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New Era University College of Engineering and Technology Department of Electrical Engineering

EE 582 D MW 4:00p-5:30p

Research Work Act 1: Diesel Power Plant, Thermal Power Plant, Hydro Power Plant



Diesel Power Plant Diesel power plants are divided into two main classes: stationary and mobile. Stationary diesel power plants use four-stroke diesel engines (less frequently, twostroke diesel engines), with power ratings of 110, 220, 330, 440, and 735 kilowatts (kW). Stationary diesel power plants are classed as average in their power rating if the rating does not exceed 750 kW; large diesel power plants can have a power rating of 2,200 kW or more. The advantages of a diesel power plant are favorable economy of operation, stable operating characteristics, and an easy and quick start-up. The main disadvantage is the comparatively short interval between major overhauls. Diesel power plants are used mainly for servicing areas remote from transmission lines or areas where sources of water supply are limited and where the construction of a steam power plant or of a hydroelectric power plant is not feasible. Stationary diesels are usually equipped with synchronous generators. The economic efficiency of a diesel power plant is improved considerably if the waste heat of the engine (55 to 60 percent of total heat release in currently available engines) can be used for preheating of fuel and oil or for domestic heating within the power station building or adjacent premises. In diesel power plants with a high power rating (above 750 kW) the waste heat can be used in a heating system serving a whole block or a whole town area in proximity to the power station. Automatic protection against exceeding maximum or minimum limits for the temperature of cooling water and oil, the oil pressure, and the rotational speed (rpm) is built into diesel power plants; protection is also provided in the event of a short circuit in the line. Three levels of automation for stationary diesels are used: automatic regulation of the rotational speed (rpm) and of the temperature of the cooling water and oil, along with automatic emergency signaling and protection in the event of a breakdown; automatic or remotely controlled start-up and shutdown of the diesel engines, an automatic check of conditions required for connecting load to the line, synchronization with other units and with the power system, and a load connection and load distribution with units operating in parallel; and automatic refilling of the feeder tanks for fuel, oil, and water and of the air feed vessels, an automatic (trickle) charging of start-up batteries and of batteries used in auxiliary operations, and automatic control of the auxiliary equipment. Mobile diesel power plants are widely used in agriculture and forestry and by expeditions involved with geological exploration. In these applications, diesel power plants can be used as a source of electricity for energy or lighting networks; they can be used as the main, auxiliary, or standby power source. In transportation, diesel power

plants are a basic power source (for instance, in diesel-electric locomotives and in diesel ships). In mobile diesel power plants, the high-speed diesels serve as prime movers. A mobile diesel power plant includes the diesel-electric unit itself, spare parts, instruments and accessories, a set of cables for making connections to the load, and fire-fighting equipment. Automated diesel power plants with a power rating up to 10 kW are often mounted on a single-axle truck trailer; power plants rated 20 kW or more are usually installed on two-axle, covered trailers. Such a mobile station comprises not only the diesel-electric unit but also the power distribution cabinet (or panel), a cabinet containing the automatic controls, the remote control console, heating and ventilation equipment, rectifiers, and the storage batteries that feed the automatic controls or automated systems. The first mobile diesel power plants in the USSR were built in 1934 and were known as diesel trains. Such diesel trains have all the power plant equipment installed on platforms or in cars. The power ratings of diesel trains are 1, 2.5, 4.5, and 10 megawatts. The electric part of the power plant of a diesel train consists of a synchronous generator delivering a voltage of 310 kilovolts, assembled or unitized compartments containing high-voltage leads (overhead leads or cables), distribution equipment for voltages of 230380 volts (required for lighting and for auxiliary motors of the power plant), the storage battery, and operating power circuits and the battery charger.

Diesel power plants produce power from a diesel engine. Diesel electric plants in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacities are used as central stations for small electric supply networks and used as a standby to hydro electric or thermal plants where continuous power supply is needed. Diesel power plant is not economical compared to other power plants. The diesel power plants are cheaply used in the fields mentioned below. 1. Peak load plants 2. Mobile electric plants 3. Standby units 4. Emergency power plants 5. Starting stations of existing plants 6. Central power station etc.

