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INCH-POUND DOE-STD-1090-2007 August 2007 Change Notice No.

1 December 2007 Superseding DOE-STD-1090-2004 June 2004

DOE STANDARD
HOISTING AND RIGGING

U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585

Modified to Include Only Items Applicable to Nordco's 18T Crane

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Change Notice No. 1

DOE-STD-1090-2007 December 2007

Chapter 4 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 16

Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 4-3,4 and Exhibits 1 & 2 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 7-1,2,3,4,5 and Table 7-1 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 8-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and Table 8-1 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 9-1,2,3,4,5,6 and Table 9-2 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 11-10,15 and Tables 11-10,11,14,15,16 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 12-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,13 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Table 13-1 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figures 14-1,2,3,5,6,7,8 Provide ASME attribution at introduction to the Figure 16-1

Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on Table on Contents and on

CONTENTS
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND ACKNOWLEDGMENT INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS........................................1-1 CHAPTER 2 CRITICAL LIFTS .......................................................................2-1 2.1 2.2 CRITICAL-LIFT DETERMINATION........................................................ 2-1 CRITIAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTS............................................................. 2-2

CHAPTER 3 PREENGINEERED PRODUCTION LIFTS................................3-1 3.1 3.2 PRENGINEERED PRODUCTION LIFT DETERMINATION................ 3-1 LIFTING FIXTURES .................................................................................... 3-2 3.3.1 Design ................................................................................................... 3-2 3.3.2 Fabrication ............................................................................................ 3-2 3.3.3 Inspection and Testing .......................................................................... 3-2 3.3.4 Storage, Maintenance, and Control....................................................... 3-2 3.3.5 Modification and Repair ....................................................................... 3-3 PROCEDURES ............................................................................................... 3-4 3.4.1 Content.................................................................................................. 3-4 3.4.2 Development ......................................................................................... 3-4 3.4.3 Preparation and Revision ...................................................................... 3-4 3.4.4 Approval ............................................................................................... 3-5 3.4.5 Review .................................................................................................. 3-5 3.4.6 Use ........................................................................................................ 3-5 DESIGNATED LEADER .............................................................................. 3-6 TRAINING ...................................................................................................... 3-7 3.6.1 Equipment Operation ............................................................................ 3-7 3.6.2 Procedure .............................................................................................. 3-7

3.3

3.4 3.5

CHAPTER 4 LIFTING PERSONNEL..............................................................4-1 4.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.1 Personnel Lifting Evaluation ................................................................ 4-1 4.1.2 Designated Leader ................................................................................ 4-1 4.1.3 Trial Lift................................................................................................ 4-2 4.1.4 Lifting Operations................................................................................. 4-2 MOBILE CRANES......................................................................................... 4-5 OVERHEAD CRANES .................................................................................. 4-6 PERSONNEL LIFT PLATFORM ................................................................ 4-7 4.4.1 Platform Design and Construction........................................................ 4-7 4.4.2 Platform Suspension System................................................................. 4-7 INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................... 4-9 4.5.1 Frequent Inspection............................................................................... 4-9 4.5.2 Periodic Inspection................................................................................ 4-9 TESTING....................................................................................................... 4-10 4.6.1 Platform Manufacturer Test................................................................ 4-10 4.6.2 Rated Load Test .................................................................................. 4-10 4.6.3 Hoisting Equipment ............................................................................ 4-10 LIFTING PERSONNEL NEAR ELECTRICAL POWER LINES ......... 4-11 4.7.1 General................................................................................................ 4-11 4.7.2 Condition A......................................................................................... 4-11 4.7.3 Condition B......................................................................................... 4-11 4.7.4 Condition C......................................................................................... 4-12 Personnel Lift Platform Pre-Lift Inspection ....................................... 4-15 Personnel Lifting Planning and Authorization Form.......................... 4-16

4.2 4.3 4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

Exhibit I Exhibit II

CHAPTER 5 HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS 5.1 5.2 GENERAL....................................................................................................... 5-1 HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT PLAN............................................................. 5-2 5.2.1 Marking and Posting ............................................................................. 5-2 5.2.2 Inspection and Testing .......................................................................... 5-2 Hostile Environment Plan ..................................................................... 5-3

Exhibit I

CHAPTER 6 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION AND TRAINING

6.1 6.2

GENERAL....................................................................................................... 6-1 QUALIFICATIONS ....................................................................................... 6-2 6.2.1 General.................................................................................................. 6-2 6.2.2 Operators of Cab-Operated and Pulpit-Operated.................................. 6-2 6.2.3 Operators of Mobile Cranes.................................................................. 6-2 6.2.4 Operators of Truck Mounted Cranes Capacity 1 Ton or Less ........... 6-4 6.2.5 Operators of Floor-Operated Cranes..................................................... 6-4 6.2.6 Operators of Forklift Trucks ................................................................. 6-4 6.2.7 Operators of Remote Operated Cranes ................................................. 6-4 6.2.8 Riggers .................................................................................................. 6-4 6.2.9 Person-In-Charge (PIC) ........................................................................ 6-4 6.2.10 Designated Leader ................................................................................ 6-5 6.2.11 Inspectors .............................................................................................. 6-5 6.2.12 Instructors ............................................................................................. 6-5 6.2.13 First-Line Supervisors........................................................................... 6-5 6.2.14 Maintenance Personnel ......................................................................... 6-5 TRAINING ...................................................................................................... 6-7 6.3.1 General.................................................................................................. 6-7 6.3.2 Cab-Operated, Pulpit-Operated, and Floor-Operated Cranes ............... 6-7 6.3.3 Mobile Crane Operators........................................................................ 6-8 6.3.4 Operators of Truck Mounted Cranes Capacity 1 Ton or Less ........... 6-8 6.3.5 Forklift Truck Operators ....................................................................... 6-8 6.3.6 Riggers ................................................................................................ 6-10 6.3.7 Inspectors ............................................................................................ 6-10 6.3.8 Instructors ........................................................................................... 6-11 6.3.9 Maintenance Personnel ....................................................................... 6-11 REQUALIFICATION.................................................................................. 6-12 RECORDS ..................................................................................................... 6-13

6.3

6.4 6.5

CHAPTER 7 OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES......................................7-1 7.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification ........................................................... 7-1 7.1.2 Rated-Load marking ............................................................................. 7-1 7.1.3 Modification.......................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.4 Egress.................................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.5 Hoist Brakes.......................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.6 Power Shutoff ....................................................................................... 7-1 7.1.7 Hoist-Limit Switch................................................................................ 7-5 7.1.8 Load Limits........................................................................................... 7-5 7.1.9 Maintenance History............................................................................. 7-5

7.2

INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................... 7-6 7.2.1 General.................................................................................................. 7-6 7.2.2 Crane Service ........................................................................................ 7-6 7.2.3 Initial Inspection ................................................................................... 7-6 7.2.4 Daily Preoperational Check .................................................................. 7-6 7.2.5 Monthly Rope, Chain and Hook Inspection ......................................... 7-6 7.2.6 Frequent Inspection............................................................................... 7-7 7.2.7 Periodic Inspection................................................................................ 7-7 7.2.7.1 Cranes ....................................................................................... 7-7 7.2.7.2 Wire Rope ................................................................................. 7-8 7.2.7.3 Chain (Welded Link) ................................................................ 7-8 7.2.7.4 Chain (Roller) ........................................................................... 7-9 7.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Service............................................................ 7-11 TESTING....................................................................................................... 7-12 7.3.1 Operational Tests ................................................................................ 7-12 7.3.2 Rated Load Test .................................................................................. 7-12 MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................... 7-14 7.4.1 Operating Equipment .......................................................................... 7-14 7.4.2 Wire-Rope Maintenance ..................................................................... 7-14 OPERATION ................................................................................................ 7-15 7.5.1 Conduct of Operator ........................................................................... 7-15 7.5.2 Hoist-Limit Switch/Device ................................................................. 7-15 7.5.3 Standard Hand Signals........................................................................ 7-16 7.5.4 Identification of Signalers................................................................... 7-16 7.5.5 Size of Load ........................................................................................ 7-16 7.5.6 Attaching the Load.............................................................................. 7-16 7.5.7 Moving the Load................................................................................. 7-16 7.5.8 Ordinary Lifts...................................................................................... 7-18 7.5.9 Planned Engineered Lifts.................................................................... 7-18 7.5.10 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................ 7-19 Bridge, Wall, Gantry Crane Load Test ............................................... 7-22 Overhead Crane Pre-Operational Checklist........................................ 7-26 Overhead Crane Periodic Inspection Report (Mechanical) ................ 7-28 Overhead Crane Periodic Inspection Report (Electrical).................... 7-30

7.3

7.4

7.5

Exhibit I Exhibit II Exhibit III Exhibit IV

CHAPTER 8 HOISTS .....................................................................................8-1 8.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................... 8-1 8.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification ........................................................... 8-4 8.1.2 Marking................................................................................................. 8-4 8.1.3 Warning Labels..................................................................................... 8-4

8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6

8.1.7 8.1.8

8.1.9 8.1.10

8.1.11 8.1.12 8.1.13 8.1.14 8.2

8.1.3.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists................................................ 8-4 8.1.3.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists........ 8-4 Design Standards .................................................................................. 8-5 Design Factors ...................................................................................... 8-5 Load-Braking/Load-Controlling Mechanisms...................................... 8-5 8.1.6.1 Electric-Powered Hoists............................................................ 8-5 8.1.6.2 Air-Powered Hoists................................................................... 8-5 8.1.6.3 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists.................................................... 8-6 8.1.6.4 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists ................................................ 8-6 Wire Rope ............................................................................................. 8-6 Load Chain............................................................................................ 8-6 8.1.8.1 Electric-Powered, Air-Powered, and Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists ................................................................................................... 8-6 8.1.8.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists.................................................... 8-6 Web Strap.............................................................................................. 8-7 Overtravel Protection ............................................................................ 8-7 8.1.10.1 Travel Warning Devices ......................................................... 8-7 8.1.10.2 Lower-Limit Switches/Devices .............................................. 8-7 Travel Warning Devices ....................................................................... 8-7 Support.................................................................................................. 8-7 Location ................................................................................................ 8-7 Load Rating........................................................................................... 8-7

INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................... 8-8 8.2.1 Hoist Service......................................................................................... 8-8 8.2.2 Initial Inspection ................................................................................... 8-8 8.2.3 Daily Inspection .................................................................................... 8-8 8.2.4 Frequent Inspection............................................................................... 8-8 8.2.5 Periodic Inspection................................................................................ 8-8 8.2.5.1 Hoists ........................................................................................ 8-9 8.2.5.2 Wire Rope ................................................................................. 8-9 8.2.5.3 Welded-Link Chain................................................................. 8-10 8.2.5.4 Roller Chain ............................................................................ 8-11 8.2.5.5 Synthetic-Web Strap ............................................................... 8-12 8.2.6 Hoists Not in Regular Service............................................................. 8-12 TESTING....................................................................................................... 8-13 8.3.1 Operational Tests ................................................................................ 8-13 8.3.1.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists.............................................. 8-13 8.3.1.2 Hand-Chain-Operated Hoists.................................................. 8-13 8.3.1.3 Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists .............................................. 8-13 8.3.2 Proof-Load Test .................................................................................. 8-13 8.3.2.1 Electric- or Air-Powered Hoists.............................................. 8-13 8.3.2.2 Hand-Chain-Operated or Manual-Lever-Operated Hoists...... 8-13 MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................... 8-16

8.3

8.4

8.5

OPERATION ................................................................................................ 8-17 8.5.1 Conduct of Operator ........................................................................... 8-17 8.5.2 Size of Load ........................................................................................ 8-17 8.5.3 Attaching the Load.............................................................................. 8-17 8.5.4 Moving the Load................................................................................. 8-17 8.5.5 Hoist-Limit Switch.............................................................................. 8-18 8.5.6 Ordinary Lifts...................................................................................... 8-18 8.5.7 Planned Engineered Lifts.................................................................... 8-19 8.5.8 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................ 8-19 Hoist Load Test and Inspection .......................................................... 8-24 Underhung Hoist Periodic Inspection Report ..................................... 8-26

Exhibit I Exhibit II

CHAPTER 9 MOBILE CRANES.....................................................................9-1 9.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................... 9-1 9.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification ........................................................... 9-1 9.1.2 Load Limits........................................................................................... 9-1 9.1.3 Load Rating Chart................................................................................. 9-1 9.1.4 Load Hoist Brakes................................................................................. 9-6 9.1.5 Power-Controlled Lowering ................................................................. 9-6 9.1.6 Booms ................................................................................................... 9-6 9.1.7 Counterweight....................................................................................... 9-6 9.1.8 Rerating................................................................................................. 9-6 9.1.9 Maintenance History............................................................................. 9-6 9.1.10 Design Standards .................................................................................. 9-6 INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................... 9-7 9.2.1 General.................................................................................................. 9-7 9.2.2 Initial Inspection ................................................................................... 9-7 9.2.3 Preoperational Check ............................................................................ 9-7 9.2.4 Monthly Inspection ............................................................................... 9-7 9.2.5 Frequent Inspection............................................................................... 9-7 9.2.6 Periodic Inspection................................................................................ 9-8 9.2.6.1 Cranes ....................................................................................... 9-8 9.2.6.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing .............. 9-9 9.2.6.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors........................... 9-9 9.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves.............................................. 9-9 9.2.6.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders ......................................... 9-9 9.2.6.6 Hydraulic Filters ....................................................................... 9-9 9.2.6.7 Wire Rope ................................................................................. 9-9 9.2.7 Load Hoods/Load Blocks ................................................................... 9-11 9.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Use ................................................................. 9-11 TESTING....................................................................................................... 9-12

9.2

9.3

9.3.1 9.3.2 9.4

Operational Tests ................................................................................ 9-12 Rated Load Test .................................................................................. 9-12

MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................... 9-13 9.4.1 Preventive Maintenance...................................................................... 9-13 9.4.2 Maintenance Procedures ..................................................................... 9-13 9.4.3 Wire-Rope Maintenance ..................................................................... 9-13 OPERATION ................................................................................................ 9-15 9.5.1 Conduct of Operator ........................................................................... 9-15 9.5.1.1 Traveling the Machine ............................................................ 9-16 9.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or Repairs ............................................. 9-16 9.5.1.3 Ensuring Stability.................................................................... 9-17 9.5.1.4 Further Safety Considerations................................................. 9-18 9.5.2 Operating Near Power Lines and Transmitter Towers ....................... 9-18 9.5.2.1 Crane Operations De-energized and Grounded Electrical Power Lines........................................................................................ 9-19 9.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Less Than Erected/Fully Extended Boom Length Away From Prohibited Zone....................................................................... 9-19 9.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power Lines are Energized ..................................................... 9-22 9.5.2.4 Crane in Transit with no Load and Boom Lowered ............... 9-22 9.5.2.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers ........................... 9-22 9.5.3 Hoist-Limit Switch.............................................................................. 9-22 9.5.4 Standard Hand Signals........................................................................ 9-25 9.5.5 Identification of Signalers................................................................... 9-25 9.5.6 Size of Load ........................................................................................ 9-25 9.5.7 Attaching the Load.............................................................................. 9-25 9.5.8 Moving the Load................................................................................. 9-25 9.5.9 Ordinary Lifts...................................................................................... 9-29 9.5.10 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................ 9-30 Mobile Crane Load Test ..................................................................... 9-33 Mobile Crane Daily Pre-Operational Check....................................... 9-37 Mobile Crane Frequent Inspection Report.......................................... 9-41 Mobile Crane Periodic Inspection Report........................................... 9-43
FORKLIFT TRUCKS ................................................................. 10-1

9.5

Exhibit I Exhibit II Exhibit III Exhibit IV


CHAPTER 10

10.1

GENERAL..................................................................................................... 10-1 10.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification ......................................................... 10-1 10.1.2 Rated Capacity .................................................................................... 10-1 10.1.3 Nameplate(s) and Markings ................................................................ 10-1 10.1.3.1 Fork Arm Data ..................................................................... 10-1

10.1.4 10.1.5 10.1.6 10.1.7 10.1.8 10.1.9 10.2

Attachments ........................................................................................ 10-1 Modifications ...................................................................................... 10-2 Warning Devices................................................................................. 10-2 Overhead Guards ................................................................................ 10-2 Fire Hazard Areas ............................................................................... 10-2 Work Atmosphere............................................................................... 10-2

TYPE DESIGNATIONS AND AREAS OF USE..................................... 10-10 10.2.1 Type Designation .............................................................................. 10-10 10.2.1.1 Nonhazardous Areas .......................................................... 10-10 10.2.1.2 Hazardous Areas ................................................................ 10-10 10.2.2 Specific Areas of Use........................................................................ 10-11 INSPECTIONS ........................................................................................... 10-14 10.3.1 Daily Preoperational Check .............................................................. 10-14 10.3.2 Initial Inspection of New and Rented Equipment............................. 10-14 10.3.3 Inspection and Maintenance ............................................................. 10-14 10.3.4 Forks ................................................................................................. 10-15 10.3.4.1 Fork Load Rating ................................................................ 10-15 10.3.4.2 Fork Inspections.................................................................. 10-15 10.3.4.3 Fork Repair ......................................................................... 10-16 10.3.5 Battery Maintenance ......................................................................... 10-16 10.3.6 History File ....................................................................................... 10-17 TESTING..................................................................................................... 10-18 10.4.1 Forklift Truck Load Test................................................................... 10-18 10.4.2 Fork Load Test.................................................................................. 10-18 10.4.3 Attachment Load Test....................................................................... 10-18 OPERATION .............................................................................................. 10-19 10.5.1 Conduct of Operator ......................................................................... 10-19 10.5.1.1 General............................................................................... 10-19 10.5.1.2 Traveling ............................................................................ 10-20 10.5.1.3 Loading ...............................................................................10.21 10.5.2 Lifting of Personnel .......................................................................... 10-22 10.5.3 Standard Hand Signals...................................................................... 10-24 10.5.4 Ordinary Lifts.................................................................................... 10-24 10.5.5 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 10-24 10.5.6 Equipment Qualifications ..................................................................10.24 Operations Pre-Shift Inspection Form .............................................. 10-29 Forklift Load Test and Inspection Form ........................................... 10-31 WIRE ROPE AND SLINGS........................................11-1

10.3

10.4

10.5

Exhibit I Exhibit II

CHAPTER 11 11.1

GENERAL..................................................................................................... 11-1

11.2

WIRE ROPE ................................................................................................. 11-4 11.2.1 Wire-Rope Lays .................................................................................. 11-4 11.2.2 Wire-Rope Cores ................................................................................ 11-4 11.2.3 Wire Rope for General Purposes ........................................................ 11-4 11.2.3.1 6 x 19 Classification............................................................. 11-4 11.2.3.2 6 x 37 Classification............................................................. 11-5 11.2.4 Wire-Rope Inspections........................................................................ 11-5 11.2.5 Wire-Rope Maintenance ..................................................................... 11-5 SLINGS.......................................................................................................... 11-8 11.3.1 General................................................................................................ 11-8 11.3.1.1 Load Angle Factor ............................................................... 11-8 11.3.1.2 Safe Load ............................................................................. 11-8 11.3.1.3 Design Factor ..................................................................... 11-10 11.3.1.4 Sling Care........................................................................... 11-10 11.3.1.5 Sling Storage...................................................................... 11-10 11.3.1.6 Inspections ......................................................................... 11-10 11.3.1.7 Sling Periodic Inspection Records ..................................... 11-10 11.3.2 Wire-Rope Slings.............................................................................. 11-10 11.3.2.1 Removal from Service Criteria .......................................... 11-20 11.3.2.2 Proof-Testing ..................................................................... 11-20 11.3.2.3 Operation............................................................................ 11-20 11.3.2.4 Critical Lifts ....................................................................... 11-23 11.3.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slings................................................................... 11-24 11.3.3.1 Removal from Service Criteria .......................................... 11-25 11.3.3.2 Annual Inspections............................................................. 11-25 11.3.3.3 Proof-Testing ..................................................................... 11-26 11.3.3.4 Operation............................................................................ 11-28 11.3.3.5 Critical Lifts ....................................................................... 11-29 11.3.4 Metal-Mesh Slings ............................................................................ 11-29 11.3.4.1 Removal from Service Criteria .......................................... 11-32 11.3.4.2 Proof-Testing ..................................................................... 11-32 11.3.4.3 Operation............................................................................ 11-32 11.3.4.4 Critical Lifts ....................................................................... 11-33 11.3.5 Synthetic-Web Slings........................................................................ 11-33 11.3.5.1 Removal from Service Criteria ......................................... 11-36 11.3.5.2 Proof-Testing .................................................................... 11-36 11.3.5.3 Operation........................................................................... 11-40 11.3.5.4 Critical Lifts ...................................................................... 11-40 11.3.6 Synthetic Roundslings ...................................................................... 11-41 11.3.6.1 Removal from Service Criteria .......................................... 11-41 11.3.6.2 Proof-Testing ..................................................................... 11-42 11.3.6.3 Operation............................................................................ 11-42 11.3.6.4 Critical Lifts ....................................................................... 11-43

11.3

CHAPTER 12

RIGGING ACCESSORIES.........................................12-1

12.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................... 12-1 12.1.1 Good and Bad Rigging Practices .................................................................... 12-1 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 12.2.5 12.2.6 12.2.7 12.2.8 12.3 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 12.3.4 12.3.5 12.3.6 12.3.7 12.4 12.4.1 12.4.2 12.4.3 12.4.4 12.4.5 12.4.6 12.4.7 12.5 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 12.5.4 12.5.5 12.5.6 12.5.7 RIGGING HOOKS....................................................................................... 12-5 Design ............................................................................................................. 12-5 Marking........................................................................................................... 12-5 Construction.................................................................................................... 12-5 Load Limits..................................................................................................... 12-5 Inspections ...................................................................................................... 12-5 Testing12-6 Maintenance.................................................................................................... 12-6 Operation......................................................................................................... 12-6 SHACKLES................................................................................................... 12-7 General............................................................................................................ 12-7 Effects of Environment ................................................................................... 12-7 Training........................................................................................................... 12-7 Inspections ...................................................................................................... 12-7 Removal Criteria............................................................................................. 12-8 Repairs ............................................................................................................ 12-8 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................... 12-8 EYEBOLTS ................................................................................................. 12-11 General.......................................................................................................... 12-11 Effects of Environment ................................................................................. 12-11 Training......................................................................................................... 12-11 Inspections .................................................................................................... 12-11 Removal Criteria........................................................................................... 12-12 Repairs .......................................................................................................... 12-12 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-12 EYE NUTS................................................................................................... 12-14 General.......................................................................................................... 12-14 Effects of Environment ................................................................................. 12-14 Training......................................................................................................... 12-14 Inspections .................................................................................................... 12-14 Removal Criteria........................................................................................... 12-15 Repairs .......................................................................................................... 12-15 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-15

12.6 TURNBUCKLES ........................................................................................ 12-16 12.6.1 General.......................................................................................................... 12-16

12.6.2 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 12.6.8 12.7 12.7.1 12.7.2 12.7.3 12.7.4 12.7.5 12.7.6 12.7.7 12.7.8 12.8 12.8.1 12.8.2 12.8.3 12.8.4 12.8.5 12.8.6 12.8.7

Operating Practices ....................................................................................... 12-16 Effects of Environment ................................................................................. 12-16 Training......................................................................................................... 12-16 Inspections .................................................................................................... 12-16 Removal Criteria........................................................................................... 12-17 Repairs .......................................................................................................... 12-17 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-17 LINKS, RINGS, AND SWIVELS ............................................................. 12-19 General.......................................................................................................... 12-19 Operating Practices ....................................................................................... 12-19 Effects of Environment ................................................................................. 12-19 Training......................................................................................................... 12-19 Inspections .................................................................................................... 12-19 Removal Criteria........................................................................................... 12-20 Repairs .......................................................................................................... 12-20 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-20 SWIVEL HOIST RINGS ........................................................................... 12-21 General.......................................................................................................... 12-21 Effects of Environment ................................................................................. 12-21 Training......................................................................................................... 12-21 Inspections .................................................................................................... 12-21 Removal Criteria........................................................................................... 12-22 Repairs .......................................................................................................... 12-22 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-22

12.9 LOAD-INDICATING DEVICES .............................................................. 12-25 12.9.1 General.......................................................................................................... 12-25 12.9.2 Critical Lifts .................................................................................................. 12-25 12.10 PRECISION LOAD POSITIONERS ...................................................... 12-26 12.10.1 General......................................................................................................... 12-26 12.10.2 Critical Lifts ................................................................................................. 12-26 12.11 COMPRESSION HARDWARE................................................................ 12-27 12.11.1 General.............................................................................................. 12-27 12.11.2 Assembly Wire Rope Clips............................................................ 12-27 12.11.3 Assembly Wedge Sockets...............................................................12.27 12.11.4 Effects of Environment ..................................................................... 12-28 12.11.5 Training............................................................................................. 12-28 12.11.6 Inspections ........................................................................................ 12-28 12.11.7 Removal Criteria............................................................................... 12-28 12.11.8 Repairs .............................................................................................. 12-29 12.11.9 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 12-29

CHAPTER 13 LOAD HOOKS......................................................................13-1 13.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.1 Marking............................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.2 Attachments ........................................................................................ 13-1 13.1.3 Load Limits......................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.4 Hook Standards................................................................................... 13-1 INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................. 13-2 13.2.1 Hook Service....................................................................................... 13-2 13.2.2 Initial Inspection ................................................................................. 13-2 13.2.3 Daily Inspection .................................................................................. 13-2 13.2.4 Frequent Inspection............................................................................. 13-2 13.2.5 Periodic Inspection.............................................................................. 13-2 TESTING....................................................................................................... 13-4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT).................................................... 13-6 13.4.1 NDT Requirements ............................................................................. 13-6 13.4.2 NDT Records ...................................................................................... 13-6 13.4.3 NDT Methods ..................................................................................... 13-6 13.4.4 Acceptance Criteria............................................................................. 13-6 13.4.5 Discontinuity Removal ....................................................................... 13-6 MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................... 13-8 OPERATION ................................................................................................ 13-9 Exhibit Hood Periodic Inspection Report ......................................... 13-11

13.2

13.3 13.4

13.5 13.6

Exhibit I

CHAPTER 14 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES............................14-1 14.1 14.2 GENERAL..................................................................................................... 14-1 STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES ................. 14-2 14.2.1 Design/Fabrication.............................................................................. 14-2 14.2.2 Marking............................................................................................... 14-2 14.2.3 Modification/Rerating......................................................................... 14-2 14.2.4 Guarding ............................................................................................. 14-2 14.2.5 Inspections .......................................................................................... 14-2 14.2.5.1 Initial Inspection .................................................................. 14-2 14.2.5.2 Frequent Inspection.............................................................. 14-2 14.2.5.3 Periodic Inspection............................................................... 14-3 14.2.6 Testing................................................................................................. 14-3 14.2.6.1 Operational Test................................................................... 14-3 14.2.6.2 Rated Load Test ................................................................... 14-7

14.2.7 Maintenance........................................................................................ 14-7 14.2.8 Training/Qualification......................................................................... 14-7 14.2.9 Operation............................................................................................. 14-7 14.2.10 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 14-8 14.3 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES.................................................................. 14-9 14.3.1 Design/Fabrication.............................................................................. 14-9 14.3.2 Marking............................................................................................... 14-9 14.3.3 Installation......................................................................................... 14-11 14.3.4 Inspections ........................................................................................ 14-11 14.3.4.1 Initial Inspection ................................................................ 14-11 14.3.4.2 Frequent Inspection............................................................ 14-11 14.3.4.3 Periodic Inspection............................................................. 14-11 14.3.5 Testing............................................................................................... 14-12 14.3.5.1 Operational Test................................................................. 14-12 14.3.5.2 Rated Load Test ................................................................. 14-12 14.3.6 Maintenance...................................................................................... 14-12 14.3.7 Training/Qualification....................................................................... 14-12 14.3.8 Operation........................................................................................... 14-13 14.3.9 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 14-14 MAGNETS, CLOSE-PROXIMITY-OPERATED .................................. 14-15 14.4.1 Design/Fabrication............................................................................ 14-15 14.4.2 Marking............................................................................................. 14-15 14.4.2.1 Rated Load (Capacity) ....................................................... 14-17 14.4.2.2 Controls.............................................................................. 14-17 14.4.3 Installation......................................................................................... 14-17 14.4.4 Inspections ........................................................................................ 14-17 14.4.4.1 Initial Inspection ................................................................ 14-17 14.4.4.2 Frequent Inspection............................................................ 14-17 14.4.4.3 Periodic Inspection............................................................. 14-17 14.4.5 Testing ............................................................................................ 14-18 14.4.5.1 Operational Test................................................................. 14-18 14.4.5.2 Rated Load Test ................................................................. 14-18 14.4.6 Maintenance...................................................................................... 14-18 14.4.7 Training/Qualification....................................................................... 14-19 14.4.8 Operation........................................................................................... 14-19 14.4.8.1 External-Powered Electromagnets..................................... 14-20 14.4.8.2 Battery-Operated Electromagnets...................................... 14-20 14.4.8.3 Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets ...................... 14-20 14.4.8.4 Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets ......................... 14-20 14.4.9 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 14-20 MAGNETS, REMOTE-OPERATED ....................................................... 14-21 14.5.1 Design/Fabrication............................................................................ 14-21 14.5.2 Marking ............................................................................................ 14-21

14.4

14.5

14.5.3 Installation......................................................................................... 14-21 14.5.4 Inspections ........................................................................................ 14-21 14.5.4.1 Initial Inspection ................................................................ 14-21 14.5.4.2 Frequent Inspection............................................................ 14-21 14.5.4.3 Periodic Inspection............................................................. 14-21 14.5.5 Testing ............................................................................................ 14-23 14.5.5.1 Operational Test................................................................. 14-23 14.5.6 Maintenance...................................................................................... 14-23 14.5.7 Training/Qualification....................................................................... 14-23 14.5.8 Operation........................................................................................... 14-24 14.5.9 Critical Lifts ...................................................................................... 14-24 Exhibit I Lifting Bars and Spreaders Load Test and Inspection ...................... 14-27 CONSTRUCTION HOISTING AND RIGGING EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS ................................15-1 .............................................................................................. 15-1

CHAPTER 15

15.1 15.2

GENERAL

PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS............................................................ 15-2 15.2.1 Qualified Operators of Mobile Cranes................................................ 15-2 15.2.2 Qualified Operators of Forklift Trucks ............................................... 15-3 15.2.3 Qualified Riggers ................................................................................ 15-4 15.2.4 Person-in-Charge (PIC) ...................................................................... 15-4 15.2.5 Designated Leader .............................................................................. 15-5 15.2.6 Inspector .............................................................................................. 15-5 15.2.7 Maintenance........................................................................................ 15-5 INSPECTION AND TESTING ................................................................... 15-6 OPERATION .............................................................................................. 15-7 15.4.1 General .............................................................................................. 15-7 15.4.2 Wire Rope Slings ................................................................................ 15-7 STEEL ERECTION ..................................................................................... 15-8 15.5.1 General .............................................................................................. 15-8 15.5.2 Definitions........................................................................................... 15-8 15.5.3 Pre-Shift Inspection of Cranes ............................................................ 15-8 15.5.4 Qualified Rigger.................................................................................. 15-9 15.5.5 Lifting Personnel................................................................................. 15-9 15.5.6 Safety Latches..................................................................................... 15-9 15.5.7 Working Under Loads......................................................................... 15-9 15.5.8 Multiple Load Lifts ............................................................................. 15-9 MISCELLANEOUS LIFTING DEVICES.....................16-1

15.3 15.4

15.5

CHAPTER 16

16.1

GENERAL...................................................................................................... 16-1 16.1.1 Operator Training/Qualifications........................................................ 16-1 16.1.2 Rated-Load Markings, Safety Markings and Operating Instructions . 16-1 16.1.3 Modifications ...................................................................................... 16-1 16.1.4 Load Limits......................................................................................... 16-2 16.1.5 Operating Controls.............................................................................. 16-2 16.1.6 Load Hook .......................................................................................... 16-2 16.1.7 Wire Rope ........................................................................................... 16-2 16.1.7 Assembly............................................................................................. 16-2 INSPECTIONS ............................................................................................. 16-5 16.2.1 General................................................................................................ 16-5 16.2.2 Initial Inspection ................................................................................. 16-5 16.2.3 Daily Preoperational Inspection.......................................................... 16-5 16.2.4 Periodic Inspection.............................................................................. 16-5 TESTING....................................................................................................... 16-7 16.3.1 Operational Test.................................................................................. 16-7 16.3.2 Rated Load Test .................................................................................. 16-7 MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................... 16-8 OPERATION ................................................................................................ 16-9 16.5.1 Conduct of Operator ........................................................................... 16-9

16.2

16.3

16.4 16.5

CHAPTER 17 .............................................................................. REFERENCES APPENDIX A .................................................... PROCUREMENT GUIDELINES

History and Background


In 1975, cognizant safety and health personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) met to discuss the need for a DOE hoisting and rigging manual. At that meeting, existing, applicable hoisting and rigging codes, standards, and regulations, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B30 series, and others, were reviewed in detail. Subsequently, it was determined that these documents, while adequate as minimum general industry standards, did not contain the detail necessary to adequately accomplish the extremely complex, critical, and hazardous hoisting and rigging operations being performed at DOE sites, in all probability, at other government agency and private sectors throughout the country. Because of the high potential for accidents that could result in significant property loss or serious personnel injury or death, it was decided that a DOE hoisting and rigging manual was not only desirable but absolutely necessary. Preliminary work on the manual was initiated in 1976. The manual that was developed at that time incorporated the minimum requirements of OSHA, ANSI, and similar documents and also included additional more stringent requirements deemed necessary to adequately control hoisting and rigging work processes throughout DOE. Each phase of the manual was then critically reviewed by DOE and contractor personnel. A final draft was completed in 1978 and implemented on a trial basis. In June 1980, a decision was made to formally issue and distribute the manual under controlled distribution, an arrangement where the manual must be specifically requested from the originating source; however, once requested, updates are automatically received through an actively maintained distribution list. In 1982, the manual was included as a reference standard in DOE 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Standards. Updates and improvements have been made over the years on an approximately annual basis. Revisions have occurred in 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2004 and 2007 to clarify intent, comply with OSHA and ANSI B-30 changes, improve format, strengthen wording, delete needless redundancy, eliminate obsolescence, and the like. Prior to inclusion in the manual, all changes must be approved by the DOE Hoisting and Rigging Committee, which meets annually, and by the Headquarters Office of Worker Safety and Health Policy, which has safety responsibility for DOE hoisting and rigging. The Committee is also a major source for input into the manual, particularly concerning those areas that are not defined or are only generally defined by Federal and national standards, such as training and qualification, and those concerning the DOE's unique operational environment, such as hoisting and rigging over nuclear reactors and other locations containing critical equipment. In the years that minor revisions occur, only the changed pages, usually 8 to 10, are sent to individuals on the distribution list. After two to three such supplements, the manual is reissued in its entirety, which incorporates the previous supplements plus the most recent unpublished changes approved by the committee. An example is the complete revision issued in 1993 followed by another complete revision in 1996, 1999, 2001and 2004 without any intervening supplements. In this case, the supplements were omitted because of the numerous improvements incorporated within the very short time period. The reissued June 1995 edition marked a change in classification. The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) reclassified the manual as a handbook and it was issued as DOE Hoisting and Rigging Handbook (DOE-HDBK-1090-95). After further review, OSTI has reclassified the handbook as a DOE Technical Standard and the September 1996 edition was issued as DOE STANDARD HOISTING AND RIGGING (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual) DOE-STD-1090-96 (Rev-1). Additional revisions issued are DOE-STD-1090-99, DOE-STD-1090-2001, DOE-STD-10902004, and DOE-STD-1090-2007..

