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B.S. NURSING III-A A.Y. 2011-2012 BOYS 1. Baes, Arvin/ 2. Del Rio, Ronnie/ 3. Egargue, Bryan Hanz/ 4.

Magracia, Jorge Ian/ 5. Molina, Mamerto/ 6. Obmerga, Eliezer/ 7. Panisan, Alfie/ GIRLS 1. Abalos, Abimael 2. Amari, Mara Carisma/ 3. Badua, Jean Berverly/ 4. Calma, Camille/ 5. Coria, Joan/ 6. Coronado, Rachell Ann/ 7. De Borja, Carissa May/ 8. De Claro, Ivie/ 9. Dela Cruz, Ma. Joy 10.Dela Paz, Aira 11.Dizon, Charise Nica/ 12.Dumayas, Jessica/ 13.Guevarra, Maria Annete/ 14.Hilario, Cristy Glenn/ 15.Londonio, Sharah Ruth/

16.Lupena, Jessica Mae/ 17.Oria, Louridel/ 18.Ortiz, Mary Rose/ 19.Ramos, Cedie Lynn/ 20.Rodriguez, Melizza Ann/ 21.Romero, Ara Ellaine 22.Velasco, Carmela/ 23.Velasco, Janine Joyce/ 24.Villegas, Monique/

A. INTRODUCTION TO NURSING RESEARCH

I. Definition of Nursing Research

A scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice. A systematic search for and validation of knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession (Polit & Hungler). Systematic, objective process of analyzing phenomena of importance to nursing. Definitions of Nursing Research

Research is a collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for the purpose of predictionor explanation; a more formal systematic and intensive process of carrying on a scientificmethod of analysis. Purpose: discovery and development of organized body of knowledge. Research is an honest scientific investigation undertakenfor the purpose of discovering new facts or establishing new relationships among facts alreadyknown which will contribute to the present body of knowledge and can lead to effectivesolution of the present problem. It involves careful or critical thinking to revise or to revalidateaccepted conclusions and previously held concepts or established generations or principles. Systematic problem inquiry using disciplined methods to solve

Includes the breadth and depth of the discipline of nursing ( preventive, therapeutic andrehabilitative) as well as the preparations of the practitioners and personnel involved in the totalnursing sphere. Polit and Beck (2004) - systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration andinformatics Burns and Grove (2005) - have more narrowly defined nursing research as a scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly andindirectly influences clinical nursing practice. Nieswiadomy systematic objective process of analyzing phenomena of importance to nursing.Clinical nursing research indicates nursing research involving clients or studies that have the potential for affecting the care of clients, such as with the studies of animals or the so-callednormal subjects. Nursing research-Systematic inquiry to develop knowledge about issues of importance to thenursing profession

II. Importance of research in nursing Use of best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions. To base specific nursing actions and decisions for an evidence indicating that the actions are clinically appropriate, cost- effective and result in positive outcomes for clients. Incorporate high quality research evidence into their clinical decision and advised to being professionally accountable to their client, they are also enforcing the identity of nursing as profession. Engage in and use research involves the spiralling cost of health care and the cost .containment practice being instituted in health care facilities. Help eliminate nursing actions that do not achieve desired outcomes. Help nurses identify practices that improve health care outcomes and contain costs as well. To understand the varied dimensions of their professions. To explain phenomena that must be considered in planning nursing care. To predict the probable outcomes of certain nursing decisions. To control the occurrence of undesired outcomes. To initiate activities to promote desired patient behaviour.

Reasons for conducting research Gather information or data on nursing situations Provide specific/ scientific knowledge To predict probable outcome Help correct validate conceptions Provide theoretical scientific based on nursing practice Document the social relevance Describe the characteristics of nursing situations Prevent undesirable client reaction Develop degree of confidence Provide knowledge for decision making

III.Roles of Nursing Research

The roles to be assumed by healthcare providers in research vary depending on their knowledge, training, and experience in research methods, together with their interest in research. The staff nurse, for example, may use the nursing process framework to begin to formulate and answer questions they encounter in the clinical setting (Craven & Hirnle, 2003), or may conduct his own research, with guidance from others skilled in research methods. Healthcare providers can assume a variety of roles in research:

Investigator: the person solely responsible for the conduct of his own study. Principal investigator: the leader of a research team qualified by education, training, and experience to assume responsibility for the proper conduct of the study. Co- investigator: the member of the research team with the responsibility of helping the principal investigator and other members of the team in the proper conduct of the study. Research assistant: a professional or technician trained in a specific method of data collection to provide assistance to the investigator/ research team. Research coordinator: the person that helps run the daily operations of the study, such as recruiting patients. Research participants often meet with the research coordinator when they have clinic study visits. Data collector: a professional or non-professional commissioned to collect the data from clients for another persons research project; may be considered a research assistant. Evaluator/Critic: a professional who assesses the merit of the research proposal or quality of a specific research document for publication, securing support funds, fulfillment of university requirements, or obtaining permission for oral presentation. Adviser/Consultant: a professional qualified by education, training, and experience who shares his knowledge to the (principal) investigator/researcher/ research team and offers guidance in the proper conduct of the study.

