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Enzymes for Textile

At Maps, we continuously develop our product line in order to have innovative enzymes with unique performance features for existing and new applications within the textile industry. Our R&D aims to provide innovative products for fabric treatment reducing process time, chemical consumption and energy costs in compliance with sustainable development. We provide a range of enzymes like amylases, cellulases, catalase, pectinase and protease for various textile wet-processing applications like desizing, bio-polishing, denim finishing, bleach cleanup, bio-scouring and de-wooling.

Desizing
For fabrics made from cotton or blends, the warp threads are coated with an adhesive substance know as 'size; to prevent the threads breaking during weaving. Although many different compounds have been used to size fabrics, starch and its derivatives have been the most common sizing agent. After weaving, the size must be removed again in order to prepare the fabric for dyeing and finishing. This process (desizing) must be carried out by treating the fabric with chemicals such as acids, alkali or oxidising agents. However starchbreaking enzymes (amylases) are preferred for desizing due to their high efficiency and specific action. Amylases bring about complete removal of the size without any harmful effects on the fabric. Another benefit of enzymes compared to strong chemicals mentioned above is that enzymes are environment friendly.

Maps offers a range of amylases for desizing which work at different temperatures and for different equipments. Palkozyme Palkozyme Palkozyme Palkozyme Palkozyme Alpha amylase for low-medium temperature conventional desizing. Alpha amylase for low-medium temperature desizing Alpha amylase for high temperature desizing Heat-stable alpha amylase for high temperature desizing Alpha amylase for low temperature desizing | TOP |

Ultra Plus HT CLX

Bio-Polishing
Cotton and other natural fibres based on cellulose can be improved by an enzymatic treatment known as BioPolishing. This treatment gives the fabric a smoother and glossier appearance. The treatment is used to remove 'fuzz' - the tiny strands of fibre that protrude from the surface of yarn. A ball of fuzz is called a 'pill' in the textile trade. After BioPolishing, the fuzz and pilling are reduced. The other benefits of removing fuzz are a softer and smoother handle, and superior colour brightness.

Maps offers a range of cellulases for bio-polishing which work on depending on fibre, fabric type and equipments. Palkofeel Palkofeel C Palkosoft Cellulase for bio-polishing cotton and blended fabric and garment Cellulase for bio-polishing cotton fabric and garments Cellulase for bio-polishing cotton and blended fabric and garment | TOP |

Denim Finishing
Many garments are subjected to a wash treatment to give them a slightly worn look; example is the stonewashing of denim jeans. In the traditional stonewashing process, the blue denim was faded by the abrasive action of pumice stones on the garment surface. Nowadays, denim finishers are using a special cellulase. Cellulase works by loosening the indigo dye on the denim in a process know as 'Bio-Stonewashing'. A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones. The use of less pumice stones results in less damage to garment, machine and less pumice dust in the laundry environment. BioStonewashing has opened up new possibilities in denim finishing by increasing the variety of finishes available. For example, it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree without running the risk of damaging the garment. Productivity can also be increased because laundry machines contain fewer stones or no stones and more garments.

Maps offers a range of cellulases for denim finishing, each with its own special properties. These can be used either alone or in combination with pumice stones in order to obtain a specific look. Palkowash Palkostone Palkocel Cellulase for bio-stonewashing denims used in garment wet-processing Cellulase for bio-stonewashing denims used in garment wet-processing Cellulase for bio-stonewashing denims used in garment wet-processing | TOP |

Bleach Clean-up
Natural fabrics such as cotton are normally bleached with hydrogen peroxide before dyeing. Bleaches are highly reactive chemicals and any peroxide left on the fabric can interfere with the dyeing process. A thorough 'Bleach Cleanup' is necessary. The traditional method is to neutralize the bleach with a reducing agent, but the dose has to be controlled precisely. Enzymes present a more convenient alternative because they are easier and quicker to use. A small dose of catalase is capable of breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Compared with the traditional cleanup methods, the enzymatic process results in cleaner waste water or reduced water consumption.

Maps offer catalase for removing residual hydrogen peroxide after the bleaching of cotton. It reduces the rinsing necessary to remove bleach or it can be used to replace chemical treatments. Palkoperox Catalase for bleach clean-up i.e. removal residual hydrogen peroxide after the bleaching of cotton. | TOP |

Bio-Scouring
Cotton yarn or fabric, prior to dyeing or printing, goes through a number of processes in a textile processing unit. A very important process is scouring. In this process, non-cellulosic components from native cotton are completely or partially removed. Scouring gives a fabric with a high and even wet ability so that it can be bleached and dyed successfully. Today, highly alkaline chemicals caustic soda are used for scouring. These chemicals not only remove the non-cellulosic impurities from the cotton, but also attack the cellulose leading

to heavy strength loss and weight loss in the fabric. Furthermore, using these hazardous chemicals result in high COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biological oxygen demand) and TDS, in the waste water Recently a new enzymatic scouring process know as 'Bio-Scouring' is used in textile wet-processing with which all non-cellulosic components from native cotton are completely or partially removed. After this Bio-Scouring process, the cotton has an intact cellulose structure, with lower weight loss and strength loss. The fabric gives better wetting and penetration properties, making subsequent bleach process easy and resultantly giving much better dye uptake.

Maps offers multi-component enzyme for bio-scouring Palkoscour Multi-component enzyme for bio-scouring i.e. complete or partial removal of non-cellulosic components from native cotton

Enzymes
At Maps, we produce are a versatile range of enzymes like amylases, proteases, cellulases, xylanase, beta glucanase, glucoamylase and Catalase; using the most sophisticated fermentation technologies. We are Indias largest producer and exporter of industrial enzymes. We sells a complex portfolio of nearly 60+ enzyme products for industries like Textile, Leather, Baking, Alcohol, Brewing, Detergent, Starch and Animal feed. Every year, about 5 new products are launched on the market; either completely new type of enzyme or existing enzymes adapted for new applications. To know more about industrial applications of our enzymes you can review below links which give a comprehensive presentation of industries, applications and products. To learn more about enzymes, there history and the way they are made, you can review the Know Enzymes section

Textile
We provides a range of enzymes like amylases, cellulases, catalase, pectinase and protease for various textile wet-processing applications like desizing, bio-polishing, denim finishing, bleach cleanup, bio-scouring and de-wooling. We continuously develop our product line in order to have innovative enzymes with unique performance features for existing and new applications within the textile industry. Our R&D aims to provide innovative products for fabric treatment reducing process time, chemical consumption and energy costs in compliance with sustainable development. | TOP |

Leather
The leather industry is another major market for Maps enzymes. Maps offers a total enzyme solution for bating, un-haring, degreasing and soaking in the beam-house processes. With the introduction of our new range of products based on Microorganisms, we assure to provide clean and green leather tanneries. | TOP |

Baking / Alcohol / Brewing

Over the recent years, Maps has built up considerable expertise in enzymes for the baking, alcohol and brewing industries. Some notable successes are the launching of xylanase enzyme for baking industry and beta glucanase enzyme for brewing industry. | TOP |

Detergent
The main application of enzymes is in heavy-duty detergents for household laundry. The majority of enzymes used in laundry detergents are proteases for removing protein stains. They are often used in combination with amylases for removing starch. Maps has successful launched protease and lipase for detergents. | TOP |

Starch
Starch processing is one of the oldest areas for the application of enzymes. For instance, dextrose, high fructose corn syrups are made using enzymes. They act as a substitute for ordinary sugar in food and beverage processing. Maps future work in starch processing will focus on optimising processes by developing improved enzymes. | TOP |

Animal feed
This is a large industry characterised by rapid growth in the use of enzymes, which are now accepted as a standard ingredient in many parts of the world. Maps has a range enzymes specially designed for degrading different feed components in order to improve the digestibility of nutrients. | TOP |

New developments
There are a number of other industries with significant potential of enzymes. This year, Maps is in the process to develop some unique new enzymes for the pulp and paper industry where enzymes can be used in the bleaching of pulp or in the de-inking of waste paper for recycling. We shall also launching new enzymes for the textile and leather industry for applications shall be de-gumming in textile and anti-wrinkle in leather. Apart from these, emphasis is put to develop enzymes for application in food and beverage industries.

