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IS : 4225 - 1979 ( Reaffirmed 1995 )

Indian Standard
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR STRAIGHT BEAM ULTRASONIC TESTING OF STEEL PLATES (

First Revision )
First Reprint MAY 1990

UDC

669.14-41-122:620.179.16

@ copyright BUREAU OF lNDI*AN

1980 STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH %AFr\R MARC NEW DEl,HI I 10002

Gr 2

February

1980

IS : 4225 - 1979

Indian Standard
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR STRAIGHT BEAM ULTRASONIC TESTING OF STEEL PLATES

(First Revision)
Non-Destructive Chairman SEEI N. V. PANDIT
SHRI

Testing

Sectional

Committee, Rr$rerrnGrg

SMDC

25

M. M. Suri & Associates ( P ) Ltd. Bombay

E. B.

ARDHANAUI

Saw D. R. KOLHATXAR ( Altsmutr ) SHRI H. R. BADYAL Indian Iron 6 Steel Co Ltd. Calcutta SARI s. KAR ( Allrmotr ) Non-Destructive Testing Society of India, Calcutta Soar N. C. Bnoc~r SWRI H. P. Gaosr ( Albmalr I ) SRRI P. SANDELL ( All*matr II ) SEW J. N. BEATTACHA~YYA National Test House, Calcutta DR V. N. BINDAL National Physical Laboratory ( CSIR ), New Delhi DR VINOD GOQIA ( Altnnarr ) Mining and Allied Machinery Corporation Ltd, SERI T. K. BOSE Durgapur SERI S. KUMAB ( AUrrnob ) SHRI S. K. BURMAN Indian Oxigen Ltd, Calcutta SHRI S. MALLIK ( Allmmalr ) METALLURQIOT, Ministry of Railways CHErnIIBT & RDSO, LUCKNOW ASSISTANT DIRECTOR ( NDT ) , RDSO, LUOXKXOW (Altsmatr ) SHBI A. K. DALAL Indian Tube Co Ltd, Jamshcdpur SHRI R. N. DAS ACC Vickcrs Babcock Ltd, Durgapur &RI s. c. DEY Central Boilers Board, New Delhi SERI V. EASWARAN Steel Authority of India Ltd. Rourkcla Steel Plant, Rourkcla Directorate General of Civil Aviation, New Delhi SEBI K. B. GANEPAN Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, DR S. JAWA Durgapur Sa~x S. ROY ( Altrrnarr )

Walchandnagar Industries Ltd, ( Dist Pune )

Walchandnagar

@ Cb&rithI 1980
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Zndkn Copfighr Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the rid Act.

IS:4225

- 1979
page 1 ) Representing Larsen & Toubro ( Alternate ) Ltd, Bombay of Supplies & Disposals, Steel Ltd ),

( Continuedfrom

Members SHRI J. C. KAPUR SHRI K. K. V~so SHRI J. K. KHANNA

SHRI RAMDAS ( Altcmatr SHRI I. S. MISHRA

Directorate General New Delhi

SHRI G. C. PRASAD ( Alternate ) Bharat Heavy Elcctricals Ltd, Tiruchchirappalli SHBI S. K. PANDALA SHRI P. HEMACHANDRAN( Alfemntr ) Kamani Metals & Alloys Ltd, Bombay SHRI H. S. PARQHI SHRI R. T. BAJAJ ( Alternate ) Tata Engineering & Locomotive Co Ltd, SHRI M. M PHADKE Jamshcdpur SBRI B: K. SINHA ( Alternate ) Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd, Ranchi SFIRI R. C. PKASAD SHRI P. K. BANERJEE ( Alternate 1 Hindustan Steel Works Construction Ltd, Calcutta SHRI RADHEYSEIAM SRRI N. K. MAJUMDAR ( Alternate ) Corporation Mining-Allied Machinery Ltd, SHRI N. V. RAOHAVAN Durgapur SHRI S. KUXAR ( Alternate ) Bharat Heavy Plates & Vessels Ltd, Vishakhapatnam SHRI D. S. P. RAO Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal SHRI U. MORAN RAO SERI A. V. HARNE ( Altrmata ) The K. C. P. Ltd, Tiruvottiur, Madras SHRI K. V. NARASIMEA RAO Ministry of Dcfcncc ( DGI ) SERI B. N. RAY SHRI S. R. MAZUMDAR ( Alternote ) Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbad SHRI P. R. ROY SHRI N. L. SAO ( AUcmute ) Vikram Sarabhai Space Ccntrc, Trivandrum DR B. K. SARKAR SITRIO R. SATYA ( Aftsrnatd ) C. Burn & Co Ltd, Howrah SHRI T. K. SEN SHRI P. DAS GUPTA ( Alternate ) Bharat Heavy Elcctricals Ltd, Hardwar SHRI R. M. SINQHAL SHRI B. K. SINC+H( Altrmute ) Mukand Iron & Steel Works Ltd, Bombay SERI R. K. SRIVASTAVA SHRI S. G. N. SWAMY ( Altcrnatr ) Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. Hydcrabad DR M. VENKATESWARLU Bhabha Atomic Research Ccntrc, Bombay SHRI R. R. WAMOHXAR SRRI K. BA ARAYAYOORTHY ( Alternntr ) SERI K. N. M. 4 ELAHANKA Air India, Bombay SHRI P. L. R. RAO ( Alternote) Director General, ISI ( Ex-oflcio Member ) SHRI C. R. RAMA RAO, Director ( Strut & Met ) SIncra~ SBRI B. MUKHEI~JI Deputy Director ( Metals ), ISI

