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TCXDVN VIETNAMESE BUILDING STANDARDS

TCXDVN 375:2006
1
st
edition
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE
Part 2: Foundation, retaining wall, and geotechnic issues
HN I 2006
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Design of structures for earthquake resistance
Part 2: Foundation, wall and geotechnic issues
1 General
1.1 Field of application
(1)P Part 2 of the regulation establishes requirements, criteria and prescripts
about choosing construction location and foundation of earthquake
resistance structure. It includes regulations about choosing different
foundation types, wall types and interactivity between structure and ground
soil under earthquake effect. Hence it complements Eurocode 7 which
does not include special requirements for earthquake resistant structures.
(2)P Clauses in Part 2 apply on house buildings Part 1 of the Regulation apply
bridge structure (EN 1998-2), tower, column, chimney (EN 1998-6), silo,
basin, conduit (EN 1998-4)
(3)P Requirements about special design for certain structure foundation, when
needed, can be looked up in corresponding part of this building regulation
(4) Appendix B of this regulation introduces empiric charts used to evaluate
likely liquefaction simply, Appendix E introduces simple procedure to
analyze earthquake properties of wall structure.
NOTE 1 : Appendix A provides information about relief amplification
factor.
NOTE 2 : Appendix C provides information about piles static stiffness.
NOTE 3 : Appendix D provides information about dynamic interaction
between structure and ground soil.
NOTE 4 : Appendix F provides information about earthquake bearing
capacity of shallow foundation
1.2 Further reference documents for this regulation.
(1)P Part 2 of the building regulation bases from date or dateless reference
materials and clauses in other printed materials. Reference materials will be
quoted at proper places in this document and other printed material listed
below. About date materials, update changes after publishing are effective
only with amendment regulation. About dateless materials, latest versions
must be used.
1.2.1 Popular reference regulations.
EN 1990 - Basics of structure design.
EN 1997-1 Geotechnic design- Part 1 : General presripts.
EN 1997-2 Geotechnic design- Part 2 : Soil investigation and test
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EN 1998-2 Design of earthquake resistant structure - Part 2 : Detail
prescripts of bridge.
EN 1998-2 Design of earthquake resistant structure - Part 2 : Detail
prescripts of silo structure, basin and conduit.
EN 1998-4 Design of earthquake resistant structure - Part 4 : Detail
prescripts of tower, pile, chimney constructions
TCXDVN2006
Design of earthquake resistant structure - Part 1 : General , earthquake
effect and prescripts of house structure.
1.3 Assumptions
(1)P Apply common assumptions in 1.3 in EN 1990:2002
1.4 Distinguish between principles and prescripts.
(1)P Apply prescripts in 1.4 in EN 1990:2002
1.5 Terms and definitions
1.5.1 Common terms in this whole Regulation
(1)P Use terms and definitions stated in Appendix D, Part 1 of this building
regulation.
(2)P Use 1.5.1 of this building regulation for common terms appearing
throughout this building regulation.
1.5.2 Complemented terms used in this building regulation.
(1)P Definitions of ground soil are quoted from 1.5.2 in EN 1997-1:2004,
definitions of geotechnic terms related to earthquake, e.g liquefaction, are
quoted in this very building regulation.
(2) Terms used in Part 2 are defined in 1.5.2, Part 1 in this building regulation.
1.6 Symbols
(1) The following notation are employed throughout this building regulation.
All symbols in Part 2 will be defined right after their first appearance for
convenience. Symbols not defined at first appearance are explained below.
Symbols used only at Appendices will be defined right below them in those
Appendices.
d
E Designed action effect
pd
E Horizontal strength at foundation lateral side against passive earth pressure.
ER Energy ratio in Standard Penetration Test
H
F Designed horizontal inertia force originated from earthquake.
V
F Designed vertical inertia force originated from earthquake.
Rd
F Designed shear strength between foundations horizontal bottom and soil.
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G Shear modulus
max
G Average shear modulus under small deformation condition.
e
L Distance between anchor and wall in dynamic condition.
s
L Distance between anchor and wall in static condition.
Ed
M Designed moment
) 60 (
1
B Standard penetration test (SPT) index normalized with respect to soil own
pressure and to energy ratio
Ed
N Designed normal force acting on horizontal foundations bottom.
SPT
N Number of hammer blows in Standard Penetrating Test (SPT)
Pl Plasticity index of soil
d
R Designed bearing capacity of ground soil.
S Coefficient of soil reaction defined inn 3.2.2.2 of this regulation.
T
S Relief amplification factor
Ed
V Designed transversal shear force.
W Weight of sliding body.
g
a Ground acceleration designed for A-type soil (
gR l g
a a = )
gR
a Reference maximum ground acceleration for A-type ground soil.
vg
a Designed vertical ground acceleration.
' c Cohesive force in terms of soils effective stress.
u
c Soils undrained shear strength.
d Diameter of pile.
r
d Displacement of retaining wall.
g Gravitational acceleration
h
k Horizontal earthquake coefficient
v
k Vertical earthquake coefficient
u
q Compression strength under lateral expansion condition.
r Coefficient used to calculate horizontal earthquake coefficient (Table 7.1).
s
v Velocity of shear wave.
max , s
v Average value of
s
v under small deformation condition (<10
-5
).
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o Ratio between ground acceleration designed for A-type ground soil
g
a and
gravitational acceleration g.
Unit weight of soil.
d
Dry unit weight of soil
l
Operational importance factor.
M
Differential coefficient of material parameter.
Rd
Differential coefficient of model.
w
Unit weight of water.
o Friction angle between soil and foundation or retaining wall.
' | Shear strength angle calculated with respect to effective stress.
p Unit weight.
vo
o Soils own total pressure, as well as total vertical stress.
vo
' o Soils own effective pressure, as well as effective vertical stress.
vo
' o Soils undrained shear strength when subjected to cyclic load.
e
' t Shear stress under earthquake effect.
1.7 International system of units (SI)
(1)P Use SI units system according to ISO 1000.
(2) Besides, other units recommended in 1.7, Part 1 in this building regulation
is allowed to use.
NOTE: when calculating geotechnic problem, refer to 1.6(2), EN 1997-
1:2004 if need be.
2 Earthquake effect
2.1 Definition of earthquake effect
(1)P Earthquake effect must agree with definitions and concepts introduced in
3.2, Part 1 of this building regulation, with regard to clauses in 4.2.2.
(2)P Combination of earthquake effect and other effects must be studied
following procedure 3.2.4, Part 1 of this building regulation.
(3) Simplification in choosing earthquake effect will be introduced at their
proper place in this building regulation.
2.2 Histogram
(1)P When analysis in time domain is carried out, simulated acceleration
schematic diagram as well as real schematic diagram can be utilized to
record strong displacement of ground soil. Recorded data related to
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maximum value and frequency must comply with prescripts in 3.2.3.1, Part
1 of this building regulation.
(2) When investigating dynamic stability including irreversible deformation,
vibrations, one must uses real acceleration schematic diagram which
achieves the earthquake data of the building location, because they
practically have low frequency and time-correlation between vertical and
horizontal displacement components. Time interval in which strong
displacement occurs must be chosen following 3.2.3.1, Part 1 of this
building regulation.
3 PROPERTIES OF GROUND SOIL
3.1 Strength parameters
(1) In general, strength parameters under static and undrained condition can be
used. With cohesive soil, appropriate strength parameter is undrained shear
strength
u
c , but if need be and adequate experimental evidences have been
collected, it must be adjusted for rapid rate of loading and attenuation due
to repetitive loading . With non-cohesive soil, appropriate strength
parameter is undrained shear strength under repetitive loading
-
u cy,
t . When
calculating this value one must taken into account the accumulation of pore
water pressure.
(2) It is allowable to use effective strength parameters in case pore water
pressure is generated due to cyclic loading. About rock, compression
resistance with lateral expansion
u
q may be used.
(3) Coefficients
M
for material characteristics
u
c ,
u cy ,
t , and
u
q is lettered
cu
,
cy t
,
qu
, coefficients
M
for ' tan| is lettered
' |
.
Note: Recommended values of
cu
,
cy t
,
qu
,
' |
are 4 . 1 =
cu
, 25 . 1 =
cy t
,
4 . 1 =
qu
, 25 . 1
'
=
|
.
3.2 Stiffness parameters and resistance parameters
(1) Due to its effect on designed earthquake effect, primary stiffness parameter
of ground soil under earthquake load is shear modulus G calculated as
below:
2
.
s
v G p = (3.1)
Where p is unit weight and
s
v is shear wave velocity in ground soil.
(2) Criteria to determine
s
v value and even its dependence on soil deformation
are introduced in 4.2.2 and 4.2.3.
(3) Damping rate is viewed as an auxiliary property in case of taking into
account interaction between ground soil and structure, as prescribed in
chapter 6.
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(4) Internal resistance due to soils nonlinear respond to cyclic load, and
pervasive resistance due to earthquake propagation out of foundation, must
be considered separately.
4 REQUIREMENTS IN CHOOSING BUILDING LOCATION AND
GROUND SOIL.
4.1 Choosing building location
4.4.1 General
(1)P It is necessary to evaluate building location, determine ground soils nature
in order to ensure that the dangers of failure, slope instability, liquefaction
and compactness due to earthquake are as small as possible.
