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TACHOMETER Automotive Automotive tachometers show the rate of rotation of the engine's crankshaft by measuring the spark rate

of the ignition system, typically in revolutions per minute (RPM). This can assist the driver in selecting the most appropriate throttle and gear settings (more applicable to manual transmissions than automatics) that the driving conditions call for. Tachometers fitted to cars, aircraft, and other vehicles typically have markings indicating a safe range of speeds at which the engine may be operated. Prolonged use at high speeds may cause excessive wear and other damage to engines. On an analog tachometer this maximum speed is typically indicated by an area of the gauge marked in red, giving rise to the expression of "redlining" an engine - i.e. running it at (dangerously) high speed. In older vehicles, the tachometer is driven by the pulses from the low tension (LT) side of the ignition coil, whilst on others (and all diesel engines, which have no ignition system) engine speed is determined by the frequency from the alternator tachometer output which is directly proportional to engine speed. Trains and Light Rail Vehicles Speed sensing devices, termed variously "wheel impulse generators" (WIG), speed probes, or tachometers are used extensively in rail vehicles. Opto-electrical slotted disk sensors are common. Hall Effect probes achieve direction sensing by including two sensors in the probe head, and comparing the pulses from the two channels. Opto-electrical sensors are completely encased to prevent ingress from the outside environment. The only exposed parts outside of the case is a sealing cannon plug connector and drive fork which is attached to a slotted disk internally through a bearing and seal. The slotted disk is typically sandwiched between 2 circuit boards containing a

photo-diode, photo-transistor, amplifier, and filtering circuits which produce a square wave pulse train output customized to the customers voltage and pulses per revolution requirements. These types of sensors typically provide 2 to 8 independent channels of output which can be sampled by various systems in the vehicle that need to know the rotational speed of the axle. Examples of such systems include automatic train control systems and propulsion/braking controllers. The opto devices, being mounted around the circumference of the disk, provide signals which are phase-shifted relative to one another and thus allow the vehicle computer to determine the direction of rotation of the wheel. Strictly, such devices are not tachometers since they do not provide a direct reading of the rotational speed of the disk. The speed has to be derived externally by counting the number of pulses in a time period. It is difficult to prove conclusively that the vehicle is stationary, other than by waiting a certain time to ensure that no pulses occur. This is one reason why there is often a time delay between the train stopping, as perceived by a passenger, and the doors being released. Slotted-disk devices are typical sensors used in odometer systems for rail vehicles, such as are required for train protection systems - notably the ETCS (European Train Control System). As well as speed sensing, these probes are often used to calculate distance travelled by multiplying wheel rotations by wheel diameter. They can also be used to automatically calibrate wheel diameter by comparing the number of rotations of each axle against a master wheel which has been measured manually. Since all wheels travel the same distance the diameter of each wheel is proportional to its number of rotations compared to the master wheel. This calibration must be carried out while coasting at a fixed speed to eliminate the possibility of wheel slip/slide introducing errors into the calculation. Automatic calibration of this type is used to generate more accurate traction and braking signals, and to improve wheel slip/slide detection.

Haematachometer. In medicine, tachometers are used to measure the rate of blood flow at a particular point in the circulatory system. The specific name for these devices is haematachometer. Analog audio recording In analog audio recording, a tachometer is a device that measures the speed of audio tape as it passes across the head. On most audio tape recorders the tachometer (or simply "tach") is a relatively large spindle near the ERP head stack, isolated from the feed and take-up spindles by tension idlers. On many recorders the tachometer spindle is connected by an axle to a rotating magnet that induces a changing magnetic field upon a hall effect transistor. Other systems connect the tach spindle to a stroboscope which alternates light and dark upon a photodiode. The tape recorder's drive electronics use signals from the tachometer to ensure that the tape is being played back at the proper speed. The signal from the tachometer is compared against a reference signal (either a quartz crystal or alternating current from the mains). The comparison of the two frequencies drives the speed of the tape transport. When the tach signal and the reference signal match, the tape transport is said to be "at speed." (To this day on film sets, the director calls "Roll Sound!" A moment later the sound man calls back "Sound speed!" This practice is a vestige of the days when recording devices required several seconds to reach a regulated speed.) Having perfectly regulated tape speed is important because the human ear is very sensitive to changes in pitch, particularly sudden ones, and without a self regulating system to control the speed of tape across the head the pitch could drift several percent. A modern, tachometer-regulated cassette deck has a wow-and-flutter (as the measurement is called) of 0.07%.

