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LITERATURE REVIEW

FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ACADEMIC PROFESSIONALS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ZIMBABWE The research paper titled factors affecting job satisfaction among academic professionals was carried out by p.chimankire, E mutandwa,CT Gadzirayi, N muzondo and B .mutandwa in the year September 2007.The broad objective of the study was to determine job satisfaction factors,for the same eighty respondents were selected randomly from departmental lists and interviewed using structured questionnaires ,Administration personnels also interviewed using semi-structured schedules.Inferential statistics were used to summarise data generated by the structured questionnaires. The result of the study showed a greater proportion of non satisfaction of academic professionals with their jobs.Reasons collected constitute high volume of work,inadequate salaries,allowances,loans to facilitate purchase of housing stands and cars.In order to retain them this study recommended provision ofinflation adjusted salaries,provision of adequate allowance to staff,provide housing loan and car loan create an environment that encourage teamwork and reduce the work burden among staff (http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr)

OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION:HOW GOOD ARE SINGLE VERSES MULTIPLE ITEM MEASURES ?

Author(s): Titus Oshagbemi, (The Queens University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK) Titus Oshagbemi, (1999) "Overall job satisfaction: how good are single versus multiple-item measures?", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 14 Iss: 5, pp.388 - 403

Managers interested in finding out the overall job satisfaction levels of their workers often face the problem of the appropriate measure of job satisfaction to adopt: single versus multiple-item? This study sets out to compare the results of a single versus a multiple-item measure employed to investigate the job satisfaction of university teachers. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the superiority or otherwise of the measures in ascertaining the overall job satisfaction of workers. The outcome of the study shows that the single-item measure overestimated the percentage of people satisfied with their jobs and grossly underestimated both the percentage of dissatisfied workers and those who show indifference in comparison with the figures of the multiple-item measure. Our conclusion, therefore, is that the results from the singleitem measure tend to paint a rosier picture of job satisfaction than the impression conveyed from the multiple-item measure would justify.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=02683946&volume=14&issue=5&articleid=881397&show=abstract

STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEXTILE MILL WORKERS


L.RANJIT**Head, Department of Social Work, Karpagam University, Coimbatore District, Tanilnadu, India. ZENITH International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research

Vol.2 Issue 4, April 2012, ISSN 2249 8826 The present economic crisis has affected the textile sector such that many of the textile mills were unable to continue and were closed. Workers were given frequent lay-off, retrenchment and even terminated from job by means of huge compensation. Many of the welfare measures were withdrawn or not properly implemented to the workers. This situation arise a question on their job satisfaction. Thus, it is important to have valid measure on job satisfaction of these workers. The study focuses on level of job satisfaction and demographic factors that influence job satisfaction. Descriptive research design is adopted and the universe is the workers of the selected textile mills registered under South Indian Mills Association (SIMA). The researcher adopted random sampling for selecting the sample and sample size of was 328. The researcher used Job Satisfaction Scale developed by B.L. Dubey, C.K. Maini and K.K. Uppal. The data were analyzed using various statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, t-test, coefficient of correlation and ANOVA. The study concluded that textile mill workers had moderate level of job satisfaction and found that demographic variables do influences the level of job satisfaction.
http://www.zenithresearch.org.in/images/stories/pdf/2012/April/ZIJBEMR/2_ZIB_VOL2_ISSUE4.pdf Online available at http://zenithresearch.org.in/ www.zenithresearch.org.in

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG TEACHERS

Work plays a prominent role in our lives. It occupies more time than any other single activity and it provides the economic basis for our lifestyle. Satisfaction with work or job is generally defined as the employees general attitude towards his or her job, management and the organization. It is often believed that teaching is a noble profession and teachers enter the teaching profession for intrinsic factors which encompass the opportunities for professional advancement, personal and professional challenges, professional autonomy, interactions with colleagues and interactions with students. The present study was conducted to understand whether the perception of job satisfaction among teachers is affected by the type of organization (private versus government) and

the gender (male versus female). The findings of this study indicated that the government school teachers appeared to be more satisfied than the private school teachers, though there was no significant difference in the job satisfaction of male and female teachers.(APRIL 2012 ,sandhya mehta)
http://www.iupindia.in/Organizational_Behavior.asp

Exploring the Relationship Between HR Practices and Job Satisfaction Across Selected IT Companies The dynamic market scenario reviving from the recent recession has seen a lot of changes in the employee perspectives and behavior. With new avenues opening up for employees enhancing attrition, each organization needs to map the satisfaction of its employees with the Human Resource (HR) practices it follows to ensure that the talent pool is retained. The current study is an attempt to determine the relationship between HR practices and job satisfaction in selected IT companies in India. Three IT companies in Northern India were covered as part of this study. The data was collected by using a questionnaire based on a job satisfaction scale developed by Wood et al. (1986) and HR practices through email to 200 employees across these companies. 124 responses received were coded and the data was analyzed using t-test and correlation. The results indicate that male and female employees in the organizations under study have different perceptions of HR practices and job satisfaction. The results also show that in the IT industry, 82% of the HR practices are driven by three dimensions of job satisfaction, namely, information, variety, closure and pay.(JAN 2012 -Anuradha Verma, Meenakshi Malhotra and Monica Bedi)

http://www.iupindia.in/Organizational_Behavior.asp

Job Satisfaction and Affective Commitment --

The integral part of any management process is to manage people at work. A well managed organization sees workers as the main source of quality and productivity. An effective organization tends to promote a sense of commitment and satisfaction in its employees. This paper identifies the relationship between

