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Television viewing is the dominant leisure activity in America. In a telephone survey Americans reported watching 2.

6 hours of television per day, more than half of total leisure time. Other measures suggest time spent viewing is much higher. Nielsen Media Research estimates the average adult watches 4.9 hours of television per day. Television remains advertisers most important medium. In 2007 the television industry earned $67.8 billion in advertising revenues. Those revenues grew 35% from 2001 to 2007, and accounted for 48% of cumulative advertising expenditures. While some other advertising media (e.g., internet display advertising) grow at higher percentage rates due to smaller revenue bases, television grew more than any other medium between 2001 and 2007. Traditionally, broadcast television networks have provided viewers with nominally free programs in exchange for their attention, and sold that attention to advertisers based on program audience measurements. The structure of the industry suggests that viewers have a relative preference for programs or non-television activities over watching advertising. If this were not the case, networks would presumably refrain from producing such costly programming. Thus viewers are more able to avoid advertisements than ever before. And networks are more likely to be financially penalized for advertisement avoidance than ever before.

Measuring the Impact

When most viewers think of television advertising campaigns, the first ideology that comes to mind is that three minutes pause that either ticks off the viewer considering their show has been put on hold, or those three minutes of pure eye candy that enables the viewer to finally take a break from the screen and head out to the nearest "Eat Fresh" or "I'm loving it" fast-food place.
At first sight, it is easy to associate those actions with the influence of television advertising campaigns. But when faced with the task of truly examining what's in front of us, it is rather very visible to observe the message which is transmitted to us.

Not only does the impact of television weigh heavily on the viewers, but the power behind advertising campaigns is not always understood by a good portion of the population. Advertising is not only fed to us in very high numbers, it is also presented in a way that conveys the idea of a certain necessity in presenting such information. Let me

explain the ways in which advertising creates a dependency but how it also creates a feeling of necessity. When it comes to dependency, television advertising is fed to us in such high numbers that we even forget what it is we were initially watching due to the flicker hungry viewer. Even more, the viewer can develop a sudden urge to run to their closest fast-food restaurant, or stop by the nearest travel agent the nest day to buy a Caribbean cruise that god forbids, doesn't even fit in the annual family budget or worst. At the end, we can't even explain why we urged and what made us act on impulse. If advertising leads to an impulsive behaviour, then what are the consequences related to such a behaviour and the impacts related to the behaviour. Furthermore, when our daily soap operas is on at 1 pm or 2 pm ladies, the presence of commercials only makes the viewing of those soap operas even more anticipated. Campaigns create suspense by not only stopping our addiction to soap operas for a good three minutes, but it makes us crave the next segment which keeps us glued to our television because god forbids yet again, we wouldn't want to miss the 7 th wedding crashing. Advertising gives us the impression that our favourite show needs to have a countless amount of pauses to make the show itself more anticipated.

Impact on the Social and Moral Behaviour of Indian Viewers

Every day, one comes across innumerable images and commercials for various products. This excessive amount of media in our day to day lives cannot be side lined and impacts all those surrounded by it. It is an expression of the society of which we are a part, its mirror-image for all practical purposes and has a far reaching influence on the social, cultural and moral values of its inmates. The world is changing rapidly today and in its footsteps our core values are changing too. The last two decades on account of globalization have seen an unparalleled change, which has expressed itself in the form of diminishing community values. Social values are getting eroded, moral values have become fragmented and the society is facing an unprecedented cultural evasion. Our society today is taking on new values which are at loggerheads with the time tested and religiously accepted principles of our society, a large part of the responsibility for which must be borne by the television commercials (henceforth TVCs) and also th e unethical practices of the business and corporate houses which sponsor them. Today, the reach of television is widespread. Commercial television channels have penetrated even the remotest of areas and most adults are exposed to thousands of