Know Enzymes
Enzymes are miracles of nature
Enzymes are large protein molecules, and like other proteins, they are made up of long chains of amino acids. Enzymes are present in all living things, where they perform the essential functions of converting food to energy and new cell material. Enzymes are bio-catalyst and can be used to speed up chemical processes or to make reactions take place that otherwise would not. Enzymes do this by binding to the starting material (substrate), catalysing the reactions, and then releasing themselves from the products so that they can react again. Although the enzyme is not consumed in the reaction, it does lose its activity over time and so eventually needs to be replenished.

Compared with other ways of controlling chemical reactions enzymes are more specific, more efficient and work under milder conditions. When enzymes are used in an industrial process, these characteristics can often be used to achieve higher purity and better yields while saving on energy. Enzymes can be classified by the types of substrates they work on. Proteases works on proteins, carbohydrases (amylases) work on carbohydrates, cellulases work on cellulose and lipases work on lipids. They can also be classified by the types of reactions they catalyse. Hydrolases split molecules, synthetases join them and tranferases move groups of atoms from one molecule to another. Over two thousand different enzymes have been identified, and several hundreds are available commercially, but so far only 25 are produced on an industrial scale. Some enzymes are still derived from plants and animals, including papain from papayas and rennet from calf stomachs. But the last 100 years, and especially since mid 1960s, microorganisms have become the most important source of enzymes. Microorganisms can be selected to produce almost any kind of enzyme in almost any quantity. What are Enzymes? History of Enzymes How are Enzymes made?

What are Enzymes?


Enzymes are proteins and biocatalyst
Enzymes, like other proteins, consist of long chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital function by controlling the metabolic processes, whereby nutrients are converted into energy and new cells. Moreover, enzymes take part in the breakdown of food materials into simpler compounds. As commonly known, enzymes are found in the digestive tract where pepsin, trypsin and peptidases break down proteins into amino acids, lipases split fats into glycerol and fatty acids, and amylases break down starch into simple sugars. Enzymes are biocatalyst, and by their mere presence, and without being consumed in the process, enzymes can speed up chemical processes that would otherwise run very slowly. After the reaction is complete, the enzyme is released again, ready to start another reaction. In principle, this could go on forever, but in practically most catalysts have a limited stability, and over a period of time they lose, their activity and are not usable again. Generally, most enzymes are used only once and discarded after; they have done their job.

Enzymes are specific and work in mild conditions


Enzymes are very specific in comparison to inorganic catalysts such as acids, bases, metals and metal oxides. Enzyme can break down particular compounds. In some cases, their action is limited to specific bonds in the compounds with which, they react. The molecule(s) that an enzyme acts on is known as its substrate(s), which is converted into a product or products. A part of large enzyme molecule will reversibly bind to the substrate(s) and then a specialised part(s) of the enzyme will catalyse the specific change necessary to change the substrate into a product. For each type of reaction in a cell there is a different enzyme and they are classified into six broad categories namely hydrolytic, oxidising and reducing, synthesising, transferring, lytic and isomerising. During industrial process, the specific action of enzymes allows high yields to be obtained with a minimum of unwanted by-products. Enzymes can work at atmospheric pressure and in mild conditions with respect to temperature and acidity (pH). Most enzymes function optimally at a temperature of 30?C-70?C and at pH values, which are near the neutral point (pH 7). Now-a-days, special enzymes have been developed that work at higher temperatures for specific applications.

Enzyme processes are potentially energy saving and save investing in special equipment resistant to heat, pressure or corrosion. Enzymes, due to their efficiency, specific action, the mild conditions in which they work and their high biodegradability, they are very well suited for a wide range of industrial applications. | TOP |

Enzymes are part of a sustainable environment


As mentioned earlier, enzymes are present in all biological systems. They come from natural systems, and when they are degraded the amino acids of which they are made can be readily absorbed back into nature. Enzymes work only on renewable raw materials. Fruit, cereals, milk, fats, meat, cotton, leather and wood are some typical candidates for enzymatic conversion in industry. Both the usable products and the waste of most enzymatic reactions are non-toxic and readily broken down. Finally, industrial enzymes can be produced in an ecologically sound way where the waste sludge is recycled as fertiliser. | TOP |

Enzymes and industrial applications


Maps produces industrial enzymes originating from microorganisms in the soil. Microorganisms are usually bacteria, fungi or yeast. One microorganism contains over 1,000 different enzymes. A long period of trial and error in the laboratory is needed to isolate the best microorganism for producing a particular type of enzyme. When the right microorganism has been found, it has to be modified so that it is capable of producing the desired enzyme at high yields. Then the microorganism is 'grown' in trays or huge fermentation tanks where it produces the desired enzyme. With the latest technological advancements of fermenting microorganisms, it possible to produce enzymes economically and in virtually unlimited quantities. The end product of fermentation is a broth from which the enzymes are extracted. After this, the remaining fermentation broth is centrifuged or filtered to remove all solid particles. The resulting biomass, or sludge in everyday language, contains the residues of microorganisms and raw materials, which can be a very good natural fertiliser. The enzymes are then, used for various industrial applications.

History of Enzymes
The history of modern enzyme technology really began in 1874 when the Danish chemist Christian Hansen produced the first specimen of rennet by extracting dried calves' stomachs with saline solution. Apparently this was the first enzyme preparation of relatively high purity used for industrial purposes. This significant event had been preceded by a lengthy evolution. Enzymes have been used by man throughout the ages, either in the form of vegetables rich in enzymes, or in the form of microorganisms used for a variety of purposes, for instance in brewing processes, in baking, and in the production of alcohol. It is generally known that enzymes were already used in the production of cheese since old times. Even though the action of enzymes has been recognised and enzymes have been used throughout history, it was quite recently that their importance were realised. Enzymatic processes, particularly fermentation, were the focus of numerous studies in the 19th century and many valuable discoveries in this field were made. A particularly important experiment was the isolation of the enzyme complex from malt by Payen and Persoz in 1833. This extract, like malt itself, converts gelatinised starch into sugars, primarily into maltose, and was termed 'diastase'.

