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BHANU* et al.


QoS based Delay-Constrained AODV Routing in MANET

Mr. Bhanu Pratap Singh1, Mr. Mubeen Khan2
1 2

M.Tech Scholar, Medicaps Institute of Technology & Management, Indore, India M.Tech Scholar, Medicaps Institute of Technology & Management, Indore, India 1 bhanu.baghel@gmail.com 2 makkhan0786@gmail.com a network and the number of hops to each destination and save them in their routing tables. New route broadcasts contain the address of destination, the number of hops to reach the destination, the sequence number of the information receive regarding the destination, as well as a new unique sequence number for the new route broadcast [2]. In this paper a new scheme used that is Energy efficient routing, it deals with efficient utilization of energy resources. By controlling the early depletion of the battery, adjust the power to decide the proper power level of a node and incorporate the low power strategies into the protocols used in various layers of protocol stack. There are little issues and solutions which witnesses the need of energy aware routing in ad hoc wireless networks. The paper organization is as follows: related work is described in section 2. Routing protocol and AODV routing is described in section 3 and proposed scheme is described in section 4 and 5.Network simulation results are presented in section 6 followed by conclusions and future work in section 7. II. RELATED WORK Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks:-Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks, where the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of the nodes [3]. Nodes in these networks utilize the same random access wireless channel, cooperating in an intimate manner to engaging themselves in multihop forwarding. The node in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to/from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks there is no infrastructure support as is the case with wireless networks, and since a destination node might be out of range of a source node transferring packets; so there is need of a routing procedure. This is always ready to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. Within a cell, a base station can reach all mobile nodes without routing via broadcast in common wireless networks. In the case of ad-hoc networks, each node must be able to forward data for other nodes. This creates additional problems along with the problems of dynamic topology which is unpredictable connectivity changes. Properties of Ad-Hoc Routing protocols The properties of Ad-Hoc Routing protocols are [4]: i). Distributed operation: The protocol should be distributed. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node.

Abstract- MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) is a self organizing and self configuring network without the need of any centralized base station. The nodes of mobile ad-hoc network are mobile and battery constrained. As the nodes have limited battery resources and multi hop routes are used over a changing network environment due to node mobility, it requires energy efficient routing protocols to limit the power consumption, prolong the battery life and to improve the robustness of the system. These limitations result long processing delays in a relay/forwarding node. In order to alleviate these issues, we propose a solution based on cross-layer MAC design, which improves the coordination between MAC and routing layers using an idea we call virtual link". The virtual link idea was implemented and tested in an ad hoc wireless network. This paper evaluates the performance of various ad-hoc routing protocols such as DSDV, AODV, DSR, TORA and AOMDV in terms of energy efficiency and it also proposes a new routing algorithm that modifies AOMDV and it provides better performance compared to all the above protocols. Simulation is done using NS-2(version NS -2.34). Keywords MANET, Energy Efficiency, Routing, AODV, Urgent Packets.

I. INTRODUCTION A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless nodes that can dynamically set up anywhere without using pre-specified network infrastructure. It is an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to move anywhere in the network. The topology of such networks is dynamic in nature. Due to the limited wireless transmission range several intermediate nodes can be used. Route establishment is done with a minimum overhead and bandwidth consumption. AODV is perhaps the most well-known routing protocol for MANET [1], which is a hop-by-hop reactive (On demand) source routing protocol, combines DSR and DSDV mechanisms for routing, by using the on-demand mechanism of routing discovery and route maintenance from DSR and the hop-by-hop routing and sequence number from DSDV. For each destination, AODV creates a routing table like DSDV [2]. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the Ad-hoc network [1].Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol is a typical routing protocol for MANETs, which is based on the Distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm [3]. In DSDV, each route is tagged with a sequence number which is originated by destination, indicating how old the route is [2]. All nodes try to find all paths to possible destinations nodes in