General Layout of Diesel power plants

General Layout of Diesel power plants Figure shows the arrangements of the engine and its auxiliaries in a diesel power plant. The major components of the plant are: a) Engine- Engine is the heart of a diesel power plant. Engine is directly

connected through a gear box to the generator. Generally two-stroke engines are used for power generation. Now a days, advanced super & turbo charged high speed engines are available for power production. b) Air supply system- Air inlet is arranged outside the engine room. Air from the

atmosphere is filtered by air filter and conveyed to the inlet manifold of engine. In large plants supercharger/turbocharger is used for increasing the pressure of input air which increases the power output. c) Exhaust System- This includes the silencers and connecting ducts. The heat

content of the exhaust gas is utilized in a turbine in a turbocharger to compress the air input to the engine. d) Fuel System- Fuel is stored in a tank from where it flows to the fuel pump through a filter. Fuel is injected to the engine as per the load requirement. e) Cooling system- This system includes water circulating pumps, cooling towers, water filter etc. Cooling water is circulated through the engine block to keep the temperature of the engine in the safe range. f) Lubricating system- Lubrication system includes the air pumps, oil tanks, filters,

coolers and pipe lines. Lubricant is given to reduce friction of moving parts and reduce the wear and tear of the engine parts.

g) Starting System There are three commonly used starting systems, they are; 1) A petrol driven auxiliary engine, 2) Use of electric motors, 3) Use of compressed air from an air compressor at a pressure of 20 Kg/cm h) Governing system The function of a governing system is to maintain the speed of the engine constant irrespective of load on the plant. This is done by varying fuel supply to the engine according to load. Advantages of diesel power plants 1. More efficient than thermal plant 2. Design, Layout etc are simple and cheap 3. Part load efficiency is very high 4. It can be started quickly 5. Simple & easy maintenance 6. No problem with fuel & dust handling 7. It can be located in the heart of town 8. Less cooling water required. Disadvantages 1. There is a limitation for size of a diesel engine 2. Life of plant is comparatively less 3. Noise pollution is very high 4. Repair cost is very high 5. High lubrication cost

Thermal power station A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime

mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity.[1] Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO 2emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread.


all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar



and waste

incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam, in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are often called fossil-fuel power plants. Some biomass-fueled thermal power plants have appeared also. Nonnuclear thermal power plants, particularly fossil-fueled plants, which do not use cogeneration are sometimes referred to as conventional power plants. Commercial electric utility power stations are usually constructed on a large scale and designed for continuous operation. Electric power plants typically use threephase electrical generators to produce alternating current (AC) electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Large companies or institutions may have their own power plants to supply heating or electricity to their facilities, especially if steam is created anyway for other purposes. Steam-driven power plants have been used in various large ships, but are now usually used in large naval ships. Shipboard power plants usually directly couple the turbine to the ship's propellers through gearboxes. Power plants in such ships also provide steam to smaller turbines driving electric generators to supply electricity. Shipboard steam power plants can be either fossil fuel or nuclear. Nuclear marine propulsion is, with few exceptions, used only in naval vessels. There have been perhaps about a dozen turbo-electric ships in which a steamdriven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion. combined heat and power (CH&P) plants, often called co-generation plants, produce both electric power and heat for process heat or space heating. Steam and hot water

lose energy when piped over substantial distance, so carrying heat energy by steam or hot water is often only worthwhile within a local area, such as a ship, industrial plant, or district heating of nearby buildings.