Steel Authority of India Ltd ( Bokaro Bokara Steel City

IS : 4225 - 1979

Indian Standard
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR STRAIGHT BEAM ULTRASONIC TESTING OF STEEL PLATES (

First Revision)
FOREWORD

0. 0.1This

Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 15 November 1979, after the draft finalized by the Non-Destructive Testing Sectional Committee had been approved by the Structural and Metals Division Council.

0.2 Steel plates for use in boilers and similar critical applications are ultrasonically tested to find out gross internal discontinuities, such as pipes, rupture and laminations. ThLE standard was first published in 1967. This has now been revised on the basis of experience gained More details since its first publication and accepted current practice. regarding the test procedure, including the scanning technique and acceptance standards, have been incorporated in this revision. 0.3 Although the method recommended in this standard is generally applicable to all thicknesses, special equipment ans&cessories may be necessary for thickness lower than 12 mm. 0.4 This standard does not prescribe any acceptance criterion for plates, which should be as agreed to by the contracting parties. However, a note on determination of the type of defect is given in Appendix A for guidance only. 0.5 In the preparation of this standard, the following publications: assistance has been derived from

BS 4336 : Part 1A : 1968 Non-destructive British Standards Institution.

testing

of plate material,

ASTM A578-75 Straight beam ultrasonic examination of plain and clad steel plates for special application. American Society for Testing and Materials. 3

IS : 4225 - 1979 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard beam, pulse-echo, plates.


prescribes the procedure for carrying out straight ultrasonic examination of rolled carbon and alloy steel

2. TERMINOLOGY

2.1 For th: purpose


1977* shall apply. 3. EQUIPMENT

of this standard,

the

definitions

given in IS : 2417-

3.1 Ultrasonic Apparatus - The apparatus shall be of straight beam within f5 perpulse-echo type, which shall provide linear presentation, cent up to at least 75 percent of full screen height. It shall be capable of producing, receiving and displaying high frequency electrical pulses at the required frequency and energy levels, with high degree of accuracy, sharpness, ultra high resolution and stability. The equipment should have a calibrated attenuator.
3.1.1 Calibration - The ultrasonic apparatus shall be adjusted calibrated prior to inspection as described in IS : 4904-1972t. 3.2 Probe - The probe shall be of straight beam 25 mm diameter, or about 25 mm sFare transducer. 3.2.1 cations. Other probes may be used for evaluating type, using and about indi-

or pin-pointing

4. TEST

CONDITIONS

4.1 The test shouldbe carried out in an area reasonably free from any vibrations that may interfere with proper functioning of the ultrasonic equipment.
4.2 The surface of the plate, under examination, shall bc cleaned and smoothed sufficiently to maintain a reference back reflection from the opposite side of the plate at least 75 percent of full scale during scanning. Local rough surfaces shall be conditioned by grinding to ensure proper contact of the transducer to the plate surface. 4.2.1 Any specified identification grinding to achieve proper surface testing. marks which may be removed smoothness, shall be restored when after

*Glossary of terms relating to ultraronic testing (first rcchion ). Hpxification for reference block for calibration of ultrasonic flaw detectors reuirivn ). 4

(first

IS : 4225 - 1979 5. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Personnel, performing ultrasonic testing, in accordance with this standard, shall be suitably qualified and be familiar, at least, with the following: a) Ultrasonic terminology; and mode on test b) Instrument calibration; c) Effect of transducer material, size, frequency results; d) Effect of material structure on test results; e) Effect of non-linearity on test results; f) Effect of thickness and discontinuities g) 6. TEST Effect of surface condition PROCEDURE

on test results; and

on test results.