Development progressed during the following decades, particularly in the field of fermentation where the achievements by Schwann, Liebig, Pasteur and Kuhne were of the greatest importance. The dispute between Liebig and Pasteur concerning the fermentation process caused much heated debate. Liebig claimed that fermentation resulted from chemical process and that yeast was a nonviable substance continuously in the process of breaking down. Pasteur, on the other hand, argued that fermentation did not occur unless viable organisms were present. The dispute was finally settled in 1897, after the death of both adversaries, when the Buchner brothers demonstrated that cell free yeast extract could convert glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide just like viable yeast cells. In other words, the conversion was not ascribable to yeast cells as such, but to their nonviable enzymes. In 1876, William Kuhne proposed that the name 'enzyme' be used as the new term to denote phenomena previously known as 'unorganised ferments', that is, ferments isolated from the viable organisms in which they were formed. The word itself means 'in yeast' and is derived from the Greek 'en' meaning 'in', and 'zyme' meaning 'yeast' or 'leaven'. | TOP |

Early developments in Japan


During the early part of this century, enzyme technology was also developing slowly but surely outside Europe. In the Far East, an age-old tradition prevailed where mould fungi, the so-called koji, were (and still are) used in the production of certain foodstuffs and flavour additives based on soya protein (shoyu, miso, tempeh) and fermented beverages (sake, alcohol). Koji is prepared from steamed rice into which a mixture of mould fungi is inoculated, the composition of the mixture being passed down from generation to generation. This formed the basis which the Japanese scientist Takamine developed a fermentation process for the industrial production of fungal amylase; the process included the culture of Aspergillus oryzae on moist rice or wheat bran. The product was called 'Takadiastase' and it is still used as a digestive aid. The method of fermentation suggested by Takamine, the 'surface culture' or 'semisolid culture is still actively used in the production of various enzymes. | TOP |

Textile Desizing
At about the same time as Takamine was developing his novel fermentation technique, another field was being opened up for the use of enzymes - the desizing of textiles. Previously, textiles were treated with acid, alkali or oxidising agents, or soaked in water for several days so that naturally occurring microorganisms could break down the starch. However, both of these methods were difficult to control and sometimes damaged or discoloured the material. It represented great progress, therefore, when crude enzyme extracts in the form of malt extract, or later, in the form of pancreas extract, were first used to carry out desizing. Bacterial amylase derived from Bacillus subtilis was used for desizing, the first time by Boidin and Effront as early as 1917. | TOP |

Leather Bating
Investigations carried out by the German chemist and industrial magnate Otto Rohm before World War I were of great importance for the further development of the industrial use of enzymes. Among other things, he studied the so called 'bating' process, a step in the preparation of hides and skins prior to tanning.

According to tradition, bating required the excrement of dogs and pigeons, a fact that did not improve the image of tanning which was considered a stinking and unpleasant activity. Rohm's theory was that these excrements exerted their effect because they contained residual amounts of the animals' digestive enzymes. If this was so, it might be possible to use extracts of the pancreas directly for bating. Such extracts were tried and produced the expected positive results. Naturally, Rohm accepted this as confirmation of the correctness of his theory, but later experiments showed that it was not the animals' enzymes that were active, but rather enzymes of bacteria growing in the intestinal tract. | TOP |

The first detergent enzyme


Parallel to his studies of the problems involved in tanning, Rohm investigated other processes where enzymes would prove even more valuable. Nevertheless, his efforts were not to score a success until 50 years later. Rohm actually developed the first method for washing protein stained cloth in detergents containing enzymes and manufactured the first detergent preparation containing enzymes. The enzyme preparation used was pancreatin (extracted from pancreatic glands), which contains the protein degrading enzyme trypsin. Breakthrough in detergents was made in 1959, when a Swiss chemist Dr. Jaag, developed a new product called Bio 40 containing a bacterial protease instead of trypsin. | TOP |

Sugars from starch


A very important field in which enzymes have proved to be of great value over the last 15-20 years is the starch industry. In 1950s, fungal amylase was used in the manufacture of specific types of syrup, i.e., those containing a range of sugars, which could not be produced by conventional acid hydrolysis. The real turning point was reached early in the 1960s when an enzyme glucoamylase, was launched for the first time, which could completely break down starch into glucose. Within a few years, almost all glucose production was reorganised and enzyme hydrolysis was used instead of acid hydrolysis because of the more benefits such as greater yield, higher degree of purity and easier crystallisation. The process was further improved by the introduction of a new technique used for the enzymatic pre-treatment (liquefaction) of starch by using a heat-stable alpha amylase. Years of research in biochemistry and biotechnology have boosted knowledge of enzymes for industries as well as research. Many new techniques have been established to modify enzymes or increase their yields. New techniques for purification of enzymes are constantly developing and so are being discovered new application of enzymes in medicine, research and industries. The success and importance of using enzymes in a variety of modern industrial processes is illustrated by the applications described under Enzymes section

How are Enzymes made?


The starting point for enzyme production is a vial of a selected strain of microorganisms. They will be nurtured and fed until they multiply many thousand times. Then the desired end-product is recovered from the fermentation broth and sold as a standardised product.

A single bacteria or fungus is able to produce only a very small portion of the enzyme, but billions microorganisms, however, can produce large amounts of enzyme. The process of multiplying microorganisms by millions is called fermentation. Fermentation to produce industrial enzymes starts with a vial of dried or frozen microorganisms called a production strain. One very important aspect of fermentation is sterilisation. In order to cultivate a particular production strain, it is first necessary to eliminate all the native microorganisms present in the raw materials and equipment. If proper sterilisation is not done, other wild organisms will quickly outnumber the production strain and no production will occur. The production strain is first cultivated in a small flask containing nutrients. The flask is placed in an incubator, which provides the optimal temperature for the microorganism cells to germinate. Once the flask is ready, the cells are transferred to a seed fermenter, which is a large tank containing previously sterilised raw materials and water known as the medium. Seed fermentation allows the cells to reproduce and adapt to the environment and nutrients that will be encountered later on. After the seed fermentation, the cells are transferred to a larger tank, the main fermenter, where fermentation time, temperature, pH and air are controlled to optimise growth. When this fermentation is complete, the mixture of cells, nutrients and enzymes, called the broth, is ready for filtration and purification. Filtration and purification termed as downstream processing is done after enzyme fermentation. The enzymes are extracted from the fermentation broth by various chemical treatments to ensure efficient extraction, followed by removal of the broth using either centrifugation or filtration. Followed by a series of other filtration processes, the enzymes are finally separated from the water using an evaporation process. After this the enzymes are formulated and standardised in form of powder, liquid or granules. At Maps, we believe that our enzyme products should have a stable activity, storage comfort and most importantly be safe to use.

BIO POLISHING ENZYME

anced Enzyme system for the cotton fabric / garment finishing industry . The active ingredients of TLP SOFT are cellulolytic ntation of non pathogenic moulds of the Trichoderma species.

ishing of Cotton , Viscose , Jute , Flax , Polynosics , Ramje , Tencel to produce a range of Bio finished effects.

io polishing of Cotton twills , Chinos , Knits etc fabrics / garments and also in low mechanical friction wet y's.