The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered as salable energy as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48%. This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics. The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration. An important class of thermal power station are associated

with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants can achieve 3640% efficiency. Super critical designs have efficiencies in the low to mid 40% range, with new "ultra critical" designs using pressures of 4400 psi (30.3 MPa) and multiple stage reheat reaching about 48% efficiency. Above the critical

point for water of 705 F (374 C) and 3212 psi (22.06 MPa), there is no phase transition from water to steam, but only a gradual decrease in density. Current nuclear power plants must operate below the temperatures and pressures that coal-fired plants do, since the pressurized vessel is very large and contains the entire bundle of nuclear fuel rods. The size of the reactor limits the pressure that can be reached. This, in turn, limits their thermodynamic efficiency to 30 32%. Some advanced reactor designs being studied, such as the Very high temperature reactor, Advanced gas-cooled reactor and Super critical water reactor, would operate at temperatures and pressures similar to current coal plants, producing comparable thermodynamic efficiency.

Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station

1. Cooling tower 2. Cooling water pump 3. transmissionline (3-phase) 4.Step-up transformer (3 phase) 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 6. Low pressure steam turbine 7. Condensate pump 8. Surface condenser 9.Intermediate pressure steam turbine 10. Steam Control valve 11.High pressure steam turbine 12. Deaerator 13. Feedwater heater 14. Coal conveyor 15. Coal hopper 16. Coal pulverizer 17. Boiler steam drum 19. Superheater 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 21. Reheater 22. Combustion air intake 23. Economiser 24. Air preheater 25. Precipitator 26. Induced draught (draft) fan

18. Bottom ash hopper

27. Flue gas stack

Hydropower Plant Hydro-electric power, using the potential energy of rivers, now supplies 17.5% of the world's electricity (99% in Norway, 57% in Canada, 55% in Switzerland, 40% in Sweden, 7% in USA). Apart from a few countries with an abundance of it, hydro capacity is normally applied to peak-load demand, because it is so readily stopped and started. It is not a major option for the future in the developed countries because most major sites in these countries having potential for harnessing gravity in this way are either being exploited already or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations. Growth to 2030 is expected mostly in China and Latin America.

Hydro energy is available in many forms, potential energy from high heads of water retained in dams, kinetic energy from current flow in rivers and tidal barrages, and kinetic energy also from the movement of waves on relatively static water masses. Many ingenious ways have been developed for harnessing this energy but most involve directing the water flow through a turbine to generate electricity. Those that don't usually involve using the movement of the water to drive some other form of hydraulic or pneumatic mechanism to perform the same task.

Water Turbines Like steam turbines, water turbines may depend on the impulse of the working fluid on the turbine blades or the reaction between the working fluid and the blades to turn the turbine shaft which in turn drives the generator. Several different families of turbines have been developed to optimise performance for particular water supply conditions. Turbine Power Output In general, the turbine converts the kinetic energy of the working fluid, in this case water, into rotational motion of the turbine shaft. Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler showed in 1754 that the torque on the shaft is equal to the change in angular momentum of the water flow as it is deflected by the

turbine blades and the power generated is equal to the torque on the shaft multiplied by the rotational speed of the shaft. See following diagram.

Note that this result does not depend on the turbine configuration or what happens inside the turbine. All that matters is the change in angular momentum of the fluid between the turbine's input and output.

Hydroelectric Power Generation Efficiency Hydroelectric power generation is by far the most efficient method of large scale electric power generation. See Comparison Chart. Energy flows are concentrated and can be controlled. The conversion process captures kinetic energy and converts it directly into electric energy. There are no inefficient intermediate thermodynamic or chemical processes and no heat losses. The conversion efficiency of a hydroelectric power plant depends mainly on the type of water turbine employed and can be as high as 95% for large installations. Smaller plants with output powers less than 5 MW may have efficiencies between 80 and 85 %. It is however difficult to extract power from low flow rates.

Turbine Types The most appropriate turbine to use depends on the rate of water flow and the head or pressure of water.