advertisements annually. It is thus natural for the ramifications of the violations of ethics by TVCs to be seen in our personal lives and also on the society as a whole Advertising, now a days is big business and many industries like magazines, the cable TV industry, newspapers and many other media, non media and communication industries survive only on the inflow of money due to advertising. It is because of this that corporate houses use all possible tactics to get our attention first and money ultimately. Some times these attempts involve illegal, dirty or underhand tricks, making untrue claims and reliance on false information. Off late, a number of debates have been going on about the social issues in advertising and the catastrophic consequences of improper advertising have been brought to the forefront. The social effects of improper advertising generally manifest themselves in the form of an adverse effect on child psychology human behaviour value system and perception, boost to materialism, rise of consumerism and corruption and decreased integrity and self confidence of women and degradation of relationships in families. Advertisements are generally criticized for targeting children, excessive use of sex appeals, stereotypical presentations of women, negative psychological effects on the viewers and promoting materialism. While investigating the influence of ads directed at children, it has been found that they have an adverse influence on child behavior. Since, there are a large number of TVCs that are directed at children, critics have expressed many concerns about. The values of the advertisers who target children were questioned. It was suggested that ads which target children were unethical because children were not in a position to evaluate commercial persuasion. Critics have put forth the arguments that ads directed at children are harmful because they serve to glamorize the use of alcohol and tobacco make the children aware of their sexuality at an early age and perpetuate stereotypes of gender among them. Moving from children to women, critics and feminists for a long time now have been voicing their opinion against the way women are portrayed in ads. Although, critics are worried about the stereotypical portrayal of women in ads (Chatterji, 2005; Schaffter, 2006), they are particularly troubled about the undue focus on them as sex objects (Pollay, 1986; Henthrone and LaTour, 1994; Ford et al., 1997). Some researchers are of the opinion that the way women are portrayed in ads, is a challenge to the established standards of decency and is essentially pornographic in nature. Examining the impact of television on the psychology of the viewer in a study found that the ads which target young women lead them to compare their own attractiveness with the idealized images in the ads, resulting in dissatisfaction with their own attractiveness. A study with almost similar findings was conducted by Fay and Price. It dealt with slimming, dieting and body control advertisements directed at women. The study found that it was normal for adolescent girls and young women to compare their

bodies with media images. The study concluded that to a greater extent than nonsufferers, anorexics were influenced and their self-image diminished, by advertising images. Further, many critics of advertising hold the contention that advertising promotes materialism and consumerism in society. In a study conducted by, it was pointed out that on exposure to advertisements, comparison with advertising images takes place which enhances the materialistic desires of the viewers. A number of other studies have also established a significant and positive relationship between consumerism and advertising. Taking this argument a step ahead, some critics are also of the view that in order to buy the advertised products, people are ready to take loans beyond their repayment capacity or are even ready to commit crimes and resort to corruption.

The Method of Rating

One way, the effects are measured is by the Nielsen Ratings. These ratings are the world wide, and a primary source of audience measurement in the television industry. These ratings are gathered in two ways. One is "Viewer Diary" and the other way is "Set Meters. Set Meters captures which channel is being tuned in to, and gathers the viewing habits of the home. There are "People Meters" which not only gather the channel, but also gather info about who is watching.
The Nielsen Ratings are measured in two different ways. One way is Rating Points and the other is Share. They also provide viewer ship data that is calculated for just the television advertisement (commercial) time during the program. Commercial ratings started in 2007, and are very important for the measuring the effects of television advertisements.

Television advertising has taken many approaches. They use children, and animals to sway their audiences. They even use actors from your favorite shows to help sell their products. They make the weirdest, stupid, or a funny advertisement, and have it on the air for 30 seconds of your life, and if you are affected by it in any way, they have made progress in their advertising. Look at the California raisins, when they sang. Everyone liked it and that is something you will remember. That is their intent. You will not forget the ads that have beaten animals or children that are starving either. They use our emotions and it works. The effects of television advertisements do affect everyone. Children, teens and adults are having their self worth and their self appreciation diminish because of some ads. Because of this, consumers sometimes are buying products to make them feel very beautiful, not for the products value. The best way for companies to know their

advertising is working is to see an increase in their sales. Advertising is meant to be remembered, that is why so much time is spent on it. Television advertising makes people think about the product, as it has such an impact on viewers.