NZYMES:

LP SOFT has a high dose response which provides the flexibility of varying dose , pH temperature and time to

brasion from light to heavy.

xillary Chemicals TLP SOFT is compatible with most other processing aids , including Non-ionic surfactants , ce stones , Abrasive powder , Diatomaceous earth etc.

ations , the enzyme creates an improved hand increases softness , eliminates dead and immature Cotton , removes pill formation on cellulosic fabric.

lications , the enzyme treatment can be used for general bio polishing to remove surface hairyness and impart a rface. Bio polishing treatment can be given prior to dyeing or after dyeing treatment after dyeing results in partial he fabric . While treatment before dyeing improves the colour yield along with the hand feel.

omprises of three main steps :

s required for consistent performance in case of Denims. In case of other cotton fabrics proper stripping of finishing suitable wetting agent or 0.1 % HCL . M.L's DEL DESIZING is recommended for the removal of starch sizing materials.

ewetting is recommended before Bio finishing.

Liquor is drained and rinsed once with plain water. The fabric / garment is then steeped in water at a ratio of approximately he water is then raised to 55 Deg C ( 131 Deg F ) and the pH of the water is adjusted to 4.5 with Acetic Acid .

ecommended level of 0.5 to 1 % based on fabric / garment weight. Biowashing is then carried out for a period of 45 to 90 t desired ensuring that the temperature is maintained between 50 to 55 Deg C. It is imperative to ensure that the 5 Deg C ( 131 Deg F ) in order to prevent destabilization of the Enzyme system.Non Ionic wetting Agents may be added in der to enhance the performance of Enzymes

PERATIONAL RANGE

0 - 55 Deg C

5 - 5.5

10

5 - 1%

5 - 60 minutes

8 to 1:15

h is evaluated by the required appearance, removal of surface protruding fibre , the liquor is drained and the fabric / garment water to remove the surplus dye .The fabric / garment is then washed with a mild detergent for approximately 5 minutes. At is drained and the material is rinsed with plain water followed with a 5 minutes wash with an optical brightener and a suitable

hite coloured powder in standard 25 Kgs HDPE Drum.

preferably cool and dry place. Care must be taken to ensure that the containers are kept closed after use to prevent moisture ndling instructions are available on request.

mmended storage conditions for a period of 6 months with less than 10% drop in activity. M.L.s standard assay method for request.

.LTD provides technical assistance related to application of enzymes in the textile industry.

ng Enzymes

n-made cellulosic fibres can be improved by an enzymatic treatment called Bio-Polishing. The main advantage of Bio-Polishing is the ydrolyse the microfibrils (hairs or fuzz) protruding from the surface of yarn because they are most susceptible to enzymatic attack. This nd to break off from the main body of the fibre and leave a smoother yarn surface. A ball of fuzz is called a 'pill' in the textile trade. These problem since they result in an unattractive, knotty fabric appearance. After Bio-Polishing, the fabric shows a much lower pilling tendency. e a softer, smoother feel and superior colour brightness. Unlike conventional softeners, which tend to be washed out and often result in a g effects of Bio-Polishing are washproof and non-greasy. AETLs Sebrite series is much effective to impart pill proof biopolishing on woven s. Sebrite also gives high color retention.

Polishing is optional for upgrading the fabric. However, Bio-Polishing is almost essential for the new polynosic fibre lyocell (the leading Tencel). Lyocell is made from wood pulp and is characterised by a tendency to fibrillate easily when wet. In simple terms, fibrils on the y are not removed, finished garments made with lyocell will end up covered in pills. This is the reason why lyocell fabric is treated with ses also enhance the attractive, silky appearance of lyocell. Lyocell was invented in 1991 by Courtaulds Fibres (now Acordis, part of Akzo new man-made fibre for 30 years. Addcool series is best suitable for biopolishing of lyocell as it works at pH 5.5 6.0 and temperature 30 abric and high quality finish.

her fibres based on cellulose came first, but in 1995 enzymes were also introduced for the Bio-Polishing of wool. Wool is made of protein otease that modifies the woolfibres. 'Facing up' is the trade term for the ruffling up of the surface of wool garments by abrasive action during ces facing up, which significantly improves the pilling performance of garments and increases softness. Proteases or Sebrite WDE of hreads of raw silk must be degummed to remove sericin, a proteinaceous substance that covers the silk fibre. Traditionally, degumming is

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ontaining soap. This is a harsh treatment because the fibre itself, the fibrin, is also attacked. However, the use of proteolytic enzymes is a ve the sericin without attacking the fibrin. Tests with high concentrations of enzymes show that there is no fibre damage and the silk threads eatments.

ng Enzymes

of lightweight pumice stones on the garment surface, which removes some of the dye. However, too much abrasion can damage the fabric, This is why denim finishers today use acid, hybrid or neutral cellulases to accelerate the abrasion by loosening the indigo dye on the me can replace several kilograms of stones, the use of fewer stones results in less damage to garments, less wear on machines, and less ment. Productivity can also be increased through laundry machines containing fewer stones but more garments. With a stone-free process, d small stones from the finished garment is reduced. There is also no sediment in the wastewater, which can otherwise block drains. Denim ch adheres to the surface of the yarn. The cellulase molecule binds to an exposed fibril (bundles of fibrils make up a fibre) on the surface of ving the interior part of the cotton fibre intact. When the cellulases partly hydrolyse the surface of the fibre, the indigo is partly removed and

ne Series designed by AETL acting at pH 6-8, acid cellulases (Denicell Series) acting at pH 4-6 and hybrid cellulases (Addcool sed for the abrasion of denim. There are a number of cellulases available, each with its own special properties. These can be used either obtain a specific look. Application research in this area is focused on preventing or enhancing backstaining depending on the style required. eposition of released indigo onto the garments. This effect is very important in denim finishing. Backstaining at low pH values (pH 4-6) is cantly lower in the towards neutral pH range. Neutral cellulases are therefore often used when the objective is minimal backstaining. Hybrid energy cost as processing can be done at ambient or room temperature conditions.

orry now a days due to availability of effective anti backstaining agents based on chemicals. AETL is one of the first companies to introduce tain Clear Series), unlike chemical agents which are used to prevent backstaining. Products are based on blends of different proteases,

ssibilities in denim finishing by increasing the variety of finishes available. For example, it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree ng the garment. This can be effectively done by using enzymes like Laccase or peroxidase replacing bleaching chemicals like hydrogen ses introduced by AETL as Ecowash BB are further advantageous over Laccase as it has to be used in neutral pH 6 7 and temperature driven by fashion trends. The various cellulases available for modifying the surface of denim give fashion designers a pallet of possibilities hes. The combination of new looks, lower costs, shorter treatment times and less solid waste has made abrasion with enzymes the most Incidentally, since the denim fabric is always sized, the complete process also includes desizing of the denim garment.