(2)P Possibility of these disadvantageous phenomena must be surveyed
following clauses below.
4.1.2 The vicinity of active paraclase area
(1)P House of II, III, IV importance degree defined in 4.2.5, Part 1 of this
building regulation is not allowed to be built in the vicinity of paraclases in
which earthquake activity is confirmed to occur in official documents
promulgated by National Assembly authority.
(2) The event that displacements did not occur in modern stage of Quaternary
Period can be viewed as a sign of paraclase deactivation in most of
structures which do not endanger public works.
(3) Special geologic surveillance must be carried out to serve town planning
and important structures built near likely alive paraclases in earthquake
hazard area, to determine risk of ground fracture and quake degree
afterwards.
4.1.3 Slope stability
4.1.3.1General requirements
(1)P Examination of ground stability must be carried out with structures built on
or near natural slope or artificial slope, in order to ensure that safety degree
and/or working capacity are maintained under designed earthquake class.
(2)P Under effect of earthquake load, the critical state of slope is the state- when
it is exceeded - long term displacement (irreversible displacement) of
ground soil state will occur with value exceeding allowable level in depth
range which can affect building structure and function.
(3) It is allowable to skip examination of I class importance buildings, if
control experiment shows that ground soil at building location is stable.
4.1.3.2 Earthquake effect
(1)P Designed earthquake effect which is assumed in order to examine stability
must comply with definitions in 2.1
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(2)P When examining structures grounds stability with operational importance
factor
l
greater than 1 lying on or near slope, it is necessary to increase
designed earthquake force through relief amplification factor.
NOTE : Some guidance for relief amplification factor value is given in
reference appendix A
(3) Effect of designed earthquake may be simplified following rules in 4.1.3.3
4.1.3.3Analysing methods
(1)P Response of slope to designed earthquake must be calculated either by
accepted analyzing methods of structural dynamics, such as finite element
method, solid mass model, or quasi-static method simplified using limit of
condition (3) and (8) of this clause.
(2)P When modeling mechanic response of ground soil, softening in response
when deformation increases and other consequences originated from
increasing pore water pressure under cyclic load must be considered.
(3) Examination of stability may be carried out by simplified quasi-static
methods at surface relief and stratum structure at which no abnormal
variation occurs.
(4) Quasi-static methods that analyze stability are similar to methods
introduced in 11.5 of EN 1997-1:2004, excluding vertical and horizontal
inertia forces of each part of soil mass and of gravitational load acting on
apex.
(5)P Inertia forces due to designed F
H
and F
V
acting on soil mass, corresponding
to horizontal and vertical direction, in quasi-static analysis, are calculated as
below:
W S F
H
. . . 5 . 0 o = (4.1)
H V
F F 5 . 0 = if ratio
g vg
a a / is greater than 0.6 (4.2)
H V
F F 33 . 0 = if ratio
g vg
a a / is not greater than 0.6 (4.3)
where:
o ratio between designed acceleration of A- type ground and
gravitational acceleration;
vg
o vertical designed acceleration of ground;.
g
o designed acceleration of A-type ground;
S soil action coefficient, quoted in 3.2.2.2, Part 1 of this building
regulation;
W weight of sliding mass.
Relief amplification factor for
g
o must be taken into account, according to
4.1.3.2(2).
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(6)P Limit state condition is used to examine sliding surface with least stability.
(7) Condition of limit service state may be examined by calculating irreversible
displacement of sliding mass following a simplified model- including a
sliding solid mass which resists frictional force on slope. In this model,
seismic effect must be the representative in histogram according to 2.2 and
be calculated based on designed acceleration without any damping
coefficient.
(8)P Other simplified methods such as simplified quasi-static method introduced
from (3) to (6)P in this clause are not allowed to used for soil that is
capable of developing pore water pressure or has significant stiffness
attenuation under cyclic load.
(9) Increase of pore water pressure must be evaluated by appropriate
experiment. In case of such experiment was not carried out, one can
evaluate by experimental correlation to design preliminarily.
4.1.3.4 Examine safety degree by quasi-static method
(1)P With saturated soil in area in which 15 . 0 . > S o , it is necessary to consider
possibility of strength attenuation and increase of pore water pressure due
to cyclic load as introduced in 4.1.3.3(8).
(2) With stabilized sliding surface but capable of continuing sliding due to
earthquake, one must uses large deformation strength parameters. With
non-cohesive soil, cyclic increase of pore water pressure in limit range of
4.1.3.3 may be taken into account by decreasing resistance originated from
friction with appropriate pore water pressure coefficient, commensurable to
maximum pore water pressure. Such increase may be evaluated following
guidance in 4.1.3.3(9).
(3) It is not necessary to apply attenuation of shear strength on strongly
expanding, non-cohesive soil, e.g compact sand.
(4)P Examination of slope safety must be conducted following principles
introduced in EN 1997-1:2004.
4.1.4 Types of soil prone to liquefaction
(1)P Attenuation of shear strength and/or stiffness due to increase of pore water
pressure in discrete, water-saturated material during ground movement
caused by earthquake, to the extent that increasing soil irreversible
deformation significantly, or making soil effective stress close to zero, from
now on, will be classified as liquefaction.
(2)P It is obligatory to forecast liquefaction when ground soil consists of loose
sand on large area or thick loose sand lenses, with or without dust pclause
or clay pclause, lying beneath underground water level, and when
underground water level is shallow. This evaluation must be carried out at
void (ground level, underground water level) appearing throughout
structures service life.
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(3)P Essential surveillance for this purpose must include at least Standard
Penetration Test (SPT) on site, or Cone Penetration Test (CPT), as well as
determination of grain size distribution curve in laboratory.
(4)P In SPT, measured
SPT
N value, which expresses number of beats /30cm,
must be normalized with respect to the facts that apparent effective stress of
earth is 100kPa, and that the ratio between impact energy and free fall
energy is 0.6. At depths which are smaller than 3m, measured
SPT
N value
must be cut down 25%.
(5) Normalization of earth pressure effect may be carried out by multiplying
measured
SPT
N value by the coefficient ,
2 / 1
' 100
vo
o , where
vo
' o (kPa) is
effective stress of soil at the SPT s depth and SPT s time. The taken value
of normalizing coefficient ,
2 / 1
' 100
vo
o must range from 0.5 to 2.
(6) Normalization of energy requires multiplying number of beats (in clause (5)
this clause) by a coefficient ER/60, where ER is 100 times equipments
characteristic energy ratio.
(7) For house on shallow foundation, evaluation of liquefaction may be omitted
if saturated sandy soil appears only at the depth greater than 15m (measured
from ground surface).
(8) Liquefaction hazard may be omitted if 15 . 0 . < S o and at least one of the
following conditions is met:
- Sand has clay content greater than 20% with plasticity index PI>10;
- Sand has dust content greater than 35% with plasticity index PI>10; and
number of beats in SPT after being normalized with respect to earth
pressure effect and energy ratio N
1
(60) is greater than 20.
- Pure sand, and number of beats in SPT after being normalized with respect
to earth pressure and energy ratio N
1
(60) is greater than 30.
(9)P If liquefaction hazard can not be omitted, then it must be evaluated by
reliable geotechnic methods, basing on correlation between in situ
observation and repetitive shear stress which caused liquefaction in the past
earthquakes.
(10) Empiric graph of liquefaction demonstrating ground state in situ data are
given in Appendix B. In this method, shear stress due to earthquake
e
t may
be calculated by the following simplified formula:
vo e
S o o t . . 65 . 0 = (4.4)
where:
vo
o soil own total pressure, other variables already appeared in expressions
from (4.1) to (4.3). This expression is not valid if the depth is greater than
20m.
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(11)P The condition for in situ correlation method to be employed is that soil must
be sensible to liquefaction when shear stress caused by earthquake exceeds
threshold stress an amount , these threshold stress is known to have
caused liquefaction in the past earthquakes.
NOTE : Recommended value of is 0.8, including safety coefficient
which is 1.25.
(12)P If soil is seen to be prone to liquefaction and other following effects may
affect foundations load bearing capacity or stability, then it is necessary to
perform appropriate measures that ensure foundations stability, e.g
reinforcing ground and pile. (to transfer load to layer which is not prone to
liquefaction).
(13) Reinforcement of ground to resist liquefaction can be: compacting soil to
increase penetration resistance out of dangerous range, or drainage method
to decrease pore water pressure due to ground quake.
NOTE: Possibility whether compacting soil is carried out or not is
determined mainly by fine-grain content and the depth.
(14) The method that only piles foundation is used needs careful consideration
because grave internal force may arise in pile due to lack of soils support in
one or more liquefied layer(s), and due to inevitable inaccuracy when
calculating position or thickness of that/those layer(s).
4.1.5 Exeeding settlement of soil under cyclic load effect.
