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Papers 1,2 and 3. Europe 1814-49. From the Congress of Vienna to the 1848-reovlutions 1. The European Peace Settlement 18 14-15. The Collapse of Napoleons Empire. Problems facing the peacemakers. The Congress of Vienna, 1814-15. 2. The aims of the peacemakers. 3. Verdict on Vienna. 4. The 1848 Revolutions. Long-term tensions. Short-term tensions 5. Case study 1: France 6. Case study 2: the Habsburg Empire. How did the Habsburg survive 1848? Economic and social developments during the Vor Mrz. The Unification of Italy 1815-1870 7. Introduction: The Unification of Italy. Pre-Napoleonic Italy. French Rule Under Napoleon 8. The Restored Monarchies. Unification: A Brief Overview 10. Risorgimento and Revolution 18 15-49. Italian Politics in 1815. Secret societies.The Revolutions of 1820-21. 11. The Revolutions of 1831-32. Mazzini. 12. Alternative Strategies and Leaders. The Revolutions of 1848-49. 13. The Roman Republic and the Revolutions of 1848-49. Conclusion. 14. Piedmont,Cavour and Italy. Background History. 15. Background History. Cavour. The Crimean War 1854-56. 16. Cavour. The War of 1859 and its consequences. 17. The War of 1859 and its Consequences. Cavour and Garibaldi. 18. Garibaldi and Italy. Garibaldi s Early Career 1807-1849. Garibaldi and The Thousand. 19. Garibaldi and The Thousand. Garibaldi and Rome. 20. Garibaldi: An Assessment. Napoleon III and Italy. Louis Napoleon: Romantic Adventurer. P/S 1-7 P/S 8-15 P/S. 17-23. P/S.23-29,14. P/S.29-36. P/S.37-42. P/S.48-54. P/S.54-59. P/S.59-65. P/S.65-75. P/S.80-89. P/S.89-96.

Wilmot, 2-7 Wilmot, 8-14 Wilmot, 16-21. Wilmot, 65-70 Wilmot, 70-75 Wilmot, 75-81

Louis Napoleon and the Roman Republic. 21. Doing Something for Italy. Napoleon and the Unification ofltaly. 22. The Kingdom of Italy 1861-1870. The Kingdom of Italy. Social and Economic Problems. 23. Conclusion: The Risorgimento and Italian Unification. Mazzini s View on the Kingdom of Italy. The Key Debate: Historians and the Risorgimento. The Heroes of the Risorgimento. 24. The Heroes of the Risorgimento. The Unification of Germany 1815-71. Imperial Germany 1871-1909 25. The situation in Germany by 1815. 26. Reform and Repression 18 15-40. 27. The Economic Developments 1815-48. 28. Germany 1840-48. Study guide. 29. The Causes of the German Revolutions. 30. The Course of the Revolutions. The Frankfurt Parliament. 31. The Frankfurt Parliament. 32. The Revolution in Prussia. 33. The Failure of the German Revolutions. Study guide. 34. The Position ofAustria after 1848. The Position ofPrussia after 1848. 35. The Position ofPrussia after 1848. Bismarck: The Man and his Aims. 36. Austro-Prussian Conflict. 37. Austro-Prussian Conflict. Prussian Ascendancy. 38. Prussian Ascendancy. 39. Factors Helping Bismarck. Study guide. 40. Austria-Hungary: The Compromise and the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary: The Government of Austria. (Morris, 150-151). 41. Austria-Hungary: The Government of Hungary. Economic history. (Morris,151-52. W/L8-9.).

P/S.96-99, 106-110. P/S.1 10-17. P/S. 124-132.

P/S. 138-43. P/S.144-49.

F/S. 1-6. F/S.6-13. F/S. 14-17. F/S. 17-23. F/S.24-28. F/S.29-34. F/S.34-38. F/S.38-43. F/S.43-47. F/S.49-55. F/S.55-62. F/S.63-66. F/S. 66-72. F/S.72-77. F/S.77-81.

AustriaHungary(Upload) AustriaHungary(Upload) 2

42. Franco-Prussian Relations 1866-70. 43. The Road to War. The Franco-Prussian War 1870-7 1 44. The Franco-Prussian War 1870-71. The Resuits of the War. 45. The German Empire in 1871. 47. The German Empire in 1871. BismarcksDomesticPolicy 1871-90. 48. Bismarck s Domestic Policy 1871-90. 49. Bismarck s Domestic Policy 1871 -90. Bismarck s Foreign Policy 1871-90. 50. Bismarcks Foreign Policy 1871-90. 51. Bismarck s Foreign Policy 1871-90. Bismarck s Fall. 52. Key Debate. Bismarck s critics. Bismarck s admirers. - Study guide. Wilhelmine Germany 1890-1914. 53. The Wilhelmine Political System. 54. The Wilhelmine Political System. Economic Change. 55. Intellectual Trends. Domestic Politics. 56. Domestic Politics. Chancellor Blow. 1900-9. Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg. Conclusion. Imperial Russia. Revo1utions. Emergence of the Soviet State 1853-1924. 57. The Land,the People and Tsardom. Alexander II: The Tsar Liberator. The material condition of the Russian serf. 58. The pressure for emancipation. The Emancipation Edict (1861). 59. Emancipation and subsequent reform. The Lateral Impact ofEmancipation. 60. The Development of the Russian Revolutionary Movement (1855-81). Industrial progress. i March 1881. 61. The Problemof Reform in Imperial Russia Alexander. The Limited Nature Of Reform. The early reign of Nicholas 11,1894-1905. 62. Economic Reform 1893-1914. 63. The Opponents of Tsardom. 64. The Opponents of Tsardom.