Anti-pilling finish:
Home

>>Textile Finishes

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hing:

an-made cellulosic fibers develop pills or protruding fibers during spinning, weaving and wet processing operations, due

he appearance of the yarn or fabric to be dull and hazy. In order to improve the appearance it is necessary to either

to cement it to the surface properly by the application of some over coating.

o-polishing)?

an-made cellulosic fibers can be improved by an enzymatic treatment called Bio-Polishing. The main advantage of Bio-

ling.

e micro fibrils (hairs or fuzz or pills) protruding from the surface of yarn because they are most susceptible to enzymatic

fibrils, which tend to break off from the main body of the fiber and leave a smoother yarn surface.

hows a much lower pilling tendency. Other benefits of removing fuzz are a softer, smoother feel and superior brightness

ke conventional softeners, which tend to be washed out and often result in a greasy feel, the softness-enhancing effects

and non-greasy.

o-Polishing is optional for upgrading the fabric. However, Bio-Polishing is almost essential for the new polynosic fiber

ood pulp and is characterized by a tendency to fibrillate easily when wet. In simple terms, fibrils on the surface of the

moved, finished garments made with lyocell will end up covered in pills. This is the reason why lyocell fabric is treated with

ulases also enhance the attractive, silky appearance of lyocell.

this treatment features a protease that modifies the wool fibers. 'Facing up' is the trade term for the ruffling up of the

rasive action during dyeing. Enzymatic treatment reduces facing up, which significantly improves the pilling performance

ness.

at silk. Threads of raw silk must be degummed to remove sericin, a proteinaceous substance that covers the silk fiber.

formed in an alkaline solution containing soap. This is a harsh treatment because the fiber itself, the fibrin, is also

roteolytic enzymes is a better method because they remove the sericin without attacking the fibrin. Tests with high

w that there is no fiber damage and the silk threads are stronger than with traditional treatments.

etics and blends):

enon usually associated with spun yarn fabrics, especially when they contain polyester. Fibers are released from the

and they combine together at the surface of the material to form knots known as pills.

ng tendency. However, following treatment also can impart anti-pilling to the fabric.

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ater Proof/Rot Proof

d/Water Proof/Water Proof

d/Collar Lining Finish

ardant Finish

nd Water Proof finish


>>Textile Finishes s Sequence for Dyed Water Proof finish:
Scouring/Bleaching/Dyeing fabric proof mixture fabric fabric --- in Jumbo Jiggers

ater Repellant Finish

hnique of soil release finish application.

me

--- Cylinder Drying Machine --- 3 bowl padding mangle - 2 dips and 2 nips --- Cylinder Drying Machine --- in Cylinder Drying Machine

Proofed fabric --- in Jumbo Jiggers

of operations that is being carried out in Canvas Processing Units.

and Dyeing of Canvas Fabric:

g by it name itself is making the fabric leak proof when some water quantity is store over the fabric surface. So the process is filling the total coating and make it leak proof.

with an anionic wetting agent followed by a peroxide bleach for a short duration is the over all scouring and bleaching operation put together.

n jiggers for a maximum period of 45 to 60 minutes. and wetting agents is the next process. A hot wash - 2 ends and a cold wash 2 ends, will do.

the next step. An usual practice is use of 1 to 1.5% w/w of Acetic acid at room temperature is employed.

for as a quality manufacturing of weather proof canvas is concerned. Vat dyeing takes place for around 60 minutes. (oxidation and

rther 1 hour time).

erred by you, then you can choose a padding operation rather than exhaust sequence. If compatibility is checked against the proofing

ell do bother pigment padding and proofing in single step. However a thorough scouring and bleaching operation are essential for

gment.

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method of water proofing is a two stage process. (1) Application of water proofing emulsion over th padding mangle - followed by cylinder drying at 110 to 130C. (2) Fixing treatment of the proof

h a concentrated solution of Aluminium or Zirconium Acetate or Formate. After the fixing treatment a thorough rinse on running cold water i

inium salts.

ove the moisture content of the fabric on a Cylinder Drying Machine essential.

ric to cool is also essential.

can easily pass a Cone Test of 24 hours.

d Water Proof fabric:

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s Required: to very heavy fabrics for bleaching, a continuous processing may not yield expected quality results. The best

ow: Drying Machine, (3) 3 bowl - Padding Mangle

r followed by cylinder drying, water proof emulsion padding and drying - are the main process route for this variety

ouring agent would be employed in combination with caustic soda, hydrogen peroxide and stabilizer. The bleaching

djusted as per the requirement and would be carried out for a minimum period of 90 to 120 minutes. A thorough

ing off are essential steps for good water proofing finish.

g, a cationic wax emulsion is employed along with necessary quantity of paraffin wax and French chalk filler powder.

m a homogeneous thick padding solution. Guar gum or CMC is used as a thickening and binding agent for holding

uspension.

of material would not be manufactured. The customer would prefer multiple specialty finishes, such as fire-

cessary chemicals would be included in the padding bath to impart the required qualities.

Waxol PA (ICI) = 100 gpl Paraffin wax = 20 gpl CMC (Cellpro MVB) = 10 gpl

n is made using all the above chemicals at a temperature of say 80C and applied on the fabric 2 dip 2 nip padding mangle at 70% expression. The padded fabric is dried either in cylinder or temperature of 100 to 110C. Then the dried fabric is again padded with a solution of Aluminium mate 75 gpl in a 2 dip 2 nip padding mangle and washed throghly in washers or jiggers

d Collar Lining Fabric

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me

>>Textile Finishes

Sequence:

e normally not so heavy enough like the tent manufacturing material. These are called canvas fabric because it

o a specified shape and form. Usually collar lining fabrics are of two types. Fusible and non-fusible collar lining.

e): Singe - Desize - Bleach - Mercerise are the regular process route for obtaining a suitable ishing. The stiff finish recipe for collar lining is as below:

Poly vinyl acetate emulsion (Appretan EM) =250 gpl Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) = 25 gpl Poly Ethylene Emulsion (PE) = 5 gpl Anticreasing Agent (Finish MA (VLF)) = 100 gpl Leucophor BFBI = 5 gpl Leucophor TBLF Magnesium Chloride = 1 gpl Citric Acid = 0.3 gpl Pad - Dry @ 110C - Cure @ 150C for 4 minutes.

Collar lining (Fusible) .

ollar lining materials have good market potential due to their versatility in application.

rise - Bleach or Singe - Desize - Bleach are the two simple sequences selected by the manufacturers of A prior stiff

Vinyl Alcohol and Poly Vinyl Acetate would help giving a body to the fabric to be coated. After proper drying, the

of, would be wound on spools of A - frames.

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sible Collar Lining).

ene fine granular powders are available in the market. One is called LDPE ( Low Density Poly Ethylene) and the

Density Poly Ethylene) powder. These are free-flowing powders. The key characteristic of this powder is its low

ng temperature helps to increase line speeds and lower energy costs.

powder coating machine would be like the one mentioned below.