(1)P Sensitivity of soil to compactness and exceeding settlement due to cyclic
stress caused by earthquake must be taken into account when soil layers
distribute on large area or there are thick saturated loose sand lenses at
small depth.
(2) Exceeding settlement may also occur in very weak clay soil layers, because
the shear strength decreases with cycle under long ground quake.
(3) Possibility that the compactness and settlement of the above soil types must
be evaluated by current geotechnic methods, if necessary one may use
laboratory test with static load and cyclic load for representative samples of
studied materials.
(4) If settlement due to compactness or cyclic strength attenuation may affect
foundation stability, then one must consider to reinforce the ground.
4.2 Surveillance and study about ground.
4.2.1 General criteria
(1)P Surveillance and study about ground, foundation materials in seismic zone
must comply with common principles as those principles for non-seismic
zone, as defined in Part 3, EN 1997-1:2004.
(2) Except houses of I importance degree, in in situ surveillance it is
recommended to introduce static penetration test, pore water pressure
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measurement, because they allow us to record continuously soil mechanic
characteristics with depth.
(3) Implement surveillance about oriented quake resistance may be required in
some situation listed in $.1 and 4.2.2
4.2.2 Classification of ground soil by earthquake effect
(1)P Geotechnic or geologic figures about building area must be sufficient for
determining average ground type and corresponding spectrum o response,
as defined in 3.1 and 3.2, Part 1 of this building regulation.
(2) To hit that mark, in situ figures may be employed and combined with
figures of vicinity which has similar geologic properties.
(3) Referring to sub-area maps or seismic criteria is obligatory, with the
condition that such map or criteria must comply with (1)P in this clause and
base on in situ surveillance of ground soil
(4)P Velocity plane of shear wave in ground is considered to be the most reliable
to forecast properties at each position due to earthquake effect.
(5) It is recommended to carry out in situ test to determine velocity plane of
shear wave
s
v in drilled hole by geophysic method for important structures
locating in seismic zone, especially in ground of D, S
1
, S
2
type.
(6) Under all other circumstances, when natural periods of vibrations need
determining, velocity plane of
s
v may be evaluated by experimental
correlation that includes penetration resistance of the site and other
geotechnic properties, while paying attention to that correlations
divergence.
(7) Soils internal resistance should be measured by appropriate in situ test or
laboratory test. If direct measurements are not available but the product
S
g
. o is smaller than 0.1g (or 0.98m/s
2
), one may choose resistance ratio to
be 0.03. Cohesive soil, cemented soil, and soft rock need separately
surveillance.
4.2.3 Dependence of stiffness and damping rate on deformation degree.
(1)P Under small deformation, difference between
s
v obtained through in situ
test and
s
v obtained through deformation in earthquake simulation must
both be notified in all calculation of soil dynamic characteristics.
(2) If building locations ground soil belongs to type C or D, or underground
water level is shallow, and no component has plasticity index PI>40, one
can uses reduction factor for
s
v listed in Table 4.1 when lacking in specific
data. With stiffer strata and deeper underground water level, reduction
factor and variation range must be smaller.
(3) If the product S
g
. o is equal to or greater than 0.1g (0.98m/s
2
), it is
recommended to use internal resistance ratios in Table 4.1 when lacking in
specific measurements.
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Table 4.1 Soils average resistance ratio and shear waves average velocity
s
v and shear modulus G ( a standard deviation)
in the depth limit of 20m.
Ground
acceleration ratio
S
g
. o
Reduction factor
max , s
s
v
v
max
G
G
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.03
0.06
0.10
0.90( 0.07)
0.70( 0.15)
0.60( 0.15)
0.80( 0.10)
0.50( 0.20)
0.36( 0.20)
Where:
max , s
v average value of
s
v in case deformation is small (<10
-5
),
max , s
v never
exceed 360m/s.
max
G average value of G in case deformation is small (<10
-5
).
NOTE : One may choose an appropriate value in the range of standard
deviation, according to other factors such as stiffness or soil layer. For
instance, in the first row, one can choose
max , s
s
v
v
and
max
G
G
to be larger than
0.09 and 0.08, respectively, if dealing with stiffer stratum, and vice versa.
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5 FOUNDATION SYSTEM
5.1 General requirements
(1)P Beside general requirements of EN 1997-1:2004, structures foundation in
seismic zone must comply with the following issues.
a) Relating force generated in the upper structures must be transferred to the
lower structures without causing any significant irreversible deformation as
defined in criteria in 5.3.2 .
b) Foundations deformation due to earthquake must meet requirements about
structures fundamental functions.
c) Foundation must be fully understood, designed and constructed following
exactly rules in 5.2 and other methods in 5.4 to reduce risk of unpredictable
earthquake effects as small as possible.
(2)P It is essential to take into account the dependence of soils dynamic
parameters on soils deformation and cyclic nature of earthquake load.
Taking into account local reinforced soils or replacing soils parameters is
also very important, to ensure that their compactness is sufficient or their
other parameters are not too sensitive to compactness or liquefaction.
(3) With suitable reasons, or in need, substitute foundations materials of which
strength factor is different from those listed in 3.1(3) may be used, provided
that they offer the same safety degree.
NOTE : for instance, strength factors applied in loading pile experiments.
5.2 Prescripts of basic designs
(1)P If the structure is not bridge or pipeline, mixed foundations such as piles
foundation combined with shallow foundation may only be used if such mix
was proved to be appropriate. Dynamic-independent components in the
structures may also use these mixed foundations.
(2)P In choosing foundation type, one needs to consider the followings:
a) Foundations stiffness must be sufficient to transfer local effect from upper
structure to lower structure uniformly.
b) When choosing foundations stiffness in its horizontal plane, reciprocal
influence of horizontal relative displacement between plumb building
elements must be notified.
c) The assumption that displacement amplitude attenuates with respect to
depth is only accepted if it was proved by proper study and maximum
acceleration ratio at ground surface is smaller than p times S
g
. o .
NOTE : Recommended value of p is 0.65
5.3 Designed effect
5.3.1 Relation inside designed structure
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(1)P Energy dissipation structure. It is obligatory to take into account the risk
that earthquake effect on energy dissipation structures foundation may
exceed foundation bearing capacity. Evaluation of such risk must comply
with clauses in corresponding clause of this building regulation.
Particularly, with house building, requirements in 4.4.2.6(2)P, Part 1 of this
building regulation must be complied.
(2)P Non energy-dissipation structure. When calculating the earthquake effect
on non energy-dissipation structures foundation, one can employ the
results that have been calculated in the condition of earthquake but neglect
the bearing capacity. Refer further to 4.4.2.6(3), Part 1 of this building
regulation for more information.
5.3.2 Transfer of earthquake effect to ground
(1)P The following criteria about transfer of transverse force, normal force,
bending moment to ground must be met in order for the foundation system
to meet 5.5(1)P. In addition, pile and column must meet criteria in 5.4.2.
(2)P Transverse force. Transverse shear force V
Ed
is transferred by following
mechanism:
a) By designed shear strength between foundations horizontal bottom or
foundations plate and ground as described in 5.4.1.1.
b) By designed shear strength between foundations vertical surface and
ground.
c) By designed shear strength due to earth pressure at foundations lateral
surface, satisfying limits and prescripts as described in 5.4.1.1, 5.4.1.3,
5.4.2.
(3)P The value of shear strengths combination may be at most 30 % resistance
due to be passive earth pressure when totally mobilized.
(4)P Normal force and bending moment. Normal force N
Ed
and bending moment
M
Ed
are transferred to ground by a mechanism or a combination of
mechanisms below:
a) By vertical designed counterforce at foundations bottom.
b) By designed bending moment generated by horizontal designed shear force
between lateral surface of deep foundations elements (case foundation,
piles foundation, caissons) and ground, satisfying limits and prescripts as
described in 5.4.1.3, 5.4.2
c) By vertical designed shear force between lateral surface of deep
foundations elements (case foundation, piles foundation, caissons), or
other foundation elements buried in ground, and ground.
5.4 Criteria in testing and size determination.
5.4.1 Shallow foundation or buried foundation
(1)P To test or determine size of shallow foundation or buried foundation put
directly on ground, use the following criteria.
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5.4.1.1 Foundation (designed at ultimate state).
(1)P According to criteria about ultimate state, foundations sliding resistance
and load bearing capacity must be checked.
(2)P Sliding failure. In case foundations bottom lies above underground water
level, this failure is resisted by friction through horizontal pressure,
according to rules in (5) of this clause.
(3) When lacking in specific studies, designed resistance due to friction of
foundation lying above underground water level F
Rd
can be calculated using
the following formula:
M
Ed Rd
tg
N F