The Financial Effect


Measuring the financial effects of television advertisements, in terms of increased sales and revenue, is equally important for any firm. With the advances in modern technology, and providing the correct parameters are set for the measurement process, measuring the financial effect of a television advertisement is not difficult to achieve. The first step in this process is to have set a specific time period for the airing of the advertisement in question. Let us say that this will be six months. Using both the product inventory and revenue (sales) data, this will provide details of whether the product sales have increased during the period, and thus how effective the television campaign has been. Furthermore, if these figures are analysed on a monthly basis, they can also indicated when or if the positive effects of the advertisement have begun to wear off. If such an event occurs during the period then that would indicate that it might be time for a change of the advertisement. As the number of television advertising campaigns increase, this process of financial performance measurement can also be used to compare the results of one campaign against another, which provides a valuable guide for future promotions. Using data provided by external research organisations, such as the Nielsen rating system, provides important information in relation to the effects of television advertisements. However, for the firm and its specific product or service, this measurement can be enhanced by performing its own market research and financial data analysis.

The Impact
If advertisements merely sold products, it would cause less critical concern than it does, but it sells images, dreams and ideal ways of life. It sells, and then reinforces time and again, values - those of consumerism and class consciousness; and it trades in stereotypes. Advertising creates and sustains an ideology of consumption and it is a social force affecting Indian homes today. Therefore, its impact should be analyzed. Advertising is a social institution and a necessary social evil. Advertising is a social institution and its cost and benefit should be evaluated to determine the total impact of advertising on our social welfare the issue is not whether advertising is perfect, but

whether the benefits of advertising outweigh the costs making social welfare greater than advertising. Advertising is one of the functions of mass communication. All productivity relies on this medium of mass communication. Advertising diffuses information about commodities, markets them and persuades the common man of their place in his life. In fact advertising does more than this. It plays a role in social change. It celebrates change and internalizes change for those who become better by using a certain product/service. In short, advertising is the voice of technology; because of that it represents the intention to affect life. Advertising, though originally used to market products, now, unfortunately, it seems to market feelings, sensations and styles of life; an astounding 'revolution in manners and morals'. All this has been possible through an efficient communication network which has revolutionized changes. The first impact that one gets from the advertisement is that the viewers have no choice of their own in making preference for the consumer goods they want to use in daily life. The advertisement imposes choices and preferences on the public mind through language, conversation, jingles, etc. This kind of aggression on the minds of the people, coming from different strata of the society, can create disturbances on traditional way of life of some category of people. In the long run, it is likely that social and cultural transformations of revolutionary nature are created in the society through such programmes. On the credit side, advertising has speeded the introduction of useful inventions. It has spread markets, reduced the price of goods, accelerated turnover and kept people in employment. The relentless propaganda on behalf of goods in general is considered by many a dangerous mode of brain washing in that advertising's central function appears to create desires that previously did not exist, or rather anxieties which respond to the advertisements (by going out and buying the advertised product or service) helps to assuage but only temporarily. Advertising in India has created an incredible awareness among the people in the past decade growing into big industry. It was grown along with the press and today it has found its way into the other two media - Radio and Television. Advertising which was originally an American concept, has found its place in a country like India, so much so that the number of commercials have doubled in the media. Television is the most sought after medium for advertising. At the moment, the media in order to earn revenue through advertising are implicated in creating a market for consumer goods. Though it is largely an urban phenomenon, the same commercial advertisements on television reach rural areas and can have disturbing effects on rural people, where wants are

encouraged, whose appetite for luxury goods and services is whetted. This can lead to a sense of frustration among those who cannot afford them. A substantial amount of advertising expenses are utilized on advertisements of capital goods, intermediaries, consumer durables and services, most of which promote investment, production and employment. Further, advertising has a definite role to play in rural development, and Indian advertising has made some progress in this direction as well. Advertisements of fertilizers, pesticides, farming equipment, cattle feed, etc. have reached rural market successfully.