12 - 25m/min 90kW, 380V, 50Hz - 160cm electronic components, intelligent temperature instrument, and motor speed converter unique fabric feeding device with selvedge calibrator and fabric opener finished product rate use a boiler keeping temperature difference of less than 2oC and stable powder point transfer chamber results in finished fabric having soft winding device allows for easy machine operation.

tardant Finishing
>>Textile Finishes

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Page-1

cy has witnessed a vigorous development of new technologies and new products and materials e needs of new industries-such as computer, electronics and telecommunication s are also used in health care settings, Intravenous pumps, hospital beds Hospital allenge is the growing awareness of environmental issues and the stiffening demands has been put forward by governments and public agencies. New flame-retardant systems are oduct and market demands.

s and testing methods, as well as instruments, are essential for assessing and defining these ons present new challenges to the flame-retardancy industry. With new fibers /blends rapidly uation, today manufacturer needs to be fully aware of new regulations and the products and em. Companies that adopt the latest technology will have the edge in providing superior nce of properties at the lowest possible price Synthetic polymers have largely replaced the use metallic materials in our homes, offices, automobiles and other public areas. These synthetic um based plastics that easily ignite, spread flames quickly and release toxicants when burned.

cause of property damage and of death. Standards are therefore set for electrical appliances, ny other materials to minimize these losses. To meet fire safety standards, products made of dified with flame retardant chemicals that inhibit the ignition and spread of flames. Recently, al of interest in providing effective flame retardants for normally flammable substrates. For erest in the development of flame retardant finish on synthetic fibers like polyester, nylon, disturbing the desirable physical characteristics of the fibers. Textiles consist of highly ignitable ary source of ignition. They contribute to rapid fire spread; however, reduction of ignitability can

als {Asbestos, Glass etc} ment with FR {Flame Retardant chemicals} the polymer. Types of Flame Retardants: Brominated flame retardants Chlorinated flame retardants Phosphorous-containing flame retardants {Phosphate ester such as Tri phenyl phosphate Nitrogen-containing flame retardants (i.e. Melamines) Inorganic flame retardants. These can be further classified as: 19

Inorganic, Organo Phosphorous, Halogenated organic and Nitrogen based compounds. 2: Halogenated organic flame retardants are further classified as containing either Chlorine or Bromine {Brominates Flame Retardants BFR} There are three types BFRs currently produced. These are Poly Brominated DiPhenyl Ethers {PBDE}, Tetra Bromo Bisphenol A {TBBPA} and Hexa Bromo Cyclodecane {HBCD} The PBDEs that are commonly used in products are Deca, Octa, and Penta BDE .The concentration of BFRs in products ranges from 5 to 30 % .Compounds containing Iodine are known, but of limited utility as flame retardants, due to their poor thermal stability and dark colour of iodine. Compounds containing Fluorine generally exist as functional polymers rather than materials to be added to other polymeric systems to provide flame retardancy. These polymers are oxidatively stable and only decompose at very high temperature. Antimony oxide is another important component flame retardant composition, containing halogen, particularly Chlorine and Bromine. It is totally ineffective if used with out halogen. The Tri oxide is the common material used although the Pentoxide can also use. The pentoxide has a much finer particle size and is more effective per unit weight added than the trioxide. Polyesters are very sensitive to residual acidity in all forms of antimony oxide. Alkaline salts of antimony oxides are used in these critical cases. Antimony oxide acts as synergists with chlorine and bromine. Antimony tri bromide is a dense white product and is one of the main components of the typical white smoke that is seen from burning polymers containing halogen and antimony oxide. High levels of water from normal combustion cause reversion of SbBr3 to HBR and Sb203.The remaining antimony oxide is then available to react with fresh HBR from decomposing brominated compound. Typically compounds used in flame retardant application contain either 40 to 70 % Chlorine or 45 to 80% Bromine, depending on the flame retardant requirements from 20 to 40 parts of Brominated compound would be used per 100 parts of polymer. Antimony oxide used is typically 1/4th to that of the halogenated material.

Many of the flame retardants do not remain on the fabric, instead they slowly leak

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from the products in the atmosphere. Brominated flame retardants are a subject of scrutiny. Evidence shows that they are likely to persist in the environment, bio accumulate in the food chain and finally in to our bodies. A survey of the newer flame retardants suggests a simple theory for their constitution. The molecule should be water-insoluble to achieve durability in laundering. A solvent-soluble organic molecule will give better results. The ortho-phosphate group should be present in the molecule to dehydrate catalytically the cellulose substrate. The molecule should contain polymerizable groups to effect a permanency of finish. The molecule should contain halogen or other groupings to reduce the flammability of the gases of decomposition. When chemical free alternative materials or designs are not feasible, non halogenated flame retardants can be used to meet fire safety standards. Numerous alternatives are available. It is also confirmed that flame retardants based on Aluminum Trioxide, Ammonium Polyphosphates and Red phosphorous are less problemasimple recipe on water repellaet finish (DWR):
Water repellency or durable shower proofing is an important finishing process. It is usually applied to fabrics for outerwear where an excellent wash fastness is expected. Also, often internal resin treatment is required to be given to the same fabric. Both finishes can be combined. Recipe Dimethyl Dihydroxy Ethylene Urea - 40-60 g/l Ziroconium salt-containing wax emulsion - 60 g/l Reactive Softener - 60 g/l Magnesium chloride. - l0 g/l Pad, dry and cure at 150oC for 5 min. For further reading on water repellent finish

tic in the environmentWhat is Soil Release Finish?


Durable press fabrics containing polyester fibres are known to show tendency to retain stains and also attract soil from the wash liquor during washing. This is due to hydrophobic nature of these fabrics. Various soil-release agents have been developed. These are described as durable film

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forming polymers containing polymer groups which are capable of hydrogen bonding with water. These finishes are applied by a pad-cure process along with the resin.

Treatment of synthetic fibers with hydrophilic polymers is in general called soil release finishing, which makes the soil adhereing the hydrophobic fibers more accessible to water and easily removable. The fluorocarbons use dfor this purpose are dual action fluro polymers containing hydrophilic hydrocarbons as well as perfluroalkyl groups. These finishes are generally applied to synthetic fibers which are generally prone to soiling. When a finished fabric is immersed in a liquid, hydrophilic hydrocarbon groups orient towards polar aqueous environement and flurocarbon groups collapse below the surface promoting the release of stains. Thus easy removal of stains takes place when the fabric is subjected to laundering. This finish can be applied by pad-dry-cure method along with durable press finish. Although these finishes are the most expensive ones, they are the most widely used because of ther performance, comfortability with durable press finish and not side effects.
Antistatic Finishing: During spinning, weaving and finishing, textile fibres, yarns and fabrics are subjected to friction. Static electricity is thus generated on the fibre. Polyester fibre has low conduction hence it accumulates static electricity. Static electricity gives rise to a number of problems. For instance, the operator at the delivery end of a stenter may get electric shocks because of static electricity. Garments made of polyester fibres attract soil during normal wear and also have a tendency to cling to the body of the wearer. Non-durable antistatic agents are usually hygroscopic surface-active materials, closely allied in composi6on to softeners and wetting agents. A permanent antistatic finish can be given by using a combination of a cationic and an anionic compound. Cationic quaternary ammonium compound - 3-4% Acetic acid (30%) - 0.5-1 cc/l

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Treat the fabric with the above composition for 10-20 min at 70'C (in a jigger). Then add (anionic alkyl sulphate) - 1.6-2.2% Continue treatment for another 10-20 min. Dry and cure if required.

