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Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269–1282 www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Hydrodynamic design of a TLP type offloading platform Muhittin So¨
Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269–1282 www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Hydrodynamic design of a TLP type offloading platform Muhittin So¨

Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269–1282

Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269–1282 www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Hydrodynamic design of a TLP type offloading platform Muhittin So¨

www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

Hydrodynamic design of a TLP type offloading platform

Muhittin So¨ ylemez a, , Og˘ uz Yılmaz b

a Department of Ocean Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazag˘ a Kampu¨ su¨ , 80626, Istanbul, Turkey b Department of Mathematics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Go¨ lko¨ y Kampu¨ su¨ , Bolu, 14280, Bolu, Turkey

Received 9 April 2002; accepted 24 July 2002

Abstract

The hydrodynamic aspects of a design study of a TLP type offloading platform, that will operate in the north-east of Marmara Sea are presented in this paper. The main scope of the paper is to discuss the general properties of the platform and environmental conditions prior to the calculation of hydrodynamic forces based on Morison’s equation and the resultant motion responses. The non-linear quasi-static effect is taken into account due to set-down phenomenon in the calculation of surge responses. Comparisons between the designs with two different drafts and the results of their spectral analysis are presented. With decrease in the draft of the platform, surge responses increase in the low frequency region. Since the differences between the surge responses of two different designs are not significant, the shorter platform has been adopted for the location due to its low cost. The non-linear set-down effect is not found to be significant because this platform has relatively short taut chains compared to those of conventional type. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Offloading platform; Hydrodynamic design; Non-linear quasi-static effect

Corresponding author. Fax: +90-212-285-6508. E-mail address: soylemez@itu.edu.tr (M. So¨ ylemez).

0029-8018/03/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0029-8018(02)00107-5

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1. Introduction

This paper presents some results of a hydrodynamic analysis of a TLP type ofoading platform. This platform is designed to operate nearshore of Ambarı, which is a suburb located west of the city of Istanbul. The platform is intended to serve the tankers in the severe sea conditions to ofoad their cargo to the storages on land without any trouble to manouvre to board to the pier. Tension leg platforms (TLPs) are of great interest to offshore researchers in broad areas. One of the areas investigated in TLPs is their surge motion either induced by wave or current. Lee et al. (1999) studied the effect of material properties of strained elastic tethers on the surge motion of the platform. Jain (1997) presented a motion analysis method of TLPs non-linearly coupled in the restoring force matrix in six degrees-of-freedom. Paik et al. (1996) applied quadratic transfer functions to predict and compare responses of a TLP with those obtained with a linear transfer functions only. A wide range of different aspects of research studies on TLPs is widely presented in a review paper by Adrezin et al. (1996). In this paper, the platform is analysed for the conditions that are obtained for the north of Marmara Sea. The conguration of the platform is unique in its own oper- ational conditions. However, it is much like a TLP type of structure except the ten- dons are made of chains instead of cables. The main oating body of the structure is also longer than any conventional TLP conguration comparing to its lateral dimensions. This main body of the structure is shortened in the second phase of the project in order to minimize the initial building cost. The fundamental purpose of constructing a oating ofoading platform for the location having shallow water characteristics is to keep the construction and material cost of the platform low. The reason for deciding on a TLP type of conguration is mainly due to almost no heave response during the ofoading process and that TLPs have also better response characteristics in surge and sway motions than other type of offshore platforms. The motion of the platform is analyzed using both single-wave prediction and spectral methods. In storm conditions, surge motions could be quite large causing non-linear effects in the motion responses of the platform. Therefore, the non-linear quasi-static effect is also included due to set-down occurring in the surge motion. Wave forces are calculated using Morisons equation since the platform has all slen- der cylindrical members. The motion characteristics of the platform are derived and found to be appropriate for this type of structure to operate as an ofoading platform. The motion responses estimated by spectral analysis are more favorable than those by the single-wave prediction method. The emphasis is shown by including the set-down behavior due to non-linear stiffness, which comes into effect during large surge motions. The paper starts with dening the geometry of the platform and the environmental conditions. General particulars of the platform are presented in Section 2. Natural frequencies and the mean displacement due to current are given in Section 3. Methods of calculating the hydrodynamic forces and motions are briey introduced in Section 4. Results for the single-wave prediction method are presented in Section

M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

1271

5. The non-linear quasi-static set-down effect is described in Section 6. Finally, Sec- tion 7 summarizes the results of spectral analysis.