While The Hoisting and Rigging Standard is in itself a best practice document, much of its content, such as the OSHA and the therein prescribed ANSI/ASME and and Crane Manufacturers Association of America standards are mandatory within DOE. In addition, many DOE organizations have, on their own initiative, adopted the standard as mandatory to ensure safe and proper hoisting and rigging operations at their facilities.

Acknowledgment
The Department of Energy (DOE) acknowledges the many organizations whose documents provided important source material for the standard. They include: American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME B30.2, Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Multiple Girder) ASME B30.5, Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes ASME B30.9, Slings ASME B30.10, Hooks ASME B30.16, Overhead Hoists (Underhung) ASME B30.17, Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder Underhung Hoist) ASME B30.20, Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices ASME B30.21, Manually Lever Operated Hoist ASME B30.22, Articulating Boom Cranes ASME B30.23, Personnel Lifting Systems ASME B30.26, Rigging Hardware ANSI/ITSDF B56.1, Low Lift and High Lift Trucks ANSI/ITSDF B56.6, Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks ASME PALD, Portable Automotive Lifting Devices Construction Safety Association (CSA) of Ontario "The Rigging Handbook" Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) SAE J1028, "Mobile Crane Working Area Definitions

Permission to reprint specific figures and illustrations was obtained from CSA and SAE. Applicable sections of 29 CFR 1910, "Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry," and 29 CFR 1926, "Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction," have been

paraphrased or reproduced verbatim throughout. The contribution of DOE's Hoisting and Rigging Committee, which has met annually since 1980, is also recognized. Representing many DOE sites, this group has provided their advice as to the tone and content of this standard. Without their time and talent, which has been provided gratuitously, there would be no standard. The standard is a safety, not a design, document intended for use by safety professionals and managers. In keeping with this philosophy, only those portions of standards and regulations dealing with safety, particularly those deemed most relevant to DOE operations, have been included. In that the target audience for this document is safety professionals and managers and not hoisting and rigging equipment designers, the design references cited within Chapter 17 of this Standard (References) should be consulted for specific design, fabrication, and other performance criteria. While it is convenient to have focused, indepth hoisting and rigging safety information concentrated into one document, the significance of the above source material is acknowledged, and readers are strongly encouraged to review each of them so as to have a full description of the subject area covered.

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Introduction
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hoisting and Rigging Standard is intended to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. The standard quotes verbatim or paraphrases (with minor editorial changes for consistency) the requirements of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the therein refenced standards of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It also encompasses, under one cover, applicable hoisting and rigging codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. When formally invoked by contract, the use of the imperative voice (as in Never use discarded load chain for slings) or the word shall within this standard connotes a mandatory action, whereas use of the word should denotes a recommended action. From chapter to chapter, the reader may notice what appears to be excessive repetition. Such repetition, however, is by design, enabling the use of each chapter, if needed or convenient, as a stand-alone document. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI; and also delineates the more stringent provisions necessary to accomplish the extremely complex, diversified, critical, and oftentimes hazardous hoisting and rigging work found within the DOE complex. In doing so, it addresses the following items that are not covered in detail in the general industry standards: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Management responsibility and accountability Operator/inspector training and qualification requirements Definition of critical lifts and the additional requirements for making them The need and responsibilities of a person-in-charge for critical lifts The need and responsibilities of a designated leader for ordinary lifts The definition and special requirements for preengineered production lifts Special requirements for the testing, inspection, and maintenance of hoisting equipment in hostile environments Nondestructive testing/nondestructive examination requirements for such items as hooks, welds, and spreader bars Special requirements for inspection and load-testing of hoisting and rigging equipment/accessories Hook latch requirements for cranes, slings, and rigging accessories Design standards for such equipment as cranes, forklifts, and hooks

8.

9.

10. 11.

DOE-STD-1090-2007

12. 13. 14.

Operating practices for hoisting and rigging operations Rigging information and load tables Good and bad rigging practices.

Because the possibility of serious accidents resulting in personnel injury or death or significant property damage exists whenever hoisting and rigging take place, the requirements for these operations must be clearly defined and precautions ensured, including proper preplanning, extreme care, attention to detail, teamwork on the part of trained operators/riggers, and the use of equipment that is reliable, properly designed, inspected, and maintained. Although not mandatory at all DOE sites and locations, this standard has been used for many years by DOE and its contractors as a valuable resource for conducting hoisting and rigging safely and efficiently. It is felt that the full implementation of the provisions of this standard will dramatically strengthen hoisting and rigging programs throughout the DOE complex and will significantly decrease the probability of serious accidents resulting in personnel injury or death or severe property damage. It should be noted that not all hoisting and rigging equipment or operational methods could be covered comprehensively by this standard. Hoisting and rigging equipment fabricated onsite or operated in manner not envisioned by this Standard shall be designed, constructed, operated, inspected and tested in accordance with the design engineer of record and applicable design standards. This Standard does not address elevators, drilling rigs, or the lifting loads with construction equipment not normally intended for lifting purposes (e.g., excavators, payloaders). Also, this Standard does not repeat other DOE nuclear regulations, orders or standards (e.g., 10 CFR 830, "Nuclear Safety Management") with respect to safety analysis, technical safety requirements, or safety classifications of hoisting equipment. The applicable regulatory documents should be consulted to ensure conformance with these requirements during hoisting and rigging activities. To propose improvements to this standard, please provide suggested text changes as well as supporting technical documentation to: Mr. Patrick F. Finn, PE U.S. Department of Energy HS-11, 270 Corporate Square Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0270

ii

DOE-STD-1090-2007

CHAPTER 1 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS


The following are specialized terms commonly used when discussing hoisting and rigging operations. Many may not be used in this standard, but are included for general information. The terms are arranged in alphabetical order. Illustrations are included for clarity. ABRASION: Surface wear. ACCELERATION STRESS: Additional stress imposed due to increasing load velocity. ALTERNATE LAY: Lay of wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and lang lay. ANSI: American National Standards Institute. APPOINTED: Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employers representative. AREA, METALLIC: Sum of the crosssectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand. ATTACHMENT: A device other than conventional forks or load backrest extension, mounted permanently or removable on the elevating mechanism of a truck for handling the load. Popular types are fork extension clamps, rotating devices, side shifters, load stabilizers, rams and booms. AUTHORIZED: Assigned by a duly constituted administrative or regulatory authority. AUXILLARY HOIST: Supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed than the main hoist. BACK STAY: Guy used to support a boom or mast or that section of a main cable, as on a suspension bridge, or cableway, and the like, leading from the tower to the anchorage. BAIL: A U-shaped member of a bucket, socket, or other fitting. BASKET OR SOCKET: The conical portion of a socket into which a splayed rope end is inserted and secured with zinc. BATTERY-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a storage battery. BECKET LOOP: A loop of small rope or a strand of rope fastened to the end of a large wire rope to facilitate installation. BENDING STRESS: Stress on wires of a wire rope imposed by bending. This stress need not be added to direct load stresses. When sheaves and drums are of suitable size, bending stress does not affect the normal life of the wire rope. BIRDCAGE: A colloquialism describing the appearance of a wire rope that is forced into compression. The outer strands form a cage and at times displace the core. BIRDCAGING: The twisting of fiber or wire rope in an isolated area in the opposite direction of the rope lay, causing it to take on the appearance of a birdcage. BOOM (Crane): A member hinged to the rotating superstructure and used for supporting the hoisting tackle. BOOM LINE: A wire rope for supporting or operating the boom on derricks, cranes, draglines, shovels, and the like. BRAKE: A device used for slowing or stopping motion by fiction or electromagnetic means. BRAKE, DRAG: A brake that provides stopping force without external control. BRAKE, HOLDING: A brake that sets automatically and that prevents motion when power is off. BRAKE, PARKING: A device to prevent the movement of a stationary vehicle. BRAKING, COUNTER TORQUE: A method of stopping motion in which the power to the

1-1

Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions

DOE-STD-1090-2007

motor is reversed to develop torque in the opposite direction. BRAKING, DYNAMIC: A method of controlling crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force. BRAKING, MECHANICAL: A method of slowing motion by friction. BRAKING, REGENERATIVE: A form of dynamic braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed back into the power system. BREAKING STRENGTH: The measured load required to break a wire rope or chain. BRIDGE: The part of a crane, consisting of girders, walkways, railings, trucks, and drive mechanisms, that carries the trolley or trolleys. BRIDGE TRAVEL: Horizontal travel of the crane parallel with runway rails. BRIDLE SLING: A sling composed of multiple legs (branches), the top ends of which terminate in a fitting that latches onto the lifting hook. BULL RING: The main large ring of a sling to which sling legs are attached. BUMPER (BUFFER): An energy-absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving overhead crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel, or when two moving cranes or trolleys come into contact. CAB: The operators compartment.

CARRIAGE: A support structure for forks or attachments, generally roller-mounted, traveling vertically within the mast of a cantilever truck. CENTER: A single wire or fiber in the center of a strand around which the wires are laid. CENTER CONTROL: The position near the center of a truck cab from which the operator controls movement of the truck. CHOKER ROPE: A short wire-rope sling used to form a slip noose around the object to be moved or lifted (see Figure 1-1).

Figure 1-1. Choker Rope. CIRCUMFERENCE: Measured perimeter of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope. CLAMP, STRAND: A fitting used to form a loop at the end of a length of strand; consists of two grooved plates and bolts. CLEARANCE: The distance by which one object clears another, or the clear space between them. CLEVIS: A U-shaped fitting with pins.

CABLE: A term loosely applied to wire ropes, wire strands, manila ropes, and electrical conductors. CABLE-LAID WIRE ROPE: A type of wire rope consisting of several independent wire ropes laid into a single wire rope. CABLE CROWD ROPE: A wire rope used to force the bucket of a power shovel into the material being handled. CANTILEVER TRUCK: A self-loading counterbalanced or noncounterbalanced truck equipped with a cantilever load-engaging means, such as forks (see Figure 10-3).

CLIP: A fitting used to clamp two parts of wire rope. CLOSED SOCKET: A wire-rope fitting consisting of an integral becket and bail. CLOSING LINE: Wire rope that closes a clamshell or orange-peel bucket and then operates as a hoisting rope. COIL: Circular bundle of wire rope not packed on a reel.

Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions

1-2

DOE-STD-1090-2007

COLLECTOR: Contacting device mounted on a bridge or trolley and used to collect current from the conductor system. COME-ALONG: A portable, hand-operated device consisting of a housing, a length of chain or wire rope, two hooks, and a ratcheting lever, that is used for miscellaneous pulling. CONDUCTOR: Wire, angles, bars, tees, or special sections mounted to transmit current to the collectors. CONICAL DRUM: Grooved hoisting drum of varying diameter. CONSTRUCTION (WIRE ROPE): Refers to the design of wire rope, including number of strands, number of wires per strand, and arrangement of wires in each strand. CONTINUOUS BEND: Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in one direction (as opposed to reverse bend). CONTROLLER: An operators device for regulating the power delivered to a motor or other equipment. CONTROLLER, SPRING RETURN: A controller that, when released, will return automatically to a neutral position. CORE: The center member of a wire rope around which the strands are laid. It may be fiber, a wire strand, or an independent wire rope. CORING LINE: Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well. CORROSION: Chemical decomposition by exposure to moisture, acids, alkalis, or other destructive agents. CORRUGATED: A term used to describe the grooves of a sheave or drum when worn so as to show the impression of a wire rope. COUNTERBALANCED TRUCK: A truck equipped with load-engaging means wherein, during normal transporting, all the load is external to the polygon formed by the wheel contacts (see Figure 10-3). COVER WIRES: The outer layer of wires.

CRANE: A machine used for lifting and lowering a load vertically and moving it horizontally and that has a hoisting mechanism as an integral part of it. CRANES, TYPES OF: Automatic Crane: A crane that, when activated, operates through a preset cycle or cycles. Cab-Operated Crane: A crane controlled by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley. Cantilever Gantry Crane: A gantry or semigantry crane in which the bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides. Floor-Operated Crane: A crane whose operation is controlled by use of a pendant in the hands of an operator on the floor or on an independent platform. Gantry Crane: A crane similar to an overhead crane, except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway. Jib Crane: A fixed crane with a vertical rotating member supported at the bottom (also at the top in some types) from which an arm extends to carry the hoist trolley. Jib cranes are most commonly mounted on a vertical column, supplied as part of the jib crane, or on existing structural members (e.g., a wallmounted jib crane). Mobile Crane: For the purposes of this chapter, mobile cranes are defined as wheelmounted cranes, truck cranes, and crawler cranes. A wheel-mounted crane consists of a rotating structure with power plant, operating machinery, and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubbertired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by an engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure

1-3

Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions

DOE-STD-1090-2007

A truck-mounted crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant that operates machinery and boom, mounted on an automotive truck equipped with a power plant for travel. Commercial truck-mounted cranes are included in this category A crawler crane consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base equipped with crawler treads for travel. Overhead Traveling Crane: A crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed-runway structure. Power-Operated Crane: A crane whose mechanism is driven by electricity, air, hydraulics, or internal combustion. Pulpit-Operated Crane: A crane operated from a fixed operator station that is not attached to the crane. Remote-Operated Crane: A crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control (e.g., radio-controlled crane). Semigantry Crane: A gantry crane with one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway, the other end of the bridge being supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway. Shop Crane: A Portable Automotive Lifting Device (PALD), self contained hydraulic and pneumatic-hydraulic crane characterized by a pair of laterally spaced legs, an upright mast, a pivoting boom with a boom extension and hook, and a hydraulic unit. The hydraulic unit moves the boom up and down at a pivot point for the purpose of raising, removing, transporting in the lowered position, and replacing automotive engines, transmissions and other components. Shop cranes have a capacity of 4 tons (8000 pounds) or less. Wall-Mounted Crane: A crane having a jib, with or without a trolley, supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling-type crane and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or line of columns.

Wall-Mounted Jib Crane: See Cranes, Types Of, Jib Crane. CRITICAL DIAMETER: Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope that permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal positions. CYLINDRICAL DRUM: Hoisting drum of uniform diameter. DECELERATION STRESS: Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to decreasing the load velocity. DEFLECTION: Sag of a rope in a span, usually measured at midspan as the depth from a chord joining the tops of the two supports. Any deviation from a straight line. DESIGN FACTOR: Ratio of ultimate strength to the design working stress. DESIGNATED: Selected or assigned by the employer or the employers representative as being qualified to perform specific duties. DESIGNATED LEADER: An individual assigned responsibility for safe handling of ordinary lifts. The designated leader shall be present at the lift site during the entire lifting operation. If the lift is being made by only one person, that person assumes all responsibilities of the designated leader. DIAMETER: Distance measured across the center of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope. DIESEL-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a generator driven by a diesel engine. DOCKBOARD: A portable or fixed device for spanning the gap or compensating for the difference in level between loading platforms and carriers. DOG-LEG: Permanent short bend or kink in a wire rope caused by improper use.

Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions

1-4

DOE-STD-1090-2007

DRAGLINE: Wire rope used to pull an excavating or drag bucket. DRIVE: Motor, coupling, brake and gear case, or gear cases used to propel bridge, trolley, or hoist. DRIVE GIRDER: A girder on which is mounted the bridge drive, cross shaft, walk, railing, and operators cab. DRUM: A cylindrical-flanged barrel of uniform (cylindrical drum) or tapering (conical drum) diameter on which a wire rope is wound for operation or storage. It may be smooth or grooved. ELASTIC LIMIT: Limit of stress beyond which a permanent deformation takes place within the material. This limit is approximately 55-65 percent of breaking strength of steel-wire ropes. ELECTRIC TRUCK: A truck in which the principal energy is transmitted from power source to motor(s) in the form of electricity. END CONTROL: An operator-control position that is located at the end opposite the load end of the truck. EQUALIZER: A device used to compensate for unequal length or stretch of a hoist rope. EQUALIZING SLINGS: Slings composed of wire rope and equalizing fittings. EQUALIZING THIMBLES: A special type of fitting used as a component part of some wirerope slings. EYE OR EYE SPLICE: A loop with or without a thimble formed in the end of a wire rope. FAIL-SAFE: A provision designed to automatically stop or safely control any motion in which a malfunction could occur. FATIGUE: The tendency of a material to break under repeated stress. FIBER CENTERS: Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber used in the center of a strand. FIBER CORES: Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber used in the core of a wire rope.

FIRST POINT: The first setting on the operators controller that starts crane motion (slowly) in each direction. FITTING: Any accessory used as an attachment for wire rope. FLAG: Mark or marker on a rope to designate position of load. FLAT ROPE: Wire rope made of parallel alternating right-lay and left-lay ropes sewn together by relatively soft wires. FLATTENED STRAND ROPE: A wire rope with either oval or triangular strands that present a flattened rope surface. FLEET ANGLE: Angle between the position of a rope at the extreme end wrap on a drum and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave. FORKS: Horizontal tine-like projections, normally suspended from the carriage, used to engage and support loads. FORK HEIGHT: The vertical distance from the floor to the load-carrying surface adjacent to the heel of the forks with the mast vertical, and in the case of reach trucks, with the forks extended. FORKLIFT TRUCK: A high-lift self-loading truck equipped with load carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads (see Figure 10-3). GALVANIZE: To coat with zinc to protect against corrosion. GALVANIZED ROPE: Rope made of galvanized wire. GALVANIZED STRAND: Strand made of galvanized wire. GALVANIZED WIRE: Wire coated with zinc. GAS-ELECTRIC TRUCK: An electric truck in which the power source is a generator driven by an LP-gas or gasoline engine. GROMMET: A seven-strand wire-rope sling made from one continuous length of strand or an endless synthetic-web sling.

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GROOVED DRUM: Drum with grooved outer surface to accommodate and guide a rope. GROOVES: Depressions in the outer surface of a sheave or drum for positioning and supporting a rope. GUY LINE: Strand or rope, usually galvanized, for holding a structure in position. HANDLING FIXTURE: A cradle, structure, shipping fixture, or container designed specifically to facilitate supporting, lifting or handling a component during fabrication, loading, shipping, storage, or installation. HIGH-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism designed to permit tiering. Popular types are high-lift platform trucks (see Figure 10-3). HIGH-LIFT PLATFORM TRUCK: A selfloading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism intended primarily for transporting and tiering loaded skid platforms (see Figure 10-3). HOIST: A device that applies a force for lifting or lowering. HOIST, LEVER OPERATED: A leveroperated manual device used to lift, lower, or pull a load and to apply or release tension. HOLDING LINE: Wire rope on a clamshell or orange-peel bucket that holds the bucket while the closing line is released to dump the load. HOOK LOAD: The total live weight supported by the hook of a crane, derrick, or other hoisting equipment, including the load, slings, spreader bars, and other tackle not part of the load, but supported by the hook and required for the handling of the load. IDLER: Sheave or roller used to guide or support a rope. INDEPENDENT WIRE-ROPE CORE: Wire rope used as the core of a larger rope. INNER WIRES: All wires of a strand except surface or cover wires.

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE TRUCK: A truck in which the power source is a gas or diesel engine. INTERNALLY LUBRICATED: Wire rope or strand having all wires coated with lubricant. KINK: Permanent distortion of wires and strands resulting from sharp bends. LAGGING: External wood covering on a reel of rope or a strand. LANG-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction. LAY LENGTH: The lengthwise distance on a wire rope in which a strand makes one complete turn around the ropes axis (see Figure 1-2).

Figure 1-2. Rope Lay Left Lay: Strand: Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch, similar to a left-hand screw. Rope: Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch, similar to a left-hand screw. Right Lay: Strand: Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch, similar to a right-hand screw. Rope: Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch, similar to a right-hand screw. LIFT: Maximum safe vertical distance through which a hook can travel. The hoisting of a load.

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LIFT, CRITICAL: A lift for which the application of provisions applicable to ordinary lifts would not adequately eliminate or control the likelihood or severity of the following: personnel injury or significant adverse health impact (onsite or offsite). significant release of radioactivity or other hazardous material or other undesirable conditions. undetectable damage that would jeopardize future operations or the safety of a facility. damage that would result in delay to schedule or other significant program impact such as loss of vital data.

motion of the load. Load-bearing parts which, if failed, would result in no more than stoppage of the equipment without causing dropping, upset, or loss of control of the load are not considered to be primary load-bearing parts. LOAD CENTER (FORKLIFTS): The horizontal longitudinal distance from the intersection of the horizontal load-carrying surfaces and vertical load-engaging faces of the forks (or equivalent load-positioning structure) to the center of gravity of the load. LOW-LIFT TRUCK: A self-loading truck equipped with an elevating mechanism designed to raise the load only sufficiently to permit horizontal movement (see Figure 10-3). MAGNET: An electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook and used to pick up loads. MAIN HOIST: The hoist mechanism provided for lifting the maximum-rated load. MAN TROLLEY: A trolley having an operators cab attached to it. MARLINE SPIKE: Tapered steel pin used in splicing wire rope. MESSENGER STRAND: Galvanized strand or bronze strand used to support telephone and electrical cables. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY: Mathematical quantity giving the ratio, within the elastic limit, between a definite range of unit stress on a wire rope and the corresponding elongation. MOUSING: A method of bridging the throat opening of a hook to prevent the release of load lines and slings, under service or slack conditions, by wrapping with soft wire, rope, heavy tape, or similar materials. NARROW-AISLE TRUCK: A self-loading truck intended primarily for right-angle stacking in aisles narrower than those normally required by counterbalanced trucks of the same capacity (see Figure 10-3). NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE): The development and application of technical methods to examine materials or components, in ways that do not impair future usefulness and serviceability, in order to detect,

LIFT, ORDINARY: Any lift not designated as a critical lift or a preengineered production lift. LIFT, PREENGINEERED PRODUCTION: Repetitive, production-type lifting operation, independent of the nature of the load to be lifted, in which the probability of dropping, upset, or collision is reduced to a level acceptable to the responsible manager by preliminary engineering evaluation, specialized lifting fixtures, detailed procedures, operation-specific training, and independent review and approval of the entire process. LIFTING SERVICE: Whenever equipment governed by this standard is used to perform lifts. LINE: A rope used for supporting and controlling a suspended load. LOAD: The total weight superimposed on the load block or hook. LOAD BLOCK: The assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes. LOAD-BACKREST EXTENSION: A device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame. LOAD-BEARING PARTS: Any part of a material-handling device in which the induced stress is influenced by the hook load. A primary load-bearing part is a part the failure of which could result in dropping, upset, or uncontrolled

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locate, measure, and evaluate discontinuities, defects, and other imperfections; to assess integrity, properties, and composition; and to measure geometrical characteristics. NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT): See NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION. NONROTATING WIRE ROPE: See ROTATION-RESISTANT WIRE ROPE. OPEN SOCKET: A wire-rope fitting consisting of a basket and two ears with a pin. ORDER-PICKER TRUCK, HIGH-LIFT: A truck, controllable by an operator stationed on a platform, which is movable, has a load-engaging means, and is intended for (manual) stock selection. The truck may be capable of selfloading and/or tiering (see Figure 10-3). OVERHEAD GUARD: A framework fitted to a truck over the head of a riding operator. PALLET TRUCK: A self-loading, nonmotorized or motorized low-lift truck equipped with wheeled forks of dimensions sized to go between the top and bottom boards of a doublefaced pallet, the wheels fitting into spaces between the bottom boards, so as to raise the pallet off the floor for transporting (see Figure 10-3). PEENING: Permanent distortion of outside wire in a rope caused by pounding. PERSON-IN-CHARGE (PIC): The manager or other responsible person (other than the equipment operator) known to be qualified and appointed to be responsible for the safe handling of critical loads. POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK: A mobile, power-driven vehicle used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier material. PRECISION LOAD POSITIONING DEVICES: A rigging accessory designed specifically to precisely raise and lower a load through a limited range of lifting/lowering motion (stroke). Standards units typically have 12 in. (30 cm) stroke and can position a load within 0.001 in. (0.025 mm). These devices commonly include a built-in load scale and in such cases may also serve as a load-indicating device.

PREFORMED WIRE ROPE: Wire rope in which the strands are permanently shaped, before being fabricated into the rope, to the helical form they assume in the wire rope. PREFORMED STRAND: Strand in which the wires are permanently shaped, before being fabricated into the strands, to the helical form they assume in the strand. PRESTRESSING: Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that stretch that would otherwise occur once the load is picked up is largely nonexistent. PROOF LOAD: A specific load applied in the performance of a proof load test. PROOF TEST: A nondestructive tension test performed to verify construction and workmanship of slings or rigging accessories. PUBLIC CARRIER: A for-hire company engaged in the public transportation of goods. QUALIFIED: A person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated an ability and competence to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter and work. QUALIFIED ENGINEER/QUALIFIED ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION: An engineer or engineering organization whose competence in evaluation or design of the type of equipment in question has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the responsible manager. QUALIFIED INSPECTOR: One whose competence is recognized by the responsible manager and whose qualification to perform specific inspection activities has been determined, verified, and attested to in writing. QUALIFIED OPERATOR: One who has had appropriate and approved training, including satisfactory completion of both written and operational tests to demonstrate knowledge, competence, and skill, in the safe operation of the equipment to be used.

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QUALIFIED RIGGER: One whose competence in this skill has been demonstrated by experience satisfactory to the appointed person. NOTE: The term rigger or qualified rigger in this standard refers to the function performed, and in no way relates to the workers classification in any union or bargaining unit. RATED CAPACITY: The maximum hook load that a piece of hoisting equipment is designed to carry; also the maximum load that an industrial truck or a sling, hook, shackle, or other rigging tackle is designed to carry. NOTE: At the option of the user, a rated capacity can be assigned that is less than the design-rated capacity. REACH TRUCK: A self-loading truck, generally high-lift, having load-engaging means mounted so it can be extended forward under control to permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position (see Figure 10-3). REEL: The flanged spool on which wire rope or strand is wound for storage or shipment. REEVING: A system in which a rope travels around drums or sheaves. REGULAR-LAY ROPE: Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in opposite directions. REVERSE BEND: Reeving of a wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in opposite directions. RIDER TRUCK: A truck that is designed to be controlled by a riding operator. RIGGING: The hardware or equipment used to safely attach a load to a lifting device. The art or process of safely attaching a load to a hook by means of adequately rated and properly applied slings and related hardware.

ROLLERS: Relatively small-diameter cylinders or wide-faced sheaves used for supporting or guiding ropes. ROTATION-RESISTANT WIRE ROPE: Wire rope consisting of a left-lay, lang-lay inner rope covered by right-lay, regular-lay outer strands. RUNNING SHEAVE: A sheave that rotates as the load block is raised or lowered. RUNWAY: Assembly of rails, girders, brackets, and framework on which a crane operates. SAFE WORKING LOAD: Load that a rope may carry economically and safely. SEALE: A strand construction having one size of cover wires with the same number of one size of wires in the inner layer and each layer having the same length and direction of lay. Most common construction is one center wire, nine inner wires, and nine cover wires. SEIZE: To securely bind the end of a wire rope or strand with seizing wire or strand. SEIZING STRAND: Small strand, usually of seven wires, mad of soft-annealed-iron wire. SEIZING WIRE: A soft-annealed-iron wire. SELF-LOADER: A truck with tires that can fit between the top and bottom boards of a doublefaced pallet. SERVE: To cover the surface of a wire rope or strand with a wrapping of wire.

