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Sept 2012 Shell Scripting Cheat Sheet for Unix and Linux Online: http://steve-parker.org/sh/sh.shtml Book: http://steve-parker.org/shellscripting Test Operators
if [ $x -lt $y ]; then # do something fi Numeric Tests

File Redirection
> file >> file < file a|b create (overwrite) file append to file read from file Pipe 'a' as input to 'b'

Variable Substitution
${V:-default} ${V:=default} ${V:?err} $V, or default if unset $V (set to default if unset) $V, or err if unset

Conditional Execution
cmd1 || cmd2 cmd1 && cmd2 run cmd1; if fails, run cmd2 run cmd1; if ok, run cmd2

Common Constructs
$ while read f > do > echo Line is $f > done < file $ grep foo myfile afoo foo foobar $ cut -d: -f5 /etc/passwd Steve Parker $ cmd1 || cmd2 $ cmd1 && cmd2 case $foo in a) echo foo is A ;; b) echo foo is B ;; *) echo foo is not A or B ;; esac myvar=`ls` doubleit() { expr $1 \* 2 } doubleit 3 # returns 6 get output of ls into variable function declaration and syntax for calling it note that ;; is required at the end of each section note: $ prompt becomes > find lines in myfile containing the text foo get 5th field delimited by colon run cmd1; if fails, run cmd2 run cmd1; if it works, run cmd2 act upon the value of a variable read text file line by line

lt gt eq ne ge le

less than greater than equal to not equal greater or equal less or equal

Files
mv /src /dest ls a* ls *a ls -ltr ls -lSr ls -a find /src -print \ | cpio -pudvm move /src into /dest list files beginning with a list files ending with a list oldest first, newest last list smallest first, biggest last list all files, including hidden copy /src into current directory, preserving links, special devices, etc.

File Tests nt d f x r w newer than is a directory is a file executable readable writeable

Preset Variables
String Tests = z n equal to zero length not zero length $SHELL $RANDOM $$ $? $! Logical Tests && || ! logical AND logical OR logical NOT what shell am I running? provides random numbers PID of current process return code from last cmd PID of last background cmd

Generally Useful Commands


file /etc/hosts basename /bin/ls dirname /bin/ls ifconfig -a netstat -r netstat -a date +%Y%m%d date +%H%M wc -l pwd determine file type strip directory name (ls) get directory name (/bin) show all network adapters show routers show open ports Year, Month, Day Hours, Minutes count number of lines present working directory

Arguments
$0 $1 $2 $# $* program name 1st argument 2nd argument no. of arguments all arguments

Misc Useful Commands and Tools


egrep (foo|bar) file awk '{ print $5 }' file cal 3 1973 df -h three=`expr 1 + 2` echo "scale = 5 ; \ 5121 / 1024" | bc time cmd touch file alias ll='ls -l' unalias ls find foo or bar in file print the 5th word of each line March 1973 show disk mounts simple maths better maths (5.00097) stopwatch on cmd create blank file alias for ls -l unset existing alias cd find . -size 10k -print find . -name *.txt -print find /foo -type d -ls less file sed s/foo/bar/g file sed -i s/foo/bar/g file strace -tfp PID tar cvf archive.tar file1 file 2 file3 ssh user@host scp file.txt user@host: scp user@host:/tmp/file.txt /var/tmp files over 10Kb find text files list all directories under /foo display file page by page replace foo with bar in file (-i: update file) trace system calls for PID create tar archive log in to host as user copy file.txt to host as user copy /tmp/file.txt from user at host to /var/tmp locally return to previous directory