2. Geometry of the structure and environmental data

The general conguration and the coordinate system with the geometrical drawing details are depicted in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, respectively. Structure consists of fairly slender cylindrical members with 1/20 column diameter and length ratio. The plat- form is moored with taut vertical chains to restrict the vertical heave motions. Main particulars of the platform is given in Table 1. The environmental data are listed for operational and 50-year storm conditions in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. As seen in Fig. 2, x and z axes are placed on the free surface of the sea while y axes is taken vertically upward. Motions in x direction is dened as surge; in z direction as sway and in y direction as heave.

M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 – 1282

Fig. 1.

General conguration of TLP.

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1272 M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 –

Fig. 2.

Denition of the coordinate system.

Table 1 Main particulars of the platform

Properties

Values

Column Diameter (D, R = D/2) Column Length (L) Water Depth (h)

1.016 m 20 m and 24 m 40 m

Distance between the centres of columns (x c = z c )

7m

Chain length (l) Chain diameter (d) Proof load for chain Breaking load for chain Minimum weight Cross sectional area (A c ) Initial tension (T 0 )

20 m and 16 m 0.06 m 1383 kN 1942 kN 0.801 kN/m pd 2 /4 71 kN

3. Natural frequencies and mean displacements

Hydrodynamic analysis consists of two parts; in the rst part natural frequencies and mean displacements due to current are calculated and given in this section. In the second part, oscillations about the mean displacements are predicted using a frequency-domain analysis, which is presented in Section 5.

M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

Table 2 Operational conditions for the Marmara Sea

1273

Properties

Values

Maximum wave height (H max )

1m

Wave period (T z )

4s

Current speed (V c )

0.5 m/s

Table 3 50-year storm conditions for the Marmara Sea

Properties

Values

Maximum wave height (H max )

8.7 m

Wave period (T-Z)

8s

Current speed (V c )

1 m/s

Natural circular frequencies and periods are calculated using the following equa- tions, respectively:

w ni

k i

A i

and T ni

2p

w ni

(1)

where i = x stands for the surge motion; i = y for the heave motion and i = z for the sway motion. The stiffness in surge direction is calculated as 14.23 kN/m using the formula k x = 4 (T o /l). The stiffness in heave direction is calculated as 113130 kN/m using the formula k y = 4 (ρgp R 2 + A c E/l) where E is the Youngs Modulus. The total of mass and added mass in surge direction is 1196.8 kN using the formula A x = 4ρ (πR 2 L + πR 2 L). The total of mass and added mass in heave direction is 539.55 kN using the formula A y = 4r (pR 2 L + 4/3R 3 ). Undamped heave natural period (T ny ) and the frequency (w ny ) is calculated as 0.138 seconds and 45.36 rad/s, respectively. The natural surge period (T nx ) and the frequency (w nx ) is calculated as 18.41 seconds and 0.34 rad/s, respectively. Considering the environmental data, it is easily seen that resonance is not possible in the operational site and this will be more clear when we consider the wave spectrum and the spectral response of the platform in Section 7. Using the static calculations due to the mean current velocity, mean horizontal displacement is calculated as 0.42 m for the operational conditions based on the current force given by F c = 4 (1/2 ρ C d DLV 2 c ). Similarly, F c and the mean displace- ment for the 50-year storm condition are calculated as 24 kN and 1.69 m, respectively and seems to be quite reasonable for the operational site. Since the wind exposed area of the superstructure is quite small, the wind forces and the mean displacement due to wind are ignored.