o
= (5.1)
Where:
Ed
N designed normal force acting on horizontal foundations bottom.
o angle of friction between structure surface and ground at
foundations bottom. This value may be evaluated following 6.5.3 of
EN 1997-1:2004;
M
specific coefficient of material parameter, taking the value of ' | tg
(refer to 3.1.(3))
(4)P If foundation lies beneath underground water level, designed shear strength
must be evaluated based on undrained shear strength, following 6.5.3 of EN
1997-1:2004.
(5) Horizontal designed shear strength E
pd
due to earth pressure acting on
foundations lateral surface may be taken into account as stated in 5.3.2,
provided that appropriate measures have been applied such as compacting
the soil which fills foundation lateral, burying foundations wall vertically
downwards, pouring foundations concrete directly to clean straight soil
line.
(6)P To ensure that no sliding failure occurs horizontally, the following
condition must be satisfied:
pd Rd Ed
E F V + s
(5.2)
(7) If the following prescripts are satisfied simultaneously:
- The foundation lies above underground water level;
- Soil properties remain unchanged during earthquake;
- Sliding causes no bad effect on functions of any kind of life-line pipelines
(water pipeline, gas pipeline, gate pipeline or communication line wire)
attached to the structure;
then sliding will occur within the acceptable limit. Sliding degree must be
reasonable in the structures overall response.
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18
(8)P Failure due to exceeding load bearing capacity. Load bearing capacity
must be checked with combination effect of N
Ed
, V
Ed
, M
Ed
to see whether it
satisfies 5.1(1)Pa) or not.
NOTE : to examine load bearing capacity of foundation when earthquake
occurs, expressions and criteria in Appendix A may be used. These take
into account tilt and eccentricity caused by inertia force in structure as well
as other likely effects of inertia force on load bearing ground.
(9) It is necessary to be aware of some kind of sensible clay soil whose shear
strength may decrease, some kind of non-cohesive soil which is prone to
effect of pore water dynamic pressure which is due to cyclic load as well as
dissipation of pore pressure from lower soil layers after earthquake.
(10) The calculation of soils load bearing capacity under seismic load must take
into account strength and stiffness attenuation mechanisms even if
deformation is small. If these phenomena are taken into account then
materials characteristic parameters may be smaller. If not, one should use
values listed in 3.1(3).
(11) The phenomenon that pore pressure increases under cyclic load or its effect
on pore water pressure (in analysis of effective stress) must be taken into
account by considering its effect on undrained shear strength (in analysis of
total stress). With structure having operational importance factor
I
smaller
than 1.0, soils nonlinear response must be taken into account when
determining irreversible deformation which occurred during earthquake.
5.4.1.2Horizontal tie-backs
(1)P Like 5.2, effects on structure caused by foundations relative horizontal
displacement must be evaluated and measures must be employed to adjust
design.
(2) With house, requirement in (1)P is considered to be satisfied if all
foundations are on the same horizontal plane, tie-back and foundation piles
are placed at foundation altitude or grillage altitude. These methods are not
necessary if: a) foundation type is A, b) foundation type is B and seismic
risk is negligible.
(3) Tie-backs on houses ground floor can be assumed to be tie-backs if they lie
in the range of 1.0m from foundation bottom or grillage bottom. A
foundation plate may be employed to replace tie-backs if it is also placed in
the range of 1.0m from foundation bottom or grillage bottom.
(4) Tensile strength of these connecting elements may be estimated using
simplified methods.
(5)P If no rules or no more accurate methods are available, then tie-backs in
foundation are considered to be sufficient when all rules in (6) and (7) are
met.
(6) Tie-backs
The following methods should be applied:
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
19
a) Tie-back must be designed to resist longitudinal force, including shear force
and tensile force:
Ed
SN o 3 . 0 with B type ground
Ed
SN o 4 . 0 with C type ground
Ed
SN o 6 . 0 with D type ground
where
Ed
N : average designed axial force in vertical elements connected under the
condition of quake resistance design.
b) Longitudinal steel must be anchored firmly onto foundation body or other
tie-backs.
(7) Foundation plate
The following measures must be applied:
a) Tie-backs must be designed to resist axial force which are equal to values in
(6)a) of this clause.
b) Longitudinal steel of braced area must be anchored firmly onto foundation
body or continuous plate.
5.4.1.3 Spread-footing
(1) All clauses in 5.4.1.1 may also be applied for spread-footing, but with the
following prescripts:
a) Capacity of total friction may be taken into account in case of a single
foundation plate. With foundation beams simple mesh, an equivalent
foundation area may be considered at each intersection point.
b) Tie-backs and/or foundation plates may be viewed as connecting braces,
rules about their sizes may be applied for effective width corresponding to
foundation beam width or plate width equal to one tenth its width.
(2) Spread-footing may be examined like wall in its plane range, under effects
of its inertia forces and horizontal forces caused by upper structures.
5.4.1.4 Case foundation
(1) All items of 5.4.1.3 are also used for case foundation. Besides, load
capacity of soil at the side as regulations in 5.3.2(2) and 5.4.1.1(5) can be
considered to all types of soil acrroding to limitations in regulation.
5.4.2 Pile and pillar
(1) Pile and pillar must be designed to resist two kinds of effect
a) Inertia forces caused by upper structures. These forces, combined with
static load, take the designed values N
Ed
, V
Ed
, M
Ed
as in 5.3.2.
b) Forces caused by earths deformation when seismic wave propagates
through.
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
20
(2)P Piles critical horizontal load bearing capacity must be examined following
rules in 7.7 of this building regulation.
(3)P Analysis of piles internal force, as well as displacements or rotation angles
must base on discrete or contiguous model in order to describe exactly (or
approximately):
- Piles flexural rigidity;
- Earth counterforce acting along pile shaft, together with consideration of
cyclic load and deformation degree in soil;
- Dynamic interaction between piles (also called dynamic effect of piles
group);
- Freedom degree of/at grillage, or of/at joints between piles and structure.
NOTE : to calculate piles stiffness, employ expressions given in Appendix
C.
(4)P One must neglect lateral resistance of soil which is prone to liquefaction or
whose strength decrease significantly.
(5) If batter piles are used then one must design them so that they can resist
axial load as well as bending safely.
NOTE : It is not recommended to use batter piles to transfer horizontal load
to earth.
(6)P Bending moment developed due to dynamic interaction are only calculated
if all following prescripts are simultaneously met:
- Ground soils cross-sections is of D or S
1
or S
2
type, and includes
contiguous layer with abrupt changes;
- The building locates at area in which risk of earthquake is medium or
high, i.e. the product a
g
.S exceeds 0.10g (or 0.98m/s
2
), and structure is of III
or IV importance degree.
(7) Theoretically, piles must be designed in elastic limit, but in some situation
plastic hinge is allowed to develop at pile top. Zone in which plastic hinge
is likely to appear must be designed following 5.8.4, Part 1 of this building
regulation.
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21
6 INTERACTION BETWEEN EARTH AND STRUCTURE
(1)P Earth-structure dynamic interaction must be taken into account in:
a) Structures that A P effect (second-order effect) plays important role;
b) Structures with big massive foundation or being buried such as bridge pier,
off shore well foundation and silo;
c) Tall and slim structures such as tower, chimney in EN 1997-6:2004;
d) Structures above very soft soil layers, with average shear wave velocity
max , s
v (as defined in Table 4.1) smaller than 100m/s, e.g S