Tachometers are acceptable for high-fidelity sound playback, but are not acceptable for recording in synchronization with a movie camera. For such purposes, special recorders that record pilottone must be used. Tachometer signals can be used to synchronize several tape machines together, but only if in addition to the tach signal, a directional signal is transmitted, to let the slave machines know not only how fast the master is going, but in which direction. Tachogenerator Information Tachogenerators have been employed in industry for many years and enable the control of machinery on your company's production line, where precise rotation speeds are desired. In appearance a tachogenerator takes the form of a small electric motor, but with a much higher specification. The device can be directly coupled, in-line, via a flexible coupling to a driven spindle or belt driven by means of a timing belt and pulley arrangement. Usually, it is coupled to the main drive motor for which control is required. Tachogenerator Tachogenerators have been employed in industry for many years and enable the control of machinery on your company's production line, where precise rotation speeds are desired. In appearance a tachogenerator takes the form of a small electric motor, but with a much higher specification. The device can be directly coupled, in-line, via a flexible coupling to a driven spindle or belt driven by means of a timing belt and pulley arrangement. Usually, it is coupled to the main drive motor for which control is required. A tachogenerator operates using the process of inducing emfs by a permanent magnetic circuit into the windings of an iron cored rotor whilst this is revolving. An output at the terminals of the tachogenerator is an analogue DC voltage which is a precise function of rotation speed and is a constant for that model of tachogenerator.

Speed Measurement The speed can be measured by the following devices 1) Speedometer clocks, 2) Radar, 3) LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). 4) Aircraft 5) Photo radar. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.

a. Speedometer Clocks Speedometer can be calibrated several ways: via the fifth wheel attached to the rear of the vehicle; using a stopwatch that has been certified to clock the patrol car over a measured course; or using a dynamometer, which allows the patrol vehicle wheels to rotate in place while the speedometer is checked against the device for discrepancy. b. RADAR An acronym for Radio Detection And Ranging, radar involves the transmission of electromagnetic waves that reflect off a moving object. When the wave is reflected, it changes frequency and is interpreted by the radar unit in a speed calculation. This change is referred to as the Doppler effect or Doppler shift. In the simplest terms, the Doppler effect explains how as a sound gets closer to a person, it gets louder. For example, consider the sound a passing car makes as it approaches you then moves away. Radar may be used in both moving and stationary modes. This is the most popular technology for speed enforcement as evidence by the variety of radar detectors on the consumer market. These devices emit a beeping sound when radar waves are detected, warning drivers of approaching police officers. Despite its popularity, radar use is in litigation across the country due to health concerns regarding cancer risk as a result from frequent use of the radar devices. All recent evidence indicates these claims are groundless, but litigation is still pending. Since most cancer studies involve longitudinal research, 20 or more years may pass before scientists lay this issue to rest. Whereas radar and LIDAR devices are primarily used to measure maximum speed, average speed computers measure average speed over a specified distance. The advantage these have over radar devices is that they do not use electromagnetic waves, and thus are undetectable by radar detectors. d. LIDAR On of the more recent devices used for speed measurement is laser or LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). LIDAR devices use an infrared light wave emitted at frequencies that allow the beam to be focused into an extremely narrow target area. The devices are usually operated in the hand-held mode.

Although they can be used through the glass it reduces the devices range; therefore, an open window or exterior use is preferred. LIDAR has become more popular with the frequency of consumers radar detectors. Detection of laser beams is possible but the devices that detect laser beams are limited in their effectiveness. This is due to the fact that when the device intercepts the laser beam, this corresponds to the clocking of the vehicle with the LIDAR device. In addition, most LIDAR devices are mounted inside the vehicle, further limiting their detection by another device. The theory behind laser technology is that speed is calculated by dividing the distance by the time of the light pulses of the laser (S=D/T of light pulses). e. Aircraft This method of speed enforcement uses the combination of ground-based units and a fixed wing airplane. This method of enforcement is based on the formula Speed = Distance/Time. Law enforcement uses painted lines on the pavement to identify a measured course. Then as vehicles travel on the measured course, a stopwatch is activated in the airplane. Once the course is completed, the speed is calculated and, if the vehicle was speeding, the description is broadcast to the ground units. The vehicle is pulled over and the vehicle and speed are verified. f. Photo Radar An extension of traditional radar devices, this technology uses photography to capture the vehicle and license plate when the violation occurs. The date, time and speed can be superimposed onto the photograph. Some devices are so accurate that they can also capture the drivers image in the picture. Photo radar can be used in manned or unmanned applications such as those devices installed in lights at busy intersections. It is commonly used in jurisdictions where specific legislation permits its use and where vehicles have both front and rear plates. g. Drone Radar Drone radar is essentially an unmanned radar station that purposefully triggers motorists' radar detectors. When the detector alarms sound, it is presumed that drivers will slow their vehicles wary of a police officer that is not actually there.

These units can be mounted in moving vehicles, concealed in highway signs, or installed in highway work vehicles and any variety of other locations. The FCC and NHTSA have regulations that must be met in order to use this method of speed enforcement. As motorists catch on, overuse of this method will reduce its effectiveness.