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4. Hydrodynamic forces and motions

4.1. Wave forces

Since the structure consists of slender cylindrical members, Morisons equation

(Morison et al., 1950) is suitable to calculate the wave forces acting on the structure.

The added mass (C m ) and the drag (C d ) coefcients are chosen to be 1.5 and 0.6,

respectively. These values of C m and C d are also suitable for the storm conditions

(Sarpkaya et al., 1981).

The horizontal and vertical velocities and the accelerations and the pressure are

given by the following formulas:

 

j

x ,v

 

j

u

v

,p r j

t

 

u

,u˙

t ,v˙

t

(2)

y

where ϕ is the velocity potential is dened as follows:

 
 

g a cosh[k(y h)]

 

j

w

cosh[kh]

sin(kx wt)

(3)

where g stands for the gravitational constant; a for the wave amplitude; ω for the

circular wave frequency; k for the wave number; h for the water depth and t for the

time. Using the above equations, total heave and surge forces on the structure can

easily be calculated by summing the forces acting on the individual members of the

platform. There will be some cancellations due to phasing. The total heave force is

written in the following form:

F y Asinwt Bcoswt

(4)

in which B = 4(A py + A ay ) cos (kx c /2) and A = 0 and where

A py rg a

cosh[k(h L)]

coshkh

pR 2 and A ay

4 rR 3 a w 2 sinh[k(h L)]

3

sinhkh

(5)

The phase angle for the heave force can be written as J heave = tan -1 (A/B), that

equals to zero. The total surge force can be given in a similar manner as follows:

F x Csinwt Ecoswt

(6)

in which C = -4A px

cos

(kx c /2) and E

denotated by the following equations:

= 4A dx

cos (kx c /2) where A px

and A dx

are

A px rg a C m pR 2 sinh(kh) sinh[k(h L)]

cosh(kh)

A dx 1 2 rC d D

sinh(kh) 2

w

a

2 L sinh(2kh) sinh([2k(h L)]

8

3p 1

2k

(7)

(8)

From the above equation the phase angle for the surge force can be dened as

J surge = tan -1 (C/E).

M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

4.2. Motion responses

1275

Uncoupled heave motion and phase angle are predicted using the following equ-

ation of motion in the frequency domain,

A y y¨ c y y˙ |y˙ | k y y F y

(9)

in which A y is the mass+added mass of the structure in heave mode; c y is the viscous

damping force coefcient and k y is the restoring force coefcient due to the geometry

and the chains. The non-linear viscous damping term is linearized (see Chakrabarti,

1987) as follows:

8

y˙ |y˙ | 3p (wy est )y˙

Hence Eq. 9 can be rewritten as follows:

A y y¨ c ly y˙ k y y F y

(10)

(11)

where c ly is the linearized viscous damping coefcient dened as c ly = c y 8/3π (wy est )

and c y is given as c y 4 1/2 rC d pR 2 .

The standard solution of a second order differential equation with harmonic forcing

function on the right hand side is written as follows:

y y 1 sinwt y 2 coswt

where

y 1 A(k y A y w 2 ) Bc ly w 2 and y 2 B(k y A y w 2 ) Ac ly w

(k y A y w 2 ) 2 (c ly w)

(k y A y w 2 ) 2 (c ly w)

2

(12)

(13)

The phase angle for the heave motion is dened as J heave = tan -1 (y 1 /y 2 ). In order

to obtain the solution an initial estimation of y est is used, and after few steps iteration

gives the desired result.

The equation of motion for the surge motion is similar to the heave motion except

the restoring forces are due to the moorings only, namely:

A x x¨ c x x˙ |x˙ | k x F x

(14)

in which A x is the mass+added mass in surge direction; c x is the viscous damping

force coefcient and k x is the restoring force due to the mooring. Viscous damping

is linearised by the following formulation.

