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elegy:

A poem that lament(plinge) the death of an individual.


A poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased(decedat) person.b. Something resembling such a poem or song. The style is formal and sustained Meditative poem

Epic poem:
This is a type of classical poetry, generally recounting heroic achievements. It is a poem that is a long narrative about a serious subject, told in an elevated style of language. Epics generally focus on the exploits of a hero or demi-god who represents the cultural values of a race, nation, or religious group. John Miltons Paradise lost is an example of a famous epic. Traditionally, an epic poem is a long, serious, poetic narrative about a significant event, often featuring a hero. Before the development of writing, epic poems were memorized and played an important part in maintaining a record of the great deeds and history of a culture. Later, they were written down and the tradition for this kind of poem continued. Epics often feature the following: a hero who embodies the values of a culture or ethnic group; something vital that depends on the success of the hero's actions; a broad setting, sometimes encompassing the entire world; intervention by supernatural beings. Examples of epics include Gilgamesh, the Odyssey, and Beowulf. Is a long narrative poem, sometimes depeloped oraly that celebrates the deeds of a heroic or legendary figure. Depicts a hero who is larger than life

lament:
A poem or song for expressing grief(durere) to express sorrow, mourning, or regret for often demonstratively : mourn

kenning:
A phrase used poetically instead of the regular word for a noun. A figurative, usually compound expression used in place of a name or noun, especially in Old English and Old Norse poetry; for example, storm of swords is a kenning for battle. A compound metaphorical name of smth.

chronicle:
Any kind of serial historical account. An extended account in prose or verse of historical events, sometimes including legendary material, presented in chronological order and without authorial interpretation or comment.

catastrophe:
The final climax of a play or story after which the plot is resolved. The concluding action of a drama, especially a classical tragedy, following the climax and containing a resolution of the plot.

catharsis:
An emotional release felt by an audience or reader as they observe the fate of a tragic hero. It is often a welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Purification

comedy:
A work which is principally designed to amuse and entertain, and where, despite problems during the narrative, all ends well for the characters.

frame work:
This is a narrative technique where there is a principal story, around which there are other narratives to set the scene or interest the audience/reader. This is also known as a frame story. A narrative structure containing or connecting a series of otherwise unrelated tales.

fabliau (plural, fabliaux):


A humorous or "dirty" narrative popular with French poets, who traditionally wrote the story in couplets. Fabliaux often revolve around trickery, practical jokes, sexual mishaps, mistaken identity, and bodily humor. Chaucer included several fabliaux in The Canterbury Tales (the Shipman, the Friar, the Miller, the Reeve, and the Cook). Short satirical story in verses. A medieval verse tale characterized by comic, ribald treatment of themes drawn from life.

romance:
Traditionally, a long fictional prose narrative about unlikely events involving characters that are very different from ordinary people, e.g knights. Nowadays the modern romance novel is a prescribed love story, where boy meets girl, obstacles get in the way, they are then overcome and the couple live happily ever after. A long medieval narrative in prose or verse that tells of the adventures and heroic exploits of chivalric heroes.

Renaissance:
Originally, the term refers to a period of cultural, technological, and artistic vitality during the British economic expansion in the late 1500s and early 1600s. More generally a renaissance is any period in which a people or nation experiences a period of vitality and explosive growth in its art, poetry, education, economy, linguistic development, or scientific knowledge. The term is positive in connotation. A rebirth or revival. The period of this revival, roughly the 14th through the 16th century, marking the transition from medieval to modern times. Literary rebirth, the period in European civilization immediately following the middle ages, being characterized by a surge of interest in classical learning and values.

Sermon
A religious discourse delivered as part of a church service.