1
type soil layer.
NOTE : Information about common effects and importance of dynamic
interaction between structure and earth is given in Appendix D.
(2)P Effects of earth-structure interaction of pile must be estimated following
5.4.2 for all kinds of structures.
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7 RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE
7.1 General requirements
(1)P Retaining wall structures must be designed to function during an after
earthquake without being significantly damaged.
(2) Irreversible displacement, sliding or tilt (tilt caused by earths irreversible
deformation), may be accepted if they meet requirements about functioning
and/or aesthetics.
7.2 Choice of structures and notes about designing
(1)P Choosing structure types must base on normal functioning conditions,
following general principles in chapter 9, EN 1997-1:2004.
(2)P To ensure that supplement requirements about earthquake are met, one may
need to adjust or even choose a more appropriate structures.
(3)P Backfill materials must be graded and compacted on site so that the
continuity with original soil is as high as possible.
(4)P Drainage system behind structure must be able to resist transient and long
time displacement while their functions are not affected.
(5)P Especially in case of aqueous non-cohesive soil, drainage system must
prove their effect at even the part below failure surface which is behind the
structure.
(6)P It is obligatory to ensure that the support earth block is supplied with
enough insurance supply to prevent liquefaction under earthquake effect.
7.3 Analysis methods
7.3.1 General methods
(1)P Any methods established basing on structural dynamics basics, experience
and observations, is theoretically acceptable in estimating retaining walls
safety degree.
(2) The following issues need consideration:
a) Soils general nonlinear response in dynamic interaction with retaining wall
structure.
b) Inertia effect accompanying weight of soil, of structure, and of all
gravitational loads may take part in interaction progress.
c) Hydrodynamic effects caused by appearance of water behind wall and/or at
wall outside surface.
7.3.2 Simplified methods: quasi-static analysis
7.3.2.1Fundamental models
(1)P Fundamental models in quasi-static analysis method must include retaining
wall structure and its foundation, earth block behind the structure which is
assumed to be in active limit equilibrium (if the structure is flexible
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
23
enough), as well as any load affecting on earth block, even earth block at
wall base, which is considered to be in passive equilibrium.
(2) In order for an active state of soil to happen, a sufficiently large
displacement must occur throughout designed earthquake, this displacement
may take form in the bending of flexible structure, in sliding or rotation of
gravitational structure. With displacement which is needed to develop
active limit state, referring to 9.5.3 of EN 1997-1:2004 for more
information.
(3) With stiff structures lying on bedrock or piles such as basement wall or
gravitational wall, pressure generated will be larger than active pressure,
and it is more reasonable to assume that soil is in rest state, as represented
in E.9. This assumption is also applied for anchored and non-displaceable
retaining wall.
7.3.3.2Earthquake effect.
(1)P In the quasi-static method, earthquake effect must be described by system
of static forces acting vertically or horizontally, which are products of
gravitational force and earthquake coefficient.
(2)P With vertical earthquake effect, upward or downward effects must be
considered and compared to determine which of them creates the most
disadvantageous effect.
(3) In area which earthquake happens, equivalent earthquake forces intensity
depends on acceptable irreversible displacement and lies within the
allowable range of selected structural concepts.
(4)P When lacking detail figures, coefficients of vertical and horizontal
earthquake k
v
, k
h
affecting on all mass must take the value:
r
S
k
h
o = (7.1)
h v
k k 5 . 0 = if 6 . 0 >
g
vg
a
a
(7.2)
h v
k k 33 . 0 = in the opposite situations (7.3)
Where:
Coefficient r takes values listed in Table 7.1, depending on retaining wall
type. With wall not higher than 10m the earthquake coefficient is
considered to be invariant with respect to wall altitude.
Table 7.1 Values of coefficient r used to calculate horizontal earthquake
coefficient.
Retaining wall type r
Gravitational wall with free wall head, capable of enduring maximum
displacement d
r
= S o 300 (mm)
Gravitational wall with free wall head, capable of enduring maximum
2
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
24
displacement d
r
= S o 200 (mm)
Bending reinforced concrete wall, anchored or supported wall,
reinforced concrete wall on vertical piles, displacement- restricted
basement wall and abutment.
1.5
1
(5) If there is non-cohesive soil which is water-saturated and is easy to develop
pore water pressure, then:
a) Coefficient r in Table 7.1 should not take value which is greater than 1.
b) Anti-liquefaction safety coefficient should not take value which is smaller
than 2.
NOTE: Safety coefficients value 2 is obtained through applying 7.2(6)P
within the framework of simplified method in 7.3.2.
(6) With retaining wall higher than 10m and supplement information for
coefficient r, refer to E.2 for more information.
(7) Except gravitational wall, vertical effect of acceleration may be neglected in
retaining walls.
7.3.2.3Designed pressure of soil and water
(1)P Total designed force acting on wall in case of earthquake must be calculated
while taking into account the models limit equilibrium condition described
in 7.3.2.1.
(2) This force can be evaluated following Appendix E.
(3) The designed force mentioned in (1)P must be considered as the resultant of
soil static and dynamic pressures.
(4)P In case theres no detail study about relative stiffness, displacement form
and relative mass of retention wall, the application point of the force caused
by soil dynamic pressure resides at the walls midpoint.
(5) If a wall is capable of rotating freely around its base, application point of
dynamic and static force can be considered to superpose each other.
(6)P Pressure force direction distributing on the wall together with wall normal
forms an angle less than or equal to , ' 3 2 | in active state and equal to 0 in
passive state.
(7)P With soil lying beneath underground water level, one must distinguish
between seepage prone status (in which water can move freely in soil
skeleton) when dynamic load is present and waterproof status (in which
practically no water drainage takes place under earthquake effect).
(8) Under most normal prescripts and with soil having seepage coefficient less
than 5.10
-4
m/s, pore water does not move freely in ground framework,
earthquake effect happens practically without drainage and soil can be
considered to be monophase environment.
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
25
(9)P Without hydrodynamic seepage, one must apply all the above prescripts
while adjusting properly the volumetric soil mass and horizontal earthquake
coefficient.
(10) Adjustment in case of no hydrodynamic seepage can be conducted
following E.7 and E.7.
(11)P With hydrodynamic seepage, effects caused by earthquake in soil and that
in water must be viewed as independent effects.
(12) Hence, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic water pressure should be added up
according to E.7. The application point of the former force can be assumed
to lie at the distance of 80% of the saturated layers depth.
7.3.2.4Hydrodynamic pressure acting on outside surface of wall.
(1)P Variation (decrease or increase) of pressure with respect to current
hydrostatic pressure (caused by water oscillation on walls exposed surface)
must be taken into account.
(2) This kind of pressure can be evaluated following E.8.
7.4 Strength and stability test.
7.4.1 Stability of ground soil.
(1)P The following test must be carried out:
- Test of overall stability.
- Test of soil local failure.
(2)P Test of overall stability must be carried out following rules in 4.1.3.4
(3)P The ultimate efficiency of ground soil must be tested both about sliding
failure and about load bearing capacity fading (see 5.4.1.1).
7.4.2 Anchor