Figure 1-3. Shackle

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SHACKLE: A type of clevis normally used for lifting (see Figure 1-3). SHALL: A word indicating that an action is mandatory. SHEAVE: A grooved wheel or pulley used with a rope to change direction and point of application of a pulling force. SHEAVE, NONRUNNING (EQUALIZER): A sheave used to equalize tension in opposite parts of a rope, called nonrunning because of its slight movement. SHEAVE, RUNNING: A sheave that rotates as the load block is lifted or lowered. SHOULD: A word indicating a recommended action, the advisability of which depends on the facts in each situation. SIDE LOADER: A self-loading truck, generally high-lift, having load-engaging means mounted in such a manner that it can be extended laterally under control to permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position (see Figure 10-3). SIDE PULL: That portion of a hoist pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not operated vertically. SLINGS: Wire ropes, chains, synthetic web, and metal mesh made into forms, and with or without fittings, for handling loads. SLINGS, BRAIDED: Very flexible slings composed of several individual wire ropes braided together. SMOOTH-FACED DRUM: Drum with a plain, not grooved, face. SPAN: The horizontal, center-to-center distance of runway rails. SPIRAL GROOVE: Groove that follows the path of a helix around a drum, similar to the thread of a screw. SPLICING: Interweaving of two ends of rope to make a continuous or endless length without appreciable increasing the diameter. Also refers

to making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands. Splice, Hand Tucked: A loop or eye formed in the end of a rope by tucking the end of the strands back into the main body of the rope in a prescribed manner. Splice, Mechanical: A loop or eye formed in the end of a wire rope by pressing or swaging one or more metal sleeve over the wire rope junction. STAINLESS-STEEL ROPE: Wire rope made of chrome-nickel steel wires having great resistance to corrosion. STEEL-CLAD ROPE: Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire. STRAND: An arrangement of wires helically laid about an axis or another wire or fiber center to produce a symmetrical section. SUSPECT/COUNTERFEIT ITEMS (S/CI): A suspect item is one in which visual inspection, testing, or other means indicate that it may not conform to established Government or industryaccepted specifications or national consensus standards. A counterfeit item is a suspect item that has been copied or substituted without legal right or authority to do so or one whose material, performance, or characteristics are knowingly misrepresented by the vendor, supplier, distributor, or manufacturer (see Figure 1-5). NOTE: (refer to DOE G 440.1-6 Implementation Guide For Use With Suspect/Counterfeit Requirements of DOE O 440.1, Worker Protection Management). SWAGED FITTINGS: Fittings in which wire rope is inserted and attached by a cold-forming method. SWITCH, ELECTRIC: A device for making, breaking, or changing the connections in an electrical circuit. SWITCH, EMERGENCY STOP: A manually or automatically operated electric switch to cut off electric power independently of the regular operating controls. SWITCH, LIMIT: A switch that is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine

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or equipment to alter the electrical circuit associated with the machine or equipment. SWITCH, MAIN: A switch controlling the entire power supply to a crane or other equipment, often called the disconnect switch. TAG LINE: A rope used to prevent rotation of a load. TAPERING AND WELDING: Reducing the diameter of the end of a wire rope and welding it to facilitate reeving. THIMBLE: Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye of a wire rope (see Figure 1-4).

TRUCK, POWERED INDUSTRIAL: A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier material (see Figure 10-3). TURNBUCKLE: A device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. It consists of a barrel and right- and left-hand threaded bolts. TWO-BLOCKING: The act of continued hoisting in which the load-block and head-block assemblies are brought into physical contact, thereby preventing further movement of the load block and creating shock loads to the rope and reeving system. VERIFICATION: A procedure in which a design, calculation, drawing, procedure, instruction, report, or document is checked and signed by one or more parties. The one or more persons designated to sign verify, based on personal observation, certified records, or direct reports, that a specific action has been performed in accordance with specified requirements.

Figure 1-4. Thimble TIERING: The process of placing one load on or above another. TINNED WIRE: Wire coated with tin. TROLLEY: A unit consisting of frame, trucks, trolley drive, and hoisting mechanism moving on the bridge rails in a direction at right angles to the crane runway. TROLLEY GIRTS: Structural members that are supported on the trolley trucks and that contain the upper sheave assemblies. TROLLEY TRAVEL: Horizontal travel of a trolley at right angles to runway rails. TROLLEY TRUCK: An assembly consisting of wheels, bearings, axles, and structuralsupporting hoist mechanism and load girts.

WEDGE SOCKET: Wire-rope fitting in which the rope end is secured by a wedge. WHEEL BASE: Distance between centers of outermost wheels for bridge and trolley trucks. WHEEL LOAD: The load on any wheel with the trolley and lifted load (rated load) positioned on the bridge to give maximum-loading conditions. WIRE ROPE: Wire strands laid helically around an axis or a core. WIRE (ROUND): Single continuous length of metal, cold drawn from a rod. WIRE (SHAPED): A single continuous length of metal either cold drawn or cold rolled from a rod.

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Figure 1-5

Chapter 1 Terminology and Definitions

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CHAPTER 2 CRITICAL LIFTS


This chapter provides guidelines for critical-lift determination and requirements for planning and performing a critical lift safely and judiciously.

2.1 2.2

CRITICAL-LIFT DETERMINATION ................................................................ 2-1 CRITICAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTS ............................................................. 2-2

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Chapter 2 Critical Lifts

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2.1 CRITICAL-LIFT DETERMINATION


a. An appointed person shall classify each lift into one of the DOE categories (ordinary, critical, or preengineered production) prior to planning the lift. A lift shall be designated critical if any of the following conditions are met: 1. The load item, if damaged or upset would result in a release into the environment of radioactive or hazardous material exceeding the established permissible environmental limits. The load item is unique and, if damaged, would be irreplaceable or not repairable and is vital to a system, facility or project operation. The cost to replace or repair the load item, or the delay in operations of having the load item damaged would have a negative impact on facility, organizational, or DOE budgets to the extent that it would affect program commitments. 4. A lift not meeting the above criteria shall also be designated critical if mishandling or dropping of the load would cause any of the above noted consequences to nearby installations or facilities.

b.

c.

2.

Further site-specific criteria may be developed to supplement those cited above and may include loads which require exceptional care in handling because of size, weight, close-tolerance installation or high susceptibility to damage as well as lifts using multiple pieces of lifting equipment.

3.

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2.2 CRITICAL-LIFT REQUIREMENTS


a. Ensure that the requirements are met for ordinary lifts specified in each section of this standard for each particular equipment category. The operating organization shall appoint a Person-In-Charge (PIC) for the entire operation. This person shall meet the definitions of appointed, designated, and qualified as described in Chapter 1, Terminology and Definitions, and shall be present at the lift site during the entire lifting operation. The PIC shall ensure that a pre-job plan or procedure is prepared that defines the operation and includes the following: 1. Identification of the items to be moved, the weight, dimensions, and center of gravity of the load, and any hazardous or toxic materials that are present. Identification of operating equipment to be used by type and rated capacity. g. 3. Rigging sketches that include (as applicable): i. Identification and rated capacity of slings, lifting bars, rigging accessories, and below-the-hook lifting devices. Calculate and provide the rated capacity of equipment in the configuration in which it will be used. Load-indicating devices. Load vectors. Lifting points. Sling angles. Boom and swing angles. Methods of attachment. Crane orientations. Other factors affecting equipment capacity (e.g. load path sketch, j. i. key point heights, floor or soil bearing capacity). 4. Operating procedures and special instructions to operators including rigging precautions and safety measures to be followed as applicable.

b.

d.

All rigging equipment used in critical lifts (i.e., slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, and rigging hardware) shall have proof load certificates. See Chapters 11, 12 and 14 for proof test requirements of these equipment items. Experienced operators who have been trained and qualified to operate the specific equipment to be used shall be assigned to make the lift. Only designated, qualified signalers shall give signals to the operator. However, the operator shall obey a STOP signal at all times, no matter who gives the signal. The procedure and rigging sketches shall be reviewed and approved by the responsible manager (or designee) and the responsible oversight organization (such as safety, quality assurance, or quality control) before the lift is made. Subsequent revisions shall be approved per site specific procedures. A pre-lift meeting involving participating personnel shall be conducted prior to making a critical lift. The critical lift plan/procedure shall be reviewed and questions shall be resolved. If required by the critical lift procedure, a practice lift shall be done before the critical lift. Conditions for a practice lift should closely simulate actual conditions involving: weight, rigging selection and configuration, load movement path, and other relevant factors. Practice lifts should be done by the same crew, using the same lifting equipment. Although individual plans are generally prepared for critical lifts, multi-use plans may be employed to accomplish recurrent critical lifts. For example, a multi-use plan

c.

e.

f.

2.

h.

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

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may be used to lift an item or series of similar items that are handled repeatedly in the same manner. However, if the lifting

equipment or rigging must change to accomplish the lift, the critical lift plan must be revised and approved accordingly.

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CHAPTER 9 MOBILE CRANES


This chapter specifies operation, inspection, maintenance, and testing requirements for the use of mobile cranes and implements the requirements of ASME B30.5 (Mobile and Locomotive Cranes) (for latest ASME standards, see http://catalog.asme.org/home.cfm?Category=CS).

9.1

GENERAL .................................................................................................................................9-1 9.1.1 Operator Training/Qualification ..................................................................................9-1 9.1.2 Load Limits..................................................................................................................9-1 9.1.3 Load Rating Chart........................................................................................................9-1 9.1.4 Load Hoist Brakes .......................................................................................................9-6 9.1.5 Power-Controlled Lowering ........................................................................................9-6 9.1.6 Booms ..........................................................................................................................9-6 9.1.7 Counterweight..............................................................................................................9-6 9.1.8 Rerating........................................................................................................................9-6 9.1.9 Maintenance History....................................................................................................9-6 9.1.10 Design Standards .........................................................................................................9-6 INSPECTIONS ..........................................................................................................................9-7 9.2.1 General.........................................................................................................................9-7 9.2.2 Initial Inspection ..........................................................................................................9-7 9.2.3 Daily Preoperational Check .........................................................................................9-7 9.2.4 Monthly Inspection ......................................................................................................9-7 9.2.5 Frequent Inspection......................................................................................................9-7 9.2.6 Periodic Inspection ......................................................................................................9-8 9.2.6.1 Cranes ........................................................................................................9-8 9.2.6.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing................................9-9 9.2.6.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors ............................................9-9 9.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves ...............................................................9-9 9.2.6.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders...........................................................9-9 9.2.6.6 Hydraulic Filters ........................................................................................9-9 9.2.6.7 Wire Rope ..................................................................................................9-9 9.2.7 Load Hooks/Load Blocks ..........................................................................................9-11 9.2.8 Cranes Not in Regular Use ........................................................................................9-11 TESTING .................................................................................................................................9-12 9.3.1 Operational Tests .......................................................................................................9-12 9.3.2 Rated Load Test .........................................................................................................9-12 MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................................9-13 9.4.1 Preventive Maintenance.............................................................................................9-13 9.4.2 Maintenance Procedures ............................................................................................9-13 9.4.3 Wire-Rope Maintenance ............................................................................................9-13 OPERATION ...........................................................................................................................9-15 9.5.1 Conduct of Operator ..................................................................................................9-15 9.5.1.1 Traveling the Machine .............................................................................9-16 9.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or Repairs...............................................................9-16 9.5.1.3 Ensuring Stability.....................................................................................9-17 9.5.1.4 Further Safety Considerations..................................................................9-18 9.5.2 Operating Near Power Lines and Transmitter Towers...............................................9-18

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

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CHAPTER 9 MOBILE CRANES


Crane Operations De-Energized and Grounded Electrical Power Lines .............................................................................................9-19 9.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Less Than Erected/Fully Extended Boom Length Away From Prohibited Zone .........................................................................................................9-19 9.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power Lines are Energized.......................................................................9-22 9.5.2.4 Crane in Transit with no Load and Boom Lowered .................................9-22 9.5.2.5 Crane Operations Near Transmitter Towers ............................................9-22 Hoist Limit Switch.....................................................................................................9-22 Standard Hand Signals...............................................................................................9-25 Identification of Signalers..........................................................................................9-25 Standard Voice Signals ..............................................................................................9-25 Special Signals...........................................................................................................9-25 Size of Load ...............................................................................................................9-25 Attaching the Load.....................................................................................................9-25 Moving the Load........................................................................................................9-25 Ordinary Lifts ............................................................................................................9-29 Critical Lifts...............................................................................................................9-30 Mobile Crane Load Test ............................................................................................9-33 Mobile Crane Daily Pre-Operational Check ..............................................................9-37 Mobile Crane Frequent Inspection Report.................................................................9-41 Mobile Crane Periodic Inspection Report..................................................................9-43 9.5.2.1

9.5.3 9.5.4 9.5.5 9.5.6 9.5.7 9.5.8 9.5.9 9.5.10 9.5.11 9.5.12 EXHIBIT I EXHIBIT II EXHIBIT III EXHIBIT IV

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9.1 GENERAL
This chapter applies to commercial truckmounted cranes; crawler cranes; locomotive cranes; wheel-mounted cranes, multiple control stations; wheel-mounted cranes, single control station; and any variation that retains the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes have a superstructure capable of rotating 360 degrees mounted on a carrier and have boom raising and lowering capabilities. 9.1.1 OPERATOR TRAINING/QUALIFICATION angles (or offset), as well as alternate ratings for use and nonuse of optional equipment on the crane, such as outriggers and extra counterweights, that affect ratings. 2. A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load rating chart (see sample in Figure 9-1). Where ratings are limited by structural, hydraulic, or factors other than stability, the limitations shall be shown and emphasized on the rating charts. In areas where no load is to be handled, the work area figure and load rating chart shall state that information. Recommended reeving for the hoist lines shall be shown.

3.

Operators of mobile cranes shall be trained and qualified as required in Chapter 6, Personnel Qualification and Training. 9.1.2 a. LOAD LIMITS

4.

Since the load rating for mobile cranes may be based on stability and hydraulic or structural competence, load ratings established by the manufacturers shall not be exceeded in operational application. No crane shall be loaded beyond its rated capacity, except for load test purposes as described in Section 9.3, Testing. When loads are to be handled that are limited by hydraulic or structural competence rather than by stability, the appointed person shall ensure that the weight of a load approaching rated capacity has been determined within -10 percent, +0 percent before it is lifted LOAD RATING CHART

5.

b.

b.

In addition to the data required on the load rating chart, the following information shall be shown either on the rating chart or in the operating manual: 1. Recommended parts of the hoist reeving, and size and type of rope for various crane loads. Recommended boom hoist reeving diagram, where applicable; size, type, and length of rope. Tire pressure, where applicable. Cautionary or warning notes relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures, including indication of the least stable direction. Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension, where applicable. Instructions for boom erection and conditions under which the boom, or boom and jib combinations, may be raised or lowered. Whether the hoist-holding mechanism is automatically controlled or manually

c.

2.

3. 4.

9.1.3 a.

Durable rating chart(s) with legible letters and figures shall be provided with each crane and attached in a location accessible to the operator while at the controls. See Table 9-1 for a sample load rating chart. The data and information to be provided on these charts shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 1. A full and complete range of manufacturers crane load ratings at all stated operating radii, boom angles, work areas, and all stated boom lengths and configurations, jib lengths and

5.

6.

7.

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controlled, whether free-fall is available, and whether any combination of those exists.

8.

The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section. Whether sections are telescoped with power or manually.

9.

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Table 9-1. Sample Load Rating Chart


This table is an example of the type of load rating chart that should be included in each crane. Manitowoc Model 3900 Liftcrane Extra-Heavy Boom Working Radius 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 50 120 000 111 200 104 200 97 800 93 200 87 800 83 400 75 900 68 100 61 700 56 500 52 000 48 100 44 700 41 700 39 100 36 800 34 700 32 900 31 200 60 120 000 110 800 103 600 97 400 92 400 86 800 81 200 75 500 67 700 61 300 56 100 51 600 47 700 44 300 41 300 38 700 36 400 34 300 32 500 30 800 29 300 27 900 26 500 25 300 24 200 70 80 lbs. 90 100 120 140

109 000 102 700 97 000 91 600 85 800 80 300 74 700 67 300 60 900 55 700 51 200 47 300 43 900 40 900 38 300 36 000 33 900 32 100 30 400 28 900 27 500 26 100 24 900 23 800 21 300 19 300

100 000 96 600 90 600 84 800 79 400 73 900 66 900 60 500 55 300 50 800 46 900 43 500 40 500 37 900 35 600 33 500 31 700 30 000 28 500 27 100 25 700 24 500 23 400 20 900 18 900 17 100 15 700

95 000 92 500 89 600 83 800 78 700 73 200 66 400 60 000 54 800 50 300 46 400 43 000 40 000 37 400 35 100 33 000 31 200 29 500 28 000 26 600 25 200 24 000 22 900 20 400 18 400 16 600 15 200 13 900 12 700

90 000 86 000 82 800 77 800 72 600 65 800 59 400 54 200 49 700 45 800 42 400 39 400 36 800 34 500 32 400 30 600 28 900 27 400 26 000 24 600 23 400 22 300 19 800 17 800 16 000 14 600 13 300 12 100 11 100 10 200 83 000 80 000 75 200 70 500 64 000 58 500 53 300 48 800 44 900 41 500 38 500 35 900 33 600 31 500 29 700 28 000 26 500 25 100 23 700 22 500 21 400 18 900 16 900 15 100 13 700 12 400 11 200 10 200 9 300 6 800 4 500

66 500 63 100 59 800 56 400 52 300 47 800 43 900 40 500 37 500 34 900 32 600 30 500 28 700 27 000 25 500 24 100 22 700 21 500 20 400 17 900 15 900 14 100 12 700 11 400 10 200 9 200 8 300 5 600 3 840

NOTES: a. Above ratings are maximum recommended working loads. Loads between sold lines are computed at 75% of tipping load across treads; with machine on firm, level ground. Loads outside solid lines are limited by strength of boom. b. For booms 80 ft and longer, use cambered center section; for booms 100 ft and longer, use deep section inserts.

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Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-1. Sample work area chart.

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Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-1. (continued).

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10. The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section. 11. Maximum loads permitted during the actual boom-extending operation and any limiting conditions or cautions. 12. Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer. 9.1.4 LOAD HOIST BRAKES b.

assembly, unusual boom configurations, etc., the crane manufacturers recommendations for the amount of ballast or counterweight shall be adhered to. Ballast or counterweight as specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. RERATING

9.1.8 a.

When power-operated brakes that have no continuous mechanical linkage between the actuating and braking means are used, an automatic means shall be provided to set the brake to prevent the load from falling in event of loss of brake-actuating power. 9.1.5 POWER-CONTROLLED LOWERING

Cranes may be modified or rerated providing such modifications are analyzed thoroughly by a qualified engineer or manufacturer of cranes. Such action must be approved by the cognizant safety organization. When rerated, crawler, truck, and wheelmounted cranes shall be tested in accordance with SAE J765, Crane Load Stability Test Code. A rerating test report shall be readily available. No cranes shall be rerated in excess of the manufacturers original load ratings. MAINTENANCE HISTORY

b.

c.

A power-controlled lowering system shall be provided and shall be capable of handling rated loads and speeds as specified by the manufacturer of the crane. 9.1.6 a. BOOMS

d.

9.1.9

Booms, boom sections, and jibs shall be clearly identified and shall be used only for the purpose recommended by the manufacturer. Lattice booms shall meet the performance requirements of SAE J987, Crane Structure, Method of Test (see Chapter 16, References). COUNTERWEIGHT

The maintenance history of the crane shall be retained throughout it service life. 9.1.10 a. DESIGN STANDARDS

b.

Structural, mechanical, and electrical components of the crane design shall meet accepted crane design standards, such as PCSA-4, Mobile Power Crane and Excavator Standards and Hydraulic Crane Standards. The safety features and operation shall conform, at a minimum, to the provisions of ASME B30.5, Mobile and Locomotive Cranes.

9.1.7 a.

b. Cranes shall not be operated without the ballast or counterweight being in place as specified by the crane manufacturer. Under specific conditions, such as during crane

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9.2 INSPECTIONS

9.2.1

GENERAL

7.

Booms for damage or deformation of structural components.

Equipment shall operate with a smooth, regular motion without any hesitation, abnormal vibration, binding, gross shimmy, or irregularity. There shall be no apparent damage, excessive wear, or deformation of any load-bearing part of the equipment. All safety devices, load indicators, boom angle and radius indicators, controls, and other operating parts of the equipment shall be checked during each inspection and shall be in good working order. 9.2.2 INITIAL INSPECTION

b.

Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard. MONTHLY INSPECTION

9.2.4 a.

The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect the following items for damage, wear, or other deficiency that might reduce capacity or adversely affect the safety of the crane: 1. Critical items such as brakes and crane hooks. Hoist ropes.

Prior to initial use, all new or modified cranes shall be inspected as required in Section 9.2.6, Periodic Inspection, by a qualified inspector to ensure compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Dated and signed inspection reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. 9.2.3 DAILY PREOPERATIONAL CHECK

2. b.

Lower the hook block to its lowest position and examine for any condition that could result in an appreciable loss of strength. Hooks for cracks, deformation, damage from chemicals, latch engagement (if provided), and evidence of heat damage. (See Chapter 13, Load Hooks, for additional hook requirements). A hoist rope with any of the conditions noted in the replacement criteria in Section 9.2.6 shall be removed from service and replaced. Signed and dated inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. Before the crane is returned to service, correct deficiencies that could reduce its capacity or adversely affect its safety. FREQUENT INSPECTION

c.

a.

Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect items such as the following each day or prior to use if the crane has not been in regular service (records are not required): 1. All control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation.

d.

e. 2. Crane hooks and latches for deformation, cracks, and wear. F. 3. 4. Hydraulic systems for proper oil level. Lines, tanks, valves, pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems for leakage. Hoist ropes for kinking, crushing, birdcaging, and corrosion. Anti-two-block, two-block warning, and two-block damage prevention systems for proper operation. b.

9.2.5 a.

5.

Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect the crane at daily to monthly intervals (records are not required). These inspections shall, in addition to the requirements of Section 9.2.3, Preoperational Check, include the following:

6.

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1.

All control mechanisms for maladjustment, excessive wear, and contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter that could interfere with proper operation. All safety devices for malfunction.

9.2.6.1 Cranes Inspect for: a. Deformed, cracked, or corroded members in the crane structure and entire boom. Bolts, rivets, nuts, and pins for being loose or absent. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions, Chapter 1). Cracked or worn sheaves and drums. Hooks damaged from chemicals, deformation, or cracks, any visibly apparent bend or twist from the plane of the unbent hook, or any distortion causing an increase in throat opening of 5% not to exceed 14 in. unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. Dye-penetrant, magneticparticle, or other suitable crack-detecting inspections should be performed at least once a year. See Chapter 13, Load Hooks, for additional hook requirements. Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, and locking devices. Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets. Load, boom angle, and other operating aids over their full ranges for any significant inaccuracies (if calibration is required, it shall be done by a qualified person). Gasoline, diesel, electrical, or other power plants for improper performance or noncompliance with safety requirements. Radiators and oil coolers, for leakage, improper performance, or blockage of air passages. Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch. Steering, braking, and locking devices, for malfunctioning.

2. 3.

b. Rope reeving for noncompliance with crane manufacturers recommendations. c. 4. Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, and accumulation of dirt or moisture. Tires for recommended inflation pressure. Boom sections for damaged, deformed, or missing structural members or parts.

d. e.

5.

6.

c.

Operators or other designated personnel shall examine deficiencies and determine whether a more detailed inspection is required. PERIODIC INSPECTION f.

9.2.6 a.

Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed by a qualified inspector at 1- to 12-month intervals, depending on the cranes activity, severity of service, and environment. The qualified inspector shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a hazard. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. A sample load test form is included as Exhibit I, which appears at the end of this chapter. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory. These inspections shall, in addition to the requirements of Sections 9.2.4, Monthly Inspection, and 9.2.5, Frequent Inspection, include the following.

g.

b.

h.

c.

i.

d.

j.

e.

k.

l.

m. Excessively worn or damaged tires.

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n.

Rust on piston rods and control valves when crane has been idle.

d. e.

Sticking spools. Failure of relief valves to attain correct pressure setting (relief valve pressures shall be checked as specified by the manufacturer).

9.2.6.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing Inspect for: a. Evidence of leakage at the surface of the flexible hose or its junction with the metal couplings. Blistering or abnormal deformation of the outer covering of the hydraulic or pneumatic hose. Leakage at threaded or clamped joints that cannot be eliminated by normal tightening or recommended procedures. Evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on the outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting (means shall be taken to eliminate the interface of elements in contact or to otherwise protect the components).

9.2.6.5 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders Inspect for: a. Drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston. Rod seal leakage. Leaks at welded joints. Scored, nicked, or dented cylinder rods. Dented case (barrel). Loose or deformed rod eyes or connecting joints.

b.

b. c. c. d. d. e. f.

9.2.6.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors Inspect for: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Loose bolts or fasteners. Leaks at joints between sections. Shaft seal leaks.

9.2.6.6 Hydraulic Filters Evidence of rubber particles on the filter element may indicate deterioration of the hose, O ring, or other rubber components. Metal chips or pieces on the filter may denote failure in pumps, motors, or cylinders. Further checking will be necessary to determine the origin of the problem before corrective action can be taken. 9.2.6.7 Wire Rope

Unusual noises or vibration. a. Loss of operating speed. Excessive heating of the fluid. Loss of pressure. A qualified inspector shall inspect wire ropes at least annually. More frequent intervals shall be determined by a qualified person and shall be based on such factors as expected rope life as determined by severity of environment, percentage of capacity lifts, frequency rates of operation, and exposure to shock loads. The qualified inspector shall carefully note any deterioration, such as described below, that results in appreciable loss of original strength and determine whether further use of the rope constitutes an acceptable risk. This inspection shall include examination of the entire rope length without detaching it from the drum. 1. Reduction of rope size below nominal diameter, whether due to loss of core

9.2.6.4 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves Inspect for: a. b. Cracks in valve housing. Improper return of spool to neutral position. Leaks at spools or joints.

c.

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support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires (see Table 92). c. Table 9-2. Maximum allowable rope reductions. Maximum allowable reduction from nominal diameter 1/64 in. (0.4 mm)

2.

Sections of the rope at or near terminal ends where corroded or broken wires may protrude.

The qualified inspector shall take care when inspecting certain ropes such as the following: 1. Rotation-resistant ropes, because of their higher susceptibility to damage. The internal deterioration of rotationresistant ropes may not be readily observable. Boom hoist ropes, because of the difficulties of inspection and the important nature of these ropes.

Rope diameter

Up to 5/16 in. (8 mm) Over 5/16 in. to in. (13 mm) Over in to in. (19 mm) Over in. to 1 1/8 in. (29 mm) Over 1 1/8 in. to 1 in. (38 mm)

2. 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) d. 3/64 in. (1.2 mm)

1/16 in. (1.6 mm) 3/32 in. (2.4 mm)

No precise rules can be given for determining the exact time to replace wire rope because many factors are involved. Safety in this respect depends largely on the use of good judgment by an appointed person in evaluating remaining strength in a used rope, after allowance for deterioration disclosed by inspection. Safety of rope operation depends on this remaining strength. Removal criteria for wire rope replacement shall be as follows: 1. In running ropes, 6 randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or 3 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. In rotation resistant ropes, two randomly distributed broken wires in six rope diameters or four randomly distributed broken wires in thirty rope diameters. One outer wire broken at the point of contact with the core of the rope that has worked its way out of the rope structure and protrudes or loops out from the rope structure; additional inspection of this part of the rope is required.

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

e.

2.

The number and distribution or concentration of broken outside wires. Worn outside wires. Corroded or broken wires at end connections. Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections. Kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.

3. 4.

2.

5.

6.

3.

b.

The qualified inspector shall take care when inspecting running rope where rapid deterioration could occur, such as in the following: 1. Sections in contact with saddles, equalizer sheaves, or other sheaves where rope travel is limited.

4.

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5.

Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. Evidence of heat damage from any cause. Reduction from nominal diameter greater than the amounts listed in Table 9-2.

9.2.7

LOAD HOOKS/LOAD BLOCKS

6.

7.

Load hooks/load blocks that have been changed out shall be inspected by a qualified inspector before returning the crane to service. Inspection records shall be retained throughout the service life of the hook or load block and shall be readily available. 9.2.8 a. CRANES NOT IN REGULAR USE

8.

f.

All rope that has been idle for a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be inspected before it is placed in service. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by an appointed person whose approval shall be required before further use of the rope. A written and dated report of the rope condition shall be filed. In order to establish data as a basis for judging the proper time for replacement, a continuing inspection record shall be maintained. Replacement rope shall be the same size, grade, and construction as recommended by the crane manufacturer, unless otherwise recommended by a rope or crane manufacturer due to actual workingcondition requirements. Never use discarded wire rope for slings.

A crane that has been idle for 1 month or more but less than 6 months shall be given an inspection according to the requirements of Section 9.2.5 before being placed in service. A crane that has been idle for more than 6 months shall be given a complete inspection according to the requirements of Section 9.2.6 before being placed in service. Standby cranes shall be inspected at least semiannually, according to the requirements of Section 9.2.6. Cranes exposed to adverse environments should be inspected more frequently The determination supporting these alternate inspection frequencies and procedures shall be made by a qualified person for each affected crane. Documentation supporting this determination shall be kept readily available.

b.

c.

g.

h.

d.

. i.

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9.3 TESTING
9.3.1 OPERATIONAL TESTS designated or authorized person shall determine if repairs made to a crane are extensive and require a rated load test, or if repairs are routine maintenance and require only operational testing. The replacement of rope is excluded from this requirement. However, a functional test of the crane under a normal operating load should be made prior to putting it back in service. b. d. e. f. Swinging mechanism. Travel mechanism. Safety devices. RATED LOAD TEST Test weights shall not exceed 110 percent of the rated capacity and shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values.

The following shall be tested during an initial test: a. b. c. Load lifting and lowering mechanisms. Boom lifting and lowering mechanisms. Boom extension and retraction mechanism.

9.3.2 a.

NOTE: Load tests shall not be conducted in locations where the lift meets the definition of a critical lift (see Chapter 1, Terminology and Definitions). c. A written report shall be furnished by the inspector showing test procedures and confirming the adequacy of repairs or alterations. Test reports shall be kept on file and shall be readily available to appointed personnel.

Prior to initial use, all cranes in which loadsustaining parts have been modified, replaced, or repaired shall be load-tested by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. All rated load tests shall be performed in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. A

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9.4 MAINTENANCE
9.4.1 a. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 6. Stop the power plant or disconnect it at the power takeoff. Relieve hydraulic oil pressure from all hydraulic circuits before loosening or removing hydraulic components.

A preventive maintenance program shall be established and based on the recommendation of the crane manufacturer. If equipment maintenance procedures deviate from published manufacturer's recommendations, the alternate procedures shall be approved in advance by the manufacturer or another qualified person and be kept readily available. Dated maintenance records should be kept where readily available to appointed personnel. Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the original manufacturers specifications. All moving parts of the crane for which lubrication is specified shall be regularly lubricated. Lubricating systems should be checked for proper delivery of lubricant. Operators and maintenance personnel shall follow the manufacturers recommendations as to the points and frequency of lubrication, maintenance of lubricant levels, and types of lubricant to be used. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

7.

b.

Warning or out-of-order signs shall be placed on the crane controls. Signs or flags shall be removed only by authorized personnel. After adjustments and repairs have been made, the crane shall not be returned to service until all guards have been reinstalled, trapped air has been removed from the hydraulic system, safety devices are reactivated, and maintenance equipment is removed. For locomotive cranes: 1. Employ blue flag protection on each side of the crane (except dead ends). Place derails not less than 50 ft from the crane on each side (except dead ends). Allow only authorized personnel to remove warning signs, flags, and derails. WIRE-ROPE MAINTENANCE

c.

b.

c.

d.

2.

9.4.2 a.