Pelton Turbine

The Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine.It requires tangential water flow on one side of the wheel and must therefore operate when only partly submerged. It is best suited to applications with a high head but a low volume flow rate such as fast flowing shallow water courses though it is used in a wide range of situations with heads from as low as 15 metres up to almost 2000 metres. High pressure heads give rise to very fast water jets impinging in the blades resulting in very high rotational speeds of the turbine. Pelton wheels are ideal for low power installations with outputs of 10kW or less but they have also been used in installations with power outputs of up to 200 MW. Efficiencies up to 95% are possible.

Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine designed to operate fully submerged. Water flow enters in a radial direction towards the axis and exits in the direction of the axis. Its is suitable for lower heads of water of 500 metres or less and is the most commonly used high power turbines. Large scale turbines used in dams are capable of delivering over 500 MW of power from a head of water of around 100 metres with efficiencies of up to 95%

Propeller and Kaplan Turbines



turbine, of

is a



reaction turbine. Designed to work fully submerged, it is similar in form to a ship's propeller and is the most suitable design for low head water sources with a high flow rate such as those in slow running rivers. Designs are optimised for a particular flow rate and efficiencies drop of rapidly if the flow rate falls below the design rating. The Kaplan pitch version vanes has to


enable it to work efficiently over a range of flow rates.

Power from Dams (Potential Energy)

Supply Characteristics A hydroelectric dam installation uses the potential energy of the water retained in the dam to drive a water turbine which in turn drives an electric generator. The available energy therefore depends on the head of the water above the turbine and the volume of water flowing through it. Turbines are usually reaction types whose blades are fully

submerged in the water flow.

The diagram opposite shows a typical turbine and generator configuration as used in a dam.







Source: TVA The civil works involved in providing hydro-power from a dam will usually be many times the cost of the turbines and the associated electricity generating equipment. Dams however provide a large water reservoir from which the flow of water, and hence the power output of the generator, can be controlled. The reservoir also serves as a supply buffer storing excess water during rainy periods and releasing it during dry spells.

The build up of silt behind the dam can cause maintenance problems.

Available Power Potential energy per unit volume = gh Where is he density of the water (103 Kg/m3 ), h is the head of water and g is the gravitational constant (10 m/sec2) The power P from a dam is given by P = ghQ Where Q is the volume of water flowing per second (the flow rate in m 3/second) and is the efficiency of the turbine.

For water flowing at one cubic metre per second from a head of one metre, the power generated is equivalent to 10 kW assuming an energy conversion efficiency of 100% or just over 9 kW with a turbine efficiency of between 90% and 95%.

"Run of River" Power (Kinetic Energy)

Supply Characteristics "Run of river" installations are typically used for smaller schemes generating less than 10 MegaWatts output. Water from a fast flowing river or stream is diverted through a turbine, often a Pelton wheel which drives the electrical generator. The head of water is essentially zero and the turbine converts the kinetic energy of the

flowing water into the rotational energy of the turbine and the generator. The available energy therefore depends on the quantity of water flowing through the turbine and the square of its velocity. Impulse turbines which are only partially submerged are more commonly employed in fast flowing run of river installations while In deeper, slower flowing rivers, submerged Kaplan turbines may be used to extract the energy from the water flow.

Run of river projects are much less costly than dams because of the simpler civil works requirements. They are however susceptible to variations in the rainfall or water flow which reduce or even cut off potential power output during periods of drought. During flood conditions the installation may not be able to accommodate the higher flow rates and water must be diverted around the turbine losing the potential generating capacity of the increased water flow. Because of these limitations, if the construction of a dam is not possible, run of river installations may need to incorporate some form of supply back-up such as battery storage, emergency generators or even a grid connection. See Capturing Renewable Energy for more details on back-up options.

Available Power The maximum power output from a turbine used in a run of river application is equal to the kinetic energy of the water impinging on the blades. Taking the efficiency of the turbine and its installation into account, the maximum output power Pmax is given by Pmax =Qv2 where v is the velocity of the water flow and Q is the volume of water flowing through the turbine per second. Q is given by Q=Av where A is the swept area of the turbine blades. Thus Pmax =Av3 This relationship also applies to shrouded turbines used to capture the energy of tidal flows (see below) and is directly analogous to the equation for the theoretical power generated by wind turbines. Note that the power output is proportional to the cube of the velocity of the water.

