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Humoral response Activation stage 1. A macrophage engulfs a bacterium and presents the antigens on its MHCs.

The cell is now known as an APC 2. A T helper cell comes along and secretes cytokines which activate the T cells 3. The T helper cell differentiates into clone T helper cells and clone T killer cells Making of B cells A bacterium with antigens on its surface fuses to a B cell. The B cells produces the antigens on its MHCs and becomes an APC A T helper cell comes along and secretes cytokines which stimulate the differentiation of B cells into B memory cells and B effector cells The B effector cells differentiate into plasma cells and then into antibodies

Cell mediated response

Antibodies A protein that it triggered in response to an antigen Antigen non-self organism that triggers an immune system and the production of specific antibodies Pathogen Fungi/virus/bacteria that causes a disease It is important that lymphocytes clone my mitosis, so that all antibodies are genetically identical. Therefore all these antibodies are specific to an antigen. Active immunity Body produces its own antibodies when an antigen triggers the immune system to do specific immune response. Here an immunological memory is made. In artificial active immunity, a person is vaccinated against a disease, they use an attenuated version of an antigen (living but modified). Role of T cells in immune system: an APC during the specific immune response when a t cells fuses with a bacterium. Cytokines and t cells stimulate response. B cells divide by mitosis. Role of B cells in active immunity: An antigen is detected by surface receptors on the B cells. B cells differentiate into B effector and B memory cells due to the secretion of cytokines by T helper cells. The B memory cells are made during primary infection. The B memory cells are used for secondary infection, so that they remember what antibodies to produce. The B effector cells differentiate into plasma cells and then antibodies.

Passive immunity Body does not produce its own antibodies. So no immunological memory made. In natural immunity, antibodies are passed from mother to baby through placenta and baby milk. In artificial immunity, antibodies are extracted from one individual and inserted into another. Functions: Plasma cells: secrete antibodies Memory cells: respond to secondary infection so secondary response is quicker Vaccinations Vaccination can lead to an increase in the amount of antibodies, as the antigens are detected by the lymphocytes and this triggers the immune response. B cells replicate and divide into B effector and B memory cells. The B effector cells then divide into plasma cells which also divide into antibodies. When first injected with a vaccine, the concentration of antibodies is fairly rapid however then starts to decrease. During a second injection, the increase in antibody concentration will be more rapid in comparison with primary injection and will peak a lot quicker. Immune responses are a lot quicker in secondary infections as there are memory cells already present. So antigen it detected a lot quicker and antibodies are made quicker. Therefore, plasma cells are made a lot quicker due to B memory cells and they quickly differentiate into antibodies. High amount of protein levels in both blood plasma and lymphatic system as antibodies are produced in the lymph node. HIV The presence of HIV antibodies in the body leads to an increase in the amount of antibodies as antigens are detected by the lymphocytes, which triggers the immune system. This leads to B cells differentiating into b effector and b memory cells. The B effector then differentiate into plasmas cells then antibodies. HIV Infects macrophages and T helper cells. Due to the low number to T helper cells, they can no longer secrete cytokines which stimulate the differentiation of B cells into B effector cells. Which differentiate into plasma then antibodies. Therefore, body cant respond to the antigen, so if likely to get infection, and with AIDS usually ends in death. TB Mainly affects the lungs. 90% of people who get the infection never develop TB as they are even immune to the disease due to a vaccination so have antibodies and B memory cells already made, or the bacteria is destroyed before it can cause any damage. Treatment for people with TB: A cocktail of many antibiotics for 3-9 months and also a lot of rest and a healthy diet.

Body barriers Inflammation: Vessels vasodilate in order for increased blood flow to damaged area. Therefore more plasma cells and mast cells can accumulate there. More histamines, and leakage of plasma. Lysozymes: Found in tears. Digestive enzymes which breaks down cell walls of bacteria. Interferons: prevent the replication of viruses. Phagocytosis: Receptors in cell surface bind to the antigen, and the macrophage engulfs the bacterium. A phagosome (macrophage and vesicle) is formed and lysosomes fuse with vesicle membrane. Secrete enzymes into the vesicle and it destroys the antigen.