.
Bio-polishing Agent

Product Name
Finozyme AX

Properties/Uses
A specially designed enzyme for application in superior BioFinishing Process and Denimwashing of all cellulosic fabrics both woven and knits

FINOZYME AX FINOZYME AX is a specially designed eco-friendly liquid Acid Cellulase Enzyme (Carbohydrase Enzyme) of Trichoderma sp. produced in a state-of-the-art fermentation facility FINOZYME AX is specially designed for application in superior BioFinishing Process and Denim washing of all cellulosic fabrics both woven and knits. CHARACTERISTICS: Appearance Odour pH : : Amber coloured clear and viscous liquid. Mild fermentation odour 4.5 4.9

SPECIAL FEATURES: More effectively removes fuzz and cotton pill balls from fabric/ garment compared to most other acid cellulases. The cutting effect is very obvious. Exhibits low colour bleeding properties compared to regular acid cellulases. when

Clean Finish

Low Colour Bleeding Softness Flexibility in finish

Significantly softens cellulosic fabric/ garment with reduced strength loss. Versatile looks and finish can be achieved by varying the dosage and process parameters.

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Natural Look

Yields permanent softness and luster to the fabric / garment and improves the general look

FINOZYME AX is active at a broad range of pH (3.5 to 6.5) and temperature (45 to 65 deg.C).

1. BioFinishing Process: FINOZYME AX hydrolyses the microfibrils of fabric/ garment thereby effectively removing fuzz/ pill ball and imparts a smoother and polished appearance to surface of fabric/ garment. PARAMETERS OPERATIONAL RANGES Temperature 50 60 deg.C PH 4.5 5.0; best at 4.8 Liquid ratio to goods

Fabric 8:1 to 15:1 Garment 6:1 to 10:1


0.5% - 3% on weight of garment 30 to 60 minutes

FINOZYME AX Time

For drum washers try to maintain a low garment liquor ratio for best results. In fabric processing follow the minimum F/L ratio recommended by equipment manufacturer. Unlike many BioFinishing Process Cellulases FINOZYME AX can run at 60 deg.C, thereby offering an approximate of 25% saving in dosage or time. 2 Softening :

FINOZYME AX effectively softens fabrics/ garments made up of cellulose and its blends imparting a silky soft permanent finish. FINOZYME AX can be applied on any wet processing step in the garment Finishing Process process. Optional: FINOZYME AX can be applied after preparation/ bleaching, either as a separate process or in conjuction with garment Dyeing Process (more suitable with bifunctional reactive dyes). However, with FINOZYME AX bio-Finishing Process , fabrics/ garments may also be processed after Dyeing Process. 3 Fuzz/ Pill Ball Removal :

Using the above process parameters 0.5% -2% owg FINOZYME AX has been found effective in the removal of fuzz balls and fuzziness when run for 15 to 20 minutes. 4 Denim Washing : Effective desizing is required for efficient denim washing. Top PARAMETERS Temperature PH FINOZYME AX Time OPERATIONAL RANGES 50 55C; best at 52C 4.5 5.0; best at 4.8 6.5 : 1 to 10:1 30 to 60 minutes

FINOZYME AX can also be used with pumice stones.

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Removal of loose stains: Follow-up enzyme process with a hot (60 70 deg.C) detergent wash. Can be optional if followed up by bleaching. NOTE : The above information is in good faith but without warranty. Check the weight loss, strength loss and the look you achieve before committing to volume production. The liquid ratio should allow free movement of the goods, but should be low enough to create the required mechanical action. Regulate liquor ratio with respect to enzyme activity/ backstaining/ patchiness-streaks Caution: Avoid direct steam injection into the enzyme bath, ionic charged chemicals and exposure to heavy metals. Inactivation FINOZYME AX can be inactivated by raising the temperature above 70 deg.C or pH above 8.0 or combination of the two. However if the very next step is detergent washing inactivation is not necessary. Storage Condition FINOZYME AX has less than 10% activity loss after four months when stored at 30 deg.C out of direct sunlight and in the original, closed container. NOTE : The above information is in good faith but without warranty.

Application of Chitosan in textile Wet Processing

Chitin and chitosan have higher affinity for dyes and metals and certain surfactants, which contribute to water pollution. Using the shellfish waste thus has two-fold advantage: a) First to find a viable method to purify dye wastewaters. b)To use natural resources, which could otherwise had been wasted.

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After use for color removal the spent sorbent further finds use as a fibrous raw material for papermaking. The use of chitosan as a combined thickener and binder in pigment printing has been studied in comparison with the commercial printing system. Printing pastes made from chitosan, acetic acid and pigments at appropriate viscosity give stable pastes and satisfactory results on polyester and polyester cotton blends. Chitosan can also be used in the dyebath, because due to the unimolecular structure it has an extremely high affinity for many classes of dyes, including disperse, direct, reactive, acid, vat, sulphur etc. Rate of diffusion of dyes in cellulose is similar to that in cellulose. Sorption of chitosan is exothermic: hence an increase in temperature leads to an increase in dye sorption. At lower pH chitosan free amines are protonated causing to attract anionic dyes. Chitosan is used as a shrink-proofing agent and also is used to increase the dye uptake of wool. In its protonated form, it exhibits the behavior of a cationic polyelectrolyte, forming viscous solutions and interacting with the oppositely charged molecules. Thus it is suitable for processing of wool near its isoelectric point, offering minimum fiber damage and providing good quality. However the main limitation is the uneven distribution on the fabric surface.A new ecological method for shrink proofing of the wollen fabric is based on the enzymatic pretreatment and chitosan deposition on the wollen fabric. This method shows the enzymatic pretreatment has an essential influence on the shrink proofing qualities and chitosan stabilizes the shrink proofing property. It also increases the kinetics of dyeing and causes a decrease in hydrophobicity. Antimicrobial finishing is very important because cotton fabrics have poor resistance to microorganisms and thus the possibility of harming the human body. Due to the Antimicrobial action of the amino group at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, chitosan is also known to be an antimicrobial polysaccharide. The ability of chitosan to immobilize microorganisms derives from its polycationic character. Its protonised amino groups block the protein sequences of

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microorganisms, thus inhibiting further proliferation. Chitosan binds to the negatively charged bacterial surface disrupting the cell membrane and altering its permeability. This allows materials to leak out of the bacterial cells resulting in cell death. Chitosan can also bind to DNA inside the cell inhibiting mRNA and hence protein synthesis. Recent studies have revealed that chitosan is more effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria than chitosan oligomers. Also the antibacterial effect of chitosan oligomers are reported to be dependent on its molecular weight. 1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and citric acid are representative of polycarboxylic acids that crosslink with cotton through an esterification reaction. BTCA is the most effective of these plycarboxylic acids, but its cost is very high; citric acid is a less effective crosslinking agent but is not as costly. However, cotton fabrics treated with citric acid alone exhibit appreciable yellowing, although there have been some investigations undertaken to reduce this yellowing. Generally, cellulose is treated with chitoan by dissolving the chitosan in dilute acetic acid solution, but this method does not create any firm chemical bonds between chitosan and cellulose and thus is not durable to repeated laundering. The esterification reaction not only occurs between citric acid and cellulose but also between citric acid and the hydroxy groups of chitosan, and free carboxylate groups can also react with the amino groups of chitosan resulting in a salt linkage. It is widely known that the Antimicrobial properties of cotton treated with chitosan is attributed to amino groups of chitosan, which convert to ammonium salts in dilute acid solution; the salt then binds to the negatively charged surface of the microorganism.. As a durable press and an Antimicrobial finishing agent for cotton fabric, citric acid and chitosan show satisfactory results. The WRA and DP rating of treated cotton fabrics increase, and there are slight improvements in tensile and tear strength using chitosan as abn extender of the crosslinking chain. A high Antimicrobial property level is obtained by treatment with CA as well as chitosan, and despite repeated launderings, the Antimicrobial property remains at over 80%.