3. Before starting adjustments or repairs on a crane, maintenance personnel shall take the following precautions as applicable: 9.4.3 1. Place the crane where it will cause the least interference with other equipment or operations in the area. Lower the lower load block to the ground or otherwise secure it against dropping. Lower the boom to the ground, if possible, or otherwise secure it against dropping. c. 4. Place all controls in the OFF position and secure all operating features from inadvertent motion by brakes, pawls, or other means. d. 5. Ensure starting means are rendered inoperative.

Personnel using wire rope shall ensure proper care by doing the following: a. Store rope to prevent damage or deterioration. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended by the rope manufacturer and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist. Before cutting a rope, use some method to prevent unlaying the strands. Heat-affected zones of flame cut wire rope shall not be allowed to bear load. During installation, avoid dragging the rope in the dirt or around objects which will scrape, nick, crush, or induce sharp bends in it.

2.

b. 3.

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9.4 MAINTENANCE
otherwise hidden during inspection and maintenance procedures require special attention when the rope is lubricated. f. When an operating rope shows greater wear at its ends than on the remainder, its life can be extended (in cases where a reduced rope length is adequate) by cutting off the worn end, thus shifting the wear to different areas of the rope.

e.

Maintain rope in a well-lubricated condition to reduce internal friction and to prevent corrosion. Ensure that lubricant applied as part of a maintenance program is compatible with the original lubricant. Consult the rope manufacturer when in doubt. Lubricant applied shall be of the type that does not hinder visual inspection. Those sections or rope that operate over sheaves or are

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9.5 OPERATIONS
a. The following shall apply to all personnel involved in mobile crane operation. At the initial stage of the planning process, an appointed person shall classify each lift into one of the DOE-specified lift categories (ordinary, critical, or preengineered production). CONDUCT OF OPERATOR i. a. Cranes shall only be operated by personnel qualified per Chapter 6 of this Standard for the type of crane being operated.. Do not engage in any practice that will divert your attention while operating the crane. Keep the operating area free of water, snow, ice, oil, and debris that could cause your hands or feet to slip from the controls. Keep the operating cab windshields clean and free of anything that obstructs vision. Replace broken windows. l. e. Ensure proper functioning of tires, horn, lights, battery, controller, lift system (including load-engaging means, chains, hoist rope, and limit switches), brakes, and steering mechanisms. If at any time a lifting device is found to be in need of repair, is defective, or is in any way unsafe, report it immediately to the designated authority and take the unit out of service until it has been restored to safe-operating condition or a determination has been made by the responsible manager that the deficiency will not adversely affect the safe operation of the unit. When two or more cranes are used to lift one load, one designated person shall be responsible for the operation. That person shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made. That person shall also determine the necessity to reduce crane ratings, position of load, boom location, ground support, and speed of movement. Do not hoist two or more separately rigged loads in one lift, even though the combined load is within the cranes rated capacity. Refer to Section 15.5.8 for the exception granted for steel erection in construction. When fueling the crane, stop the engine(s) and ensure that smoking or open flames are not permitted within 25 ft of the fueling area. Ensure that a 10BC or larger fire extinguisher is installed at all operator stations. Fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a serviceable condition. Do not store gasoline, acids, caustics, or cleaning solvents that emit toxic fumes in operating cabs. Store fuel in safety cans in safe locations. g. Determine that no one is working on the crane or is close to it before starting the engine or beginning to operate the crane. Barricade accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane to prevent anyone from being struck or crushed by the crane.

b.

h.

9.5.1

b.

j.

c.

k.

d.

m. Ensure that alternate egress routes are not locked on mobile units with operating enclosures. n. Position the crane on a solid and level footing. It may be necessary in certain situations to use heavy timber mats to build a good working foundation. When swinging the crane, watch out for centrifugal force. Swing the crane slowly to avoid an outward swing of the load. Attach a tag-line to the load if necessary to control the swing. Watch for boom kickback. Never operate with the boom at a higher angle than shown on the capacity charts. Use extreme caution when operating the crane near workers in elevated areas.

o.

f.

p.

q.

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r.

Use power lowering when lowering loads. When lowering heavy loads, keep the hoist brake as reserve. Use a safety pawl on the boom-hoist drum when not lowering. Avoid two-blocking, caused when the hook block makes contact with boom-point sheaves. A continuing pull on the hoist lines can break the rope or pull the boom back over the cab on some types of booms. On hydraulically telescoping booms, be sure to play out the hoist line when extending and spool in the hoist line when retracting. Lock carrier air brakes ON when operating, and check the pressure of the air brakes frequently. Watch out for the carrier-cab on truckmounted units when swinging the boom. Keep boom high enough to swing clear of cab. In the absence of crane manufacturers instructions regarding maximum wind speeds for operation, operations undertaken at wind speeds in excess of 25 mph should be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if the size, shape and weight of the load can be safely lifted.

c. d.

Check river depths before fording. Check clearances under overpasses, overhead lines, or any overhead obstruction; when side clearances are tight, install a barrier or post a lookout, and make certain there is sufficient clearance for tail swing. When traveling with a load, snub the load to prevent swaying if possible; never travel with near-capacity loads. Never travel a rubber-tired unit with a load over the side. On soft surfaces, always move with the load behind; it helps to raise the leading end of the crawlers, and makes traveling safer. Always set swing brakes when the unit is idle or holding loads for a period of time, especially on slopes; if swinging during travel is necessary, engage swing-jaw clutch before releasing brakes. Never back up until it is determined that everyone is clear of the machine. Position the boom in the direction of travel for long moves. Block treads when moving uphill; be sure they are blocked to prevent downhill movement before shifting steering clutches. Lock the turntable before traveling on a highway. Use a house lock or swing brake, and lower boom into the rack to prevent swing.

s.

e.

f. t.

g.

u.

h.

v.

i.

j.

w. When a crane is to be operated at a fixed radius, the boom-hoist pawl or other positive locking device shall be engaged. x. On truck-mounted cranes, no loads shall be lifted over the front area, except as approved by the crane manufacturer. Crane cabs, necessary clothing and personal belongings shall not interfere with access or operations. Tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles shall be stored in the tool box, and shall not be permitted to lie loose in or about the cab.

k.

l.

y.

z.

m. When loading machine on the trailer, always use a ramp; if a ramp is not available use blocking to build one. 9.5.1.2 Making Adjustments or Repairs a. When making adjustments or repairs: 1. Stop the machine. Lower the boom or secure it against dropping. Neutralize all controls.

9.5.1.1 Traveling the Machine When traveling the machine: 2. a. b. Secure the boom and book block. Check bridges before crossing; make sure they will support the weight of the machine. 3.

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4.

Lock starter and remove ignition key to make the machine inoperative. Display proper warning signs on controls of machine. Keep hands, feet, and clothing away from gears, ropes, drums, and sheaves. Never put hands on wire rope when climbing to the top of the cab.

2.

Always operate within the rated capacity of the machine. The gross capacity includes weight of hook, block, and any material-handling devices, (i.e., slings, concrete bucket, magnet lifter, etc.); subtract the weight of all these to find the true weight (net capacity) the crane can handle safely. Ratings are based on operating the machine on firm, level ground; outriggers should be properly extended and lowered before operation. Avoid fast swings, hoists, or sudden braking; these can cause overloads. Do not handle large, heavy loads in strong winds; the wind can catch the load and create an unstable condition.

5.

3.

6.

7.

4. 8. Use a bar or stick to guide wire rope onto drums. Keep hands well away from the fan drive while engine is running.

9.

5.

10. Safeguard the crane oiler; do not resume operation until a positive ALL CLEAR signal has been given. 11. Replace all guards and shields before resuming operation. b. Place blocking or other adequate supports under the boom before beginning boom disassembly operations. Never stand under or on the boom during this work. c. c. Before disconnecting oil lines, if machine has hydraulic controls, be sure to place boom on the ground or in the boom rest; then move the pedals and control levers to equalize pressures within the cylinders. Always release any air supercharge on the hydraulic reservoir and shut off the engine (or declutch pumps) before disconnecting oil lines. Do not reach into hydraulic-boom holes unless the sections are securely anchored together.

6.

b.

Test stability before lifting heavy loads. Check outrigger footing. Lift load slightly off the ground and stop. Check the machine for movement ad check to be sure the brakes hold with the load elevated. Never use machine stability to determine capacity. If there are any indications of tipping, the machine is already overloaded for that working radius. Do not back crane away from the load while carrying a maximum load; this may cause the crane to tip. Always use outriggers when making lifts (with pick-and-carry units), and never lift a load forward of the front outriggers, unless allowed on manufacturers load chart. Lower outrigger jacks until the tires clear the ground, and level the unit to reach the machines full capacity. Recheck and, if necessary, reset outriggers between heavy lifts. Always fully extend outrigger beams unless otherwise specified on the manufacturers load charts for the crane.

d.

e.

d.

f.

9.5.1.3 Ensuring Stability g. a. Know the rated capacity of the crane and the weight of the load. A safe lift depends on many factors including boom length, boom angle, and load radius. Follow these requirements to avoid buckling the boom or tipping: 1. Know the radius of the load; the radius is measured from center of rotation, not from the boom foot pin.

h.

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f 9.5.1.4 Further Safety Considerations a Make only vertical lifts; never pull the load sideways. Keep speed slow in lifting and lowering loads. Swing carefully and slowly, and avoid boom or jib whipping; check counterbalance clearance. Do not let the load strike the boom or outriggers. Allow maximum clearance between the hook block and boom-point sheaves. g

Keep near-capacity loads as close to the ground as possible. Avoid hitting anything with the boom; an engineering analysis shall be made before putting the crane back in service if this occurs. OPERATING NEAR POWER LINES AND TRANSMITTER TOWERS

9.5.2 c

It is recognized that operating mobile cranes where they can become electrified from electric power lines is an extremely hazardous practice. It is advisable to perform the work so there is no possibility of the crane, load line, or load becoming a conductive path, (Figure 9-2).

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-2. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loads Operating near electrical transmission line.

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The following steps shall be taken to minimize the hazard of electrocution or serious injury as a result of contact between the energized power lines and the crane, load line, or load: a. The (electric) Power Marketing Administrations in DOE may deviate from the requirements of Table 9-3, providing the work is done according to line managementapproved procedures that do not conflict with statutory or approved variances from these regulations. Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning the line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line. Durable signs shall be installed at the operators station and on the outside of the crane, warning that electrocution or serious bodily injury may occur unless a minimum clearance of 10 ft (3.1m) is maintained between the crane or the load being handled and energized power lines. Greater clearances are required because of higher voltage as stated in Table 9-3. These signs shall be revised, but not removed when a local jurisdiction requires greater clearances. Exercise caution when working near overhead lines having long spans as they tend to move laterally or vertically due to the wind, which could cause them to breach the safety zone. Cranes shall not be used to handle materials stored under electric power lines unless any combination of the boom, load, load line, or machine component cannot enter the prohibited zone. Crane operators shall not rely on the coverings of wires for their protection.

a.

The power company or owner of the power lines shall de-energize the lines. The lines shall be visibly grounded to avoid electrical feedback and appropriately marked at the job-site location. A qualified representative of the owner of the lines or a designated representative of the electrical utility shall be on site to verify that steps (a) and (b) have been completed and that the lines are not energized.

b.

c.

b.

9.5.2.2 Power Lines Energized, Crane Operating Less than Erected/Fully Extended Boom Length away from the Prohibited Zone (see Figure 9-3) a. An on-site meeting between project management and a qualified representative of the owner of the lines or a designated representative of the electrical utility shall take place to establish the procedures to safely complete the operations. The specified clearance between the power lines and the crane, load line, and load shall be maintained at all times as specified in Table 9-3. Load control, when required, shall utilize tag lines of a non-conductive type. A designated signaler, whose sole responsibility is to verify that the required clearance is maintained, shall be in constant contact with the crane operator. No one shall be permitted to touch the crane or the load unless the designated signaler indicates it is safe to do so. Operation of boom and load over electric power lines is extremely dangerous, due to perception of distance and multiple contact points as viewed from the position of the operator and/or position of the designated signaler. The operator should avoid operating the crane, with or without a load, in this area. The horizontal and vertical distance of movement of long span lines due to the wind shall be added to the minimum clearance

c.

b.

d.

c.

d.

e.

e.

f.

f.

9.5.2.1 Crane Operation Near Deenergized and Grounded Electric Power Lines This is the preferred condition under which the operation can be performed safely. The hazard of injury or death due to electrocution has been removed. The following steps shall be taken to assure de-energization of the power lines has occurred:

g.

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distance as specified in Table 9-3. A qualified representative of the owner of the lines or a designated representative of the electrical utility shall be consulted for specific distances.

h.

Devices such as ribbons, balls, etc., should be attached by a qualified person to the power lines to improve visibility, or equivalent means employed to aid in location of the prohibited zone.

Table 9-3. Safe working distance from power lines. a. When operating near high-voltage power lines: Normal voltage (phase to phase) Minimum required clearance

Up Over Over Over Over Over

50 200 350 500 750

to to to to to to

50 kV 200 kV 350 kV 500 kV 750 kV 1000 kV

10 ft ( 3.1 m) 15 ft ( 4.6 m) 20 ft ( 6.1 m) 25 ft ( 7.6 m) 35 ft (10.7 m) 45 ft (13.7m)

b.

While in transit with no load and boom or mast lowered: Normal voltage (phase to phase) Minimum required clearance

Up Over Over Over Over

0.75 50 345 750

to to to to to

0.75 kV 50 kV 345 kV 750 kV 1000 kV

4 ft (1.2 m) 6 ft (1.8 m) 10 ft (3.1 m) 16 ft (4.9 m) 20 ft (6.1 m)

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Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-3. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loads Operating near electrical transmission line.

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9.5.2.3 Crane Operations are Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power Lines are Energized a. Before such operations take place, a qualified person together with a qualified representative of the utility or an engineer qualified in power line transmission shall after visiting the site, determine if this is the most feasible way to complete the operation, and set minimum required clearances and procedures for safe operations. These operations shall be under their supervision.

9.5.2.4 Crane in Transit With No Load and Boom Lowered (see Figure 9-4) a. Cranes in transit with no load and boom lowered shall maintain clearance as specified in Table 9-3. A designated signaler shall be assigned to observe the clearance and give warning before the crane approaches the above limits. When planning transit of the crane, the effect of speed and terrain on the boom and crane movement shall be considered.

b.

c. The following guidelines should be required: 1. Crane/load grounded to a neutral line by the utility. Electrical system protective devices that automatically re-energize the circuit after a power line contact occurrence should be blocked or disengaged to inhibit this function. Insulated barriers, which are not a part of nor an attachment to the crane and which will not allow contact between the energized electric power lines and the crane, load lines, or load. Non-conductive barricades to restrict access to the crane work area.

9.5.2.5 Crane Operation Near Transmitter Towers (see Figure 9-5) a. Prior to work near transmitter towers where an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be deenergized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane. The following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltages: 1. The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper rotating structure supporting the boom. Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials being handled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters; crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load. Combustible and Flammable materials shall be removed from the immediate area prior to operations. HOIST-LIMIT SWITCH

2.

3.

4.

b.

Load control, when required, shall utilize tag lines of a non-conductive type. A designated signaler, whose sole responsibility is to verify that the clearances established are maintained, shall be in constant contact with the crane operator. The person responsible for the operation shall alert and warn the crane operator and all persons working around or near the crane about hazard of electrocution or serious injury and instruct them on how to avoid the hazard. All non-essential personnel shall be removed from the crane work area. No one shall be permitted to touch the crane or the load unless the signaler indicates it is safe to do so.

2.

c.

d.

3.

9.5.3

e.

f.

Check all limit switches, if supplied, without a load on the hook at the beginning of each work shift or the first time the crane is used that shift. Inch each motion into its limit switch to ensure that two-blocking does not occur during the test. If a lift is in progress during a shift change, this testing requirement is considered to have been

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satisfied for the completion of that lift. However, test the limit switch again before the next lift.

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-4. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loads Operating near electrical transmission line. (See Table 9-3 for minimum radial distance of prohibited zone.)

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Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-5. Danger zone for cranes and lifted loads operating near electrical transmission line.

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9.5.4

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS

3. 9.5.7

Function stop SPECIAL SIGNALS

The standard hand signals for DOE use shall be as specified in the latest edition of the ASME B30 standards for the particular type of crane or hoist being used (see Figure 9-6). 9.5.5 a. IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNALERS

All personnel acting as signalers during crane operations shall be clearly identified to the crane operator. Options for improving signaler visibility include using an orange hardhat, orange gloves or an orange vest. In those cases where the crane operator cannot see the signaler, a second person (relay signaler) shall be stationed where he or she can see both the signaler and the crane operator, and can relay the signals to the operator. The relay signaler shall also be clearly identified to the crane operator. The operator shall obey signals only from the designated signaler. Obey a STOP signal no matter who gives it.

For operations or crane attachments not covered by standard hand, voice or audible signals, additions to or modifications of the standard signal procedures may be required. In all such cases, the required special signals shall be agreed upon in advance by the manager, person-incharge, crane operator, signal person and riggers. These special signals shall not be in conflict with the standard signals. 9.5.8 SIZE OF LOAD

b.

The crane shall not be loaded beyond its rated capacity, except of authorized testing described in Section 9.3. 9.5.9 a. ATTACHING THE LOAD

c.

Ensure that the hoist rope is free from kinks or twists. Do not wrap the hoist rope around the load. Ensure that the load is attached to the loadblock hook by means of slings or other approved devices. Ensure the load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches. Take care to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles.

b. 9.5.6 a. STANDARD VOICE SIGNALS

Prior to beginning lift operations using voice signals, the signals shall be discussed and agreed upon between the person-in-charge, the crane operator, the appointed signal person and the riggers. Radios or equivalent shall be tested before lifting operations begin. Prior to commencing a lift, the crane operator and the signal person shall contact and identify each other. All directions given to the crane operator by the signal person shall be given from the crane operators direction perspective (e.g., right swing). Each series of voice signals shall contain three elements stated in the following order: 1. 2. Function and direction Distance and/or speed

c.

d. b.

9.5.10 MOVING THE LOAD c. a. The appointed person directing the lift shall make certain that the load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches. Before starting to hoist, not the following conditions: 1. 2. Hoist rope shall not be kinked. Multiple-part lines shall not be twisted around each other.

d.

b.

e.

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HOIST. With forearm vertical, forefinger pointing up, move hand in small horizontal circles.

LOWER. With arm extended downward, forefinger pointing down, move hand in small horizontal circles.

USE MAIN HOIST. Tap fist on head, then use regular signals.

USE WHIPLINE. (Auxiliary Hoist) Tap elbow with one hand, then use regular signals.

RAISE BOOM. Extend arm, fingers closed, thumb pointing upward.

LOWER BOOM. Extend arm, fingers closed, thumb pointing downward.

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-6. Standard hand signals for controlling mobile crane operation.

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MOVE SLOWLY. Use one hand to give any motion signal and place other hand motionless above the hand giving the motion signal. (Hoist slowly shown as example.)

RAISE THE BOOM AND LOWER THE LOAD. With arm extended, thumb pointing up, flex fingers in and out as lone as load movement is desired.

LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISE THE LOAD. With arm extended, thumb pointing down, flex fingers in and out as long as load movement is desired.

SWING. Extend arm, point with finger in direction of swing of boom.

STOP. Extend arm, palm down; move arm back and forth horizontally.

EMERGENCY STOP. Both arms extended, palms down, move arms back and forth horizontally.

TRAVEL. Extend arm forward, hand open and slightly raised; make pushing motion in direction of travel.

DOG EVERYTHING. Clasp hands in front of body.

TRAVEL (Both Tracks). Use both fists in front of body, making a circular motion about each other, indicating direction of travel, forward or backward (for land cranes only).

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-6. (continued).

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TRAVEL. (One Side Track). Lock the track on side indicated by raised fist. Travel opposite track indicated by circular motion of other fist, rotated vertically in front of body (for land cranes only).

EXTEND BOOM. (Telescoping Booms). Hold both fists in front of body, thumbs pointing outward.

RETRACT BOOM (Telescoping Booms). Hold both fists in front of body, thumbs pointing toward each other.

EXTEND BOOM (Telescoping Boom). One-hand signal. Hold one fist in front of chest, thumb tapping chest.

RETRACT BOOM (Telescoping Boom). Onehand signal. Hold one fist in front of chest, thumb pointing outward and heel of fist tapping chest.

Reprinted from ASME B30.5-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 9-6. (continued).

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3.

The hook shall be positioned above the center of gravity of the load in such a manner as to minimize swinging when the load is lifted. Following any slack-rope condition, it should be determined that the rope is properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves. All personnel including the qualified rigger shall be clear of the load.

k.

4.

Work on suspended loads is prohibited under normal conditions. When the responsible manager decides that it is necessary to work on a suspended load, guidelines for ensuring safety of the work shall be established through consultation with the appropriate safety organization. Suspended loads that must be worked on shall be secured against unwanted movement. Tag lines should be used as required to guide, snub, or otherwise control the load.

5.

l.

c.

During hoisting, take care to ensure that: 9.5.11 ORDINARY LIFTS 1. There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load. Load does not contact any obstructions. A dry run shall be conducted in areas where clearance is limited. a. The requirements of all preceding paragraphs in Section 9.5, Operation, also shall apply to ordinary lifts. An appointed person shall classify each lift into one of the DOE categories (ordinary, critical or preengineered production) before the lift is planned. Hoisting and rigging operations for ordinary lifts require a designated leader who shall be present at the lift site during the entire lifting operation. If the lift is being made by only one person, that person assumes all responsibilities of the designated leader. Leadership designation may be by written instructions, specific verbal instructions for the particular job, or clearly defined responsibilities within the crews organizational structure. The designated leaders responsibility shall include the following: 1. Ensure that personnel involved understand how the lift is to be made. Ensure that the weight of the load is determined, that proper equipment and accessories are selected, and that rated capacity is not exceeded. Survey the lift site for hazardous/unsafe conditions. Ensure that equipment is properly set up and positioned.

2.

b.

d.

Cranes shall not be used for side pulls, except when specifically authorized by a designated person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be over stressed. Avoid carrying loads over people. No hoisting, lowering, swinging, or traveling shall be done while anyone is on the load hook, except as noted in Chapter 4, Lifting Personnel. Test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated capacity is handled by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes. Do not lower the load below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoist drum. Do not leave your position at the controls while the load is suspended, unless required to do so by an approved emergency procedure.

c.

e. f.

d.

g.

e.

h.

2. i.

3. j. If the load must remain suspended for any considerable length of time, the operator shall hold the drum from rotating in the lowering direction by activating the positive controllable means of the operators station.

4.

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5.

Ensure that a signaler is assigned, if required, and is identified to the operator. Direct the lifting operation to ensure that the lift is completed safely and efficiently. Stop the job when any potentially unsafe condition is recognized. Direct operations if an accident or injury occurs. i.

qualified person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a hazard. Check hoist-limit switches, if provided, according to Section 9.5.3, Hoist-Limit Switch. Ensure that basic operating instructions of power-operated equipment, together with charts, tables, or diagrams showing the rated capacity, boom angle, swing, and stability data are posted in convenient view of the operator. Check load lines after strain is put on them but before the load is lifted clear of the ground; if load lines are not plumb, reposition the slings or equipment so that the lines are plumb before continuing.

6.

7.

j.

8.

f.

The designated leader shall inspect all cranes to ensure that they are still within the inspection interval. The designated leader shall inspect all lifting devices to ensure that the rated capacity of these items of equipment will not be exceeded. The operator shall inspect for damage and defects in accordance with Section 9.2.3, including observations during operation. A

k.

g.

9.5.12 CRITICAL LIFTS See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical-lift requirements.

h.

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Exhibit I is intended to be a sample form only. The equipment manufacturers inspection/testing criteria supercede any other criteria. In cases where the equipment manufacturer does not include inspection/testing criteria, other forms developed to facilitate required inspection/testing are acceptable.

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 1 of 4 EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE LOAD TEST


LICENSE OR EQUIPMENT NO. _______________ MAKE _____________ DATE _________ HOUR METER-ODOMETER TOTAL ____________________ RATED CAPACITY __________ LOAD TEST INSPECTION REPORT The following checklist identifies the items to be inspected prior to the load test. Any unusual conditions observed during the inspection should be noted in the Remarks section. Equipment shall be inspected by maintenance personnel prior to load test. NOTES: 1. 2. Qualified inspector shall verify the inspection is completed. Craftsmen shall initial and date all tests, work, and inspections completed below.

NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

CRANE ITEM
Wire Rope Cracked or Worn Sheaves & Drums Limit Switch (AntiTwo-Blocking Boom Master Clutch Steering Clutches Hydraulic Pump Hydraulic Controls Hydraulic Hoses Mechanical Controls Drive Chains Swing Clutches

DEFECT

OK

NA

NO.
13 14 15 16 NO. 1 2 3 4

CRANE ITEM
Hoist Clutch Lining Hoist Drum Brake Bands Open Gears Boom Jibs (Where Applicable) CARRIER ITEM Steering Gears and Connections Brakes (Service and Hand) Tires and Wheels General Lubrication OPERATING TEST OVERALL CONDITION

DEFECT

OK

NA

DEFECT

OK

NA

REMARKS (Unusual conditions noises, structural cracks, misalignment, etc.)

SAFETY ITEMS: (Fire extinguisher, signs, guards, etc.)

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 2 of 4 EXHIBIT I (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE LOAD TEST AND FOLLOW-UP CHECKS NOTES: 1. Craftsman shall initial all steps completed below. 2. Qualified inspector shall verify all steps below. _______ _______ 1. 2. Set crane up for load test and inspection. Perform operations test without load to verify proper function of the following: _______ 3. Load lifting and lowering mechanisms Boom lifting and lowering mechanism Boom extension and retraction mechanisms Swinging mechanism Travel mechanism Safety devices.

Test loads shall not exceed 110% of rated capacity. Refer to load chart for load test capacity at maximum and minimum working radius. Check boom angle indicators for accuracy. Rig test weights to hook using appropriate slings. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that the load is supported by the crane and held by the hoist brakes. Hold the load for 10 min or the time required to check all primary load-bearing parts while under load without slippage, damage, or permanent deformation. At least once during the lifting portion of the hoisting cycle and once during the lowering cycle, power to the hoisting equipment shall be completely turned off. There shall be no slippage of the load or overheating of the brakes. Lower the load to approximately 2 in. off the ground to check for swing-roller operation and outrigger stability. Slowly swing test load between outrigger locations. Move the load back to the original position and slowly lower to ground. At the completion of the load test, inspect the following: Visually inspect rope in accordance with Section 9.2.6.

_______ _______

4. 5.

_______

6.

_______

7.

_______ _______

8. 9.

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 3 of 4 EXHIBIT I (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE LOAD TEST AND FOLLOW-UP CHECKS DEFECTIVE/OK/NA _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. Rope diameter: (Previous) _______ (Present) _______ Wear Kinks Broken wires Other signs of deterioration. Wear Deformation Deterioration Have qualified inspector perform nondestructive tests on hook by visual examination, liquid penetrant examination, or magnetic-particle examination. Acceptance: No cracks, linear indications, laps, or seams.

Visually inspect the rope drum for:

Hooks with more than 5% normal (new hook) throat opening not to exceed 14 in. (or as recommended by the manufacturer) shall be replaced. Hooks with any visibly apparent bend or twist from the plane of the unbent hook (new hook) shall be replaced. Hooks having more than 10% wear in the bowl section or 5% elongation of the shank shall be replaced. Lubricate hook bearing and latch pin, as applicable. Establish three marks; A, B, and C, with a center punch. For ease in measuring, set distances on an even number of inches. BEFORE LOAD TEST Length AB _______ in. Length BC _______ in.

AFTER LOAD TEST Length AB _______ in. Length BC _______ in. Check for: 1. 2. 3.