Subject or Participant: a person who has decided to take part in the research by signing a consent form and by providing target information with the aid of appropriate research instruments. Client advocate: one who protects the rights of the healthcare providers client and speaks on his behalf if he happens to be a subject in a research investigation conducted in a clinical setting. User/Consumer of research findings: promoter of better quality care of clients by utilizing evidence-based best practices.

IV. Evolution of Nursing Research

History of Nursing Research Increasing research in nursing is contributing to nursing practice. In the1940s nursingresearch is at the very early stage of development. In the 1950s increase in the federalfunding and professional support helped established centers for nursing research. Most earlyresearch was directed to the study of nursing education. In the 1960s, studies were often related tothe nature of the knowledge base underlying nursing practice. Since the 1970s, the nursing researchhas focused on practice-related issues.- Mid 1800s Florence nightingale recommended clinical nursing research but this type of researchis scarce until 1970s- Replication studies are needed in nursing. The history of nursing research began with the famous British Nurse Florence Nightingale. It is the nursing research which decides and manages the fundamentals of the nursing practice in common. It is said that when a nurse makes a medical assessment he or she makes a judgment which is supported by and feature the existing tendency in nursing research. If by chance a nurse does not perform in agreement with the nursing research he or she may be held responsible of medical negligence. Quantative and Qualitive Research are the two main areas of research which are applicable to the nursing professional. Quantitive Research centers on the results in nursing which is noticeably by the exercise of testing controlled

trial settings. Quantity Research centers on the quality issue of the result as experienced by the patient. The Association of American Nurses is an organization that serves as a network and helps to promote a positive image of nursing all over the country. There are totally 54 organizations of these association and almost three million registered nurses within the United States represent their country. This group was initially started in the year 1911 by a group from Canada which officially became the American Nurses Association. Therefore the history of nursing research American was commenced in the 19th century. Recently, this organization has extended its branches to all the corners of the country. The nurses work to help their working conditions and also improve the conditions and treatment of the patient. This group of American nurses present and promote nursing values through the net and also publish newsletters. All the way through education, strength and support, this remarkable group has developed into a figure of great value of nurses in the country of United States. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3336818 Replication studies involve repeating a study with all the essential element of the original study held intact.- in the Philippines, nursing research prior to and during the 60s was mostly in nursing administration 51%, and nursing education (33%), while patient care and related studies received minimal attention, with only 13% and 3% respectively. The teaching of research in the undergraduate level was integrated in the curriculum in the mid-sixties. It was aimed at familiarizing the students with skills in scientific investigations, developing a positive attitude toward research, and enhancing interest in their own studies. At this time the only research university in the Philippines is DLSU and the country is lagging behind from other Asian countries in the race of producing research studies. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING RESEARCH

Florence Nightingale in nursing research is said to be: a reformer, reactionary, and researcher In the 1960s until the 1970s, the significance of nursing research gradually attained prominence although few nurses had thecapability and educational training to conduct studies. In the 1980s and 1990s, research was considered .as a major force in the development of a scientific base for nursing practice. In the 21st century, nursing research gives impetus (forward motion) to the promotion of excellence in nursing science.Increased focus on outcomes research is taking place. Outcomes research has been designed to assess the effectiveness of health care service. (Burns and Grove, 1997; Polit and Beck, 2004).

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF NURSING RESEARCH Florence Nightingale founder of professional nursing and the first nurse researcher

Researches were focused on: the importance of a healthy environment aspects of environment diet

Result of her Research: Decrease in mortality rate within 6 months; used statistics to support her argument for reforms in medical carein military and civilian hospitals, NURSING RESEARCH IN 1900 TO 1050 Burns and Grove (1997) reported that following Nightingale's work from 1910, nursing research had minimal attention until the 1950s,which means that from 1900 to 1950, there were limited research activities. Incidentally, the first publication of the American Journal of Nursing

happened in 1900 and late in the 1920s and 1930s, case studies reported on in-depth analysis and systematic evaluation of a patient or a group of similar patients to promote awareness of nursing interventions. This was the beginning of practice-related research (Burns and Grove, 1997). In 1940 until 1950, a trend in nursing research started with emphasis on organization and delivery of nursing services. According to Gortner and Nahm (1977) studies undertaken dealt with: the number and kinds of nursing personnel staffing patterns patient classification system patient and personnel satisfaction, and Unit arrangement. Nursing was service oriented in training future nurses rather than education oriented. Nurse educators had no advanced educational preparation Result: Inadequacies existed in nursing education Advanced educational preparation was essential. School of nursing was established at Yale University. 1950's Increase in nurses with advanced degrees. Journal of Nursing Research was started. Research was included in curriculum

Studies conducted concerned: nursing education.

