teachers should assume responsibility for seeing their students learn. (Moore, 2001) suggests this is done through the development of effective instructional strategies, (Rodger, Lundington and Graham, 1998) suggest that teachers should incorporate group activities and students centred teaching strategies as they help to build students need for recognition and belonging. (Moore, 2001) also suggest the use of individualised instruction can also be highly motivational , students exploring concepts and their own environment via their own initiatives can help students acquire a sense of competencies. Furthermore the proponents argue that in addition to putting effective strategies in place effective teachers also provide a stimulating environment by varying their behaviours and learning activities so that students receive either modified stimulus which keeps student attention directed towards the learning process. The fourth and final classroom management principle as outline by (Good & Brophy, 2007) that of teachers valuing and enjoying learning and expecting their students to do so as well is one of the most critical factors to developing effective classroom management strategies. (Jacobsen, Eggen, & Kauchack, 2006) suggests teachers belief about teaching and learning is communicated through modelling. The proponents argue a positive classroom environment is impossible if teachers model distaste or lack in interest in the subject area being taught. They argue in contrast even routine and uninteresting topics can become motivational to students if teachers model interest in them. This view is also shared by (Moore, 2001), who contend that modelling is a technique used by teachers to derive from students the values and behaviours they wish them to acquire. The enthusiasm and sense of wonder that you show for your subject will often infect your student and make them anxious to find out what is so interesting (Moore, 2001 p. 228) In conclusion, teachers have a critical role to play in the classroom not only in how they plan and execute their instruction but via what strategies they choose to engage the students. Teachers also need to engage effective lesson planning

methodologies which are student-centred incorporating constructivist approaches to teaching. Developing effective classroom management strategies are also critical if teachers are to not only manage their classroom effectively but to also help students tap into their own potential and enjoy the student teacher learning process.


Works Cited
Castronova, J. (2002). Discovery Learning for the 21st Century: What is it and How Does it Compare to Traditional Learning in Effectiveness in the 21st Century? Action Research Exchange 1 , 3-5. Epstein, A. S. (2007). The Intentional Teacher: Choosing the Best Strategies for Young Children's Learning. In A. S. Epstein, The Intentional Teacher: Choosing the Best Strategies for Young Children's Learning. Washington : National Assc. for the Education of Young Children. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. In H. Gardner, Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc. Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach. In H. Gardner, The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Book Inc. Good, T., & Brophy, J. (2007). Looking in Classroom. In G. T. L, & B. J. E, Looking in Classroom (pp. 77-95). Boston: Allyn and Bacon 10th Edition. Jacobsen, D. A., Eggen, P., & Kauchack, D. (2006). Methods for Teaching : Promoting Student Learning (6th ed.). In D. A. Jacobsen, P. Eggen, & D. Kauchack, Methods for Teaching : Promoting Student Learning (6th ed.) (pp. 290-313). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall. Moore, K. (2001). Classroom Teaching Skills. In K. Moore, Classroom Teaching Skills (pp. 227-243). New York: McGraw- Hill. Petty, G. (2004). Teaching Today: A Practical Guide (3rd Edition) . In G. Petty, Teaching Today: A Practical Guide (3rd Edition) (pp. 96-102). Cheltenham: Nelson Thorne. Rice, M. L., & Wilson, E. K. (1999). How technology aids constructivism in the Social Studies Classroom. Social Studies 90(1) , 28-33. Slavin, R. E. (2003). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. In R. E. Slavin, Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice (pp. 257-260). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.