Wear and deformation Cracks and twisting Signs of opening between Point A and Point B

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Page 4 of 4 EXHIBIT I (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE LOAD TEST LOAD AND FOLLOW-UP CHECKS This information should be retained with the equipment. Record the following: BLOCK WEIGHT ___________________________________ lb. TEST WEIGHT ____________________________________ lb. RADIUS/CENTER PIN TO LOAD ______________________ ft. PARTS LINE _____________________________________ quantity BOOM LENGTH ___________________________________ ft. Load Test Inspection Date _______________________________________ Qualified Inspector _____________________________________________ Operated By __________________________________________________

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 1 of 3 EXHIBIT II (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST (Records Are Not Required) STATUS CODE: SAT Satisfactory Applicable EXTERNAL Check Fuel Cap Crankcase Oil Level Cold Weather Starting Aid Radiator Antifreeze & Coolant Cleaners Fan Belts Pumps & Motors Battery Muffler Brake & Air System (Bleed) Hydraulic Reservoir Hydraulic Oil Filter All Hydraulic Hoses & Fittings Auto Transmission Oil Level Air Compressor Oil Level Outriggers & Boxes Outriggers Float Pads Tire Condition & Pressure Wheel Lugs Hoists Boom Attachments Lubrication/Grease or Oil Leaks All Sheaves Lubed UNSAT Unsatisfactory R Repaired COMMENT N/A Not

CODE

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 2 of 3 EXHIBIT II (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST (Records Are Not Required) EXTERNAL Wire Rope Kinks or Breaks Wire Rope Dirt & Lube Hook & Hook Block Counterweight & Torque Handrails Lamps: Turn Signals Flashers Headlamps Cab Boom Backup Welds & Cracks: Hoists Boom Sheaves Sheaves Hook Block Motor Valves Cylinders REMARKS CODE COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 3 of 3 EXHIBIT II (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PRE-OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST (Records Are Not Required) INSIDE CAB Fire Extinguisher Pressure Operator Manual & Load Chart Hand Signal Chart Glass Windshield Wiper GAUGES: Oil, Fuel, Amp Lights & Horn Backup Alarm Heater Boom Angle Indicator (PAT) Load Moment Indicator Anti Two Block Boom Stops Gearshift Control Foot & Parking Brakes Swing Brake Control Lever Linkage Throttle Linkage Engine RPM REMARKS CODE COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 1 of 2 EXHIBIT III (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE FREQUENT INSPECTION REPORT MODEL #: _______________ SERIAL #: ______________ HOUR METER: __________ STATUS CODE: SAT Satisfactory UNSAT Unsatisfactory R Repaired FREQUENT Check Bolt Torque: Transmission Mount Turntable Engine Mount Hoist Mount Axle Mount Engine RPM Muffler Connections Wiring harness Battery Cable Battery Water Level Master Cylinders Pump Drive Gearbox Swing Gearbox Axle Lockout Axle Differential Axle Planetary Oil Welds & Cracks Hoist Boom Sheaves Hook Block CODE N/A Not Applicable

COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 2 of 2 EXHIBIT III (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE FREQUENT INSPECTION REPORT FREQUENT Motor Valves Cylinders Lamps: Turn Signals Headlamps Cab Boom Backup Boom Sheaves Boom Alignment Jib Alignment Machine Structure Clean/Change: Differential Breather Fuel Filter Screen Compressor Strainer Transmission Filter Drum Wire Rope: Dirt/Lube/Kinks Hook & Latch Block & Sheaves Guards in Position Emergency Stop Comments: Note Any Potential Hazards or Malfunctions CODE COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 1 of 3 EXHIBIT IV (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT MODEL #: _______________ SERIAL #: ______________ HOUR METER: __________ STATUS CODE: SAT Satisfactory UNSAT Unsatisfactory R Repaired PERIODIC Check Bolt Torque: Transmission Mount Turntable Engine Mount Gearbox Mount Axle Mount Engine RPM Muffler Connections Wiring harness Battery Cable Battery Water Level Master Cylinders Pump Drive Gearbox Swing Gearbox Axle Lockout Axle Differential Axle Planetary Oil Boom Sheaves Boom Alignment Jib Alignment Machine Structure Drum Wire Rope Dirt/Lube/Kinks CODE N/A Not Applicable

COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 2 of 3 EXHIBIT IV (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT PERIODIC Clean/Change Differential Breather Fuel Filter Screen Compressor Strainer Transmission Filter Drum Wire Rope: Dirt/Lube/Size/Kink Hook & Latch Block & Sheave Guards in Position Emergency Stop Welds & Cracks: Hoists Boom Sheaves Hook Block Motor Valves Cylinders Lamps: Turn Signals Headlamps Flashers Cab Boom CODE COMMENT

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Page 3 of 3 EXHIBIT IV (continued) (SAMPLE FORM) MOBILE CRANE PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT PERIODIC Backup Paint Cracks or Leaks: Swing Gearbox Case Transmission Case Pump Drive Box Engine Intake Boom Wear Pads Brake Liners Axle Planetary Hubs Cleaner Clutch Release Bearing Gear Shift Control Steering System Oil Crankcase Breather Tie Rod Ball Joints Steering Knuckles Drag Link Ends Drag Link U-Joint Windshield Wiper Lever Indicator Emergency Brake Gauges: Oil, Fuel, Amp CIRCLE ONE: PASS FAIL Signature:___________________ Date: _______ CODE COMMENT

INSPECTOR (Print): ____________________

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Chapter 9 Mobile Cranes

CHAPTER 11 WIRE ROPE AND SLINGS


This chapter provides requirements for the fabrication and use of wire rope and slings used in hoisting and rigging and implements the requirements of ASME B30.9, Slings (for latest ASME standards, see http://catalog.asme.org/home.cfm?Category=CS). . 11.1 11.2 GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................11-1 WIRE ROPE ............................................................................................................................11-4 11.2.1 Wire-Rope Lays .........................................................................................................11-4 11.2.2 Wire-Rope Cores .......................................................................................................11-4 11.2.3 Wire Rope for General Purposes ...............................................................................11-4 11.2.3.1 6 x 19 Classification.................................................................................11-4 11.2.3.2 6 x 37 Classification.................................................................................11-5 11.2.4 Wire-Rope Inspections...............................................................................................11-5 11.2.5 Wire-Rope Maintenance ............................................................................................11-5 SLINGS ...................................................................................................................................11-8 11.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................11-8 11.3.1.1 Load Angle Factor ...................................................................................11-8 11.3.1.2 Safe Load .................................................................................................11-8 11.3.1.3 Design Factor .........................................................................................11-10 11.3.1.4 Sling Care...............................................................................................11-10 11.3.1.5 Sling Storage ..........................................................................................11-10 11.3.1.6 Inspections .............................................................................................11-10 11.3.1.7 Sling Periodic Inspection Records .........................................................11-10 11.3.2 Wire-Rope Slings.....................................................................................................11-10 11.3.2.1 Removal from Service Criteria ..............................................................11-20 11.3.2.2 Proof-Testing .........................................................................................11-20 11.3.2.3 Operation................................................................................................11-20 11.3.2.4 Critical Lifts ...........................................................................................11-24 11.3.3 Alloy Steel-Chain Slings..........................................................................................11-25 11.3.3.1 Removal from Service Criteria ..............................................................11-25 11.3.3.2 Proof-Testing .........................................................................................11-26 11.3.3.3 Operation................................................................................................11-28 11.3.3.4 Critical Lifts ...........................................................................................11-29 11.3.4 Metal-Mesh Slings ...................................................................................................11-29 11.3.4.1 Removal from Service Criteria ..............................................................11-32 11.3.4.2 Proof-Testing .........................................................................................11-32 11.3.4.3 Operation................................................................................................11-32 11.3.4.4 Critical Lifts ...........................................................................................11-33 11.3.5 Synthetic-Web Slings...............................................................................................11-33 11.3.5.1 Removal from Service Criteria ..............................................................11-36 11.3.5.2 Proof-Testing .........................................................................................11-36 11.3.5.3 Operation................................................................................................11-40 11.3.5.4 Critical Lifts ...........................................................................................11-40 11.3.6 Synthetic Roundslings .............................................................................................11-40 11.3.6.1 Removal from Service Criteria ..............................................................11-41 11.3.6.2 Proof-Testing .........................................................................................11-42 11.3.6.3 Operation................................................................................................11-42 11.3.6.4 Critical Lifts ...........................................................................................11-43

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11.1 GENERAL
a. The information in this section provides guidance for safely handling lifted loads. Diagrams are used to illustrate hoisting and rigging principles and good and bad rigging practices. This is not a rigging textbook; the information should be applied only by qualified riggers. Wire rope and slings that have been irreversibly damaged or removed from service shall be made unusable for hoisting and rigging operations before being discarded. Load tables are representative only and are not exact for all materials or all manufacturers. Prior to rigging a load, determine the weight of the load: 1. 2. From markings on the load. By weighing, if the load is still on a truck or railroad car. From drawings or other documentation. By calculation, using the load dimensions and the weights of common materials in Table 11-1. j. strands of a bend have to stretch farther and therefore take a greater percentage of the load. h. There is a convenient method for estimating the efficiency of the rope as it passes over the bend. This method uses the ratio (R) of the diameter (D) of the object (sheave, pin, corner) about which the wire rope is being bent to the diameter (d) of the rope. The efficiency of the bend can then be estimated using the formula shown in Figure 11-1. Note that the efficiency decreases quickly as the ratio of the diameters decreases. Aside from efficiency, there are other reasons to avoid sharp bends in wire rope including physical damage to the rope, reduction of service life, and damage to the object about which the rope is bent. When the ratio of the diameter of the bend to the nominal rope diameter (D/d ratio) is small, the strength efficiency factor is lower than when the D/d ratio is relatively large. Load tables do not take into account such factors as abnormal temperatures, excessive corrosion, and vibration. Determine the appropriate ratings of the device to be used, allowing for: 1. The number of sling legs Note that a sling leg completely doubled back on itself constitutes two sling legs. The angle between the horizontal surface of the load and the sling leg The smaller the angle, the smaller the lifting capacity of the equipment Wear The reduction in strength of the equipment due to normal wear.

b.

c.

i.

d.

3. 4.

k.

e.

Determine the center of gravity of the load as accurately as possible: 1. 2. 3. From drawings or other documentation.

2. From markings on the load. By calculation. 3.

f.

Determine the best method to attach the load and select the appropriate lifting devices (e.g., wire-rope, steel-chain, metal-mesh, or synthetic-web slings). Bending a wire rope over a fixed object such as a pin or a shackle has an effect on the capacity of the rope: the outside wires and

l.

g.

The working load limit (WLL) of wire ropes and slings shall not be exceeded in their as configured application.

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Table 11-1. Weights of Common Materials.


Name of Metal Aluminum Antimony Bismuth Brass, cast Brass, rolled Copper, cast Copper, rolled Gold, 24-carat Iron, Cast Iron, wrought Lead, commercial Mercury, 60 degrees F Silver Steel Tin, cast Uranium Zinc Name of wood Weight (lb/ft3) 166 418 613 504 523 550 555 1,204 450 480 712 846 655 490 458 1,163 437 Name of Metal Bluestone Brick, pressed Brick, common Cement, Portland (packed) Cement, Portland (loose) Cement, slag (packed) Cement, slag (loose) Chalk Charcoal Cinder concrete Clay, ordinary Coal, hard, solid Coal, hard, broken Coal, soft, solid Coal, soft, broken Coke, loose Concrete or stone Earth, rammed Granite Gravel Ash Beech Birch Cedar Cherry Chestnut Cork Cypress Ebony Elm Fir, Balsam Hemlock Maple, Oak Pine, Poplar 35 37 40 22 30 26 15 27 71 30 22 31 62 30 Lime, quick (ground loose) Limestone Marble Plaster of paris (cast) Sand Sandstone Shale Slate Terra-cotta Traprock Water Weight (lb/ft3 160 150 125 100-120 70-90 80-100 55-75 156 15-34 110 120-150 93.5 54 84 54 23-32 140-155 90-100 165-170 117-125 53 170 164 80 90-106 151 162 160-180 110 170 65

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Figure 11-1. Efficiency of wire rope when bent and statically loaded to destruction over sheaves and pins of various diameters.

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11.2 WIRE ROPE


11.2.1 WIRE-ROPE LAYS 3. a. In a right-lay rope, the strands twist to the right around the core like a conventional screw thread; in a left-lay rope, the strands twist to the left. A rope has a lang lay when the strands and the individual wires have the same lay direction. When the strands and the wires have an opposite lay direction, the rope has a regular lay. A standard wire rope, unless otherwise stated, is understood to be right regular lay. With few exceptions, all wire rope is made right lay. Left-lay rope is a special-purpose rope. Figure 11-2 shows ropes with right and left lays combined with regular and lang lays. Lay length is the lengthwise distance measured along a wire rope in which a strand makes one complete revolution about the ropes axis. Figure 11-2. Wire-Rope lays. Strand Core This type of core has a single strand used as the core. This type is generally confined to the smaller ropes as a substitute for IWRC. The strand core may or may not have the same cross section as the surrounding strands.

b.

c.

d.

e.

11.2.2 WIRE-ROPE CORES a. Wire rope consists of multistrand metal wires wrapped around a suitable core material. Wire-rope cores are carefully designed and must be precisely manufactured to close tolerances to ensure a perfect fit in the rope. The most common types of cores include the following (see Figure 11-3): Figure 11-3. Wire-rope cores. 1. Fiber Core (FC) or Sisal Core Sisalanna is the most common fiber that is used in the manufacture of wire-rope cores. In smaller ropes, cotton and jute are sometimes used for the core. Independent Wire-Rope Core (IWRC) The primary function of the core is to provide adequate support for the strands. As the name implies, an IWRC is a separate small-diameter wire rope that is used as the core for a larger wire rope. When severe crushing or flattening of the rope is encountered, an IWRC is usually specified. 11.2.3 WIRE ROPE FOR GENERAL PURPOSES 6 x 19 Classification

11.2.3.1 2. a.

Most applications can use a rope from this classification; it is the most versatile of all ropes made. Figure 11-4 shows four varieties of 6 x 19 wire ropes with FCs and IWRCs. Table 11-2 provides breaking strengths for 6 x 19 wire ropes with FC and IWRC cores.

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b.

The principle types of ropes in this classification include: 1. 6 x 19F The most popular and versatile of all wire ropes and the most flexible is the 6 x 19F classification. This rope is considered the perfect compromise between maximum abrasion resistance and maximum flexibility. 6 x 16F Slightly more abrasion resistant than the 6 x 19F, the 6 x 16F makes an excellent rope for small draglines and similar uses. The resistance to wear is gained by a slight sacrifice in flexibility. 6 x 19 Seale The 6 x 19 Seale is a rugged wire rope for applications involving heavy wear. Car pullers often use this rope, and it is widely used for slushers and drag scrapers. 6 x 19 Warrington The alternating large and small outer wires make this rope an all-around performer. The 6 x 19 Warrington is used for generalpurpose hoisting, churn drills, and miscellaneous slings. 6 x 37 Classification c.

2.

6 x 29F A 6 x 29F is used for applications requiring a flexible rope slightly more resistant to wear than the 6 x 37 2-operation rope. 6 x 41 A 6 x 41 rope is used widely for ropes over 1-in. diameter in the 6 x 37 classification. WIRE-ROPE INSPECTIONS

3.

11.2.4 2.

A qualified inspector shall inspect wire ropes at least annually. Inspection requirements vary depending on what type of equipment the wire ropes are used on. Refer to other sections in this standard, based on the equipment being used, for specific inspection requirements. 11.2.5 WIRE-ROPE MAINTENANCE

3.

Personnel using wire rope shall ensure proper care by doing the following: a. Store rope to prevent damage or deterioration. Unreel or uncoil rope as recommended by the rope manufacturer or a qualified person and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist. Before cutting a rope, use some method to prevent unlaying of the strands. Heataffected zones of flame cut wire rope shall not be allowed to bear load. During installation, avoid dragging the rope in the dirt or around objects that will scrape, nick, crush, or induce sharp bends. Unless prohibited by other considerations, maintain rope in a well-lubricated condition. The object of rope lubrication is to reduce internal friction and to prevent corrosion. Ensure that lubricant applied as part of a maintenance program is compatible with the original lubricant and is also a type that does not hinder visual inspection. Those sections of rope in contact with sheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection and maintenance procedures require special attention when lubricating rope.

4.

b.

11.2.3.2 a.

When sheaves and drums are fairly small and abrasive conditions are not severe, the ropes in this classification will show better performance than the coarser 6 x 19 construction. Under conditions of repeated bending, they will outlast a 6 x 19 rope; when abrasion is severe, the small outer wires quickly show the effect. Figure 11-5 show three varieties of 6 x 37 wire rope with FC and IWRC cores. Table 11-3 provides breaking strengths for 6 x 37 wire ropes with FC and IWRC cores. The principal types of ropes in this classification include: 1. 6 x 37 2-operation A 6 x 37 2operation strand has 18 outer wires. This construction is used on industrial equipment, for flexible slings, and in miscellaneous hoisting.

d.

e.

b.

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Figure 11-4. 6 x 19 classification of wire rope. Table 11-2. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 x 19 classification).
Breaking strength in tons of 2,000 lb. Plow steel 1.3 2.4 3.8 5.4 7.0 10.0 11.7 15.0 21.5 28.3 38.0 48.5 60.0 73.5 88.5 103.0 119.0 138.0 154.0 193.0 235.0 280.0 Improved plow steel 1.5 2.7 4.1 6.0 8.0 11.0 13.3 16.5 23.8 32.0 41.7 53.0 65.0 81.0 96.0 113.0 130.0 152.0 169.0 210.0 260.0 305.0 Breaking strength in tons of 2,000 lb. Plow steel 1.4 2.6 4.1 5.8 7.5 10.8 12.6 16.1 23.1 30.4 40.8 52.1 64.5 79.0 95.1 111.0 128.0 148.0 166.0 208.0 253.0 301.0 Improved plow steel 1.6 2.9 4.4 6.5 8.6 11.8 14.3 17.7 25.6 34.4 44.8 57.0 70.4 87.1 103.0 122.0 140.0 163.0 182.0 226.0 280.0 328.0

Rope diameter (in.)

Weight (lb. per ft.)

Rope diameter (in.)

Weight (lb. per ft.)

3/16 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1 3/8 1 1 5/8 1 1 7/8 2 2 2 2

0.06 0.10 0.16 0.23 0.31 0.40 0.51 0.63 0.90 1.23 1.60 2.03 2.50 3.03 3.60 4.23 4.90 5.63 6.40 8.10 10.00 12.10

3/16 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1 3/8 1 1 5/8 1 1 7/8 2 2 2 2

0.07 0.11 0.18 0.25 0.34 0.44 0.56 0.69 0.99 1.35 1.76 2.23 2.75 3.33 3.96 4.65 5.39 6.19 7.04 8.91 11.00 13.30

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Figure 11-5. 6 x 37 classification of wire rope.

Table 11-3. Breaking strength of wire rope (6 x 37 classification).


Breaking strength in tons of 2,000 lb. Plow steel 2.2 3.8 5.0 6.9 9.2 11.4 14.5 20.2 27.5 36.0 44.0 55.0 68.5 82.0 96.5 110.0 129.0 142.0 182.0 225.0 269.0 323.0 Improved plow steel 2.5 4.0 5.5 7.5 10.0 12.5 16.0 22.2 30.2 39.5 49.0 61.0 74.5 90.0 105.5 121.0 142.0 155.0 201.0 245.0 293.0 353.0 Breaking strength in tons of 2,000 lb. Plow steel 2.4 4.1 5.4 7.4 9.9 12.3 15.6 21.7 29.6 38.7 47.3 59.1 73.6 88.1 104.0 118.0 139.0 153.0 196.0 242.0 289.0 347.0 Improved plow steel 2.7 4.3 5.9 8.1 10.8 13.4 17.2 23.9 32.5 42.5 52.7 65.6 80.1 96.7 113.0 130.0 153.0 167.0 216.0 263.0 315.0 379.0

Rope diameter (in.)

Weight (lb. per ft.)

Rope diameter (in.)

Weight (lb. per ft.)

5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1 3/8 1 1 5/8 1 1 7/8 2 2 2 2 3

0.10 0.16 0.22 0.30 0.39 0.49 0.61 0.87 1.19 1.55 1.96 2.42 2.93 3.49 4.09 4.75 5.45 6.20 7.85 9.69 11.72 13.95

5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1 3/8 1 1 5/8 1 1 7/8 2 2 2 2 3

0.11 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.43 0.54 0.67 0.96 1.30 1.1 2.16 2.66 3.22 3.84 4.50 5.23 6.00 6.82 8.64 10.66 12.89 15.35

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11.3 SLINGS
11.3.1 GENERAL 11.3.1.1 a. Slings shall have a minimum design factor appropriate to the type of material as specified in the appropriate section. Features that affect the rated capacity of the sling and that shall be considered in calculating the design factor are: 1. Nominal breaking strength of material from which it is constructed. Splicing or end-attachment. 4. 3. 4. Number of parts in the sling. Type of hitch (e.g., straight pull, choker hitch, or basket hitch). Angle of loading and load center of gravity. Diameter of curvature around which the sling is bent. b. Load angle factor from Figure 11-7 = 1.414 a. Load Angle Factor

The following is an example of selecting a sling using the load angle factors shown in Figure 11-7. 1. 2. 3. Load = 1,000 lb. Sling = 2-legged bridle. Angle with horizontal = 45 degrees.

2.

5.

6.

Each of the two legs would lift 500 lb if a vertical lift were made. However, there is a 45 sling angle involved. Therefore, the 500lb load would be multiplied by the loadangle factor in the chart, giving a total of 707 lb (500 lb x 1.414) tension in each sling leg. Each sling leg, therefore, must have a rated capacity of at least 707 lb. Safe Load

b.

The center of gravity of an object is a point around which the entire weight may be concentrated. To make a level lift, the crane hook or point of suspension must be directly above this point. While slight variations are usually permissible, if the crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity, dangerous tilting will result and should be corrected at once. For this reason, when the center of gravity is closer to one point of the sling attachment than to the other, the slings must be of unequal length. Sling stresses and sling angles will also be unequal (see Figure 11-6). Rigging shall be configured such that slings do not reeve or slip through the hook. To attach the load, locate the center of gravity, position the crane hook directly above the center of gravity, and then rig the load so that it will lift level and true.

11.3.1.2 a.

The rated capacity or working load limit (WLL) of a sling varies depending on the type of hitch. The rated capacity tables in this section show the applications for which the various safe loads apply when the slings are new. All ratings are in pounds (lbs). Figures 11-8 and 11-9 provide information for determining the total rated capacity of 3leg slings so as not to introduce a working load in direct tension in any leg greater than that permitted. Two legs should be considered to carry the load because in normal lifting practice, the load will not be uniformly distributed on all legs. If rigging techniques, verified by a qualified rigger, ensure that the load is evenly distributed then full use of three legs is allowed. Special rigging techniques verified by a qualified engineer shall be required to prove that a load is evenly distributed over four or more sling legs.

b.

c.

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Figure 11-6. Balancing Loads

Figure 11-7. Relationship of load angle and lifting efficiency.

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11.3.1.3

Design Factor

11.3.1.6 Inspections a. Sling users shall visually inspect all slings each day they are used or prior to use if the sling has not been in regular service (records are not required). In addition, a periodic inspection shall be made at least annually by a qualified inspector. More frequent intervals for periodic inspections should be established if necessary as determined by a qualified person based upon: 1. 2. 3. 4. Frequency of sling use. Severity of service conditions. Nature of lifts being made. Experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances.

In general, a design factor of 5:1 is maintained throughout this section with the exception of alloy steel chain slings. Also, certain sling fittings, such as hooks (which will deform beyond usefulness before breaking) cannot be assigned a definite numerical design factor. In such cases, suitable safe loads are listed, based on wide experience and sound engineering practice. 11.3.1.4 Sling Care

Proper care and usage are essential for maximum service and safety. Wire-rope slings shall be protected from sharp bends and cutting edges by means of corner saddles, burlap padding, or wood blocking. Overloading shall be avoided, as shall sudden dynamic loading that can build up a momentary overload sufficient to break the sling. 11.3.1.5 Sling Storage

b.

Personnel using slings shall ensure that they are stored properly as follows: a. Slings should be stored in racks (preferably vertical) and in designated locations when not in use. Do not store slings in a location where they will be subjected to mechanical damage, corrosive action, moisture, extreme heat, or kinking. Slings may require segregated storage as determined on a caseby-case basis. Before storage and periodically during storage, wipe slings clean to remove as much dirt and abrasive grit as possible and relubricate wire rope and chain slings to extend their useful life. Chains should not be lubricated when in use. Do not store metal-mesh slings in areas where the temperature exceeds 550 degrees F (288 degrees C) or 200 degrees F (93 degrees C) if elastomer covered. Do not store synthetic-web slings where the temperature exceeds 200 degrees F (93 degrees C).

Users shall carefully note any deterioration that could result in an appreciable loss of original strength and determine whether further use of the sling would constitute a safety hazard. Removal from service criteria are provided for each type of sling in their respective sections.

11.3.1.7 Sling Periodic Inspection Records Individual site programs shall describe how inspections are recorded. These records may include an external coded mark on the individual sling tag (e.g. date, annually changed color stripe, etc.) indicating both periodicity and the satisfactory completion of the required inspection, or a written record as acceptable documentation. 11.3.2 a. WIRE-ROPE SLINGS

b.

c.

d.

In general, wire-rope slings are made up of 6 x 19 or 6 x 37 classification wire rope. Rotation-resistant wire rope shall not be used for wire-rope slings. Different kinds of slings have been developed for specific purposes. These are divided into different groups or types as follows: 1. Endless-loop slings (grommet construction) and single-part slings with single-rope legs, double-rope legs, or multiple-part rope legs.

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2.

Two-leg bridle slings with single-rope legs, equalizing double-rope legs, or multiple-part tope legs. Three-leg bridle slings. Four-leg bridle slings. Special slings and combinations.

d.

The design factor for wire-rope slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength. When a wire rope sling is used in a choker hitch, the normal angle formed in the rope body as it passes through the choking eye is 120 degrees or greater [do not confuse the choke angle with the angle of inclination of the load (see Figure 11-10)]. Rated load in load capacity Tables 11-4 through 11-9 are for angles of 120 degrees or greater. For smaller angles, reduce the rated load to the percentages given in Figure 11-10.

3. 4. 5. b.

e.

The total load that can be safely lifted with slings depends on the rating of the slings and the manner in which they are attached to the load. Consult Tables 11-4 through 11-9 and Figure 11-10. Braided slings are made by braiding ordinary wire ropes together, thus making them more flexible than wire-rope slings. The size of a braided sling is determined by the diameter of one wire rope and the number of ropes in the cross section of the slings.

c.

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Figure 11-8. Determination of capacity3-leg bridle sling.

Figure 11-9. Determination of capacity4-leg bridle sling.

Figure 11-8. Determination of capacity 3-leg bridle sling.

Figure 11-9. Determination of capacity 4-leg bridle sling.

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DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-4. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. Hand tuck splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Vertical 1,100 1,600 2,400 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 8,400 11,000 14,000 18,000 22,000 26,000 32,000 36,000 42,000 56,000

Choker 820 1,280 1,840 2,400 3,200 4,000 5,000 7,200 9,600 12,600 15,800 19,400 24,000 28,000 32,000 38,000 48,000

Basket or two legs 2,200 3,200 4,800 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 16,800 22,000 28,000 36,000 44,000 52,000 64,000 72,000 84,000 112,000 1,800 2,800 4,000 5,400 6,800 8,600 10,400 14,600 19,200 24,000 32,000 36,000 44,000 52,000 62,000 70,000 92,000 1,500 2,200 3,200 4,400 5,600 7,000 8,400 11,800 15,600 20,000 26,000 30,000 36,000 42,000 50,000 58,000 74,000 1,100 1,600 2,400 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 8,400 11,000 14,000 18,000 22,000 26,000 32,000 36,000 42,000 56,000

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Wire Rope/6 x 19 and *6 x 37 IPS IWRC Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

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Table 11-5. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. Hand tuck splice (Fiber Core) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Vertical 980 1,500 2,200 2,800 3,600 4,600 5,600 7,800 10,400 13,400 16,800 20,000 24,000 30,000 34,000 40,000 52,000

Choker 760 1,200 1,700 2,400 3,000 3,800 4,600 6,600 9,000 11,800 14,800 18,000 22,000 26,000 30,000 34,000 44,000

Basket or two legs 1,960 3,040 4,400 5,600 7,200 9,200 11,200 15,600 20,080 26,800 33,600 40,000 48,000 60,000 68,000 80,000 104,000 1,700 2,600 3,600 5,000 6,400 8,000 9,600 13,600 17,800 22,000 28,000 34,000 42,000 52,000 58,000 70,000 90,000 1,400 2,200 3,000 4,000 5,200 6,400 8,000 11,000 14,600 18,800 24,000 28,000 34,000 42,000 48,000 56,000 74,000 980 1,500 2,200 2,800 3,600 4,600 5,600 7,800 10,400 13,400 16,800 20,000 24,000 30,000 34,000 40,000 52,000

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Wire Rope/6 x 19 and *6 x 37 IPS FC

Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

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Table 11-6. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. Mechanical splice (IWRC) in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Vertical 1,100 1,700 2,400 3,400 4,400 5,500 6,800 9,700 13,000 17,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 36,000 42,000 50,000 64,000

Choker 840 1,300 1,860 2,500 3,200 4,200 5,000 7,200 9,800 12,800 15,600 18,400 24,000 28,000 32,000 38,000 48,000

Basket or two legs 2,200 3,400 4,800 3,800 8,800 11,000 13,600 19,400 26,000 34,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 72,000 84,000 100,000 128,000 1,940 3,000 4,200 5,800 7,600 9,600 11,800 16,800 22,000 30,000 36,000 42,000 52,000 64,000 70,000 82,000 106,000 1,580 2,400 3,600 4,800 6,200 7,700 9,600 13,600 18,300 24,000 30,000 34,000 42,000 50,000 58,000 66,000 86,000 1,100 1,700 2,400 3,400 4,400 5,500 6,800 9,700 13,000 17,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 32,000 42,000 50,000 64,000

Dia. in inches 5/16 3/8 7/16 9/16 5/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 *1 *1 3/8 *1 *1 5/8 *1 *2

Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

11-15

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-7. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. 8-part braided rope in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches *1/8 *3/16 3/16 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 7/8 1

Vertical 1,900 4,200 3,400 6,200 9,600 13,600 18,000 24,000 30,000 38,000 54,000 72,000 94,000

Choker 1,400 3,000 2,600 4,600 7,200 10,200 13,800 18,000 22,000 28,000 40,000 54,000 70,000

Basket or two legs 3,200 7,200 6,000 10,600 16,600 24,000 32,000 42,000 52,000 64,000 92,000 124,000 162,000 2,600 5,800 4,800 8,600 13,400 19,400 26,000 34,000 42,000 52,000 76,000 102,000 132,000 1,900 4,200 3,400 6,200 9,600 13,600 18,600 24,000 30,000 38,000 54,000 72,000 94,000

Dia. in inches *1/8 *3/16 3/16 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 7/8 1

Wire Rope/6 x 19 IPS and *7 x 7 Galvanized Aircraft Grade

Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 25 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

Chapter 11 General

11-16

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-8. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. Cable laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches *3/8 *9/16 *5/8 15/16 1 1/8 1 5/16 1 1 11/16 1 7/8 2 2 5/8 3

Vertical 2,600 5,600 7,800 10,200 15,800 22,000 30,000 38,000 48,000 60,000 84,000 112,000 144,000

Choker 1,900 4,200 6,000 7,600 11,800 16,800 22,000 28,000 36,000 44,000 62,000 84,000 108,000

Basket or two legs 5,000 11,200 15,800 20,000 32,000 44,000 60,000 78,000 98,000 120,000 168,000 224,000 286,000

60 degrees 45 degrees 4,400 9,800 13,600 17,600 28,000 38,000 52,000 66,000 84,000 104,000 146,000 194,000 248,000 3,600 8,000 11,200 14,400 22,000 32,000 42,000 54,000 68,000 84,000 118,000 158,000 202,000 30 degrees 2,600 5,600 6,800 10,200 15,800 22,000 30,000 38,000 48,000 60,000 84,000 112,000 144,000

Dia. in inches *3/8 *9/16 *5/8 15/16 1 1/8 1 5/16 1 1 11/16 1 7/8 2 2 5/8 3

Wire Rope/*7 x 6 x 7 and 7 x 6 x 19 IPS IWRC

Notes: (1) These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 10 or greater (choker and basket hitches) D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent d = Diameter of rope (2) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

11-17

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-9. Load capacity of wire-rope slings. Strand laid grommet-hand tucked in pounds Design Factor = 5:1

Dia. in inches 3/8 5/8 7/8

Vertical 1,840 4,000 7,000 10,800 15,200 20,000

Choker 1,320 3,000 5,200 8,000 11,400 15,200

Basket or two legs 3,600 8,000 14,000 22,000 30,000 40,000

60 degrees 3,200 7,000 12,200 18,800 26,000 34,000

45 degrees 2,600 5,800 10,000 15,200 22,000 28,000

30 degrees 1,840 4,000 7,000 10,800 15,200 20,000

Dia. in inches 3/8 5/8 7/8

Chapter 11 General

11-18

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 11-10. Choker hitch rated capacity adjustment. 11-19 Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 11.3.2.1 Removal from Service Criteria a. Wire rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: 1. 2. Missing or illegible sling identification b. Broken wires i. For strand-laid and single-part slings, ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. ii. For cable-laid slings, 20 broken wires per lay. c. iii. For six-part braided slings, 20 broken wires per braid. iv. For eight-part braided slings, 40 broken wires per braid 3. 4. Severe localized abrasion or scraping Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage resulting in damage to the rope structure Evidence of heat damage f. 6. End attachments that are cracked, deformed, or worn to the extent that the strength of the sling is substantially affected Severe corrosion of the rope, end attachments, or fittings For hooks, removal criteria as stated in Section 12.2. Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to the continued use of the sling Test loads described above shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. A written letter of certification by the manufacturer or a pull test witnessed and certified in writing by a qualified person is acceptable. As a minimum, the proof load shall be equal to the rated capacity but shall not exceed: 1. 125 percent of the vertical rated capacity for single-let, hand-tucked slings. 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity for mechanical-splice single-leg slings and endless slings.

rope or fitting manufacturers recommendations but in no case greater than 50 percent of the component wire ropes or structural strands nominal strength. All other sling assemblies shall be proof-tested when specified by the purchaser.

2.

The proof-load for multiple-leg bridle slings assemblies shall be applied to the individual leg and shall be in accordance with paragraph a. and b. as applicable. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent times the force applied by the combined legs. Welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof-tested at 2 times rated capacity prior to initial use.

d.

e.

5.

7.

11.3.2.3 Operation a. The following shall apply to all personnel who use wire-rope slings: 1. Start and stop slowly; sudden starts and stops dramatically increase the stresses in hoist ropes and slings. Lift slowly until the load is suspended to minimize swinging.

8.

9.

11.3.2.2 Proof-Testing a. All swaged socket and poured socket sling assemblies shall be proof-tested to the wire 11-20

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 2. Loads shall be set on blocks. Do not pull a sling from under a load that is resting on the sling. Ensure that wire-rope slings are protected against weather, chemicals, solvents, and high temperatures. Permanently remove from service fibercore rope slings that have been exposed to temperatures in excess of 180 degrees F (82 degrees C). When wire rope slings of any grade are to be used at temperatures above 400 degrees F (204 degrees C) or below -60 degrees F (-51 degrees C), the sling manufacturer should be consulted. Extremely low temperatures (less than 0 degrees F) may cause brittle fractures. Under these conditions, sudden loading should be avoided and the rope should be carefully observed while the load is being applied. Do not use knotted slings. iii. Kinks. 8. Do not use single-let wire-rope slings unless proper precautions are taken to prevent suspended loads from rotating. Rigging shall be configured such that slings do not reeve or slip through the hook. iv. Broken seizing wire. v. 9. Damage to swaged fittings.