1950's Increase in nurses with advanced degrees. Journal of Nursing Research was started.

Research was included in curriculum

Studies from 1940-1950 Resulted into the formulation of Evaluative studies focused on Types of care such as: Comprehensive care Home care, and Progressive Patient care

Emergence of Research as a high priority Research was introduced and the steps of research process at baccalaureate level by nursing schools and increased fundingfor research were provided. Five thousand US dollars was awarded for federal research in 1955 (de Tornyay, 1977). Prior to this,Nursing Research journal was published in 1952 providing nurses the opportunity for ventilating their findings.

Studies conducted during these two decades dealt with: nursing education; standards for nursing practice nurses' characteristics; (including nursing students characteristics) staffing patterns, (hospital personnel changes) & Quality of care. interaction between a dying patient

NURSING RESEARCH IN 1960 1960's - Introduction of such terms as:

"conceptual framework", "conceptual model," "nursing process, Theoretical base of nursing practice. "Theoretical base of nursing practice."

NURSING RESEARCH IN 1970 One significant result of nursing research was observed in 1970s when the groundwork for clinical research was started, and it stays apriority up to the present (Burns and Grove, 1997). New research journals published were: Advances in Nursing Science by Chinn in 1978 which incorporated the works of nursing theorists and research conducted on theories relevantto nursing Image in 1967 by Sigma Theta Tau, the international Honor Society for Nursing (Barnard, 1980) which included various articles on theresearch process and relevant studies. Research in Nursing & Health, and Western Journal of Nursing Research ( 1979) These journals published in 1978 and 1979 helped in the communication of research findings in the 1970s. 1970's - establishment of National commission by American Nurses Association and The National League for nursing to study nursing and nursing education

NURSING RESEARCH IN 1990 1990's to present More on clinical researches with nursing diagnosis as framework. The National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) created in 1985 to fund nursing research activities was renamed theNational Institute for Nursing Research (NINR).

This move under the direction of Dr. Hinshaw Purpose of the move was: provide for better recognition of nursing as a research discipline and hopes for anincreased funding for nursing research.

NINR research priorities that need funding to the year 2000: community-based nursing models; Effectiveness of nursing interventions in HIV/AIDS. cognitive impairment; living with chronic illness, and biobehavioral factors related to immunocompetence (NINR, 1993) Focus of researches In 1990: o health promotion o illness prevention o Primary care Since everyone aims to attain an improved quality and quantity of his life. The primary concern of outcomes research in the1980s was patient health status and cost related to medical care. Recommendation of outcome research: that patient outcome researches related to nursing that has received little attention inthe early 1990s should become the major focus for nursing studies in the future (Bowers, 1994; Johnson, 1993; Jones, 1993;Higgins, McCaughan, Griffiths and Carr-Hill, 1992, and Hegyvary, 1991)

Outcomes research has come out as an important methodology which documents the effectiveness of health care services. The primaryconcern of outcomes research in the 1980s was patient health status and cost related to medical care.

o Recommendation of outcome research: that patient outcome researches related to nursing that has received little attention inthe early 1990s should become the major focus for nursing studies in the future (Bowers, 1994; Johnson, 1993; Jones, 1993;Higgins, McCaughan, Griffiths and Carr-Hill, 1992, and Hegyvary, 1991). V. Purpose/Reasons for Conducting Research in the Healthcare Setting In the healthcare settings, reasons for conducting research vary, but the chief purpose or reason for conducting research is to find answers to meaningful questions or problems by means of the scientific method. Specific reasons for conducting research and using research findings by the healthcare providers may include: To understand the varied dimensions of ones profession and to contribute to the professions knowledge base; To describe the characteristics of a particular health situation about which little known, so as to improve outcomes of care; To explain phenomena that must be considered in implementing client care for better quality of care; To predict the probable outcomes of healthcare providers decisions, so as to promote health and prevent injuries; To promote health and behavior in clients; To prevent and/or control the occurrence of undesired outcomes in clients To improve the quality of health and raise the level of safety of clients To enhance growth, not only of the profession, but also of professional healthcare providers, by supplying them with the most accurate tools and opportunities to advance the field of specially wherein they work; in To develop among healthcare providers leadership characteristics and skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and drive to pursue quality performance outcomes. References Rosalinda Parado Salustiano, RN, RM, MAN, PhD (2009). Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences, First Edition, C&E Publishing, Inc. pp. 10 11.