8

x˙ |x˙ | 3p (wx est )x˙

(15)

A x x¨ c lx x˙ k x F x

(16)

where c lx is the linearized viscous damping coefcient dened as c lx = c x 8 / 3 π (wx est )

and c x is given by c x = 41/2rC d LD. The solution of Eq.16 can be written as follows:

  • 1276 M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

where

x 1

C(k x A x w 2 ) Ec lx w

(k x A x w 2 ) 2 (c lx w)

2 and y 1

E(k x A x w 2 ) Cc lx w

(k x A x w 2 ) 2 (c lx w)

2

(18)

The phase angle for the surge response can be written as J surge = tan -1 (x 1 /x 2 ). In

order to obtain the surge motion, two iterations have to be performed; rst, the

iteration for the linearized damping term as was done in the heave motion and,

second, the iteration to take the non-linear quasi-static effects into account as

explained in Section 6.

5. Results for the single-wave prediction method

The heave response amplitudes of the platform are found to be negligible and are

not presented here. The surge response amplitude and the phase angle for the 50-

year design wave conditions are presented in Figs. 3 and 4. The surge response

amplitude for the storm conditions is estimated as 2.7 m and seems to be quite

reasonable. For this condition the total mooring force per chain is calculated as 85.8

kN and it is well below the anchor holding power.

For the operational conditions the surge response is obtained as 0.06 m and the

mooring force per chain is 49 kN (Fig. 5). The surge response of the structure reaches

to a peak of about 8 m amplitude in the very low region of the frequency of 0.2

rad/s (Fig. 3).

In Fig. 6 comparison of surge amplitudes of the designs with two different drafts

1276 M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 –

Fig. 3.

Surge response (50-Year Storm).

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M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 – 1282
Fig. 4. Surge response phase.
Fig. 4.
Surge response phase.

Fig. 5.

Surge Response (Operational Sea State).

are shown. Draft of the platform was shortened 4 meters in the second phase of the

project in order to keep the initial constructional cost low without a signicant cause

to the chain loads and changing the signicant surge response characteristics of the

structure. As it is seen in Fig. 6, there is not any change in the surge response of

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1278 M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 –

Fig. 6.

Comparison of two different designs with two different drafts.

the platform above the frequency of 0.35 rad/s. However, below that frequency only,

there is an increment reaching to 33% in the surge response due to 4 m decrease in

the draft of the platform. However, the frequency range where the surge response

increment occurs does not effect the operation of the platform since the dominant

wave frequency for the operational and storm conditions is well outside this range

of frequencies.

6. Non-linear quasi-static effect

Since the surge motion of the platform will be quite large in storm conditions,

the non-linear effects arising due to the stiffness in the horizontal direction should

be taken into account. The draft of the platform will increase with large surge

motions and this will result in increased tension in the chains (Fylling and Larsen,

1989). Also due to the increase in the angle between the chains and the vertical axis,

the restoring force in the horizontal direction will be non-linear. According to the

moment equilibrium for the chain the non-linear stiffness will be as follows,

1

Tx 2 wl 0 x

H(x) 4

l 0 cosq

(19)

in which T = T 0 + yK wp

and y = l 0

(1 - cos θ) and K wp = ρgpR 2 , where H(x)

stands for the non-linear restoring force; T for the tension in the vertical direction

in the displaced position of the platform; T 0 for the initial tension; y for the set-

M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

1279

down due

to surge motion; w for the weight of chain per meter; l 0

for the initial

length of the chain and q for the angle that the chains make with the vertical.

Relation between the surge motion x and the set down y is not linear and can

be given as follows (Fylling and Larsen, 1989):

x 2

K wp y) l 0 2

0

y(T 0 K wp l )

EA

l

0

(l 0 y) (T 0

(l 0 y) 2

(20)

In order to include this non-linear effect into the frequency-domain calculations,

the Newton-Raphson and bisection iteration methods are used (Press et al., 1992).