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BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 This is the case even for stationary networks. The dissimilarity is that the nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter or leave the network very easily and because of mobility the network can be partitioned. ii). Loop free: To improve the overall performance, the routing protocol should assurance that the routes supplied are loop free. This avoids any misuse of bandwidth or CPU consumption. iii). Demand based operation: To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not misuse the network resources the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should react only when needed and should not periodically broadcast control information. iv). Quality of Service Support: Some sort of Quality of service is necessary to incorporate into the routing protocol. This helps to find what these networks will be used for. It could be for instance real time traffic support. Problems in routing with Mobile Ad hoc Networks i). Asymmetric links: Most of the wired networks rely on the symmetric links which are always fixed. But this is not a case with ad-hoc networks as the nodes are mobile and constantly changing their position within network ii). Routing Overhead: In wireless ad hoc networks, nodes often change their location within network. So, some stale routes are generated in the routing table which leads to unnecessary routing overhead. iii). Interference: This is the major problem with mobile adhoc networks as links come and go depending on the transmission characteristics, one transmission might interfere with another one and node might overhear transmissions of other nodes and can corrupt the total transmission. iv). Dynamic Topology: Since the topology is not constant; so the mobile node might move or medium characteristics might change. In ad-hoc networks, routing tables must somehow reflect these changes in topology and routing algorithms have to be adapted. For example in a fixed network routing table updating takes place for every 30sec. This updating frequency might be very low for ad-hoc networks. Routing Protocol for MANET The routing protocols proposed for MANETs are generally categorized as table-driven and on-demand driven based on the timing of when the routes are updated. With table-driven routing protocols, each node attempts to maintain consistent, up-to-date routing information to every other node in the network. This is done in response to changes in the network by having each node update its routing table and propagate the updates to its neighbouring nodes. Thus, it is proactive in the sense that when a packet needs to be forwarded the route is already known and can be immediately used. As is the case for wired networks, the routing table is constructed using either link-state or distance vector algorithms containing a list of all the destinations, the next hop, and the number of hops to each destination. Many routing protocols including Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) [5] and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol [6] belong to this category, and they differ in the number of routing tables manipulated and the methods used to exchange and maintain routing tables. With on-demand driven routing, routes are discovered only when a source node desires them. Route discovery and route maintenance are two main procedures: The route discovery process involves sending route-request packets from a source to its neighbour nodes, which then forward the request to their neighbours, and so on. Once the route-request reaches the destination node, it responds by uncasing a route-reply packet back to the source node via the neighbour from which it first received the route-request. When the route-request reaches an intermediate node that has a sufficiently up-to-date route, it stops forwarding and sends a route-reply message back to the source. Once the route is established, some form of route maintenance process maintains it in each nodes internal data structure called a route-cache until the destination becomes inaccessible along the route. Note that each node learns the routing paths as time passes not only as a source or an intermediate node but also as an overhearing neighbour node. In contrast to table-driven routing protocols, not all up-to-date routes are maintained at every node. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [7] and Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [8] are examples of ondemand driven protocols. In proposed simulation we use the reactive AODV routing protocol because this is on demand routing protocol. No routing table will created by that over head in the network reduces and efficient then table driven/proactive routing protocol. III. AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL In this section we describe the routing process of normal AODV routing protocol [9]. It does not maintain routes from every node to every other node in the network rather they are discovered as and when needed & are maintained only as long as they are required. The key steps of algorithm used by AODV for establishment of uncast routes are explained below. A. Route Discovery When a node wants to send a data packet to a destination node, the entries in route table are checked to ensure whether there is a current route to that destination node or not. If it is there, the data packet is forwarded to the appropriate next hop toward the destination. If it is not there, the route discovery process is initiated. AODV initiates a route discovery process using Route Request (RREQ) and Route Reply (RREP). The source node will create a RREQ packet containing its IP address, its current sequence number, the destinations IP address, the destinations last sequence number and broadcast ID. The broadcast ID is incremented each time the source node initiates RREQ. Basically, the sequence numbers are used to determine the timeliness of each data packet and the broadcast ID & the IP address together form a unique identifier for RREQ so as to uniquely identify each request. The requests are sent using RREQ message and the

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BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 information in connection with creation of a route is sent back in RREP message. The source node broadcasts the RREQ packet to its neighbours and then sets a timer to wait for a reply. To process the RREQ, the node sets up a reverse route entry for the source node in its route table. This helps to know how to forward a RREP to the source. Basically a lifetime is associated with the reverse route entry and if this entry is not used within this lifetime, the route information is deleted. If the RREQ is lost during transmission, the source node is allowed to broadcast again using route discovery mechanism [10]. IV. PROPOSED SCHEME Ad hoc wireless networks are power constrained since nodes operate with limited battery energy. If some nodes die early due to lack of energy, they cannot communicate with each other. Therefore, inordinate consumption of nodes energy should be prevented. In fact, nodes residual energy utilization after threshold should be increase the energy utilization of networks. Here we proposed a new energy utilization scheme in MANET which reduces delay and utilizes remaining energy. In this scheme we set a threshold value for energy consumption by mobile nodes in our network. If the energy level of any node/s in the network reaches to threshold level that are participated in communication means it will be active in the network. But here we apply one condition, number of nodes that having a energy remaining after threshold value is also utilized in communication. According to our proposed approach a new energy aware efficient routing to make aware our network about the energy of nodes by that we remove the problem of suddenly loss of session to recognize the unfaithful nodes and extend the life cycle of network. V. PROPOSED SCHEME BASED AODV ROUTING Now based on this scheme AODV generate a RREQ message to their neighbours if node energy is greater than threshold value then establish connection and forwarded request up to destination. Then all the nodes send back the RREP message to their sender according to energy condition criteria. The numbers of nodes in the network are only take part in communication if they have a sufficient energy except the urgent packet condition. From a functional point of view, proposed algorithm can be considered to consist of two main units. One of these units handles the energy conservation operation. This is done through managing the nodes energy level periods. The other unit or aspect of the algorithm takes care of supporting the routing protocol, as far as energy management decisions are concerned. It helps to ensure the routing protocol makes routing decisions that serve a specific goal. For example, whenever possible, nodes carry out routing duties that are proportional to their energy levels compared to each other. Figure-1 shows the interactions of algorithm with the network and MAC/PHY layers. VI. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT AND RESULTS
Figure 1Nodes are sensing their neighbour to establish connection.