(1)P Parts of anchors (including free cable section, anchor support, anchor head,
lock constitution) must both meet: length standard and strength standard (to
ensure the equilibrium of soil block in case of earthquake (see 7.3.2.1)), and
the sufficient capability of bearing ground soils deformation caused by
earthquake.
(2)P Anchors strength must meet standards in EN 1997-1:2004, corresponding
to dynamic and long term foreseen limit.
(3)P Soil in which anchor lies must be ensured to maintain its strength to last
during the foreseen earthquake period. Insurance supply must also be
enough to prevent liquefaction.
(4)P Distance L
e
between the anchor and the wall must surpass L
s
calculated for
non-earthquake load.
(5) Under prescripts in which soil containing anchor shoes has properties
similar to that of soil behind wall and some prescripts about ground surface
elevation, distance L
aa
between anchor shoes in soil can be calculated via
the following formula:
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
26
) 5 . 1 1 ( S L L
g e
o + = (7.4)
7.4.3 Structural strength
(1)P It is necessary to prove that, under the combination effect of earthquake and
other likely generated loads, equilibrium state can be achieved without
exceeding design strength of wall and other support structural elements.
(2)P In order to achieve such goal, one needs to consider proper limit state of
structural failure in 8.5, EN 1997-1:2004
(3)P All structure elements must be examined to ensure that they satisfy the
following condition:
d d
E R > (7.5)
Where:
R
d
elements designed strength value, which is evaluated by ways similar
to that in non-earthquake situations.
E
d
effects designed value, which are obtained from analyzing results
represented in 7.3.
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APPENDIX A (reference)
RELIEF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR
A.1 This appendix introduces some relief amplification coefficients which is
simplified for earthquake effect and is used to examine earths slope
stability. These coefficients, symbolized by S
T
, are initial approximate
values and considered independently with fundamental vibration period,
hence they are multiplied as an invariant ratio coefficient by coordinates of
designed elastic response spectrum given in Part 1 of this building
regulation. These amplification coefficients must be priorly applied for
slopes which have abnormal relief variance with respect to 2 directions,
such as lengthened top and lengthened partition higher than 30m.
A.2 With angle of slope smaller than 15
o
, relief effects may be neglected,
whereas if local relief changes too abnormally, specific study is required.
With higher angles, apply the followings:
a) Independent partitions and slopes: use S
r
>1.2 for positions near the top.
b) Tops whose width is much smaller than foots width. It is recommended to
use S
T >
1.4 near slopes top whose average slope angle is greater than 30
o
and to use S
T>
1.2 for smaller slope angle.
c) Existence of non-cohesive soil layers on the surface. If there are non-
cohesive soil layers on the surface, minimum value S
T
given in a) and b)
should be increased at least 20%.
d) Amplification coefficients variance with respect to space. Value of S
T
may
be assumed to decrease in linear manner from partition or top, and take
value 1 at slope foot.
A3 In general, in the range of slope top, earthquake amplification attenuates
rapidly with respect to depth. Therefore, reliefs effects taken into account
with analysis of stability are maximums and are almost only on the surface
along tops edge, and are much more smaller on deep sliding surface where
failure surface come across top foot.
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APPENDIX B (compulsory)
EXPERIMENTAL GRAPHS USED TO ANALYZING SIMPLIFIED
LIQUEFACTION
B.1 General.
Experimental graphs are utilized to analyze simplified liquefaction to study
correlation between in situ test and repetitive shear stresses which is known
to be the liquefaction cause during past earthquakes. On horizontal axis is a
kind of soil property measured on site, such as normalized penetration
resistance or shear wave velocity v
s
, on the vertical axis is repetitive shear
stress due to earthquake, usually normalized with effective soils own
pressure
0
'
v
o . Limit curve of repetitive resistance is displayed in all graphs,
divides the graphs into zones including non-liquefaction zone (on the right)
and likely liquefaction zone (on the left and the top of the curve).
Sometimes more than one curve are represented, for example curves
corresponding to fine-grained soil or soil with different earthquake
intensities.
Except static penetration resistance, it is not recommended to use
experimental liquefaction standards when liquefaction occurs in soil layers
or soil beds thinner than tens of cm.
When gravel content is rather high but observational data is not sufficient to
establish a reliable liquefaction graph, possibility of liquefaction can not be
excluded.
B.2 Graphs basing on SPT index.
The graph in Figure B.1 is one of the many graphs that are being most
widely used for pure sand and silt sand. SPT index is normalized with soil
self pressure and with energy ratio N1(60) following the way described in
4.1.4.
Liquefaction seems to occur at values higher than certain threshold of
e
t ,
because soils response is elastic and theres no accumulation of pore water
pressure. Therefore, limit curve may not be extrapolated toward origin of
coordinates. If one wish to apply this criterion for earthquake with intensity
different from M
s
= 7.5, where M
s
is surface wave intensity, then
coordinates of the curve in Figure B.1 should be multiplied by coefficient
CM given in Table B.1
Table B.1 Values of coefficients CM
M
S
CM
5.5
6.0
6.5
2.86
2.20
1.69
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
29
7.0
8.0
1.30
0.67
B.3 Graphs basing on static penetration resistance CPT. Basing on many
studies about correlation between static penetration resistance and soils
resistance against liquefaction, graphs having the form similar to that in
Figure B.1 have been established. Such direct correlations should be used
prior to indirect correlations using relation between SPT index and static
penetration resistance CPT.
B.4 Graphs basing on shear wave velocity v
s
. This characteristic is considered
to be a promising standard to estimate liquefaction possibility in soil type
which is hard to sample (for example silt sand or sand) or hard to penetrate
(for example gravel). Recently there have been significant advance in
measuring v
s
on site. However, correlation between v
s
and soils
liquefaction resistance is still being studied and should not be used without
consultancy from specialists.
NOTE :
0
'
v e
o t - repetitive stress ratio curve 1 : 35% fine grains
A - pure sand curve 2 : 15% fine grains
B silt sand curve 3 : <3% fine grains
FIGURE B.1 - Relation between stress ratios causing liquefaction and
N
1
(60) for pure sand and silt sand with earthquake M
s
= 7.5.
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APPENDIX C (compulsory)
PILE HEADS STATIC STIFFNESS
C.1 Piles stiffness is defined as force (moment) put on piles head to create unit
displacement (rotation) along the same direction (displacement/rotation
angle along other directions equals to zero), and is symbolized as K
HH
(horizontal stiffness), K
MM
(bending stiffness) and K
HM
= K
MH
(bending-
horizontal displacement stiffness).
Symbols used in Table C.1 :
E earth elastic modulus, equals to 3G;
E
p
pile materials elastic modulus;
E
s
earths elastic modulus at the depth which equals to pile diameter;
d pile diameter;
z depth of pile sinking.
Table C.1 Expressions of static stiffness of soft pile sunk into 3 types of soil
Type of soil
s
HH
dE
K
s
MM
E d
K
3
s
HM
E d
K
2
d z E E
s
/ . =
35 . 0
60 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
80 . 0
14 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
60 . 0
17 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
d z E E
s
/ . =
28 . 0
79 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
77 . 0
15 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
53 . 0
24 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
s
E E =
21 . 0
08 . 1
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
75 . 0
16 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
50 . 0
22 . 0
|
|
.
|