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Chitosan is expected to be one of the safest and most effective Antimicrobial agents for hospital applications where many antibiotic substances are used. Chitosan is especially important in depressing the growth of methicilin resistant taphylococcus aureus, which is resistant to most antibiotic substances. Hygienic yarns can also be made through the addition of chitosan fibres. Chitosan fibers are blended with cotton fibers and a yarn is spun out of this blend; 10% chitosan component is sufficient to achieve a hygienic effect. This effect should endure 20 washes.(1)currently, there is also a hightened interest in protecting health care workers from diseases that might be carried by patients. Especially for surgical gowns, there is an increasing need to protect medical staff from infection by bloodborne pathogens such as HIV and HBV> gowns should be able to prevent strike through or wetting out of the fabric, and so surgical gown materials should have not only Antimicrobial properties but also blood barrier properties. Chitosan and fluoropolymers seem to be the most suitable finishing agents for providing surgical gown materials with barriers against microorganisms and blood. Because many medical products including surgical gowns are used in close proximity to human skin, the hand and air permeability of these materials are also very important. Recently, single-use gowns made from non-woven have gained in popularity because non-woven fabrics block fluids so well and single-use gowns are so reliable. One of the most important characteristics of chitosan is its Antimicrobial activity at specific molecular weights. Protonated amine groups in chitosan inhibit the growth of microorganisms by holding negatively charged microorganism ions. Many studies have examined chitosan as an Antimicrobial finish for textile materials, either for production of low molecular weight chitosan followed by its application on textile fibers or for co-spinning or cocasting of low molecular weight chitosan with cellulose molecules to make Antimicrobial fibers and films. However, these methods had to produce chitosan with specific molecular weights, which could considerably increase production costs. In addition, insolubility of chitosan in neutral or alkaline conditions further limited its application.

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A quarternery ammonium derivative of chitosan, N-2-hydroxy propyl-3trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), is synthesized as an Antimicrobial finish for cotton using a reaction of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and chitosan. The use of crosslinking agents or binders increase laundering durability of cotton treated with HTCC. A 5% nonionic binder applied along with 0.1% or higher concentration of HTCC on cotton is quite effective in increasing the laundering durability of the HTCC-treated cotton. There are some reports about the utility of chitosan polymer to impart Antimicrobial activity in textile finishing. For example, chitosan salt produced by an organic acid was bound to the surface of textiles by a tremendous amount of resin, which formed cross-links. When fully deacetylated chitosan is depolymerised into chito-oligosaccharide with sodium nitrite, its DP can be controlled by adjusting the amount of sodium nitrite added to the acetic acid solution containing the fully deacetylated chitosan.Chitosan when applied along with DMDHEU results in a substantial improvement in soil removal when oily soil is applied to cotton fabrics. The highest levels of soil removal are exhibited by fabric samples treated with DMDHEU with chitosan of average molecular weight below 21,000. the improvement in soil removal attributes to the prevention of deep soiling due to blocking of pore structure abd the increase in hydrophilicity by chitosan treatment.Chitosan treated samples of cotton with resin treatment show higher moisture regain values, this is because amine and hydroxyl groups provide reactive sites for water.Various methods such as physical, chemical, and biological treatments are used for deodorizing. In the field of cosmetics, antibacterial agents, antiperspirants, and fragrances are used to effectively reduce or mask malodors. The antibacterial agents control the bacteria that decompose human fats found in sweat to produce low molecular weight fatty acids. Using the same technology, the textile industry applies antibacterial agents for odor control. However, because antibacterial agents can attack human skin as well, there are only a limited number of such chemicals allowed for use in textile treatment.Over the past few years, a considerable number of studies have been done on the performance

29

of chemical deodorizers that swiftly couple with targeted odor substances. Their neutralizing ability makes such of low molecular weight substances less volatile. For example, these chemical deodorizers can target sweat, which generally shifts from human skin to fabric and then is concentrated to generate unfavorable odors after bacterial decomposition. However, existing chemical deodorizes are highly surface active and can cause unpleasant results such as discoloration, aggregation, and skin irritation. Notably, most of the highly active substances are hydrophilic, and their activities become weak under hydrophobic conditions. Chitosan was selected because while its primary amino group possibly deodorizes, its high molecular weight offers safety. The polymerization reactions of methacrylic acid with chitosan were done in water, and the emulsions were free of monomeric acid. The polymer particles showed high deodorizing performance, even in hydrophobic and hydrophilic circumstances, and fabric treated with the emulsion was also found useful for deodorizing. In the manufacturing and coloration of cotton fabrics, the textile industry experiences dyeing problems with some lots of cotton. The cotton does not absorb dye uniformly and creates tiny white or light-colored spots. This results from small clusters of immature cotton called neps. Immature cotton results from a variety of reasons e.g. plant disease, insect attack, premature harvesting after using harvestaid chemicals, or adverse weather conditions. Previous research has shown that pretreatment of cotton fabrics with chitosan significantly improves the dye coverage of neps. After dyeing with reactive dye using standard procedure dyed fabrics are treated with chitosan by exhaust or padbatch method. The chitosan treatment alone did not cover the neps in the dyed fabrics. However, after redyeing with 0.1-0.2 dye, the neps were more or less completely covered. The coverage ratings increased from 1-2 to 4-5. The chitosan aftertreatment and redyeing with a small amount of dye caused very little change in total color difference value. There is a significant increase in k/s value of dyed fabric. Nep coverage improved the quality of the dyed fabrics.

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Among synthetic fibers, polyester (PET) exhibits excellent properties such as elastic recovery, dimensional stability. However, it does not absorbwater or moisture well. As a result, friction can cause static electricity to occur. Electric resistivity of natural fibers is 109 to 1010 .cm; polyester fiber is less than 1015 .cm; water is 103 .cm. This static electricity causes electric shock, fiber contamination during textile finishing.Many endeavors to endow an antistatic property to polyester include research to change the characteristics of fiber surface. Chitosan shows high moisture regain even in low relative humidity and does not swell much in water; thus it can resist the decrease the durability that water causes. A permanent antistatic finish can be achieved by crosslinking hydrophilic materials that form an insoluble conductive sheath on the surface of the fiber. So chitosan seemingly has the potential to improve the waterabsorbency and antistatic properties of polyester fiber. Polyester fibers can be grafted with AA or NVF by preirradiation with rays. By acid hydrolysis, amide groups on the fiber surface can be converted into amino groups. Chitosan can then be grafted to modified polyester surfaces by either esterification or imine formation. The highest surface density of amino groups can be achieved by imine formation between chitosan and glutaraldehyde- treated PET-g-NH2. Chitosan grafted polyesters show antibacterial activity for MRSA, S. aureus-2, and E. coli. The antibacterial activity increases with the surface density of amino groups. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity for E. coli is higher than that for the other bacteria, whereas the antibacterial activity for MRSA is the lowest.

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