The simulation described in this paper was tested using the ns2 test-bed that allows users to create arbitrary network topologies [11]. By changing the logical topology of the network, ns-2 users can conduct tests in an ad hoc network without having to physically move the nodes. Ns-2 controls the test scenarios through a wireless interface, while the ad hoc nodes communicate through a wireless interface. Here we are taking the some essential simulation parameters. The results are calculated on the basis of these parameters [12].

Number of nodes Dimension of simulated area Initial node energy ( joules) Threshold value(joule) Minimum threshold value(joule) Simulation time (min) Radio range Traffic type Packet size (bytes) Maximum Speed (m/s) Node movement Tx energy consumption Rx energy consumption Idle energy consumption Sleeping energy consumption

8 800600 100 20 1 100 250m CBR, 3pkts/s 512 35 random 1.5J 1.0J 0.017J 0.001J

A. Scenario for Connection Establishment Here we show the snap shot of eight nodes they are sensing the neighbour for establish connection between the source nodes to destination node through intermediate nodes. In this scenario the yellow colour nodes are having a sufficient energy for communication.

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BHANU* et al. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ISSN 2319-2690 ISSUE-1, VOLUME-3, 096-099 this work. After execution tcl script, .tr (TRACE) files and .nam (NAM) files have been generated and simultaneously packets movement between the nodes in NAM (network animator) has been visualized. In this paper, AODV routing protocol using different parameter of QoS metrics have been simulated and analyzed. A proposed scheme has been utilizes power status of each mobile node and alternate paths. This scheme will give best result in the network where no of nodes are more (>50). This scheme can be incorporated into any ad hoc on-demand routing protocol to improve reliable packet delivery in the face of node movements and route breaks. Alternate routes are utilized only when data packets cannot be delivered through the primary route In future we apply our concept with all different MANET protocol like DSR, DSDV and OLSR. In future we also use various energy depletion parameters and simulate our work so in future rectified result get from our proposed module. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] Forman G., Zahorjan J. The challenges of mobile computing. IEEE Computer 1994; 27(4):38-47. Perkins C. Ad Hoc Networking: Addison-Wesley: 2001; 1-28. S.Singh S, Woo M, Raghavendra C. Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.Proceedings of Intl Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom98) 1998. Girling G., Wa J, Osborn P, Stefanova R. The Design and Implementation of a Low Power Ad Hoc Protocol Stack. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference 2000. L. M. Feeney, An Energy Consumption Model for Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Mobile Networks and Applications, Volume6, Issue 3, June 2001, pages 239 249. L. M. Feeney and M. Nilsson, Investigating the Energy Consumption of a Wireless Network Interface in an Ad Hoc Networking Environment, Proceedings of IEEEINFOCOM 2001, Volume 3, Anchorage AK, April, 2001, pages 1548-1557. R. Kravets and P. Krishnan, Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communications, Proceedings of the ACMMobile Computing and Networking Conference, Dallas, Texas, October 1998 Li Q, AslamJ, Rus D. Online Power-aware RoutinginWireless Ad-hoc Networks. Proceedings of Intl Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom2001) 2001. Perkins C, Bhagwat P. Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers. Computer Communications Review 1994; 234-244. Pei G, Gerla M, Chen T-W. Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. Proceedings of IEEE Intl Conf. on Communications (ICC) 2000; 70-74. Johnson D, Maltz D. Dynamic Source Routing in ad hoc wireless networks. Mobile Computing (edited by Imielinski T, Korth H); Kluwer Academic, 1996; 153-181. Perkins C, Royer E. Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing. Proceedings of 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Application1999.

B. Packet Delivery Ratio Comparison With the help of AWK tool, we have obtained this graph. If packet delivery ratio is higher it means our performance is best.

C. Remaining Energy Analysis Here we show the analysis of Remaining Energy in case of Eight nodes. Here we analyze that in case of energy mechanim with routing protcol as AODV uses so analyze the remaining energy after 100 sec.




Remain energy Analysis Table

Node_No EnergyRemain_Before EnergyRemain_After_Update


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3.07925 0.018226 0.005192 14.290878 0.091773 13.17232 0.020416 8.398354

94.897476 54.791302 54.142239 69.333311 54.749059 69.525928 44.729133 61.39562






Figure 2 Scenario of TCP Analysis based on previous Energy

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The entire simulations were carried out using ns 2.31 network simulator which is a discrete event driven simulator developed at UC Berkeley as a part of the VINT project. By using CYGWIN command shell has been executed successfully in

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