An often lengthy and tedious(plictisitor) speech of reproof(mustrare) or exhortation(indemn).

sonnet:
A poem of fourteen lines, typically in iambic pentameter, with regular rhyme. It usually expresses a distinct idea or thought with a change of direction in the closing lines. There are three general types:

1. The Petrarchan sonnet (or Italian sonnet): an eight line stanza, called an octave, which is followed by a six line stanza, called a sestet. The initial octave has two quatrains (4 lines) that generally rhyme abba, abba. The first of these quatrains offers the theme, whilst the second develops this main idea. Later in the sestet, the primary three lines offer a reflection on or exemplify the theme. The final three lines bring the poem to a cohesive end. The sestet is sometimes arranged cdecde, cdcdcd, or cdedce. 2. The Shakespearean sonnet (or English sonnet): arranged in three quatrains, where each rhyme is distinct. There is a final, rhymed couplet that creates a unifying peak to the entire sonnet. Its rhyme scheme is generally abab, cdcd, efef, gg. 3. The Miltonic sonnet: similar in form to the petrarchan sonnet, however the Miltonic sonnet does not divide its ideas between the octave and the sestet. The train of thought instead runs straight from the eighth to ninth line. Furthermore, Milton develops the sonnet's scope to encompass not only the theme of love, as the earlier sonnets did, but also to incorporate politics, religion, and personal matters.

allegory:
The word originates from the Greek allegoria, which means "speaking otherwise". An allegory is something which can be read with double or two meanings: with an obvious literal meaning, as well as a figurative, 'below the surface' meaning. Frequently there is a point-by-point parallel between the two meanings. Allegories are often a way of conveying comment upon people, moral or religious ideas, historical and/or political events and/ or theories. a poem, play, picture, etc., in which the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a deeper moral or spiritual meaning.

ballad:
A poem which tells a story, usually in the form of four-line stanzas or quatrains. Lines one and three are generally unrhymed iambic tetrameters, whilst lines two and four are iambic trimeters. A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain.

humanism:
A philosophical belief that rejects religious belief and emphasizes science, human endeavor(efort) in the natural world and reason. A system of thought that rejects religious beliefs and centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth.

hamartia:
A tragic flaw. the flaw in character which leads to the downfall of the protagonist in a tragedy

utopia:
An imaginary location or government where political and social perfection has been reached: The people of such utopias are generally clean, virtuous, healthy, and happy. In essence, a utopian society is one that has been cured of all its social ills.

University wits (minte):


Dramatical authors who modeled the English Theatre in its own way of development. The term is used by the majority of literary historians in order to show that these people had university studies, tha they were men of letters. They tried to adopt to English society the cultivation of the classical models that they have learned at the universities. In a certain way they cooperated together. The leader of university group was John Lyly of Oxford and Cambridge whose receptive mind was hospitable to the more delicate grace of literature.

tragedy:
A serious play where the protagonist experiences a succession of misfortunes leading to a concluding, disturbing catastrophe usually for the protagonist. A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope (a face fata) with unfavorable circumstances. The concern of the tragedy is generaly to exemplify what has been called the tragical sense of life that is the sense that human beings are inevitably doomed(destinat) to suffer, fail, die. The most important in the life of a person is the fact how he or she faces that failure. In drama a tragedy recounds a related series of events in the life of a person tha will culminate with an unhappy catastrophe

The Wheel of Fortune,


or Rota Fortunae, is a concept in medieval and ancient philosophy referring to the capricious nature of Fate. The wheel belongs to the goddess Fortuna, who spins (roteste) it at random(la intimplare), changing the positions of those on the wheel - some suffer great misfortune, others gain windfalls(binefaceri). Fortune appears on all paintings as a woman, sometimes blindfolded(legat la ochi), "puppeteering" a wheel.

climax:
Indicates the arrival of any time of crucial intensity in a play or narrative. It is also a word used to show that particular moment when the rising action leads to a peak in the destinies of the hero or heroine. A moment of great or culminating intensity in a narrative or drama, especially the conclusion of a crisis. The turning point in a plot or dramatic action.

denouement:
The final resolution of a plot, especially in drama or narrative. The events following the climax of a drama or novel in which such a resolution or clarification takes place.

historical novel:
A novel where real historical events are featured, with the combination of fictional characters. A novel that re-creates a period or event in history and often uses historical figures as some of its characters.