the affective commitment and job satisfaction among the Indian IT employees. For the present study, the data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire from 300 employees working in the IT industry in India with the objective of measuring the affective commitment and job satisfaction of IT employees and to identify the relationship between the affective commitment and different aspects of job satisfaction. The findings indicated a positive relationship between the job satisfaction and affective commitment. Amongst the components of job satisfaction, the highest correlations with affective commitment were related to salary, benefits, fair treatment, opportunity for advancement and supervision. The regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction has a statistically significant impact on affective commitment. The findings of this study points out some salient issues in the IT industry. The detailed findings and implications are discussed in the paper.(JAN 2012)
Harold Andrew Patrick and Jasmine Sonia

http://www.iupindia.in/Organizational_Behavior.asp

Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil The study aims to explore the influence of occupational stress and organizational climate on job satisfaction of managers and engineers working in Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Mathura, India. Data were collected from 158 employees of managers and engineers category with the help of Job Satisfaction scale, occupational stress and organizational climate scale. The occupational stress and organizational climate are independent variables whereas the job satisfaction is dependent variable. To find out the significance of difference between the means of both groups, 11 null hypotheses were formulated and for verification of the null hypotheses, the t-test was used. The results of this study confirmed the assumption that there is no significant difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers

scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them. On the basis of calculated data, marked and significant differences were observed between managers and engineers of IOCL in terms of occupational stress which led to the conclusion that engineers experienced higher degree of stress as compared to managers. When job satisfaction of high income group managers were compared with low income group managers, the results revealed that both the groups differed significantly. On the other hand, comparison of job satisfaction of high income group engineers with low income group engineers showed non significant results. However, the trend of the result shows that the high income group of managers Jain, Jabeen, Mishra & Gupta 204 and engineers are more satisfied with their jobs when compared to the low income group. The reason to this trend can be attributed to the universal truth that the monetary compensation is one of the important motivators for the employees that largely affects their performance and satisfaction level.
http://www.bizresearchpapers.com/Jain.pdf K.K.Jain, Fauzia Jabeen, Vinita Mishra and Naveen Gupta International Review of Business Research Papers Vol. 3 No.5 November 2007 Pp.193-208

Job satisfaction trends during nurses early career


Trevor Murrells*, Sarah Robinson and Peter Griffiths

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6955/7/7/

Back groud: Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses Methods: Nurses were sampled using a combined census and multi-stage approach (n = 3962). Data were collected by questionnaire at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after qualification between 1998 and 2001. Scores were calculated for seven job satisfaction components and a single item that measured

satisfaction with pay. Scores were compared longitudinally and between nursing speciality (general, children's, mental health) using a mixed model approach. Results: No single pattern across time emerged. Trends varied by branch and job satisfaction component. Rank order of job satisfaction components, from high to low scores, was very similar for adult and child branch nurses and different for mental health. Nurses were least satisfied with pay and most satisfied with relationships at 6 and 18 months and with resources (adult and child) and relationships (mental health) at 3 years. Trends were typically upwards for adult branch nurses, varied for children's nurses and downwards for mental health nurses. Conclusion: The impact of time on job satisfaction in early career is highly dependent on specialism. Different contexts, settings and organisational settings lead to varying experiences. Future research should focus on understanding the relationships between job characteristics and the components of job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction as a unitary construct. Research that further investigates the benefits of a formal one year preceptorship or probationary period is needed.

FACTORS EXPLAINING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY

The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to describe the amount of variance in faculty members overall level of job satisfaction explained by Herzberg, Mausner, and Snydermans (1959) job motivator and hygiene factors. Additionally, the study sought to investigate the suitability of a one-item versus a multi-item measure of overall job satisfaction. The faculty were generally satisfied with their jobs. However, female faculty members were less satisfied than male faculty members. The factor work itself was the most motivating aspect for faculty. The least motivating aspect was working conditions. The demographic characteristics were negligibly related to overall job satisfaction. All of the job motivator and hygiene factors were moderately or substantially related to overall job satisfaction. The factors recognition, supervision, and relationships explained the variability among faculty members overall level of job satisfaction. The one-item measure of overall job satisfaction was not different from a multi-item measure of overall job satisfaction.

Conclusions/Recommendations : Demographically, faculty membership in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University is male dominated. Male domination is evidenced in the results of the study which indicated that male faculty were older, had more years of experience in their current position, and had more years of experience in higher education than their female counterparts. Efforts to increase gender diversity among faculty must continue. Faculty in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences were generally satisfied with their jobs. However, female faculty members were less satisfied than male faculty in the current study, which implies that there may be some systems in place which fail to take into consideration the perceptions of female faculty members. Focusing on the motivator-hygiene factors, administrators should use the results of this study to investigate particular systems for gender equity. The factor work itself was the most motivating aspect for faculty in the current study. The least motivating aspect of faculty members jobs were the working conditions. The findings imply that faculty were most satisfied with the content of their job and least satisfied with the context in which their job was performed. Individual department administrators should conduct a job analysis for each position and seek innovative ways to enhance the work faculty members actually perform. Conversely, the environment in which faculty members work is performed should be reviewed to improve the context. Concern about the context was clearly evidenced in the comment portion of the instrument where female respondents, in particular, indicated that they wanted to participate in the study but were concerned about their perceptions being made public and retribution following.
Jaime X. Castillo, Extension Specialist New Mexico State University Jamie Cano, Associate Professor The Ohio State University http://pubs.aged.tamu.edu/jae/pdf/Vol45/45-03-065.pdf