Thus the power generated by one cubic metre of water flowing at one metre per second through a turbine with 100% efficiency will be 0.5 kW or slightly less taking

into account the inefficacies in the system. This is only one twentieth of the power generated by the same volume flow from the dam above. To generate the same power with the same volume of water from a run of river installation the speed of the water flow should be 20 metres per second (4.5 m/sec).

Tidal Power

Supply Characteristics Harnessing the power of the tides can be achieved by placing bi-directional turbines in the path of the tidal water flow in bays and river estuaries. To be viable, it needs a large tidal range and involves creating a barrier across the bay or estuary to funnel the water through the turbines as the tide comes in and goes out. Although tidal energy captured in tidal ponds have been used since Roman times to power mills, there are few modern installations. The first plant to utilise tidal energy on a large scale for electricity generation was built at Rance in France in1966. Others followed in Canada and Russia.

Tidal power comes closest of all the intermittent renewable sources to being able to provide an unlimited, continuous and predictable power output but unfortunately there are few suitable sites in the world and environmental constraints have so far prevented their general acceptance. Shrouded water turbines placed in deep water tidal currents show better potential for exploitation, though the associated civil works are more complicated, and several projects are under development. Power is available for only six to twelve hours per day depending on the ebb and flow of the tides.

Available Power The maximum power output from a shrouded water turbine used in tidal energy applications is equal to the kinetic energy of the water impinging on the blades,

similar to the "run of river" calculation above. Taking the efficiency of the turbine and its installation into account, the maximum output power Pmax is given by Pmax =Av3 where v is the velocity of the water flow and A is the swept area of the blades.

A turbine one metre in diameter with a water current of one metre per second flowing through it would generate 0.4 kW of electricity assuming 100% efficiency. Similarly a 3 meter diameter turbine with a water current of 3 metres per second would produce 32 Kw of power.

Wave Power

Supply Characteristics The energy available from the ocean's surface wave motion is almost in limited, but it has proved frustratingly difficult to capture. Many ingenious systems have been proposed but, except for very small installations, very few are generating electricity commercially and most have been thwarted by practical problems. Some of these proposals are outlined below. Most are still in an experimental phase and many are not scalable into high capacity systems.

Energy Conversion Systems

Oscillating Float System One of the simplest and most common solutions is the oscillating float system in which a float is housed inside an cylinder shaped buoy which is open at the bottom and moored to the seabed. Inside the cylinder the float moves up and down on the surface of the waves as they pass through the buoy. Various methods have been employed to turn the motion of the float into electrical energy. These include:

Hydraulic systems in which air is compressed in a pneumatic reservoir above the float during its upward movement on the crests of the waves. After the crests have passed, the air expands and forces the float downwards into the following troughs of the waves. A hydraulic system then uses the reciprocating movement of the float to pump water through a water turbine which drives a rotary electrical generator..

Pneumatic systems in which the air displaced in the cylinder is used to power an air turbine which drives the generator.

Linear generators to turn the reciprocating motion of the float directly into electrical power.

Instead of generating the electricity on board the buoy, some systems pump the hydraulic fluid ashore to power shore based generators.

Oscillating Paddle System This system uses large paddles moored to the ocean floor to mimic the swaying motion of sea plants in the presence of ocean waves. The paddles are fixed to special hinged joints at the base which use the swaying motion of the paddles to pump water through a turbine generator.

Oscillating Snake System The snake system uses a series of floating cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. The floating snake is tethered to the sea bed and maintains a position head on into the waves. The wave-induced motion at the hinges is used to pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators. The hydraulic motors in turn drive electrical generators to produce the electrical power.

