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Curso de Sistemas de Informao Ingls Instrumental I

Faculdades Hoyler

Digital computers can be divided into many types, depending on their size and power: they are workstations, mainframes, minicomputers, desktop PCs, laptops and handheld computers. Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are used for specialized applications that require 5 immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching), for example, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Mainframe was a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling Stone Age machine. The chief difference 10 between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently. The term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day. 15 A workstation is a type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, a large amount of RAM, builtin network support, and a graphical user interface. Minicomputers are midsize computers. In the past decade, the distinction 20 between large minicomputers and small mainframes was blurred, however, as was the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from up to 200 users simultaneously. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines. 25 PCs carry out their processing on a single microchip. They are used as personal computers in the home or as workstations for a group. Most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system. PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses. There two classes of personal computers: (a) desktop 30 PCs which are designed to be placed on your desk, and (b) portable PCs. Portable computers include notebook and subnotebook computers, hand-held computers, palmtops, and PDAs (short for portable digital assistant). A laptop is a small, portable computer -- small enough that it can sit on your lap. Nowadays, laptop computers are more frequently called notebook computers. A Subnotebook computer is 35 slightly lighter and smaller than a full-sized notebook computer. Palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but use touchscreen technology for user input. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for input are often called hand-held computers or PDAs . They are used as PC computers or as electronic organizers for 40 storing notes, reminders and addresses. The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing!

Personal Computers Least powerful

Workstations

Minicomputer s

Mainframes

Supercomputers Most powerful

Curso de Sistemas de Informao Ingls Instrumental I

Faculdades Hoyler

Vocabulary: Main, chief = principais Depend on = depender de Size = tamanho Power = potncia Broad = amplo, geral To channel = canalizar nowadays = atualmente up to = at Full-sized = tamanho grande Share = compartilhar to market = colocar no mercado

Carry out = realizar Single = nico Design = projetar tightly = de forma compacta Reminder = lembretes often = frequentemente Rather than = ao invs de trend = tendncia small enough = pequeno o suficiente to be blurred = ficar difusa

A partir da leitura do texto acima, nomeie os computadores abaixo:

_________________________

________________________

Curso de Sistemas de Informao Ingls Instrumental I ______________________________

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____________________________
Nomeie as partes abaixo em Ingls empregando palavras do quadro:

Encontre nos pargrafos do texto, os trechos abaixo: a. ( l. ____-____) O nome desse tipo de computador refere-se a um gabinete ou armrio onde ficava o CPU ou a uma mquina da idade da pedra que ocupava at salas inteiras. b. ( l. ____-____) Estes computadores no tm teclados, o acesso do usurio se d atravs de tecnologia touchscreen.

c. ( l. ____-____) Neste tipo de computadores, aplicativos comuns como e-mails, multimdia, agenda esto integrados no relgio, celular, e at mesmo a outros acessrios do vesturio.

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$ $## $ ## $

"!!!  "  "!  "  

         

Curso de Sistemas de Informao Ingls Instrumental I d. (l.____-_____) Estes computadores, realizam seu processamento num nico chip, podem ser usados em casa ou na companhia.
Classifying expressions ... Classificar significa agrupar coisas em classes. Por exemplo, classificamos esportes, programas de TV, tipos de msica, etc. Este recurso tambm comum em computao. Classificamos do mais geral para o mais especfico. Por exemplo, dizemos que computadores (geral) podem ser divididos em cinco tipos: mainframes, mini-computers, desktop PCs, laptops, handheld computers (especficos). Podemos tambm fazer uma classificao do mais especfico para o mais geral. Podemos dizer que a laptop (especfico) is a type of computer (geral). Expresses usadas para classificar do geral para o especfico: ... consists of ... comprises ... is made up of ... includes ... is composed of ... can be ... may be ... are There are X classified divided into categorized types kinds classes categories of... classes types groups

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Assinale a alternativa correta para completar cada frase: According to the text, a. a mainframe computer is less powerful than a minicomputer. b. A mainframe is more powerful than a minicomputer. Mainframe computers are used by, a. executives and businessmen c. large organizations that need to process enormous amounts of data. The most suitable computers for home use are a. minicomputers b. desktop PCs Handheld computers are a. small enough to fit into the palm of one hand. b. Bigger than laptops. Olhando o quadro ao lado, sublinhe as palavras ou expresses que especificam classificao:
There are three basic types of portable computers: (a) laptops, which run as fast as desktop PCs; (b) notebooks, which are as tiny as a notebook, and (c) handheld computers, which are used as Personal Digital Assistants . Some handheld PCs are hybrids, consisting of a phone and a PDA. Others include a small keyboard and a stylus to input data.

Leia as frases abaixo e identifique todos os padres de classificao, distribuindo-os depois na coluna correta:
a. There are two classes of personal computers: (a) desktop PCs, and (b) portable PCs. b. A computer system consists of two parts: hadware and software.

Expresses usadas para classificar do especfico para o geral: traffic ( trnsito em ingls, trfico em portugus ) a type of ... is / are an example of a kind of parts components ... constitute ... make up ...from

Curso de Sistemas de Informao Ingls Instrumental I


From general to specific From specific to general
c. The basic structure of a PC is made up of three hadware sections: the CPU, the main memory and the peripherals. d. e. f. The Control Unit, the ALU and the registers make up the CPU of a computer. The RAM and Rom constitute the main memory. A DVD is a type of disk.

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