16. Avoid shock loading. 17. In a basket hitch, ensure that the load is balanced to prevent slippage. 18. Avoid handling hot material with wirerope slings. 19. Use shackles or adjustable choker hooks when making choker hitches. 20. Store slings on racks away from moisture and acids when not in use. 21. Ensure that damaged wire-rope slings are rendered unusable, removed from service, discarded, and replaced with new slings. 22. Before use and before storage, check wire-rope slings for: i. ii. Broken or cut wires or strands. Rust or corrosion.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

vi. Other signs of damage or abuse. 23. The capacity of wire-rope slings is derated by the manufacturer by applying the efficiency factors such as those given in Figure 11-11. 24. Do not use wire-rope clips to fabricate wire-rope slings except where the application of slings prevents the use of prefabricated slings and where the specific application is designed by a qualified person. Fabrication of wire rope slings for construction applications is also prohibited (See Section 15.4.2). Slings made with wire rope clips should not be used as a choker hitch (see Figures 11-12 and 11-13). 11-21 Chapter 11 General

10. Do not make a complete turn of wire rope around the crane hook. 11. Use protector pads or blocking at sharp corners. 12. Keep hands and fingers out of the area between the sling and the load. 13. Ensure that the weight of the load is within the rated capacity of the sling. 14. Do not use damaged slings. 15. Ensure that all personnel stand clear of the suspended load.

DOE-STD-1090-2007 25. If wire-rope clips are used to fabricate slings, the capacity of the sling shall be derated in accordance with the clip manufacturers recommendations. Manufacturers recommendations shall also be followed with regard to clip spacing, number of clips, and torque values. 26. Wire rope clips used to fabricate wire rope slings shall be of drop-forged steel. Malleable cast iron clips shall not be used. 27. Wire rope clips attached with U-bolts shall have the U-bolt over the dead end of the rope and the live rope resting in the clip saddle. Clips shall be tightened evenly to the recommended torque. After the initial load is applied to the rope, the clip nuts shall be retightened to the recommended torque to compensate for any decrease in rope diameter caused by the load. Rope clip nuts should be retightened periodically to compensate for any further decrease in rope diameter during usage. 28. At a minimum, wire-rope slings shall be marked with the following information: i. Name of trademark of manufacturer

ii.

Rated capacity for the type of hitch(es)

iii. Diameter or size 29. Sling identification shall be maintained by the user so as to be legible during the life of the sling. 30. Slings made of rope with 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 construction and cable-laid slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope 10 times the rope diameter between splices, sleeves, or end fittings. 31. Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope 40 times the component (individual) rope diameter between the loops or end fittings. 32. Grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times the body diameter of the grommet or endless sling. 33. Other configurations may be used provided a qualified engineer provides a documented evaluation, including a destructive pull test in the configuration to be used, as well as use limitations. Minimum design factor of 5:1 shall be maintained.

Chapter 11 General

11-22

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Figure 11-11. Wire-rope fastenings.

Note that the base of the clip bears against the live end of the wire rope, while the U of the bolt presses against the dead end. Figure 11-12. Wire-rope clips right Way.

The U of the clips shall not bear against the live end of the wire rope because of the possibility of the rope being kinked or crushed. Figure 11-13. Wire-rope clips wrong way.

11-23

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 11.3.2.4 Critical Lifts 4. (d) of 3 or more (D/d greater than or equal 3). Do not use wedge sockets or wire-rope clips on slings used for critical lifts. Ensure that working loads of wire-rope slings do not exceed their rated capacities. Do not splice slings together. Use thimble eyes for slings to be joined end-to-end. Locate sling eyes so that: i. i. The wire rope or fitting manufacturers recommendations, but in no case greater than 50 percent of the component wire ropes or structural strands nominal strength, for all swaged socket and poured socket sling assemblies. 125 percent of the vertical rated capacity of single-leg, hand-tucked slings. Adequate clearance is maintained between the attached slings and other parts or surfaces of the component or equipment. There is no interference with the functioning of hoisting, rigging, or handling equipment.

See chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. 1. All provisions of paragraph 11.3.2.3.a also shall apply to critical lifts. Wire-rope slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test. If proof testing cannot be verified, the wirerope sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. As a minimum, the proof load shall be equal to the rated capacity, but shall not exceed:

5.

2.

6. 7.

8.

ii.

ii.

iii. Maximum accessibility to the eye is maintained. iv. Attached slings can converge over the center of gravity of the lift. v. Proper stability can be maintained during lifting and positioning of the item at the installation site.

iii. 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity for mechanical-spliced single-let slings and endless slings. iv. The proof-load for multiple-leg bridle slings assemblies shall be applied to the individual leg and shall be in accordance with paragraph I, ii, and iii, as applicable. v. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proofloaded to 200 percent times the force applied by the combined legs. 9. vi. Test weights shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. 3. Wire-rope sling eyes with thimbles shall be made with a thimble having a ratio of thimble diameter (D) to rope diameter 11-24

vi. The plane of the slinging eye is coincident with the plane of the sling under loaded conditions within 5 degrees. vii. Sling angles are not less than 45 degrees with the horizontal. In addition to marking requirements listed for ordinary lifts, other items may need to be marked as determined on a case-by-case basis, such as the reach, type, weight of the sling assembly, and rated capacity.

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 11.3.3 ALLOY STEEL-CHAIN SLINGS g. a. This section applies to slings made from grade 80 and 100 alloy chain manufactured and tested in accordance with National Association of Chain Manufacturers welded steel chain specifications 1990. If chain other than this is used, it shall be used in accordance with the recommendations of the chain manufacturer. Alloy Steel-chain slings differ from wire-rope slings in that components using wire are replaced by link chain. Other sling components are similar. Chain slings are more rugged and flexible, but less shock resistant than wire-rope or braided slings. This size is measured by the link stock. Two basic types with many variations are used: basket type and hook type. An example of each is shown in Figure 11-14. The design factor for steel-chain slings shall be a minimum of 4:1 based upon breaking strength. Chains should be stored in racks or in designated locations when not in use. Chains should never be stored in damp or dirty places, nor in places exposed to the weather. For long-term storage, they should receive a coating of oil. The ends of all empty chains should be hooked onto the hoist hook or bull ring. Chains should not be lubricated when in use because this might make them dangerous to handle. Chains should be cleaned periodically to remove abrasive grit and to facilitate inspection. The total load that can be lifted safely with steel-chain slings depends on the manner by which the slings are attached to the load. If all legs of a steel-chain sling are hooked back into the master link, the safe-load capacity of the whole sling may be increased by 100 percent if the capacity of the master link is not exceeded. The safe-load level of any chain sling is a function of three basic factors: size and number of legs, condition of chain and other components, and sling angle between legs and horizontal. Table 11-10 shows safe loads in pounds per leg which can be carried by various chain-sling arrangements. Note the effect of very low hook height and wide leg spreads. Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links and other attachments shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are used or the sling shall not be used in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component. Removal from Service Criteria

h.

b.

i.

c.

j.

k.

Figure 11-14. Types of chain slings.

d.

Alloy-steel-chain slings shall not be heated above 1,000 degrees F (537 degrees C) after being received from the manufacturer. l. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600 degrees F (315 degrees C), reduce working load limits in accordance with the chain manufacturers recommendations. Extremely low temperatures (less than 0 degrees F) may cause brittle fractures. Under these conditions, sudden loading should be avoided and the load should be lifted a very short distance while the chains are carefully inspected. 11-25

e.

f.

11.3.3.1 a. b.

Missing or illegible sling identification.

Cracks or breaks. Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 c. Excessive wear, nicks, or gouges. Minimum thickness on chain links shall not be below the values listed in Table 11-11. Stretched chain links or components. Bent, twisted, or deformed chain links or components. Evidence of heat damage. Excessive pitting or corrosion. c. h. Lack of ability of chain or components to hinge (articulate) freely. Weld splatter. d. j. For hooks, removal criteria as stated in Chapter 12. Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to the continued use of the sling. Test loads shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs. 11.3.3.2 a. Proof-Testing

d. e.

Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chain slings shall be certified as having been proof-tested to 200 percent of the rated capacity prior to initial use. The proof load for multiple-let bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling.

b.

f. g.

i.

k.

Chapter 11 General

11-26

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-10. Rated load for Grade 80 Alloy Steel Chain Slings

Size in inches 9/32 3/8 5/8 7/8 1 1

Single Leg 3,500 7,100 12,000 18,100 28,300 34,200 47,700 72,300

60 Two Legs 6,100 12,300 20,800 31,300 49,000 59,200 82,600 125,200

45 Two Legs 4,900 10,000 17,000 25,600 40,000 48,400 67,400 102,200

30 Two Legs 3,500 7,100 12,000 18,100 28,300 34,200 47,700 72,500

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Notes: (1) Other grades of proof tested steel chain include Proof Coil (grade 28), Hi-Test (Grade 43) chain and Transport (Grade 70) chain. These grades are not recommended for overhead lifting and therefore are not covered in the applicable standards. (2) Rating of multi-leg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load.

11-27

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-11. Minimum allowable thickness at any point on a link

6.

Do not weld or perform local repairs on chain slings. All defective chain slings should be returned, through a formal procedure, to the manufacturer for examination, repair, and recertification. Avoid sudden loading of chain slings. Maintain latches on hooks in good condition. If a chain sling does not look safe, do not use it. Do not assume that a chain sling is safe because it looks new; look for stretched links. If in doubt, check with the supervisor.

7. 8.

9.

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

11.3.3.3 Operation a. The following shall apply to all personnel who use steel-chain slings: 1. Do not set a load on a sling or pull a sling from under a load. Place wooden blocks or other supports under the load to provide sufficient clearance for the chain. Shorten chain slings by hooking back into the chain, into the master link, or with grab hooks. Do not shorten by knotting, twisting, bolting, or inserting the tip of the hook into a link. Do not hammer a chain to force it into position. Protect chain slings from sharp corners that might bend the links. Use a suitable pad to prevent gouging or bending of the chain links, as well as possible scarring of the load. When making choker hitches with chain slings, always face the hook opening out and away from the pull of the sling so that the hooks will not slip out when slack is taken out of the sling.

10. Do not carry loads on the point or tip of a hook. 11. Avoid unbalanced loads. 12. Do no use homemade links, makeshift fasteners formed from bolts, rods, and the like, or other nonstandard attachments. 13. Do not use makeshift or field-fabricated hooks on steel-chain slings. 14. Hook the ends of all empty chain onto the hoist hook or bull ring. 15. Each steel-chain sling shall be marked, at a minimum, with: i. ii. Nominal Chain Size Grade

2.

3.

4.

iii. Rated load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle on which the rating is based iv. Length (Reach) v. Number of legs.

5.

vi. Name or trademark of manufacturer

Chapter 11 General

11-28

DOE-STD-1090-2007 16. Where slings have more than one leg, ensure that the tag is affixed to the master link. 17. Ensure that the working load does not exceed the rated capacity of the sling. 11.3.3.4 Critical Lifts b. The carbon steel used in metal-mesh slings shall be processed to produce the required mechanical properties. The material used for stainless-steel metalmesh slings shall conform, at least, to the American Iron and Steel Institute standards for Type-302 or Type-304 stainless steel. Other materials may be used. When metalmesh slings are produced from such materials, however, the sling manufacturer should be consulted for specific data. The handle shall be designed to ensure: 1. At least the same rated capacity as the fabric. No visible permanent deformation after proof-testing.

c.

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Single-leg and endless alloy-steel chain slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. If proof testing cannot be verified, the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs. METAL-MESH SLINGS f.

d.

2. b.

e.

The fabric and handles shall be so joined that: 1. The rated capacity of the sling is not reduced. The load is evenly distributed across the width of the fabric. Sharp edges do not damage the fabric.

c.

2.

11.3.4 a.

3.

Metal-mesh slings (Figure 11-15) shall be classified with the designations shown in Table 11-12, based on types of duty and material classification. Table 11-12. Metal-mesh sling Designations. Type Designation Classification

Metal-mesh slings may be painted, plated, impregnated with elastomers such as neoprene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or otherwise suitably coated. The coating shall not diminish the rated capacity of a sling. The design factor for metal-mesh slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength. Metal-mesh slings shall not be used to lift loads greater than the rated capacity, properly derated for other than straight-pull configurations (Table 11-13.). Except for elastomer-impregnated slings, all metal-mesh slings covered by this section may be used without derating in a temperature range from 20 degrees F (-29 degrees C) to 550 degrees F (288 degrees C). Chapter 11 General

g.

h. Heavy duty Medium duty Carbon steel 35-CS Stainless steel 35-SS Carbon steel 43-CS Stainless steel 43-SS Carbon steel 59-CS Stainless steel 59-SS

i.

Light duty

11-29

DOE-STD-1090-2007 j. All metal-mesh slings covered by this section and impregnated with PVC or neoprene shall be used only in a temperature range from 0 degrees F (-18 degrees C) to 200 degrees F (93 degrees C).

k.

For operation at temperatures outside these ranges or for other impregnations, consult the manufacturer for specific data.

Figure 11-15. Typical metal-mesh sling.


Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Chapter 11 General

11-30

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-13. Load capacity of carbon and stainless-steel metal-mesh slings in pounds. Design Factor = 5:1

Sling width (in.) 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Vertical or choker 1,500 2,700 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 1,350 2,000 2,700 4,500 6,000 7,500 9,000 10,500 12,000 900 1,400 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000

Basket or two legs 3,000 5,400 8,000 12,000 16,000 20,000 24,000 28,000 32,000 2,700 4,000 5,400 9,000 12,000 15,000 18,000 21,000 24,000 1,800 2,800 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000

60 Basket or two legs 2,600 4,700 6,900 10,400 13,800 17,000 20,700 24,200 27,700 2,300 3,500 4,700 7,800 10,400 13,000 15,600 18,200 20,800 1,600 2,400 3,500 5,200 6,900 8,600 10,400 12,100 13,900

45 Basket or two legs 2,100 3,800 5,600 8,400 11,300 14,100 16,900 19,700 22,600 1,900 2,800 3,800 6,400 8,500 10,600 12,700 14,800 17,000 1,300 2,000 2,800 4,200 5,700 7,100 8,500 9,900 11,300

30 Basket or two legs 1,500 2,700 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 1,400 2,000 2,700 4,500 6,000 7,500 9,000 10,500 12,000 900 1,400 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000

Sling width (in.) 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Heavy duty 10-ga 35 spirals/ft of mesh width

Medium duty 12-ga 43 spirals/ft of mesh width

Light duty 14-ga 59 spirals/ft of mesh width

11-31

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007

11.3.4.1

Removal from Service Criteria

b.

Coated slings shall be proof-tested prior to being coated. Test loads shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable. Operation

Metal-mesh slings shall be removed from service if any of the following defects are present: a. b. Missing or illegible sling identification Broken weld or a broken brazed joint along the sling edge Broken wire in any part of the mesh.

c.

11.3.4.3 c. d. a. Reduction in wire diameter of 25% due to abrasion or 15% due to corrosion. Lack of flexibility due to distortion of the mesh 2. f. Distortion of the choker fitting so the depth of the slot is increased by more than 10%. Distortion of either end fitting so the width of the eye opening is decreased by more than 10%. A 15% reduction of the original crosssectional area of any point around the hook opening of the end fitting. Visible distortion of either end fitting out of its plane. Cracked end fitting. Slings in which the spirals are locked or without free articulation shall not be used. Fittings that are pitted, corroded, cracked, bent, twisted, gouged, or broken. h. m. Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to the continued use of the sling. b.

The following shall apply to all personnel who use metal-mesh slings: 1. Ensure that the weight of the load is within the rated capacity of the sling. Ensure that metal-mesh slings have suitable characteristics and rated capacity for the load and environment.

e.

g.

h.

Metal-mesh slings should be long enough to provide the maximum practical angle between the sling leg and the horizontal (minimum practical angle at the crane hook if vertical angles are used). Do not shorten metal-mesh slings with knots, bolts, or other unapproved methods. Do not use damaged slings. Securely hitch metal-mesh slings to the load. Ensure that sharp corners are padded. Keep hands and fingers out of the area between the sling and the load. Ensure that all personnel stand clear of the suspended load. Avoid shock loading. Do not pull metal-mesh slings from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. Do not store metal-mesh slings in an area where they will be subjected to mechanical damage or corrosive action.

c.

i.

d. e. f. g.

j. k.

l.

i. j.

11.3.4.2 a.

Proof-Testing k.

Metal-mesh slings shall be certified as having been proof-tested to 200 percent of their rated capacity prior to initial use. 11-32

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 shall be 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity of a single-leg sling. c. Master links to which multiple-leg slings are connected shall be proof-loaded to 200 percent multiplied by the force applied by the combined legs. SYNTHETIC-WEB SLINGS

l.

Avoid twisting and kinking of the legs.

m. In a choker hitch, ensure that metal-mesh slings are long enough so that the female handle chokes freely on the mesh, never on the handle. n. In a choker hitch, ensure that the load is balanced. When this cannot be done, consult the manufacturer for a derating factor or for other means of handling this type of load. In a basket hitch, ensure that the load is balanced to prevent slippage. Do not use metal-mesh slings in which the spirals are locked or are without free articulation. Never hammer a sling to straighten a spiral or cross rod or to force a spiral into position. Metal-mesh slings used in pairs should be attached to a spreader beam.

11.3.5 a.

Synthetic web shall posses the following qualities: 1. Be of sufficient strength to meet the sling manufacturers requirements. Have uniform thickness and width. Have selvage edges and not be split from its woven width.

o.

p.

2. 3.

q.

b.

r.

The thread used in the manufacture of a synthetic-web sling shall be of the same type of material as the web. Fittings shall be: 1. Of sufficient strength to sustain twice the rated capacity without permanent deformation. Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling. Free of all sharp edges that would in any way damage the webbing.

c. s. Ensure that all metal-mesh slings have a permanently affixed metal identification tag or tags containing the following information: 1. 2. Manufacturers name or trademark.

2. Rated load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based. Width and gauge. d. 11.3.4.4 Critical Lifts

3.

3.

The stitching in all load-bearing splices shall be of sufficient strength to maintain the sling design factor. Synthetic-web slings may be coated with elastomers, anti-fungicides, UV inhibitors or other treatments that will provide improved characteristics such as abrasion resistance, sealing of pores, increased coefficient of friction, and UV resistance. The design factor for synthetic-web slings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based upon breaking strength. Chapter 11 General

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Metal-mesh slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. If proof testing cannot be verified, the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. The proof load for multiple-leg bridle slings shall be applied to the individual legs and 11-33

e.

f.

b.

DOE-STD-1090-2007 g. Rated capacities are affected by the type of hitch used and by the angle from the vertical when used as multi-legged slings or in basket hitches. The sling manufacturer shall supply data on these effects. Synthetic-web slings are available in a number of configurations as follows (see Figure 11-17): 1. Endless or Grommet Sling Both ends of one piece of webbing are lapped and sewn to form a continuous piece. They can be used as vertical hitches, bridle hitches, in choker arrangements, or as basket slings. Standard Eye and Eye Webbing is assembled and sewn to form a flat eye sling with an eye at each end and the eye openings in the same plane as the sling body. The eyes may either be full web width or may be tapered by being folded and sewn to a width narrower than the webbing width. Twisted Eye An eye-and-eye type that has twisted terminations at both ends. The eye openings are at 90 degrees to the plane of the sling body. This configuration is also available with either full-width or tapered eyes. 4. 4. Metal End Fittings - In place of the sewn eyes, synthetic-web slings are also available with metal end fittings (see Figure 11-19). The most common are triangle and choker hardware. Combination hardware consists of a triangle for one end of the sling and a triangle/rectangle choker attachment for the other end. With this arrangement, both choker and basket hitches, as well as straight hitches, may be rigged. They help reduce wear in the sling eyes and thus lengthen sling life. devices offered by most sling manufacturers that minimize these effects (see Figure 1120). Other protective devices include: 1. Buffer strips of leather, nylon, or other materials that are sewn on the body of a sling protect against wear. While offering some resistance to wear and cutting, leather is subject to weathering and gradual deterioration. Leather is not recommended in lengths over 6 ft due to the different stretching characteristics of the leather and webbing. On the other hand, nylon-web wear pads are more resistant to weathering, oils, grease, and most alkalis; and they stretch in the same ratio as the sling body. Edge guards consist of strips of webbing or leather sewn around each edge of the sling. This is necessary for certain applications where the sling edges are subject to damage. Sleeve- or sliding-tube-type wear pads are available for slings used to handle material having sharp edges. They can be positioned on the sling where required, do not move when the sling stretches, adjust to the load, and cover both sides of the sling. Eye buffers can be attached at the bearing point of the sling eye. This attachment increases the longevity of the fabric sling. Coatings can be applied to provide added resistance to abrasion and chemical damage. These treatments also increase the coefficient of friction, affording a better grip when loads with slippery surfaces are to be handled.

h.

2.

2.

3.

3.

5.

j.

i.

Synthetic-web slings can be cut by repeated use around sharp-cornered objects. They eventually show signs of abrasion when they are repeatedly used to hoist rough-surfaced products. There are, however, protective 11-34

The synthetic-web sling capacities listed in Tables 11-14 and 11-15 are approximations only and are based on nylon or polyester webbing having breaking strengths between 6,800 and 9,800 lb/in. of webbing width. The capacities are also based on a 5:1 design factor and assume that the end fittings are of adequate strength.

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Figure 11-17. Synthetic-web sling types.

11-35

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007

k.

Although safe working loads for bridle hitches in the choker or double-basket configuration are provided, they should be used only with extreme caution because, as the sling angle decreases, one edge of the web will take all the load, producing a risk of tearing (see Figure 11-18).

b.

Melting or charring of any part of the surface. Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts. Broken or worn stitching in load bearing splices. Excessive abrasive wear. Knots in any part of the sling. Excessive pitting or corrosion, or cracked, distorted, or broken fittings. Discoloration, brittle or stiff areas on any part of the sling that may indicate chemical or UV damage. Other visible damage that causes doubt as to the strength of the sling.

c. d.

e. f. g.

h. Figure 11-18. Effect of low sling angle. l. Synthetic-web slings shall be used in accordance with the sling manufacturers recommendation. Conventional three-strand natural or synthetic fiber rope slings are NOT recommended for lifting service, and should be used only if conventional sling types are not suitable for a unique application. The requirements of ASME B 30.9 (Slings), Section 9-4, and 29 CFR 1910.184(h) shall be followed. Tiedown and/or ratchet strap shall not be used as synthetic-web slings. Only synthetic-web slings constructed from webbing approved for sling construction by the manufacturer or other qualified person shall be used at DOE locations. Removal from Service Criteria i.

j. Missing or illegible sling identification. m.

11.3.5.2 a.

Proof-Testing

For single or multiple leg slings and endless slings, each leg shall be proof loaded to 2 times the single-leg vertical hitch rated load. The proof load for fittings attached to single legs shall be a minimum of 2 times the singleleg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for two leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 4 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for three leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 6 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for four leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 8 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load.

b. n.

c.

11.3.5.1

d.

Slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following defects are visible: e. a. Acid or caustic burns.

Chapter 11 General

11-36

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Figure 11-19. Examples of Metal End Fittings

Figure 11-20. Examples of Web and edge protectors

11-37

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-14. Typical load capacity of Class 5 synthetic web slings in pounds. Design Factor 5:1 (Regular eye and eye, twisted eye, triangle fittings, choker fittings)

Web width (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Vertical 1,100 2,200 3,300 4,400 5,500 6,600 2,200 4,400 6,600 8,200 10,200 12,300

Choker 880 1,760 2,640 3,520 4,400 5,280 1,760 3,520 5,280 6,560 8,160 9,840

Basket or two legs 2,200 4,400 6,600 8,800 11,000 13,200 4,400 8,800 13,200 16,400 20,400 24,600 1,900 3,800 5,700 7,600 9,500 11,400 3,800 7,620 11,400 14,200 17,700 21,300 1,600 3,100 4,700 6,200 7,800 9,300 3,100 6,200 9,300 11,600 14,400 17,400 1,100 2,200 3,300 4,400 5,500 6,600 2,200 4,400 6,600 8,200 10,200 12,300

Web width (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Single Ply Web Slings (6,800 lb/in. material)

Double Ply Web slings (6,800 lb/in. material)

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

(1) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 degrees off vertical, use rated load data for regular eye and eye sling, basket hitch and corresponding leg angles. (2) Follow manufacturers capacities, they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and from this chart. (3) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

Chapter 11 General

11-38

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-15. Typical load capacity of Class 7 synthetic web slings in pounds. Design Factor 5:1 (Regular eye, twisted eye, triangle fittings, choker fittings)

Web width (in.) Vertical 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1,600 3,100 4,700 6,200 7,800 9,300 3,100 6,200 8,800 11,000 13,700 16,500 Choker 1,280 2,480 3,760 4,960 6,240 7,440 2,480 4,960 7,040 8,800 10,960 13,200

Basket or two legs 3,200 6,200 9,400 12,400 15,600 18,600 6,200 12,400 17,600 22,000 27,400 33,000 2,800 5,400 8,100 10,700 13,500 16,100 5,400 10,700 15,200 19,100 23,700 28,600 2,300 4,400 6,600 8,800 11,000 13,200 4,400 8,800 12,400 15,600 19,400 23,000 1,600 3,100 4,700 6,200 7,800 9,300 3,100 6,200 8,800 11,000 13,700 16,500

Web width (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Single Ply Web Slings (9,800 lb/in. material)

Double Ply Web slings (9,800 lb/in. material)

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

(1) For an endless sling with vertical hitch carrying a load of such size as to throw the legs more than 5 degrees off vertical, use rated load data for regular eye and eye sling, basket hitch and corresponding leg angles. (2) Follow manufacturers capacities, they vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and from this chart. (3) Choker hitch values apply only to choke angles greater than 120 degrees.

11-39

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 11.3.5.3 Operation

The following shall apply to all personnel who use synthetic-web slings: a. Determine the weight of the load and center of gravity. Select a sling having suitable characteristics for the type of load, hitch, and environment. o. c. Ensure that slings with end fittings that are used in a choker hitch have sufficient length to that the choking action is on the body of the sling. In slings used in a basket hitch, balance the load to prevent slippage. Do not drag slings across the floor or over any abrasive surface. p. f. g. Do not twist or tie slings into knots. Protect slings from being cut by sharp corners, sharp edges, and highly abrasive surfaces. Do not pull slings from under loads when a load is resting on a sling. Do not use synthetic-web slings to lift loads in excess of the rated capacity. Properly derate for other than straight-pull configuration. Store synthetic-web slings to prevent mechanical or chemical damage. Do not use nylon slings where acid conditions exist. Do not use polyester and polypropylene slings where caustic conditions exist. b.

excess of 150 degree F (66 degree C), or below -40 degree F (-40 degree C). The sling manufacturer should be consulted for the temperature range of slings made from other synthetic yarns. n. Do not use aluminum fittings where acid or caustic fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids are present. Ensure that each sling is permanently marked to show: 1. 2. Name or trademark of manufacturer. Manufacturers code or stock number. Rated capacity for types of hitches used. Type of synthetic-web material.

b.

d.

3. 4.

e.

Synthetic web slings (e.g., Kevlar, K-Spec, nylon, polyester) may be used in radiation areas only when a qualified person ensures that the absorbed dose does not exceed 100,000 rad during the life of the sling. Critical Lifts

11.3.5.4 h.

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Synthetic-web slings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. If proof testing cannot be verified, the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. Proof testing shall be performed in accordance with Section 11.3.5.2, ProofTesting.

i.

j.

k.

l.

11.3.6 SYNTHETIC ROUNDSLINGS a. Synthetic roundslings shall possess the following qualities: 1. Core yarn shall be of a synthetic fiber wound together on a plurality of turns for even distribution of the load.

m. Nylon and polyester slings shall not be used on contact with objects or at temperatures in excess of 194 degree F (90 degree C), or below -40 degree F (-40 degree C). Polypropylene slings shall not be used in contact with objects or at temperatures in Chapter 11 General 11-40

DOE-STD-1090-2007 e. 2. In general, the cover and core should be of the same type of material. However, in chemically active environments, the cover and core shall be of the same type of material. When the core and cover are the same yarn type, the thread should be of the same yarn type. When the cover and the core are of different yarn type, the thread should be of the same material as the core. Finishes and coatings shall be compatible with material of the core, cover, and thread and not impair the performance of the roundsling. h. b. Fittings shall be: 1. Of sufficient strength to sustain twice the rated capacity without permanent deformation. Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the roundsling. Free of all sharp edges that would in any way damage the roundsling. Compatible with the mechanical and environmental requirements imposed on the roundsling. The design factor for synthetic roundslings shall be a minimum of 5:1 based on breaking strength. Rated capacities are affected by the type of hitch used and by the angle from the vertical when used as multi-legged slings or in basket hitches. The sling manufacturer shall supply data on these effects. Synthetic roundslings can be cut by repeated use around sharp-cornered objects. They eventually show sings of abrasion when they are repeatedly used to hoist rough-surfaced products. There are, however, protective devices offered by most sling manufacturers that minimize these effects. The roundsling capacities listed in Table 1116 are approximate only. The capacities are also based on a 5:1 design factor, and assume that the end fittings are of adequate strength. Removal from Service Criteria

f.

3.

g.

4.

11.3.6.1

2.

Synthetic roundslings shall be removed from service if any of the following defects are visible: a. b. Missing or illegible sling identification. Acid or caustic burns. Evidence of heat damage. Holes, tears, cuts, abrasive wear, or snags that expose the core yarns. Broken or damaged core yarns. Weld splatter that exposes core yarns. Roundslings that are knotted. Discoloration and brittle or stiff areas on any part of the sling, which may mean chemical or UV damage. Fittings that are pitted, corroded, cracked, bent, twisted, gouged or broken Hooks whose condition meets the removal criteria of Section 12.2. Chapter 11 General

3.

4.

c. d.

c.

The roundsling manufacturer should be consulted before roundslings are used in chemically active environments. Polyester slings shall not be used on contact with objects or at temperatures in excess of 194 degree F (90 degree C), or below -40 degree F (-40 degree C). Polypropylene slings shall not be used in contact with objects or at temperatures in excess of 150 degree F (66 degree C), or below -40 degree F (-40 degree C). The sling manufacturer should be consulted for the temperature range of slings made from other synthetic yarns.

e. f. g. h.

d.

i.

j. 11-41

DOE-STD-1090-2007

k.

Other conditions, including visible damage, that may cause doubt as to the continued use of the sling. Proof-Testing

c.

Ensure that slings with end fittings that are used in a choker hitch have sufficient length so that the choking action is on the body f the sling. In slings used in a basket hitch, balance the load to prevent slippage. Do not drag slings across the floor or over any abrasive surface. Do not twist or tie slings into knots. Protect slings from being cut by sharp corners, sharp edges, and highly abrasive surfaces. Do not pull slings from under loads when a load is resting on a sling. Do not use roundslings to lift loads in excess of the rated capacity, properly derated for other than straight-pull configuration. When not in use, store slings to prevent mechanical, chemical or environmental damage. Personnel should never stand in line with or next to a roundsling that is under tension. If extreme temperatures are involved, ensure the guidance in 11.3.6.d is followed.

11.3.6.2 a.

d. When specified by the purchaser, synthetic round slings of all types shall be certified as having been proof-tested prior to initial use. 1. For single or multiple leg slings and endless slings, each leg shall be proof loaded to 2 times the single-leg vertical hitch rated load. The proof load for fittings attached to single legs shall be a minimum of 2 times the single-leg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for two leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 4 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for three leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 6 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load. Master links for four leg bridle slings shall be proof loaded to a minimum of 8 times the single leg vertical hitch rated load.

e.

f. g.