The effect of set-down phenomena due to quasi-static non-linear stiffness is shown

in Fig. 7. The non-linear set-down phenomenon comes into effect around the low

frequency range that is smaller than 0.2 rad/s. The difference between the linear and

the non-linear modelling is quite signicant in the lower range of frequencies as

seen in the gure. The difference reaches to its maximum about 0.1 rad/s. There is

an almost 50% reduction in the surge response estimation by employing the non-

linear set-down modelling in the calculations. This nonlinear behavior is not so

important for the operational conditions since the dominant wave frequencies for

both environmental conditions are well outside this region.

M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 – 1282

Fig. 7.

Comparison of the nonlinear quasi-static effect with the linear model.

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    • 7. Spectral analysis

The spectral analysis is only performed for the 50-year storm conditions. The

short-term wave characteristics are represented by a JonSwap spectrum with 4.4

meters signicant wave height H s and 8 seconds zero crossing period T z (Fig. 8).

The surge response spectrum is shown in Fig. 9 and the signicant surge response

is calculated using the following equation

S S 2 S xx (w)dw

0

(21)

and is estimated as 1.74 meters. It is seen that spectral analysis gives more favorable

results than the single-wave prediction method. When looking at the natural surge

frequency of the structure (w nx = 0.34 rad/s) and its surge response spectrum in Fig.

9, it is easy to conclude that the platforms natural surge frequency is well outside

the frequency of 0.6 rad/s at which the energy of the wave spectrum is concentrated.

Hence, the platform has safe surge response characteristics for the operational site.

  • 8. Conclusions

Hydrodynamic analysis of a TLP type of ofoading platform, that will operate in

the north-east of Marmara Sea are carried out in a design study. The design study

1280 M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 –

Fig. 8.

JonSwap wave spectrum (50-Year Storm for H s = 4.7 m, T z = 8s).

M. So¨ ylemez, O. Yılmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 12691282

1281

M. So ¨ ylemez, O. Y ı lmaz / Ocean Engineering 30 (2003) 1269 – 1282

Fig. 9.

Surge Response Spectrum (50-Year storm condition).

consists of two phases: The draft of the platform was chosen 24 m in the rst phase.

Having the hydrodynamic analysis performed for the preliminary design congur-

ation, the draft of the platform was reduced to 20 m in order to lower the construc-

tional cost of the platform. Therefore, all hydrodynamic calculations were repeated

for the shorter form of the platform in the second phase of the design and the follow-

ing results are obtained for the second design of 20 m draft.

Under operational conditions, the motion of the platform is negligible particularly

for the heave mode. The surge response is 2.7 m according to the single-wave predic-

tion method, and the signicant surge response is found to be 1.74 m using the

JonSwap wave spectrum for the 50-year storm conditions with H s = 4.4 m and T z

= 8 s. The maximum mooring force is calculated as 83.78 kN per chain under the

storm conditions. Thus, there is no danger that anchors will move.

The motion characteristics of two designs only differ in the very low frequency

range which is outside the frequency range of the waves. Hence, there is no expec-

tation for any unsafe surge motion response for the proposed conguration. More-

over, the surge motion calculations are repeated for both linear and the non-linear

modelling in order to take into account the set-down effect. The non-linear model

gives more favorable results than the linear one does. However, the non-linear set-

down phenomenon only comes into effect in the very low region of the frequencies

that is outside the frequency range of the waves.

We can nally conclude that TLP type ofoading platform designed for the Marm-

ara Sea gives quite good response values and it should be preferred to a xed plat-

form.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor A. Yu¨ cel Odabas¸ i for

his kind interest and encouragement for this study, and the nancial support provided

by Aygaz A.S¸ .

References

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