6.1 Ultrasonic examination should be carried out on either major surface of the plate by any one of the following methods: Direct contact, b) 1 mmersion, or c) Liquid column coupling. 6.1.1 If required by the purchaser, the plate shall be inspected from the opposite side also. Plates ordered in the quenched and tempered condition shall be tested after heat treatment. - The couplant used may be water, soluble oil, glycerine, 6.2 Couplant light machine oil or grease. The coupling medium shall be non-corrosive and adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure that any coupling medium which may be deleterious to the material or which may interfere with its subsequent processing is completely removed after completion of *the test. - A nominal test frequency of 2-25 MHz shall be 6.3 Test Frequency used unless the grain size of the material prevents penetration by scattering the ultrasonic beam, in which case the frequency may be decreased to 1 MHz. Thickness, grain size or micro-structure of the material and nature of the equipment or method may require a higher or lower test frequency. 6.4 Scanning - General scanning shall be carried out with an instrument adjustment that will produce a first reflection from the opposite side of a sound area of the plate at least 75 percent of full scale. Minor for surface sensitivity adjustments may be made to accommodate roughness. 5 a)

IS : 4225 - 1979 6.4.1 Unless otherwise agreed to, scanning shall be done along conGrid lines tinuous perpendicular grid lines on nominal 150 mm centres. shall be measured from the centre or one corner of the plate with an additional path within 50 mm of all edges of the plate on the searching surface. 6.4.2 When a,discontinuity indication is observed on the oscilloscope screen during general scanning, the instruments should be adjusted to produce a first reflection from the opposite side of a sound area of the plate of 75 f 5 percent of full scale. This setting shall be maintained during evaluation of the discontinuity condition. 7. RECORDING OF DISCONTINUITY INDICATIONS

7.1 All discontinuity indications, complete loss of back reflection and loss of 50 percent or more of back reflection shall be recorded. 7.1.1 Indications occurring midway between the initial pulse and the first back reflection may cause a second reflection at the location of the first back reflection. When this condition is observed, it shall be investigated additionally by use of multiple back reflections. 7.2 When grid scanning is performed and discontinuity indications causing loss of back reflection as in 7.1, are detected along a given grid line, the entire surface area of the squares adjacent to this indication shall be scanned. When discontinuities caysing loss of back reflection are indicated, the entire surface area of a 150 x 150 mm square, centred on this indication, shall be scanned. The boundaries of these discontinuities shall be established in either case by the technique given in 7.2.1. 7.2.1 The probe shall be moved away from the centre of the discontinuity until the height of the back reflection and discontinuity indications are equal. The plate should be marked at a point equivalent to the centre of the probe. The operation should be repeated to establish the boundary of the discontinuity. 8. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

8.1 Ultrasonic acceptance criteria for plates should be based on a realistic appraisal of the service requirements and the quality that may normally be obtained in the production of a particular type of plate.
NOTB- An Indian Standard, relating to quality grading of steel plater, by means of ultrasonic testing ir under preparation. A user may aelcct the grade most appropriate for a particular application from the grader that may be specified in this rtandard.

IS:4225-1979 9. RECORD OF TEST DATA


be recorded at the time of each test for

9.1 The following future reference:

data should

a) Identification, material specification, b) Condition of surface of the plate; c) Test frequency; d) Make f) and model of the test unit; e) Amplification Description g) Couplant h) Mode j) .9.2 The test information: a) Ultrasonic used; and and description be prepared indications should or gain control of the probe;

and size of the plate;

of the equipment;

of scanning; report

of discontinuity. containing the following

Date of testing; number of the plate; location of indicati.on and height of

b) Reference

c) Height of reflection at the back reflection; and d) Sketch showing.location

of flaw indications.

APPENDIX ( Clause 0.4 3


DETERMINATION A-l. OF THE

A
OF DEFECT
is determination of since this affects the

TYPE

The first step in any detailed plate examination the type, approximate size arid nature of the defects beam form and equipment response.

A-2. The amount probe movement, behaviour bottom echoes clearly indicate the type of defect tion with other factors.

of

of the defect signal and when used in cdnjunc-

A-3. When making an assessment it is essential to consider the bottom echo pattern rather than the effect on the first bottom.echo in isolation. The information given in Table 1 may be used as a guide in this assessment, but should not be regarded as a substitute for ultrasonic skill and knowledge. 7

IS : 4225- 1979

TABLE

1 GUIDE

TO

DEFECT.

ASSESSMENT

( CInurr A-3 ) DETECT ECHO TYPE %. EXPECT ON BOTTOM ECHO OR TRANSYISBION (3) Zero at all rest frcqucntics ASSESSMENT

(1) i)

(2) Large discrete. Persisting with probe movement. No substantial movcment of echo on time base Small to medium. Persisting wilh probe movcment. Some movement of echo on time base. More than ohe echo interconnected Medium to large. Discrete. Not persisting with probe movement Small to large. Fluctu. ating with probe movcmcnt. No substantial movement of echo on time base Many small echoes fluctuating and extending in depth through the plate

(4) Lamination exceeding probe dimension

ii)

Attenuated or zero all frequencies

at

Irregular cavity defect. with planes inclined to plate surface. Present only in plate with low reduction Isolated laminations of width less than beam width Region of impcrfcction containing small lamina defects

iii)

Attenuated, recovering with probe movcment Fluctuating with probe

iv)

v)

Considerable attcnuation depending on frcquyncy

Distributed small defects. Inclusion clusDirty plate ters.

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INDIAN

STANDARDS

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