F/S.82-87. F/S.88-91, F/S.91-99. F/S. 101-105. F/S.106-111 F/S. 111-15. F/S. 115-120. F/S. 121-26. F/S. 126-33. F/S.133-37. F/S. 138-144. F/S. 144-48. F/S. 149-53. F/S. 153 -59.

Lynch.Russ. 1-6. Wilmot, 165-69. Wilmot,169-77. Wilmot,177-81. Wilmot, 182-90. Lynch.Russ. 9-13. Lynch.Russ. 13-19. Lynch.Russ. 19-22. Lynch.Russ.22-25. 3

65. The Opponents of Tsardom. Study guide. 66. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-5. The 1905 Revolution. 67. The 1905 Revolution. The Government s Response to 1905: i Stolypin and Land Reform. 68. The Governments Response to 1905: The Dumas 1906-14. 69. The Growing Tensions in Russia 1911-14. The Key Debate. Study guide. 70. War and Revolution 1914-17. Russias Entry into the First World War: Long-term Reasons. 71. Russias Entry into the First World War: Short-term Reasons. Russia at War 72. The Growth of Opposition to Tsardom. The February Revolution 73. 1917: The October Revolution. The Dual Authority. The Bolsheviks Return. 74. 1917: The October Revolution. The Provisional Government and its Problems. 75. 1917: The October Revolution. 76. 1917: The October Revolution. Reasons for Bolshevik Success. The Key Debate. 77. 1917: The October Revolution. Study guide. 78. The Bolshevjk Consolidation of Power 1917-24.The Bolsheviks in Power. The Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. 79. The Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918. 80. The Russian Civil War 1918-20. 81. The Russian Civil War 1918-20.The Foreign Interventions 1918-20. 82. Lenin s Methods 1917-21. 83. War Communism 1918-21. The Kronstadt Rising 1921. 84. The New Economic Policy (NEP). Study Guide. 85. Interpreting the Russian Revolution.The Key Debate.Lenin s Role as a .

Lynch.Russ.25-29. Lynch.Russ.30-38. Lynch.Russ. 41-43. Lynch.Russ.43-48. Lynch.Russ.48-53. Lynch.Russ 57-62. Lynch.Russ 62-69 Lynch.Russ. 70-80. Lynch.Russ. 85-91. Lynch.Russ. 91-98. Lynch.Russ. 99-104. Lynch.Russ. 104-09. Lynch.Russ. 110-14. Lynch.Russ. 115-19. Lynch.Russ. 119-24. Lynch.Russ.125-33. Lynch.Russ. 134-39. Lynch.Russ. 139-43. Lynch.Russ. 143-51. Lynch.Russ. 151-58.

Revolutionary. Interpretations of the Russian Revolution. The Origins of the First World War and its Course 19 14-18. 86. The New Course in German Foreign Policy and its Consequences. Nationalism and Worldwide Imperial Rivalries 87. The Making of the Tripple Entente . 88. The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911, and its Consequences. The Balkans And the Great Powers, 1906-14 89. The Outbreak of the First World War, 1914. The Key Debate 90. The Military and Strategic Background of the War 1914-15 91. 1916: The Deadlock Still Unbroken. 1917: No Peace without Victory 92. 1918: The Final Year of the War. The Armistices of October and November 1918. The Key Debate The Peace Settlements 1919-23 93. Problems faced by the Peacemakers. Aims and Principles of the Victorius Great Powers. The Organisation of the Paris Peace Conference 94. The Settlement with Germany

Lynch.Russ. 159-67

Williamson 31-37 Williamson 38-43 Williamson 43- 49 Williamson 50-56 Williamson 60-66 Williamson 67-73 Williamson 74-79

Williamson 82-88 Williamson 88-96

95. The Treaty of Versailles. The Diktat. Versailles: A more Balanced View. The Significance of the Treaty of Versailles Layton.I. 32-36 96. The Settlements with Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria. The Settlement With Turkey 1919-23 97. Enforcing the Treaty of Versailles 1920-23 Germany 1918-23 98. The German Revolution 1918-19. The Collapse of Imperial Germany 99. The German Revolution 19 18-19. 100. The National Constituent Assembly. 101. The Weimar Constitution of 1919. 102. The Threats to Weimar 1919-23.The Threat from the Extreme Left. The Threat from the Extreme Right. 103. The Threats to Weimar 1919-23.Extreme Right Uprisings. Weimar Democracy: A Republic without Republicans. Layton.I. 1-6. Layton.I. 7-15 Layton.I. 16-19. Layton.I.23-28. Layton.I. 40-45. Layton.I. 45-52. Williamson 96-102 Williamson 102-06