2.

h.

3.

i.

j. 4.

k.

5.

l.

b.

Test loads shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. Either certification by the manufacturer or a pull test certified by a qualified person is acceptable. Operation

m. Do not allow the load, hook, or any fitting to constrict, bunch, or pinch roundslings. n. Ensure that roundslings are not used as bridles on suspended personnel platforms. For multiple leg roundslings used with nonsymmetrical loads, an analysis should be performed by a qualified person to prevent overloading of any leg. Ensure that each sling is permanently marked to show: 1. Name or trademark of manufacturer. Manufacturers code or stock number.

o. 11.3.6.3

The following shall apply to all personnel who use roundslings: p. a. Determine the weight and center of gravity of the load. Select a sling having suitable characteristics for the type of lad, hitch, and environment. 11-42

b.

2.

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 3. Rated loads for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based. Core material a. 5. Cover material, if different than core material. Synthetic roundslings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the vertical rated capacity. If proof testing cannot be verified, the sling(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. Proof testing shall be performed in accordance with Section 11.3.6.2, ProofTesting. 11.3.6.4 Critical Lifts

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements.

4.

q.

Synthetic roundslings (e.g., Kevlar, K-Spec, nylon, polyester) may be used in radiation areas only when a qualified person ensures that the absorbed dose does not exceed 100,000 rad during the life of the sling.

b.

11-43

Chapter 11 General

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 11-16 - Load capacity of Single Leg Polyester Roundslings in pounds. Endless and Eye-and-Eye Type, Design Factor 5:1

Size (Note 1) 1 3/82 3 5/84 5 7/86 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Vertical 2,600 5,300 6,400 10,600 13,200 16,800 21,200 25,000 31,000 40,000 53,000 66,000 90,000

Choker 2,100 4,200 6,700 8,500 10,600 13,400 17,000 20,000 24,800 32,000 42,400 52,800 72,000

Basket or two leg 5,200 10,600 16,800 21,200 26,400 33,600 42,400 50,000 62,000 80,000 106,000 132,000 180,000

60 degrees 45 degrees 4,500 9,300 14,500 18,400 22,900 29,100 36,700 43,300 53,700 69,300 91,800 114,300 155,900 3,700 7,500 11,900 15,000 18,700 23,800 30,000 35,400 43,800 56,600 74,900 93,300 127,300 30 degrees 2,600 5,300 6,400 10,600 13,200 16,800 21,200 25,000 31,000 40,000 53,000 66,000 90,000

Reprinted from ASME B30.9-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

NOTES: 1. Roundslings are identified by the vertical rated load shown on the tag. The Size Number in this column has been adopted by the Web Sling and Tiedown Association to describe certain polyester roundslings. They are included for reference only. Other polyester roundslings may have different vertical rated loads. Color guidelines for polyester roundsling covers are widely used to indicate the vertical rated load of roundslings; however, this is not followed by some manufacturers. Always select and use roundslings by the rated load as shown on the tag, never by color.

2.

Chapter 11 General

11-44

DOE-STD-1090-2007

CHAPTER 12 RIGGING HARDWARE


This chapter provides requirements for rigging accessories used in hoisting and rigging shackles, eyebolts, eye nuts, links, rings, swivels, wire-rope clips, turnbuckles, rigging hooks, and load-indicating devices and implements the requirements of ANSI/ASME B30.26, Rigging Hardware (for latest ASME standards, see http://catalog.asme.org/home.cfm?Category=CS). 12.1 12.2 GENERAL..................................................................................................................................12-1 12.1.1 Good and Bad Rigging Practices ...................................................................................12-1 RIGGING HOOKS.....................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.1 Design ............................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.2 Marking..........................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.3 Construction...................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.4 Load Limits....................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.5 Inspections .....................................................................................................................12-5 12.2.6 Testing ...........................................................................................................................12-6 12.2.7 Maintenance...................................................................................................................12-6 12.2.8 Operation .......................................................................................................................12-6 SHACKLES................................................................................................................................12-7 12.3.1 General...........................................................................................................................12-7 12.3.2 Effects of Environment ..................................................................................................12-7 12.3.3 Training..........................................................................................................................12-7 12.3.4 Inspections .....................................................................................................................12-7 12.3.5 Removal Criteria............................................................................................................12-8 12.3.6 Repairs ...........................................................................................................................12-8 12.3.7 Critical Lifts...................................................................................................................12-8 EYEBOLTS ..............................................................................................................................12-11 12.4.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-11 12.4.2 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-11 12.4.3 Training........................................................................................................................12-11 12.4.4 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-11 12.4.5 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-12 12.4.6 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-12 12.4.7 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-12 EYE NUTS ...............................................................................................................................12-14 12.5.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-14 12.5.2 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-14 12.5.3 Training........................................................................................................................12-14 12.5.4 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-14 12.5.5 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-15 12.5.6 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-15 12.5.7 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-15 TURNBUCKLES .....................................................................................................................12-16 12.6.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-16 12.6.2 Operating Practices ......................................................................................................12-16 12-i Chapter 12 Rigging Hardware

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

DOE-STD-1090-2007 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 12.6.8 12.7 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-16 Training........................................................................................................................12-16 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-16 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-17 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-17 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-17

LINKS, RINGS, AND SWIVELS............................................................................................12-19 12.7.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-19 12.7.2 Operating Practices ......................................................................................................12-19 12.7.3 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-19 12.7.4 Training........................................................................................................................12-19 12.7.5 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-19 12.7.6 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-20 12.7.7 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-20 12.7.8 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-20 SWIVEL HOIST RINGS..........................................................................................................12-21 12.8.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-21 12.8.2 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-21 12.8.3 Training........................................................................................................................12-21 12.8.4 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-21 12.8.5 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-22 12.8.6 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-22 12.8.7 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-22 LOAD-INDICATING DEVICES.............................................................................................12-25 12.9.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-25 12.9.2 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-25 PRECISION LOAD POSITIONERS .......................................................................................12-26 12.10.1 General.........................................................................................................................12-26 12.10.2 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-26 COMPRESSION HARDWARE ..............................................................................................12-27 12.11.1General..........................................................................................................................12-27 12.11.2 Assembly Wire Rope Clips.......................................................................................12-27 12.11.3 Assembly Wedge Sockets......................................................................................... 12.27 12.11.4 Effects of Environment ................................................................................................12-28 12.11.5 Training........................................................................................................................12-28 12.11.6 Inspections ...................................................................................................................12-28 12.11.7 Removal Criteria..........................................................................................................12-28 12.11.8 Repairs .........................................................................................................................12-29 12.11.9 Critical Lifts.................................................................................................................12-29

12.8

12.9

12.10

12.11

Chapter 12
Rigging Hardware

12-ii

DOE-STD-1090-2007

12.1 GENERAL
a. The information presented in this chapter
provides guidance for safely handling lifted loads. Diagrams are used to illustrate hoisting and rigging principles and good and bad rigging practices. This is not a rigging textbook; the information should be applied only by qualified riggers. select the lifting devices (e.g., eyebolts or shackles).

g. Evaluate load stability (i.e., evaluate load center


of gravity with respect to lift points)

h. Rigging equipment loading for applications other


than vertical shall be evaluated as shown in Fig. 12-4.

b. All manufacturer-provided lift points designed


for and installed on engineered or manufactured equipment are considered part of the equipment and are acceptable for their intended use. Manufacturer-supplied lift points shall:

i.

Manufacturer specifications and requirements for use and application of rigging accessories shall be followed. Multiple slings or rigging hardware gathered in a link or ring shall not exceed a 120 included angle (See Fig. 12-4). The horizontal angle of loading should not be less than 30 unless approved by a qualified person (See Fig. 12-4). All rigging attachment points (e.g., eyebolts, imbedded anchor bolts) shall be evaluated to ensure their capability to safely carry imposed rigging loads.

j.

1. Meet manufacturer's pre-operational


inspection, testing, and maintenance criteria. k.

2. Be inspected by a designated person prior to


use.

3. Be used in accordance with manufacturer's


instructions. In the absence of such information, further qualified technical support may be needed.

l.

c. Rigging accessories that have been damaged or


removed from service shall be made unusable for hoisting and rigging operations before being discarded.

m. The working load limit (WLL) of rigging hardware shall not be exceeded in its as configured application. n. Rigging hardware service is defined as follows for all types of rigging hardware other than rigging hooks (for hooks see Section 12.2.5.3.b): 1. Normal Service that involves use of loads at or below the rated load. Severe Service that involves normal service coupled with abnormal rigging or operating conditions. Special Service that involves operation, other than normal or severe, which is approved by a qualified person.

d. Determine the weight of the load: 1. From markings on the load. 2. By weighing, if the load is still on the truck
or railroad car.

3. From drawings or other documentation. 4. By calculation, using the load dimensions


and the weights of common materials in Table 12-1. 2.

e. Determine the center of gravity of the load as


accurately as possible:

3.

1. From drawings or other documentation. 2. From markings on the load. 3. By calculation. f.


Determine the best method to attach the load and

12.1.1 GOOD AND BAD RIGGING PRACTICES


Figure 12-1 illustrates some good and bad rigging practices.

12-1

Chapter 12 Rigging Hardware

DOE-STD-1090-2007 Table 12-1. Weights of Common Materials


Name of Metal Aluminum Antimony Bismuth Brass, cast Brass, rolled Copper, cast Copper, rolled Gold, 24-carat Iron, cast Iron, wrought Lead, commercial Mercury, 60 degrees F Silver Steel Tin, cast Uranium Zinc Weight 3 (lb/ft ) 166 418 613 504 523 550 555 1,204 450 480 712 846 655 490 458 1,163 437 Name of Material Bluestone Brick, pressed Brick, common Cement, Portland (packed) Cement, Portland (loose) Cement, slag (packed) Cement, slag (loose) Chalk Charcoal Cinder concrete Clay, ordinary Coal, hard, solid Coal, hard, broken Coal, soft, solid Coal, soft, broken Coke, loose Concrete or stone Earth, rammed Name of wood Granite Gravel Ash Beech Birch Cedar Cherry Chestnut Cork Cypress Ebony Elm Fir, Balsam Hemlock Maple, Oak Pine, Poplar 35 37 40 22 30 26 15 27 71 30 22 31 62 30 Lime, quick (ground loose) Limestone Marble Plaster of paris (cast) Sand Sandstone Shale Slate Terra-cotta Traprock Water Weight 3 (lb/ft ) 160 50 125 100-120 70-90 80-100 55-75 156 15-34 110 120-150 93.5 54 84 54 23-32 140-155 90-100 165-170 117-125 53 170 164 80 90-106 151 162 160-180 110 170 65

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Figure 12-1. Good and bad rigging practices

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HH 6 DUX FXU 6 JQ V R+ HH 6 DUX FXU 6 JQ V R+ OOOOHHWWWW6 OOOODUXWWWWFXUWWWW6 JQLLLLWWWWVLLLLR+ HH 6 DUX FXU 6 JQ V R+

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12.2 RIGGING HOOKS


12.2.1 DESIGN
Hook design shall meet generally accepted hook design standards and shall comply with the requirements of ASME B30.10. (See Chapter 13, Load Hooks, for equipment load hook requirements). 12.2.5.2 a. Daily Inspection

The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect hooks daily or prior to first use, if the hook is not in regular service, for the following (records are not required): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cracks, nicks, gouges. Deformation. Damage from chemicals. Damage, engagement, or malfunction of latch (if provided). Evidence of heat damage.

12.2.2 MARKING
The manufacturers identification shall be forged, cast, or die-stamped on a low-stress and nonwearing area of the hook.

12.2.3 CONSTRUCTION
a. The hook material shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before failure at the temperature at which the hook will be used. Rated capacities for hooks shall equal or exceed the rated capacity of the chain, wire rope, or other suspension members to which they are attached. b.

b.

A designated person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required. Frequent Inspection

12.2.5.3 a.

12.2.4 LOAD LIMITS


A hook shall not be loaded beyond its rated capacity, except as is necessary to conform to the requirements for load testing of the sling or hardware to which it is attached.

The operator or other designated personnel shall visually inspect the hook at the following intervals (records are not required): 1. 2. 3. Normal service monthly. Heavy service weekly to monthly. Severe service daily to weekly.

12.2.5 INSPECTIONS
12.2.5.1 a. Initial Inspection A designated inspector shall inspect all new and repaired hooks prior to initial use. Dimensional data on the hooks shall be recorded to facilitate subsequent inspections for wear and throat openings. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. Inspection procedure and record keeping requirements for hooks in regular service shall be determined by the kind of equipment in which they are used. When such requirements for hooks are stated in standards for the specific equipment, they shall take precedence over the requirements of this section.

b.

Hook service is defined as follows: 1. Normal service operation at less than 85 percent of rated capacity except for isolated instances. Heavy service operation at 85 to 100 percent of rated capacity as a regular specified procedure. Severe service operation at heavy service coupled with abnormal operating conditions.

2.

3. c.

b.

These inspections shall, in addition to the requirements of Section 12.2.5.2, Daily Inspection, include the following: 1. 2. Wear. Hook attachment and securing means.

d.

A designated person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether a more detailed inspection is required.

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12.2.5.4 a. Periodic Inspection person to determine the need for subsequent nondestructive testing (NDT). If NDT is deemed necessary, it shall be performed in accordance with Section 13.4.3.

A designated inspector shall perform a complete inspection at the following intervals: 1. 2. 3. Normal service yearly. Heavy service semiannually. Severe service quarterly.

12.2.7 MAINTENANCE
a. A designated person shall repair cracks, nicks, and gouges by grinding longitudinally, following the contour of the hook, provided that no dimension is reduced more than 10 percent of its original value (or as recommended by the manufacturer). All other repairs shall be performed by the manufacturer.

b.

A designated inspector shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard. The inspection shall include the requirements of Section 12.2.5.3, Frequent Inspection. Hooks having any of the following conditions shall be removed from service until repaired or replaced: 1. 2. Any visibly apparent bend or twist from the plane of the unbent hook. Any distortion causing an increase in throat opening exceeding 5 percent not to exceed inch, (or as recommended by the manufacturer). Any wear exceeding 10 percent (or as recommended by the manufacturer) of the original section dimension of the hook. Cracks. b.

c. d.

12.2.8 OPERATION
The following shall apply to rigging hook users: a. Determine that the load does not exceed the lesser of the rated capacity of the hook or the load rating of the equipment of which it is a part., Avoid shock loading. Keep hands, fingers, and body from getting between the hook and the load. Load shall be centered in the base of the hook to prevent point loading of the hook. Hooks shall not be used in such a manner as to place a side load or back load on the hook. When using a device to close the throat opening of the hook, care shall be taken that the load is not carried by the closing device The use of a hook with a latch does not preclude the inadvertent detachment of a slack sling or a load from the hook. Visual verification of proper hook engagement is required in all cases. Self-locking hooks shall be locked during use. When a lock is equipped with a latch, the latch shall not be constrained from closing during use.

b. c. d. e. f.

3.

4. e.

If a latch is provided and it becomes inoperative or fails to fully bridge the throat opening, the hook shall be removed from service until the device has been repaired or replaced

12.2.6 TESTING
a. Performance testing of hooks shall not be required except where necessary to conform to the requirements for the equipment of which they are part. When tests are specified, documentation shall be uniquely identified to the hook by serial number or other identifier. If detailed inspections are performed (refer to Sections 12.2.5.2.b, 12.2.5.3.d, and 12.2.5.4.c), the results shall be evaluated by a designated

g.

h. i.

b.

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12.3 SHACKLES
12.3.1 GENERAL
a. Shackles are made of drop-forged steel bent into shape. The shackle shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load at the temperatures at which the manufacturer has specified for use. They are strong, closed attachments that will not come unhooked. The size is specified by the diameter of the body. Side pulls on the shackle body are only permitted if the manufacturer has rated the shackle for that type of lift. NOTE: Round pin shackles (restrained by cotter pin only) shall not be used for lifting. b. Types: 1. 2. 3. Body types covered are anchor, chain, and synthetic sling (see Fig. 12.2). Pin types covered are screw pin and bolttype (see Fig. 12.2). Shackles other than those detailed in this chapter shall be used only in accordance with recommendations of the shackle manufacturer or a qualified person. b. 1. The design factor for shackles up to and including a 150 ton rated load shall be a minimum of 5:1. The design factor for shackles over 150 ton rated load shall be a minimum of 4:1.

2. i.

Rated load shall be in accordance with the recommendation of the shackle manufacturer. The terms rated capacity and working load limit are commonly used to describe rated load.

12.3.2 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When shackles are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below -40F (-40C), the shackle manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. The strength of shackles can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The shackle manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before shackles are used in chemically active environments.

12.3.3 TRAINING
Shackle users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

c.

Shackle pins shall fit free without binding. A bolt shall not be used as a substitute for a shackle pin. Figure 12-3 shows the components and typical inspection points of shackles. Each shackle body shall be permanently and legible marked by the manufacturer. Raised or stamped letters on the side of the bow shall be used to show: 1. 2. 3. Manufacturer's name and trademark. Size. Rated capacity.

d.

12.3.4 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired shackles shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed by the user or other designated person each day before the shackle is used. Semi-permanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.3.5 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the shackle to be removed from service. Shackles shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person.

e.

Pins for shackles manufactured after May 20, 2006 shall be marked by the manufacturer with raised or stamped letters showing: 1. 2. Name or trademark of manufacturer Grade, material type or load rating

f.

When shackles are side loaded, the safe loading shall be reduced as specified by the manufacturer (See Figure 12-5). Design Factor:

2.

g.

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3. c. Written records are not required. 3. 4. Excessive pitting or corrosion Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components Excessive nicks or gouges A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point around the body or pin. Incomplete pin engagement Excessive thread damage. Evidence of unauthorized welding.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the shackle shall be performed by a designated person. The shackle shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section 12.3.5 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. ii. Frequency of use. Severity of service conditions.

5. 6.

2.

7. 8. 9.

iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of shackles used in similar circumstances. 3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly. b.

10. Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to the continued use of the shackle..

12.3.6 REPAIRS
a. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the shackle manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Shackles used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test of 200 percent of the rated capacity. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the shackle(s) shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. 4. Written records are not required. a. b.

12.3.7 CRITICAL LIFTS

12.3.5 REMOVAL CRITERIA


a. Shackles shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: 1. 2. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes.

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Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-2. Shackle Types

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-3. Typical Shackle Inspection Points

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Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-4. Effect of Loading Angle

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-5. Side Loading

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12.4 EYEBOLTS
12.4.1 GENERAL
a. This section specifies requirements for eyebolts that are used as rigging hardware during normal hoisting and rigging activities. Eyebolts used for hoisting shall be fabricated from forged carbon or alloy steel and shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load at temperatures at which the manufacturer has specified for use. Each eyebolt shall be marked to show: 1. 2. 3. d. e. Name or trademark of manufacturer. Size or rated load. Grade for alloy eyebolts. l. When used in a tapped through-hole of less than one and one half diameter thickness, a nut shall be used under the load and shall be fully engaged and tightened securely against the load (see Fig. 12-6).

b.

m. Only shouldered eyebolts shall be used for angular loading. The shoulder shall be securely tightened against the load and the eye shall be aligned with the direction of the loading. The working load limit shall be reduced as recommended by the manufacturer. n. Shock loading shall be avoided.

c.

12.4.2 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When alloy steel eyebolts are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below40F (-40C), the eyebolt manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. Carbon steel eyebolts shall not be used at temperatures above 275F (135C) or below 30 F (-1C) unless approved by manufacturer or a qualified person. The strength of eyebolts can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The eyebolt manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before eyebolts are used in chemically active environments.

Eyebolts shall have a minimum design factor of 5:1. Only shouldered eyebolts shall be used for rigging hardware, except when prohibited by the configuration of the item to be lifted. Where non-shouldered eyebolts are required, they shall only be used in vertical pulls or in rigging systems that are designed and approved by a qualified person. Nuts, washers, and drilled plates shall not be used or assembled to make shouldered eyebolts. Wire-type or welded eyebolts shall not be used. Shoulders shall seat uniformly, snugly and flush against the surface on which they bear (See Fig. 12-6). When eyebolts cannot be properly seated and aligned, a steel washer or spacer with the smallest inside diameter that will fit the eyebolt shank may be used to put the plane of the eye in the direction of the load when the shoulder is seated. The washer or spacer shall not exceed one thread pitch in thickness or as recommended by the manufacturer. Eyebolts shall be tightened or otherwise secured against rotation during the lift. When used in a tapped blind hole, the effective thread length shall be at least one and one half times the diameter of the bolt for engagement in steel (see Fig. 12-6). For other thread engagements or engagement in other materials, contact the eyebolt manufacturer or qualified person. b.

c.

f. g. h.

12.4.3 TRAINING
Eyebolt users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

i.

12.4.4 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired eyebolts shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

j. k.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed by the user or other designated person each shift before the eyebolt is used. Semipermanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed.

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2. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.4.5 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the eyebolt to be removed from service. Eyebolts shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point around the body or pin. Excessive thread damage or wear. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the eyebolt manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Eyebolts used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the rated capacity. Test loads shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the eyebolts shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift

3. c.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the eyebolt shall be performed by a designated person. The eyebolt shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section 12.4.5 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: v. Frequency of use.

2.

12.4.6 REPAIRS
a.

vi. Severity of service conditions. vii. Nature of lifts being made. viii. Experience gained on the service life of eyebolts used in similar circumstances. 3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly.

b.

12.4.7 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. 4. Written records are not required.

12.4.5 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Eyebolts shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person:

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Angular Loading
Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-6. Eyebolts


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12.5 EYE NUTS


12.5.1 GENERAL
a. This section specifies requirements for eye nuts that are used as rigging hardware during normal hoisting and rigging activities. Eye nuts used for hoisting shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load at temperatures at which the manufacturer has specified for use. Each eye nut shall be marked to show: 1. 2. d. e. f. g. h. i. Name or trademark of manufacturer. Size or rated load. b.

12.5.4 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired eye nuts shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

b.

c.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed the user or other designated person each shift before the eye nut is used. Semi-permanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.5.5. or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the eye nut to be removed from service. Eye nuts shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

Eye nuts shall have a minimum design factor of 5:1. Eye nuts shall be secured against rotation during the lift. The threads of the eye nut shall be fully engaged (See Fig. 12-7). Eye nuts shall only be used for in-line loads. The plane of the eye may be positioned with a flat washer(s) or lock nut. Shock loading should be avoided. c.

2.

3.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the eye nut shall be performed by a designated person. The eye nut shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section 12.5.5 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. Frequency of use. ii. Severity of service conditions. iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of eye nuts used in similar circumstances. 3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly.

12.5.2 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When eye nuts are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below-40F (-40C), the eye nut manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. The strength of eye nuts can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The eye nut manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before eye nuts are used in chemically active environments.

b.

2.

12.5.3 TRAINING
Eye nut users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person.

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d. Written records are not required. i. Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the eye nut manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications.

12.5.5 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Eye nuts shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point around the body or pin. Excessive thread damage or wear. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification a.

12.5.6 REPAIRS

b.

12.5.7 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Eye nuts used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the rated capacity. Test loads shall be accurate to within 5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the eye nut shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift.

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-7. Eye Nuts


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12.6 TURNBUCKLES
12.6.1 GENERAL
a. Turnbuckles include open and pipe bodies and have hook, eye, jaw, or stub end fittings (See Figure 12-8). Before each use, turnbuckles shall be inspected for damage. Damaged threads, jamb nuts, or bent frame members make the unit unsuitable for use. Turnbuckles shall be fabricated from material of sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load within the temperature range that the manufacture specified and shall have a minimum design factor of 5:1. Each turnbuckle body shall be permanently and legibly marked by the manufacturer to show: 1. 2. Manufacturers name or trademark. Size or rated load. l. Turnbuckles should be adjusted with a properly sized wrench, used on the flats of the turnbuckle body.

12.6.3 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When a turnbuckle is to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below-40F (-40C), the turnbuckle manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. The strength of turnbuckles can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The turnbuckle manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before turnbuckles are used in chemically active environments.

b.

b.

c.

12.6.4 TRAINING
Turnbuckle users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

12.6.2 OPERATING PRACTICES:


a. b. Turnbuckle end fitting threads shall be fully engaged in the body threads. Components, including pins, bolts, nuts, or cotter pins used with jaw ends, shall be in good working condition prior to use. Contact with obstructions that could damage or bend the turnbuckle should be avoided. Shock loading should be avoided. The load applied to the turnbuckle should be in line and in tension. When turnbuckles are used at load angles other than 90 degrees, the safe-load rating shall be reduced per the manufacturers recommendations. Turnbuckles should not be side loaded. Turnbuckles used in applications where there is vibration shall be secured to the frame with locks, pins, or wires to prevent turning or loosening. Turnbuckles should be rigged or secured to prevent unscrewing during the lift. For long-term installations, turnbuckles shall be secured to prevent unscrewing. Turnbuckles should not be dragged on and an abrasive surface.

12.6.5 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired turnbuckles shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

c. d. e. f.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed the user or other designated person each shift before the turnbuckle is used. Semipermanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.6.6 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the turnbuckle to be removed from service. Turnbuckles shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

g. h.

2.

i. j. k.

3. c.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the turnbuckle shall be performed by a designated person. The turnbuckle shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section

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12.6.6.and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. 2. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. ii. Frequency of use. Severity of service conditions. d. e. f. g. h. i. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point. Excessive thread damage or wear. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the turnbuckle manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Turnbuckles used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the rated capacity. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the turnbuckles shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. If proof tested, turnbuckles shall be inspected after the test for the removal conditions stated above.

iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of turnbuckles used in similar circumstances. 3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly. b.

12.6.7 REPAIRS
a.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. 4. Written records are not required.

12.6.8 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b.

12.6.6 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Turnbuckles shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: a. b. c. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion.

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Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-8. Turnbuckles

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12.7 LINKS, RINGS AND SWIVELS


12.7.1 GENERAL
a. Links, rings and swivels are usually designed and manufactured as a part of the lifting hardware for a specific purpose, such as the peak link on multiple-leg slings positioning. However, the rings and links may also be found on the load-attachment end of slings. Figure 129 shows typical rings, links and swivels. Links, rings and swivels shall be fabricated from material of sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load within the temperature range specified by the manufacturer, and shall have a minimum design factor of 5:1. Each link, ring or swivel body shall be permanently and legibly marked by the manufacturer to show: 1. 2. 3. Manufacturers name or trademark. Size or rated load. Grade, if required to identify rated load. should be consulted before links, rings or swivels are used in chemically active environments.

12.7.4 TRAINING
Link, ring or swivel users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

b.

12.7.5 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired link, ring or swivel shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

c.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed the user or other designated person each shift before the link, ring or swivel is used. Semipermanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.7.6 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the link, ring or swivel to be removed from service. Links, rings or swivels shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

12.7.2 OPERATING PRACTICES:


a. b. c. d. e. f. Contact with obstructions that could damage the link, ring, or swivel should be avoided. Shock loading should be avoided. The load applied to the link, ring or swivel should be in line and in tension. Links, rings and swivels should not be side loaded. Links, rings and swivels should not be dragged on any abrasive surface. The link, ring or swivel shall be of proper shape and size to ensure that it seats properly in the hook or lifting device. c. 3. 2.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the link, ring, or swivel shall be performed by a designated person. The links, rings or swivels shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section 12.7.6 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. Frequency of use. ii. Severity of service conditions. iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of links, rings or swivels used in similar circumstances.

12.7.3 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When link, rings or swivels are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below40F (-40C), the link, ring or swivel manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The link, ring or swivel manufacturer or a qualified person 2.

b. The strength of link, rings or swivels can be

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3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly. j. i. For swivels, lack of ability to freely rotate when not loaded For swivels, loose or missing nuts, bolts, cotter pins, snap rings, or other fasteners or retaining devices Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the link, ring or swivel manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Links, rings and swivels used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test of 200 percent of the rated capacity. Test loads shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the links and/or rings shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift. If proof-tested, the link, rink or swivel shall be inspected after the test for the removal conditions stated above.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. 4. Written records are not required.

k.

12.7.6 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Links, rings or swivels shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point. Excessive thread damage or wear. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification

12.7.7 REPAIRS
a.

b.

12.7.8 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b.

Ring and Thimble

Link and Thimble Link and Closed Socket Link, Short Link and Thimble

Swivel

Figure 12-9. Ring, Links and Swivels

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Rigging Hardware

12-20

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12.8 SWIVEL HOIST RINGS


12.8.1 GENERAL a. This section specifies requirements for swivel
hoist rings that are used as rigging hardware during hoisting and rigging activities. b. Swivel hoist rings, excluding bushings and bearings, shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before losing the ability to support the load at temperatures at which the manufacturer has specified for use. Each swivel hoist ring shall be marked to show: 1. 2. 3. d. e. Name or trademark of manufacturer. Size or rated load. Torque value. n. limit meets or exceeds the anticipated angular rigging tension (see Fig. 12-11). Shock loading should be avoided.

12.8.2 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. When swivel hoist rings are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below20F (-40C), the swivel hoist ring manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. The strength of swivel hoist rings can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The swivel hoist ring manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before swivel hoist rings are used in chemically active environments.

b.

c.

12.8.3 TRAINING
Swivel hoist ring users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard.

Swivel hoist rings shall have a minimum design factor of 5:1. When used in a threaded hole, the effective thread length shall be at least one and one half times the diameter of the bolt for engagement in steel (see Fig. 12-10). For other thread engagements or engagement in other materials, contact the swivel hoist ring manufacturer or qualified person. When used in a through-hole application, a nut and washer shall be used. The washer and nut shall be in accordance with the swivel hoist ring manufacturers recommendations. The nut shall be fully engaged (see Fig. 12-10). The bushing flange (Fig. 12-10) shall fully contact the load surface. Spacers or washers shall not be used between the bushing and the mounting surface of the load being lifted. The swivel hoist ring shall be tightened to the manufacturers torque specifications. The swivel hoist ring shall be free to rotate and pivot without interference during lifting (see Fig. 12-11). The load applied to the swivel hoist ring shall be centered in the bail to prevent side loading. Any attached lifting component shall be narrower than the inside width of the bail to avoid spreading (see Fig. 12-11).

12.8.4 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired swivel hoist rings shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

f.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed the user or other designated person each shift before the swivel hoist ring is used. Semipermanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.8.5 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the swivel hoist ring to be removed from service. Swivel hoist rings shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

g. h.

i. j.

2.

k. l.

3. c.

Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the swivel hoist ring shall be performed by a designated person. The swivel hoist ring shall be examined for conditions such as those listed

m. Ensure that the swivel hoist ring working load

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in Section 12.8.5 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. 2. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. Frequency of use. ii. Severity of service conditions. iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of swivel hoist rings used in similar circumstances. 4. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly. b. i. j. d. e. f. g. h. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point. Excessive thread damage or wear. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification Lack of the ability to freely rotate or pivot Other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the swivel hoist ring manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications.

12.8.6 REPAIRS
a.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. 5. Written records are not required.

12.8.5 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Swivel hoist rings shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: a. b. c. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion.

12.8.7 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Swivel hoist rings used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof test of 200 percent of the rated capacity or as recommended by the manufacturer. Test loads shall be accurate to with -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. If proof testing cannot be verified, the swivel hoist rings shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift.

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Rigging Hardware

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180 rotation

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-10. Swivel Hoist Rings

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Attach lifting device ensuring free fit to swivel hoist ring bail and ensuring no interference between load (work piece) and bail.

Always ensure free movement of the bail. Never use hoist rings if bail is bent or elongated.