Oscillating Water Column

Water columns are formed within large concrete structures built on the shore line or on rafts. The structure is open at both the top and the bottom. The lower end is submerged in the sea and an air turbine fills the aperture at the top. The rising and falling of the water column inside the structure moves the air column above it driving the air through the turbine generator. The turbine has movable vanes which rotate to maintain unidirectional rotation when the movement of the air column reverses.

Pressure Transducer System The hydraulic pump system uses a submerged gas-filled tank with rigid sides and base and a flexible, bellows-like, top. The gas in the tank compresses and expands in response to pressure changes from the waves passing overhead causing the top to rise and fall. A lever attached to centre

of the top drives pistons, which pump pressurized water ashore for driving hydraulic generators.

Wave Capture Systems Wave capture systems use a narrowing ramp to funnel waves into an elevated reservoir. Waves entering the funnel over a wide front are concentrated into a narrowing channel which causes the

amplitude of the wave to increase. The increased wave height coupled with the momentum of the water is sufficient to raise a quantity of water up a ramp and into a reservoir situated above the sea level. Water form the reservoir can then be released through a hydroelectric turbine located below the reservoir to generate electricity.

Overtopping Wave Systems These are floating systems similar to the land based system described above. They focus waves onto a tapered ramp which causes their amplitude to increase. The crests of the waves overtop the ramp and spill into a low dam. Water from the low dam then flows through hydroelectric turbines back into into the sea beneath the floating structure.

Lever Systems Various lever based energy capture systems have been developed. Long levers may be mounted on steel piles or on floating platforms. Large floats or buoys are attached to the extremities of the levers which move up and down with the waves. Movement of the lever arms forces fluid into a central hydraulic accumulator and through to a generator turbine. Alternatively high-pressure water can be pumped ashore to power shore based generators.

Technical Challenges Formidable technical challenges are involved in designing practical systems for capturing wave energy.

Variability of the sea conditions Sea conditions are notoriously variable and the system must be able to cope with a wide range of wave amplitudes and frequencies as well as changes in the directions of currents.

Matching the generating equipment the wave characteristics Mechanisms are required to convert the power of the irregular oscillating mechanical forces induced by the waves into electrical power synchronised with the grid. This could involve some expensive power electronics. Typical rotating machines used for power generation operate at a synchronous speed of 1200 r.p.m. (20 revolutions per second) whereas the frequency of waves driving the generator is likely to be between 5 and 10 seconds per cycle. A mechanical gearing system is needed to match this 200:1 ratio in operating speeds, possibly combined with special purpose, slow speed generators, incorporating a large number of pole pairs. One way around all of these problems is to use hydraulic accumulators either in situ or on shore to smooth out the energy delivery to the generator.

Equipment construction For reasonable sized systems, very high mechanical forces will be involved converting the wave energy into mechanical energy for driving the electrical generator.

Housing and mooring the equipment Substantial housings must be provided to protect the generating equipment from the harsh environment. Holding the installation in place is also particularly difficult in deep water.

Energy transmission Low loss armoured and insulated cables or high pressure pipes must be developed for delivering the electrical or hydraulic energy back to the shore.

Resistance to storm damage Storm damage is a major threat. The frequency of occurrence of waves of any particular amplitude follows a Rayleigh distribution similar to that which applies to wind speeds. Though the frequency of serious storms may be rather small, a wave of ten times the average amplitude may be expected once every 50 years. From the power calculation below, the wave power is proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. This means that the installation must be designed to withstand forces one hundred times greater than the normal working level. This adds considerably to the costs.

Available Power

The wave power per unit length of the wave front PL is given by (Twiddel & Weir. Renewable Energy Resources) as PL =ga2/4T Where is he density of the water (103 Kg/m3 ), a is the wave amplitude (half of the wave height), g is the gravitational constant (10 m/sec2), is the wave length of the oscillation and T the period of the wave. Thus for a wave with amplitude 1.5 metres, length 100 metres and period 5 seconds, the power per metre of wavefront will be 75 kW.