104. The Economic Background. The Causes of the German Inflation. 105. The Consequences of the Great Inflation. Reconcilliation and Disarmament 1924-30: The Locarno Era 106. The Beginning of Weimar Foreign Policy 1919-23. Stresemann s 100 Days. Gustav Stresemanns Achievement 107. Gustav Stresemanns Achievements. The key Debate108. The Impact of the Dawes Plan. 109. The Locarno Spirit and Germanys Re-emergence as a Great Power. Russia and Eastern Europe During the Locarno Era 110. The Development of the League of Nations 111. The League as peacemaker and arbitrator. The Leagues successes:Mosul and the Greco-Bulgarian dispute. Progress Made Towards Disarmament Germany 1924-33 112. Weimar: The Years of Stability 1924-29. The Economic Recovery. Political Stability. 113. The Responsibility of the Parties. Weimar Culture. 114. Adolf Hitler and the Creation of the Nazi Party. 115. The Beer Hall Putsch 1923. Nazi Ideas. 116. Nazi Fortunes in the 1920s. The Decline of Weimar and the Rise of Nazism 1929-32. The Impact of the World Economic Crisis on Germany. 117. Parliamentary Government s Breakdown. Brning: Presidential Government. Hindenburg. 118. Brning: Presidential Government. Brnings fall from power. From Brning to Papen. The Death of the Weimar Republic. 119. The Nazi Road to Dictatorship 1932-33. The Creation ofa Nazi Mass Movement. Hitler. 120. Nazi Political Methods. 121. Political Intrigue, July 1932 January 1933. The Establishment of the Nazi Dictatorship. January-March 1933 122. The Nazi Road to Dictatorship. Conclusion. The Key Debate.

Layton.I. 56-61. Layton.I 61-66.

Layton.I 83-85, 67-68 85-86 Layton.I 86-92 Williamson 109-15 Williamson 115-19 Williamson 119-24 Williamson 124-31

Layton.I.71-77. Layton.I.77-82, 92-97. Layton.I. 102-106. Layton.I.106-112. Layton.I. 113-116, 121-25. Layton.I. 126-32, 81. Layton.I.133-42. Layton.I.148-56. Layton.I.156-62. Layton.I. 162-70 Layton.I. 171-75.

The Democracies on the Defensive 1930-36 123. The Great Depression 1929-33. The Rise to Power of Hitler 124. The Reaction of the Great Powers to Nazi Germany 125. The Abyssinian Crisis. The Remilitarisation of the Rhineland The Spanish Civil War. The Rome-Berlin Axis and the Anti-Comintern Pact The Countdown to War in Europe 1937-41 126. Hitler Considers his Options. The Arms Race: Britain, France and Germany 1936-9. 127. Britain, France and Appeasement. The Anschluss and the Destruction of Czechoslovakia. 128. The Anglo-French Guarantees and Attempts to Construct a Peace Front. The Race to Gain the Support of the USSR. The Outbreak of War. 129. The Spreading Conflict, October 1940 to June 1941. The Key Debate The Countdown to War in Asia 1931-41 130. The Manchurian Crisis. 131. The Outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. Japan and the Anti-Comintern Pact. The Road to Pearl Harbor 1940-41. The Key Debate Williamson 186-90 Williamson 190-95 Williamson 157-61 Williamson 162-69 Williamson 169-76 Williamson 176-81 Williamson 134-41 Williamson 141-46 Williamson 146-53

Bibliography: Catchpole,Brian. A Map History of the Modern World. 3 ed.Heinemann. 1982. Farmer,A./ Stiles,A. The Unification of Germany 1815-1919. 3rd ed.Hodder Murray.2007. (F/S). Layton,Geoff. Weimar and the Rise ofNazi Germany l9l8-33.3 ed.Hodder Murray,2005. (Layton.I.). Layton,Geoff. Germany: The Third Reich 193345.31(1 ed.Hodder Murray.2005 . (Layton.II). Lowe,John.Rivalry and Accord.International Relations 1870-19 14. Hodder & Stoughton. 1990.(II). Lowe,Norman. Modern World History. 4 ed.Palgrave Master Series.Macmillan.2005.(MWH.). Lynch,Michael. Reaction and Revolution :Russia 189419243id ed.Hodder Murray.2005. (Lynch.Russ.). Morris,T.A. European History 1848-1945. Collins Educational. 1985. Pearce,R./ Stiles,A. The Unification of Italy l8l5-70.3 ed. Hodder Education.2006/2008.(P/S). Williamson, David. War and Peace. International Relations,1878-1941.3. ed.Hodder Education.2009 Wilmot,Eric. The Great Powers 1814-191 4.Nelson. 1992.