'

s
p
E
E
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APPENDIX D (reference)
STRUCTURE-SOIL INTERACTION (SSI): GENERAL
EFFECTS AND IMPORTANCE
D.1 Due to structure-soil interaction, earthquake reaction of structure on soft
pillow, such as structure on deformable ground, will differ fr.om reaction
of the same structure but on hard ground (clamped at its foot) subjected to
an equivalent free field excitation, because of the following reasons:
a) Displacement of foundation system on soft pillow differs from that of free
field and may include a very important vibrating component of structure
clamped at its foot.
b) Fundamental vibration period of the structure on soft pillow is longer than
that of structure clamped at its foot.
c) Natural vibration periods, vibration modes and partial pattern coefficients of
structure on soft pillow differ from those of structure clamped at its foot.
d) Total damping rate of structure on soft pillow includes both internal and
external damping rates occurring at the contact surface between soil and
foundation, in addition to damping rate of upper structure.
D.2 With most of public buildings, interactions between soil and structure are
advantageous because they decrease bending moments and shear forces in
different elements in the upper structure. With structures listed in chapter 6,
on the contrary, the interaction effects between soil and structure may be
disadvantageous.
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APPENDIX E (compulsory)
SIMPLIFIED ANALYZING METHOD FOR RETAINING WALL
STRUCTURE
E.1 Theoretically, coefficient r is defined as ratio between acceleration value
causing irreversible displacement corresponding to existing connection and
acceleration value corresponding to equilibrium limit state (displacement
starts to occur). Hence with wall allowing greater displacement coefficient r
takes greater value.
E.2 With retaining wall structure higher than 10m, one may consider the
problem is in one dimension with free field wave propagating vertically,
and value o may take the mean value of horizontal maximum acceleration
along the structures height for more accuracy to use in expression (7.1).
E.3 Total designed force acting on retaining wall at its back, E
d
, is given by the
following formula:
wd ws v d
E E KH k E + + =
2
) 1 ( *
2
1
(E.1)
Where:
H walls height;
E
ws
static water force;
E
wd
dynamic water force;
* soils unit weight (will be defined from E.5 toE.7);
K earth pressure coefficient (static and dynamic);
k
v
vertical earthquake coefficient (refer to expressions (7.2) and (7.3).
E.4 Earth pressure coefficient may be calculated following Mononobe and
Okabe formulas:
With active states:
If u | | s
d
'
2
2
) sin( ) sin(
) ' sin( ) ' sin(
1 ) ' sin( . sin . cos
) ' ( sin