Impact on Society
With more people patronizing TV these days, more and more people are carried away because of the TV ads also without even consciously knowing it. Whats worse is that most of these viewers are negatively affected by it in a subconscious level. These advertisements hold a great impact and effect on the viewers especially the young ones. Most of the ads usually convey their message effectively in just a few seconds that the audience have unknowingly captured the idea and internalized it - and the next thing they know, they are in the malls, buying the newest shampoo or soap or makeup. The effects of television advertising may not look grave, but because of the subtlety of these effects, consumers just dont know it but their minds are already absorbing it. Advertising doesnt only fall in one place like the commercial breaks, but a more effective advertising happens when the television characters use this or include this as part of the shows or programs. Also, most TV commercials make use of famous celebrities or beautiful models that consumers are tempted to patronize it because they want to be like them. Studies and researches have been made and conducted, and results of these tests and surveys show that advertising has greatly affected the TV viewers. For example, more young people drink alcohol than soft drinks or water because characters in shows and commercials drink this. More children prefer to eat junk foods and fatty chips because of the yummy ads they see on TV. Another huge effect is on ones dissatisfaction of the body stereotyping women and men, that for ladies to be beautiful they have to posses such curves, hair, skin, etc., and for guys to be handsome they have to possess the workedout body, etc. Also, women are portrayed as sex objects in some commercials that the perception of people on women as homemakers are turned upside down.

The effects of television advertising are impressive, affecting everyone - children, teens, and adults - that self-worth and self-appreciation is slowly diminishing. It is because these TV ads point out the persons lack of something, instead of the products features. So, instead of consumers buying it because of the products particular ingredient or value, consumers tend to buy it to make them feel good and beautiful instead. Though the effects of television advertising are somehow getting worse, more and more people still patronize it.

Impact on food consumption in children

Studies have shown that exposing children to different types of food adverts may influence their subsequent food choices but there is little evidence to show a direct causal relationship. Exposure to advertisement for foods on TV can have an effect also on eating behaviour, stimulating energy intake from a range of foods and exaggerating unhealthy choices among foods. The observed association between remembering food ads and eating more indicates that a susceptibility to food cues contributes to this overeating and promotes weight gain in children. This proposition requires testing in a prospective design. The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non -food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods were measured after both sessions. Whilst there was no significant difference in the number of non-food adverts recognised between the lean and obese children, the obese children did recognise significantly more of the food adverts. The ability to recognise the food adverts significantly correlated with the amount of food eaten after exposure to them. The overall snack food intake of the obese and overweight children was significantly higher than the lean children in the control (non-food advert) condition. The consumption of all the food offered increased post food advert with the exception of the low-fat savoury snack. These data demonstrate obese children's heightened alertness to food related cues. Moreover, exposure to such cues induce increased food intake in all children. As suggested the relationship between TV viewing and childhood obesity appears not merely a matter of excessive sedentary activity. Exposure to food adverts promotes consumption.

CONCLUSION
Measuring the effects of television advertisements, is very important. Knowing how much television advertising is working for companies is a plus, and helps with their plans for marketing in the future. One sure way they measure the effects of their advertisements, is by the products they sell. Increase, in their sales means, the advertising worked, and that consumers are happy enough to tell others about their products so more people are buying them too. Everyone uses television advertising for their benefit. Businesses use it to sell their products. It's even a primary means for the political campaigns whether clean or dirty advertising is taking place. It is how communication is done. Yes, even you, who watch television, are affected by the way television advertisements point out that we are lacking things, instead of telling us about the products features.