+
+
+ +
+
=
| o |
u | | o |
u | u
u |
d
d d d
d d
d
K (E.2)
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
33
If u | | >
d
'
) sin( . sin . cos
) ( sin
2
d d
K
o u u
u |

+
= (E.3)
With passive states (without regard to friction between earth and wall):
2
2
) sin( ) sin(
) ' sin( ' sin
1 ) ' sin( . sin . cos
) ' ( sin

+ +
+
+ +
+
=
u |
u | | |
u | u
u |
d d
d d
d
K (E.4)
The following symbols are used in the expressions above:
d
' | soils designed shear strength angle value, which means
|
|
.
|

'

=

'
1
'
'
|

|
|
tg
tg
d
;
| , tilt angle of wall back and fill soil surface with respect to horizontal
direction as shown in Figure E.1;
d
o designed friction angle between soil and wall, which means:
|
|
.
|

'

=

'
1
|

o
o
tg
tg
d
u angle which is defined from E.5 to E.7 below.
The expression for passive state should be used priorly for vertical wall
surface
o
90 = .
E.5 Underground water level beneath retaining wall. Earth pressure coefficient.
Here the following parameters are employed:
* volume weight of soil (E.5)
v
h
k
k
tg

=
1
u (E.6)
E
wd
= 0
(E.7)
where:
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
34
k
h
horizontal earthquake coefficient (refer to expression (7.1)
On the other hand, one may use tables and graphs applied in static condition
(only gravitational loads exist), with the following supplements:
v
h
A
k
k
tg
+
=
1
u (E.8)
and
v
h
B
k
k
tg

=
1
u (E.9)
The whole system of wall-soil rotates by the corresponding angle
A
u or
B
u .
The gravitational acceleration is replaced by the following value:
A
v
A
k g
g
u cos
) 1 ( +
= (E.10)
or
B
h
B
k g
g
u cos
) 1 (
= (E11)
E.6 Impermeable soil bearing dynamic load lying beneath underground water
level Earth pressure coefficient.
Here the following parameters are employed:
w
= * (E.12)
v
h
w
k
k
tg
1

u

= (E.13)
E
wd
= 0 (E.14)
Where:
saturated unit weight of soil;
w
unit weight of water.
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
35
E.7 Permeable soil bearing dynamic load lying (high permeability) beneath
underground water level Earth pressure coefficient.
Here the following parameters are employed:
w
= * (E.15)
v
h
w
d
k
k
tg
1

u

= (E.16)
E
wd
=
2
) ' (
12
7
H k
w h
(E.17)
Where:
d
dry unit weight of soil;
H height of underground water level, measured from wall base.
E.6 Hydrodynamic pressure on outside surface of wall.
This pressure q(z) may be calculated following the steps below:
z h k z q
w h
.
8
7
) ( = (E.18)
Where:
h
k horizontal earthquake coefficient, r = 1 (refer to expression (7.1));
h free water level height;
z vertical coordinate with the coordinate origin placed at water surface.
E.9 Force which is caused by earth pressure acts on stiff structure
For stiff, clamped structure, active state can not develop in the soil, and
with vertical wall and horizontal fill soil, dynamic force due to earth
pressure increment may take:
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
36
2
. . . H S P
d
o = A (E.19)
Where:
H walls height;
Application of force may be assumed to be midpoint of walls height.
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
37
|
o

Active
|

Passive
Figure E.1 Convention for angles in formula used to
calculate earth pressure coefficient.
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
38
APPENDIX F (reference)
EARTHQUAKE LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW
FOUNDATION
F.1 General expression. Endurance against failure of a shallow band-shaped
foundations load bearing capacity placed on a homogeneous surface may
be examined by the following expression relating earth strength, designed
effects (N
Ed
, V
Ed
, M
Ed
) at altitude of foundation placing, to inertia forces in
earth:
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
0 1
1
1
1
1
'
'
'
s

d
k
k c
c c
h
k
k c
c c
N F m N
M F f
N F m N
V F e
T
M M
T
T T
|
(F.1)
Where:
max
N
N
N
Ed Rd

= ;
max
N
V
V
Ed Rd

= ;
max
.N B
M
M
Ed Rd

= (F.2)
N
max
foundations maximum force bearing capacity under effect of
centrally applied load, which is defined in F.2 and F.3;
B foundations with;
F soils dimensionless inertia force, defined in F.2 and F.3;
Rd
models coefficient (these coefficient are given in F.6)
a, b, c, d, e, f, m, k, k, c
T
, c
M
, c
M
, |, are parameters values which
depend on soil type, and are defined in F.4.
F.2 Pure cohesive soil. With Pure cohesive soil or water- saturated non-
cohesive soi, maximum force bearing capacity under vertical load effect
centrally applied N
max
is determined by the following formula:
, B
c
N
M

t 2
max
+ = (F.3)
Where:
c Soils undrained shear strength c
u
for cohesive soil, or soils
undrained shear strength for non-cohesive soil subjected to cyclic load
' ,u cy
t .
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
39
M
specific coefficient of material property.
Dimensionless inertia force of soil is determined by the formula:
c
B S a
F
g
. .. . p
= (F.4)
Where:
p volume weight of soil;
g
a designed acceleration of A type ground (
g
a =
gR
a
1
);
gR
a maximum reference acceleration of A type ground.
1
operational importance factor.
S soil coefficient defined in 3.2.2.2, Part 1 of this building regulation.
The following restraints is applied in the expression of total force bearing
capacity:
1 , 1 0 s s < V N
F.3 Pure non-cohesive soil. With dry soil and saturated non-cohesive soil but
not generating significant pore water pressure, maximum load bearing
capacity of foundation under vertical centrally applied load N
max
is
calculated by the formula below:

p N B
g
a
g N
v 2
max
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

'

= (F.6)
Where:
g gravitational acceleration;
a
v
vertical acceleration of ground, may take the expression 0.5a
g
.S ;

N load bearing capacity coefficient, which is a function of designed


shear strength angle
d
' | (
d
' | consists of specific coefficient of material
property
M
of 3.1(3), refer to E.4)
Dimensionless inertia force in earth is calculated by the formula:
VIETNAMBUILDING STANDARDS TCXDVN 375 : 2006
40
d
g
g
a
F
' tan . |
= (F.7)
The following restraint is applied in the general expression:
'
) 1 ( 0
k
F m N < < (F.8)
F.4 Parameters values. Table F.1 contains parameters values in the general
expression representing soils load bearing capacity of various types in F.2
and F.3
Table F.1 Parameters value used in expression (F.1)
Pure cohesive soil Pure non-cohesive
soil
a 0.70 0.92
b 1.29 1.25
c 2.14 0.92
d 1.81 1.25
e 0.21 0.41
f 0.44 0.32
m 0.21 0.96
k 1.22 1.00
k 1.00 0.39
c
t
2.00 1.44
c
M
2.00 1.01
c
M
1.00 1.01
| 2.57 2.90

1.85 2.80
F.5 In most of normal prescripts it is allowable to take F as 0 with cohesive
soil. With non-cohesive soil it is allowed to neglect F if a
g
.S<0.1g (which
means a
g
.S<0.98m/s
2
).
F.6 Model coefficient
Rd
takes the values listed in Table F.2
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41
Table F.2 Values of model coefficient
Rd

From fairly
compact to
very compact
sand
Dry, non-
cohesive sand
Saturated,
non-cohesive
sand
Unsusceptible
clay
Susceptible
clay
1.00 1.15 1.50 1.00 1.15