Figure 12-11. Guidelines for Attaching and Using Swivel Hoist Rings

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Rigging Hardware

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12.9 LOAD INDICATING DEVICES


12.9.1 GENERAL
c. a. Load-indicating devices are not required in routine operations where loads of known and essentially consistent weight are to be handled. Rather, load-indicating devices are required for use with loads of uncertain weight that could be within 90 - 100 percent of the rated capacity of the equipment or maximum working load of any part of the tackle. Use load-indicating devices where the equipment/tackle configuration could result in binding or friction of the load that could cause a greater stress in the hoist or tackle than would result from the apparent hook load. The accuracy of load-indicating devices shall depend on the requirements of the load system planned, and shall not restrict the system requirements; an accuracy of 2 percent of fullscale reading within 10 - 70 percent of instrument range is recommended. The device should be selected so that the estimated hook d. load lies between 10 and 70 percent of the instrument range. Load-indicating devices shall have a design factor of not less than 3:1. Dynamometers and load cells shall be calibrated at least once a year and when specified in the critical lift procedure. This also applies if they have not been used in the previous 6 months. All calibrated devices shall have a tag affixed indicating date of calibration, by whom they were calibrated, and the date that the next calibration is due.

12.9.2 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Load indicating devices used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test per the manufacturers specifications confirming the load rating. If proof testing cannot be verified, the load indicating device shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift.

b.

b.

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12.10 PRECISION LOAD POSITIONERS

12.10.1 GENERAL
a. A precision load positioning device in the load path shall have a design factor of no less than 5:1, based on ultimate strength of the devices load bearing components. A precision load positioner shall be operated, maintained, calibrated and tested in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Prior to initial use, all new, repaired, and altered precision load positioning devices shall be load tested, and a written report shall be furnished, confirming the load rating. If the load test is not performed by the manufacturer, it shall be done under the direction of a designated or authorized person in strict compliance with the

manufacturers instructions. Special attention should be paid to the manufacturers instructions concerning testing of devices equipped with load gages as they may be damaged during the load test.

b.

12.10.2 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Precision load positioners used for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof load test per the manufacturers specifications confirming the load rating. If proof testing cannot be verified, the precision load positioners shall be proof tested before being used to make a critical lift.

c.

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Rigging Hardware

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12.11 COMPRESSION HARDWARE


12.11.1 GENERAL
a. This section specifies requirements for U-bolt and double saddle wire rope clips (see Fig. 1212) and wedge sockets (see Fig. 12-13). Other compression hardware shall be used only in accordance with recommendations of the manufacturer or a qualified person. Wire rope clip materials shall be of sufficient strength such that failure of the wire rope will occur before failure of the wire rope clip at the temperatures that the manufacturer has specified for use. Saddles shall be forged steel. Wedge socket materials shall be of sufficient strength such that failure of the wire rope will occur before failure of the wedge socket at the temperatures, specified for use by the manufacturer. The rated load for wire rope assemblies using compression hardware is based on the wire rope minimum breaking force, 80% minimum connection efficiency and the design factor of the wire rope application. The rated load shall not be exceeded Compression hardware is not required to be proof tested unless specified by the purchaser. If a proof test is specified, the load shall be applied to the wedge socket or the connection made by the wire rope clips after the assembly is complete. The proof load shall be at least 40%, but not exceed 50% of the minimum breaking force unless approved by the compression hardware manufacturer or a qualified person. After proof testing, wire rope clips on a finished assembly shall be re-tightened to the torque recommended by the wire rope clip manufacturer or a qualified person. The compression hardware shall then be inspected in accordance with Section 12.11.6. Wire rope clips shall have the manufacturers name or trademark and the saddle size either forged or die-stamped into the saddle. Wedge sockets shall have the manufacturers name or trademark, the size and model (if required to match the wedge to the body) either forged, cast or die stamped into the wedge and socket body. Compression hardware should not be in contact with the load or any obstruction during the lift. i. Rigging using compression hardware should not be dragged on an abrasive surface or in contact with sharp edges. Wedge sockets should not be side loaded. Impacts can dislodge the wedge from the body and should be avoided.

j. k.

b.

12.11.2 ASSEMBLY WIRE ROPE CLIPS


a. Before installing a wire rope clip on plastic coated or plastic impregnated wire rope, consult the wire rope clip manufacturer, wire rope manufacturer, or a qualified person. For U-bolt clips used to create end terminations, the saddle shall be placed on the live end of the wire rope, with the U-bolt on the dead end side (see Fig. 12-12). The minimum number of clips, spacing, turnback and torque values shall be as recommended by the manufacturer or a qualified person. After assembly, the connection shall be loaded to at least the expected working load. After unloading, wire rope clips shall then be retightened to the torque recommended by the manufacturer or a qualified person.

c.

b.

c.

d.

d.

e.

12.11.3 ASSEMBLY WEDGE SOCKETS


a. The wedge socket shall be assembled as recommended by the manufacturer or a qualified person. Before installing a wedge socket on plastic coated or plastic impregnated wire rope, consult the wedge socket manufacturer, wire rope manufacturer, or a qualified person. The live end of the wire rope in the wedge socket cavity shall be in alignment with the sockets pin (see Fig. 12-13). The assembler shall match the proper wedge with the socket for the wire rope to be installed.

b.

c.

f.

d.

g.

NOTE: Wedges shall not be interchanged between different manufacturers sockets or models. e. The length of the dead end tail of the wire rope shall be as required by the manufacturer or a qualified person. The dead end tail of the wire rope extending beyond the wedge socket shall be secured in a manner recommended by the wedge socket

f.

h.

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manufacturer or a qualified person (see Fig. 1213). g. The dead end of the wire rope shall not be secured to the live end of the wire rope such that it restricts the movement of the live end (see Fig. 12-13). After assembly, the connection shall be loaded to fully seat the wedge before use. 2. c. Periodic Inspection: 1. A complete inspection of the compression hardware shall be performed by a designated person. The compression hardware shall be examined for conditions such as those listed in Section 12.11.7 and a determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Periodic inspection intervals shall not exceed one year. The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on: i. Frequency of use. ii. Severity of service conditions. iii. Nature of lifts being made. iv. Experience gained on the service life of compression hardware used in similar circumstances. 3. Guidelines for the time intervals are: i. ii. Normal service yearly. Severe service monthly to quarterly.

h.

12.11.4 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT


a. Compression hardware are to be used at temperatures above 400F (204C) or below40F (-40C), the compression hardware manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted. The strength of compression hardware can be affected by chemically active environments such as caustic or acid substances or fumes. The compression hardware manufacturer or a qualified person should be consulted before compression hardware are used in chemically active environments.

b.

12.11.5 TRAINING
Compression hardware users shall be trained in the selection, inspection, cautions to personnel, effects of environment, and rigging practices as covered by this standard. 4.

iii. Special service as recommended by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

12.11.7 REMOVAL CRITERIA


Compression hardware shall be removed from service if damage such as the following is visible, and shall only be returned to service when approved by a qualified person: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Missing or illegible manufacturers name or trademark and/or rated load identification. Indications of heat damage including welding spatter or arc strikes. Excessive pitting or corrosion. Bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken components. Excessive nicks or gouges. A 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point. Evidence of unauthorized welding or modification Unauthorized replacement components Insufficient number of wire rope clips Improperly tightened wire rope clips Indications of wire rope slippage

12.11.6 INSPECTIONS
a. Initial Inspection 1. Prior to use, all new, altered, modified, or repaired compression hardware shall be inspected by a designated person to verify compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter. Written records are not required.

b.

Frequent Inspection 1. A visual inspection shall be performed by the user or other designated person each shift before the compression hardware is used. Semi-permanent and inaccessible locations where frequent inspections are not feasible shall have periodic inspections performed. Conditions such as those listed in Section 12.11.7 or any other condition that may result in a hazard shall cause the compression hardware to be removed from service. Compression hardware shall not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required.

2.

3.

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Rigging Hardware

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l. Improper assembly or other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to continue use. Repairs, alterations, or modifications shall be as specified by the compression hardware manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall meet or exceed the original equipment manufacturers specifications.

12.11.9 CRITICAL LIFTS


a. b. See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. Compression hardware used for critical-lift service shall be proof tested as part of the completed assembly.

12.11.8 REPAIRS
a.

b.

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-12. Wire Rope Clips

Reprinted from ASME B30.26-2004 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 12-13. Wedge Sockets


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CHAPTER 13 LOAD HOOKS


This chapter provides safety standards for the inspection, testing, and maintenance of load hooks installed on cranes or hoists and implements the requirements of ASME B30.10, Chapter 10-1, Hooks. See Chapter 12, Rigging Accessories, for rigging hook requirements (for latest ASME standards, see http://catalog.asme.org/home.cfm?Category=CS).

13.1

GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................13-1 13.1.1 Marking......................................................................................................................13-1 13.1.2 Attachments ...............................................................................................................13-1 13.1.3 Load Limits................................................................................................................13-1 13.1.4 Hook Standards..........................................................................................................13-1 INSPECTIONS ........................................................................................................................13-2 13.2.1 Hook Service..............................................................................................................13-2 13.2.2 Initial Inspection ........................................................................................................13-2 13.2.3 Daily Inspection .........................................................................................................13-2 13.2.4 Frequent Inspection....................................................................................................13-2 13.2.5 Periodic inspection.....................................................................................................13-2 TESTING .................................................................................................................................13-4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) ................................................................................13-6 13.4.1 NDT Requirements ....................................................................................................13-6 13.4.2 NDT Records .............................................................................................................13-6 13.4.3 NDT Methods ............................................................................................................13-6 13.4.4 Acceptance Criteria....................................................................................................13-6 13.4.5 Discontinuity Removal ..............................................................................................13-6 MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................................13-8 OPERATION ...........................................................................................................................13-9 Hook Periodic Inspection Report ....................................................................................13-13

13.2

13.3 13.4

13.5 13.6 Exhibit I

13-i

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-ii

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13.1 GENERAL
13.1.1 MARKING a. The manufacturers identification shall be forged, cast, or die-stamped on a low-stress and nonwearing area of the hook. Hoisting hooks furnished by the original hoisting equipment manufacturer as an integral part the hoist assembly or by the original hoist manufacturer as replacement hooks are not required to have manufacturer markings. 13.1.3 LOAD LIMITS Hooks shall not be loaded beyond rated capacity except during load tests of the equipment of which they are a part. 13.1.4 HOOK STANDARDS a. Hook design shall meet generally accepted hook design standards and be compatible with the requirements of ASME B30.10. Hook material shall have sufficient ductility to permanently deform before failure at the ambient temperatures at which the hook will be used. When a latch is provided, it shall be designed to retain such items as slings under slack conditions. The latch is not intended to support the load. The bearing surfaces of new hooks shall be the arc of a circle. Gauge points, or hook gauges, for measuring spread after load testing should be provided. Field-fabricated hooks shall meet the requirements of this section and shall be approved by a qualified engineer.

b.

13.1.2 ATTACHMENTS b. a. Hoisting hooks shall be fitted with a latch to bridge the throat opening to prevent the accidental release of slings or attachments. Hooks without latches may be used in special applications where the latch would interfere with the proper use of the hook, providing that (1) the use of the hook is restricted to the application for which it is approved, and (2) in questionable cases, concurrence is obtained from the appropriate safety organization. If a handle or latch support is required to be welded to the hook, welding shall be done prior to final heat-treating.

c.

d.

b.

e.

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Chapter 13 Load Hooks

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13.2 INSPECTIONS
13.2.1 HOOK SERVICE 5. Hook service is defined as follows: b. a. Normal service operation at less than 85 percent of rated capacity except for isolated instances. Heavy service operation at 85 to 100 percent of rated capacity as a regular specified procedure. Severe service operation at heavy service coupled with abnormal operating conditions, (i.e., extreme temperatures, corrosive atmospheres, etc.). A designated person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required. Evidence of heat damage.

b.

13.2.4 FREQUENT INSPECTION a. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect the hook at the following intervals (records are not required): 1. 2. 3. b. Normal service monthly. . Heavy service weekly to monthly. Severe service

c.

13.2.2 INITIAL INSPECTION a. Prior to initial use, all new and repaired hooks shall be inspected by a qualified inspector to ensure their compliance with the applicable provisions of ASME B30.10, Section 10-1.2. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. Inspection procedure and record keeping requirements for hooks in regular service shall be governed by requirements for the kind of equipment in which they are used. When such requirements are stated in standards for the specific equipment, they shall take precedence over the requirements of this section.

These inspections shall, in addition to the requirements of Section 13.2.3, Daily Inspection, include the following: 1. 2. Wear. Hook attachment and securing means.

b.

c.

A designated person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required.

13.2.5 PERIODIC INSPECTION a. A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection at the following intervals: 1. 2. 3. b. Normal service yearly. Heavy service semiannually. Severe service quarterly.

13.2.3 DAILY INSPECTION a. Operators or other designated personnel shall visually inspect hooks for deficiencies such as the following each day or prior to use if the hook has not been in regular service (records are not required): 1. 2. 3. 4. Cracks, nicks, and gouges. Deformation. Damage from chemicals.

A qualified person shall examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard.

Latch engagement, damage to or malfunction of latch (if provided). Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-2

DOE-STD-1090-2007

c.

The inspection shall include the requirements of Section 13.2.4, Frequent Inspection. Hooks having any of the following conditions shall be removed from service until repaired or replaced: 1. Deformation Any visibly apparent bend or twist from the plane of the unbent hook. Throat opening Any distortion causing an increase in throat opening exceeding 5 percent, not to exceed inch (or as recommended by the manufacturer). Wear Any wear exceeding 10 percent (or as recommended by the manufacturer) of the original section dimension of the hook or its load pin. Cracks. e.

5.

d.

If a latch is provided and it becomes inoperative because of wear or deformation or fails to fully bridge the throat opening, the hook shall be removed from service until the device has been repaired or replaced and the throat opening has been assessed as described above. Any self-locking hook that does not lock.

6.

2.

If hooks are painted, a visual inspection should take the coating into consideration. Surface variations can disclose evidence of heavy or severe service. The surface condition may call for stripping the paint in such instances. Hooks in severe service as defined in 13.2.1.c. may show the need for a nondestructive testing. Dated and signed inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available.

3.

f.

4.

f.

13-3

Chapter 13 Load Hooks

DOE-STD-1090-2007

13.3 TESTING
a. Each new or replacement hook of 150-ton capacity or greater and a prototype of each hook design of less than 150-ton capacity shall be proof-tested by the manufacturer in accordance with Table 13-1. When proof tests are used, the hooks shall withstand the proof load application without permanent deformation when the load is applied for a minimum of 15 seconds. This condition is considered satisfied if the permanent increase in the throat opening does not exceed 0.5 percent or 0.01 in. (0.25 mm), whichever is greater. For a duplex (sister) hook having a pin eye, the proof load for the eye shall be in accordance with Table 13-1. The proof load shall be shared equally between the two prongs of a sister hook, unless the hook is designed for unbalanced loading.

d.

b.

Hooks that have been proof-tested may be subsequently inspected by the magneticparticle method in accordance with ASTM E-709 (Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination) and shall show no cracks, inclusions, or other relevant discrepancies; casting shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM E-165 (Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method). Performance testing of hooks shall not be required except where necessary to conform to the requirements for the equipment of which they are part. When testing is specified, documentation shall be uniquely identified to the hook by serial number or other identifier.

e.

c.

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-4

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Table 13-1. Proof test load. Proof load (minimum), tons (2,000 lb) 1 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 137 166 188 200 233 266 333 399 465 532 598 665

Rated load, tons (2,000 lb) 0.50 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Above 500

kg 453.6 907.2 4,536 9,072 13,608 18,144 22,680 27,216 31,752 36,288 40,824 45,360 54,432 68,040 90,720 113,400 136,080 158,760 181,440 226,800 272,160 317,520 362,880 408,240 453,600 453,600

% rated load 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 193 183 166 150 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133

kg 907.2 1,814.4 9,072 18,144 27,216 36,288 45,360 54,432 63,504 72,576 81,648 90,720 105,235 124,286 150,595 170,554 181,440 211,378 241,315 302,098 361,973 421,848 482,630 542,506 603,288

Note: 1 ton (short, 2,000 lb) = 907.2 kg For hooks with load ratings not shown above, use the next lower load rating for determining the percent f rated load to be applied.
Reprinted from ASME B30.10-2005 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

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13.4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)


13.4.1 NDT REQUIREMENTS 13.4.4 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

If detailed inspections are performed (refer to sections 13.2.3.b., 13.2.4.c, and 13.2.5.b.), the results shall be evaluated by a qualified person to determine the need for subsequent NDT. If NDT is deemed necessary, it shall be performed in accordance with Section 13.4.3. 13.4.2 NDT RECORDS

A designated person shall document and resolve the following relevant indications: a. b. Arc strikes (welding or electrical). Surface intersecting discontinuities 0.25 in. long or longer. DISCONTINUITY REMOVAL

13.4.5 Dated and signed NDT records, traceable to the hook by a serial number or other identifier, shall be kept on file as long as the hook remains in service and shall be readily available to appointed personnel. 13.4.3 a. NDT METHODS a.

Use magnetic-particle testing or liquidpenetrant testing methods to inspect for surface intersecting discontinuities. b. A qualified inspector or designated person shall perform NDTs in accordance with the following ASTM standards: 1. 2. ASTM E-709. ASTM E-165.

Two directions of discontinuity, P and T, are shown on Figures 13-1 and 13-2. Discontinuity P parallels the contour of the hook, is considered nonserious, and does not require removal. Discontinuity T, on the other hand, is transverse to the contour of the hook and is more serious; when occurring in zones B, C, or D, discontinuity T may reduce the longevity of the hook. Discontinuities may be removed by grinding longitudinally following the contour of the hook to produce a smooth, gently undulating surface. In zones B and D, such grinding shall not reduce the original hook dimension by more than 10 percent. Such a reduction will not affect the working load limit rating or the ultimate load rating of the hook. In zone C, grinding shall not reduce the original dimension by more than 5 percent. Under normal and proper application, zone A is an unstressed zone. Therefore, it is not required that discontinuities in that zone be ground out. The hook shall be reexamined by performing an NDT after grinding to verify removal of relevant discontinuities.

b.

c.

For magnetic-particle testing, a coil, yoke, or wet technique should be used to eliminate the possibility of prod burns or arc strikes. Perform an NDT with the hook in place unless conditions indicate that disassembly for thread or shank inspection is necessary.

c.

d.

d.

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-6

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Figure 13-1. Shank hook. Figure 13-1. Shank hook.

Figure 13-2. Eye hook.

13-7

Chapter 13 Load Hooks

DOE-STD-1090-2007

13.5 MAINTENANCE
a. A hook latch that is inoperative or missing shall be repaired or replaced. A hook with a latch that does not bridge the throat opening shall be removed from service until the latch is replaced or repaired and the hook is examined for deformation with special attention to the throat opening. A designated person shall repair cracks, nicks, and gouges by grinding longitudinally, following the contour of the hook, provided no dimension is reduced more than 10 percent (or as recommended by the manufacturer) of its original value. d. All other repairs shall be performed by the manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts, such as load pins for clevis hooks, shall be at least equal to the original manufacturers specifications.

b.

e. c.

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-8

DOE-STD-1090-2007

13.6 OPERATION
Hook users shall do the following: e. a. Determine that the weight of the load to be lifted does not exceed the load rating f the hook. f. b. c. Avoid shock loading. Center the load in the base (bowl or saddle) of the hook to prevent point loading of the hook. Do not use hooks in such a manner as to place a side- or backload on the hook. g. When using a device to bridge the throat opening of the hook, ensure that no portion of the load is carried by the bridging device. Keep hands and fingers from between the hook and the load. Load duplex (sister) hooks equally on both sides, unless the hook is specifically designed for single loading. Do not load the pinhole in duplex (sister) hooks beyond the rated load of the hook.

d.

h.

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Chapter 13 Load Hooks

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-10

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Exhibit I is intended to be a sample form only. The equipment manufacturers inspection/testing criteria supercede any other criteria. In cases where the equipment manufacturer does not include inspection/testing criteria, other forms developed to facilitate required inspection/testing are acceptable.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-12

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Page 1 of 1 EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) DEVICE:_______________________ DEVICE NO.:____________________

SERVICE CLASSIFICATION:_________________________ LOCATION:_______________

Two directions of discontinuities are labeled on the drawing above as P and T. discontinuity P parallels the contour of the hook and is considered non-serious in nature and does not require removal from service. Discontinuity T is transverse to contour of the hook and is more serious in nature. Discontinuity T, when occurring in Zones B, C, or D, may reduce longevity of the hook. If the inspection identifies discontinuities, NDT should be considered.

Original Measurements Date Throat Opening Tram AA Tram BB Twist Angle Crack Wear Hook Latch NDT Performed Pass/Fail Inspector COMMENTS: NOTES ON RESULTS:

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 13 Load Hooks 13-14

DOE-STD-1090-2007

CHAPTER 14 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES


This chapter provides the requirements for below-the-hook lifting devices used in hoisting and rigging, such as spreader bars, lifting yokes, and lift fixtures. This section implements the requirements of ASME B30.20, Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices (for latest ASME standards, see http://catalog.asme.org/home.cfm?Category=CS). NOTE: Special lifting devices for shipping containers weighing 10,000 lb or more that are used for radioactive materials are governed by ANSI N14.6 [Standard for Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4,500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials.] 14.1 14.2 GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................14-1 STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES ................................................14-2 14.2.1 Design/Fabrication .................................................................................................14-2 14.2.2 Marking ..................................................................................................................14-2 14.2.3 Modification/Rerating ............................................................................................14-3 14.2.4 Guarding.................................................................................................................14-3 14.2.5 Inspections..............................................................................................................14-3 14.2.5.1 Initial Inspection ...............................................................................14-3 14.2.5.2 Frequent Inspection...........................................................................14-3 14.2.5.3 Periodic Inspection ...........................................................................14-3 14.2.6 Testing....................................................................................................................14-4 14.2.6.1 Operational Test................................................................................14-4 14.2.6.2 Rated Load Test ................................................................................14-4 14.2.7 Maintenance ..........................................................................................................14-4 14.2.8 Training/Qualification ............................................................................................14-4 14.2.9 Operation................................................................................................................14-8 14.2.10 Critical Lifts ..........................................................................................................14-8 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES..............................................................................................14-9 14.3.1 Design/Fabrication .................................................................................................14-9 14.3.2 Marking ..................................................................................................................14-9 14.3.3 Installation............................................................................................................14-11 14.3.4 Inspections............................................................................................................14-11 14.3.4.1 Initial Inspection .............................................................................14-11 14.3.4.2 Frequent Inspection.........................................................................14-11 14.3.4.3 Periodic Inspection .........................................................................14-11 14.3.5 Testing..................................................................................................................14-12 14.3.5.1 Operational Test..............................................................................14-12 14.3.5.2 Rated Load Test ..............................................................................14-12 14.3.6 Maintenance ........................................................................................................14-12 14.3.7 Training/Qualification ..........................................................................................14-12 14.3.8 Operation..............................................................................................................14-13 14.3.9 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................................14-14 MAGNETS, CLOSE-PROXIMITY-OPERATED ................................................................14-15 14.4.1 Design/Fabrication ...............................................................................................14-15 14.4.2 Marking ................................................................................................................14-15 14.4.2.1 Rated Load (Capacity) ....................................................................14-17 14.4.2.2 Controls...........................................................................................14-17 14.4.3 Installation............................................................................................................14-17

14.3

14.4

14-i

14.4.4

14.4.5

14.4.6 14.4.7 14.4.8

14.4.9 14.5

Inspections............................................................................................................14-17 14.4.4.1 Initial Inspection .............................................................................14-17 14.4.4.2 Frequent Inspection.........................................................................14-17 14.4.4.3 Periodic Inspection .........................................................................14-17 Testing..................................................................................................................14-18 14.4.5.1 Operational Test..............................................................................14-18 14.4.5.2 Rated Load Test ..............................................................................14-18 Maintenance ........................................................................................................14-18 Training/Qualification ..........................................................................................14-19 Operation..............................................................................................................14-19 14.4.8.1 External-Powered Electromagnets ..................................................14-20 14.4.8.2 Battery-Operated Electromagnets ...................................................14-20 14.4.8.3 Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets ...................................14-20 14.4.8.4 Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets ......................................14-20 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................................14-20

MAGNETS, REMOTE OPERATED ....................................................................................14-21 14.5.1 Design/Fabrication ...............................................................................................14-21 14.5.2 Marking ................................................................................................................14-21 14.5.3 Installation............................................................................................................14-21 14.5.4 Inspections............................................................................................................14-21 14.5.4.1 Initial Inspection .............................................................................14-21 14.5.4.2 Frequent Inspection.........................................................................14-21 14.5.4.3 Periodic Inspection .........................................................................14-21 14.5.5 Testing..................................................................................................................14-23 14.5.5.1 Operational Test..............................................................................14-23 14.5.6 Maintenance ........................................................................................................14-23 14.5.7 Training/Qualification ..........................................................................................14-23 14.5.8 Operation..............................................................................................................14-24 14.5.9 Critical Lifts ........................................................................................................14-24 Lifting Bars and Spreaders Load Test and Inspection .................................................14-27

Exhibit I

14-ii

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.1 GENERAL
a. Below-the-hook lifting devices are arranged in the following groups because of the diversity of types: 1. Structural and mechanical lifting devices. Vacuum lifting devices. Close-proximity-operated magnets. Remote-operated magnets.

c.

The working load limit (WLL) of belowthe- hook lifting devices shall not be exceeded in their as configured application. Individual site programs shall describe how periodic inspections for below-the-hook lifting devices are recorded. These records may include an external coded mark or tag on the device (e.g. date, annually changed color stripe, etc.) indicating both periodicity and the satisfactory completion of the required periodic inspection, or a written record as acceptable documentation. (Refer to Sections 14.2.5.3.d, 14.3.4.3.d, 14.4.4.3.e, and 14.5.4.3.d.)

d.

2. 3. 4. b.

Slings and rigging accessories that may be components in a below-the hook lifting device are covered in Chapters 11 and 12 (Wire Rope and Slings, and Rigging Accessories, respectively) of this standard..

14-1

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.2 STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES

a.

Structural and mechanical lifting devices are often one-of-a-kind designs. Typical devices include: 1. Load-supporting lifting devices (Figure 14-1). Friction-type pressure gripping lifting devices (Figure 14-2). Indentation-type gripping lifting devices (Figure 14-3). c. 4. Cask lift fixtures (Figure 14-4).

3. 4. 5. 6.

Lifter weight, if over 100 lb (45 kg) Cold current (amps) (when applicable) Rated voltage (when applicable) Rated load (as described in section 14.2.2.a) ASME BTH-1 Design Category ASME BTH-1 Service Class

2.

7. 8.

3.

14.2.1 DESIGN/FABRICATION Structural and mechanical lifting devices shall be designed, fabricated , labeled and assigned a design category according to the provisions of ASME B30.20 and ASME BTH-1. 14.2.2 MARKING

All repaired or modified structural and mechanical lifters shall be provided with identification displaying, but not limited to, the following information: 1. name and address of the repairer or modifier repairers or modifiers unit identification lifter weight (if altered) cold current (amps) (if altered) rated voltage (if altered) rated load (if altered) [as described in section 14.2.2.a ASME BTH-1 Design Category (if altered) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered)

2.

3. a. The rated capacity of each lifting device shall be marked on the main structure where it is visible and legible. If the lifting device comprises several items, each detachable from the assembly, each lifting device shall be marked with its rated capacity. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag, or other permanent marker shall be affixed displaying the following data. 1. Manufacturers name (contractors name if fabricated onsite). Lifting device weight (if over 100 lb). Serial number (if applicable). e. 4. b. Rated capacity. d. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

2. 3.

A rerated lifting device shall be relabeled with the new rated capacity. Cases may exist where a lifting device cannot be marked with its rated capacity and weight. This may be due to the security classification of the load to be lifted or other reasons approved by the responsible manager. In these cases, the lifting device shall be marked with an identification number, and its documentation shall describe both its rated capacity and weight.

All new structural and mechanical lifting devices shall be marked with, but not limited to, the following information: 1. 2. Manufacturers name and address Serial number

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-2

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.2.3 MODIFICATION/RERATING a. Structural and mechanical lifting devices may be modified or rerated if the changes are analyzed by a qualified engineer or the manufacturer of the lifting device. Rerated or modified lift fixtures shall be load-tested as described in Section 14.2.6.2, Rated Load Test, below.

a.

A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection at the following intervals: 1. Normal service yearly. Inspect equipment at site of use. Heavy service semiannually. Inspect equipment at site of use unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection. Severe service quarterly. Inspect equipment at site of use unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection. Special or infrequent service as recommended by a qualified person before the first such use and as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent uses.

b.

2.

14.2.4 GUARDING Exposed moving parts or pinch points, such as gearing, chain drives, and rotating shafts, that may be a hazard to personnel during lifting operations shall be guarded. 14.2.5 INSPECTIONS 4. 14.2.5.1 Initial Inspection 3.

Prior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shall inspect all new, modified, or repaired lifting devices to ensure compliance with Section 14.2.5.3, Periodic Inspection. 14.2.5.2 a. Frequent Inspection

b.

Lifting device service is defined as follows: 1. Normal operation with various weights within the rated load limit, or uniform loads less than 65 percent of rated load. Heavy operation within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. Severe operation at normal or heavy service under abnormal operating conditions.

The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect each lifting device at the beginning of each shift or prior to use, if it has not been in regular service, for the following items or conditions (records are not required): 1. Structural deformation, cracks, or excessive wear on any part. Loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, or nameplates. All operating mechanisms and automatic hold-and-release mechanisms for maladjustments interfering with operation. c.

2.

3.

2.

This inspection shall include the items listed in Section 14.2.5.2, Frequent Inspection, in addition to the following: 1. 2. Loose bolts or fasteners. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions, Chapter 1). Cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprockets, bearings, chains, and belts. Excessive wear of friction pads, linkages, and other mechanical parts.

3.

b.

The operator or designated person shall carefully examine any deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a hazard. Deficiencies noted during the inspection shall be corrected before the lifting device is used.

3.

4. 14.2.5.3 Periodic Inspection

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

5.

Excessive wear at hoist-attaching points and load-support shackles or pins. External evidence of damage to motors or controls.

c.

The rated load test shall consist of the following: 1. Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure that it is supported by the lifting device, or apply the required load if the test is made using a testing machine. Personnel shall remain clear of suspended loads. Visually inspect the lifting device for deformation, cracks, or other defects after the load test is completed. MAINTENANCE

6.

d.

A qualified inspector shall inspect fixtures not in regular use according to periodic inspection requirements before placing them in service. Dated reports of each periodic inspection shall be prepared. They shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. A sample load test and inspection form is included as Exhibit I at the end of this section. This form is intended to be a sample only and is not intended to be mandatory. 2.

e.

14.2.7 a.

14.2.6 TESTING 14.2.6.1 Operational Test a. Modified or repaired lifting devices shall be tested before initial use to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section (test reports kept on file). Testing shall include the following: 1. Lifting devices with moving parts shall be tested to confirm that the lifting device operates in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

A preventive maintenance program shall be established based upon manufacturers recommendations. If equipment maintenance procedures deviate from published manufacturer's recommendations, the alternate procedures shall be approved in advance by the manufacturer or another qualified person and be kept readily available. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to the original specifications. TRAINING/QUALIFICATION

b.

14.2.8 a.

2.

Lifting devices with manually operated or automatic latches shall be tested to verify that the latches operate in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

Below-the-hook lifting device operators shall be trained and qualified as required in Chapter 6, Personnel Qualification and Training. At a minimum, instruction should include the following: 1. Application of the lifting device to the load and adjustments to the device, if any, that adapt it to various sizes or kinds of loads. Any special operations or precautions. Condition of the load itself required for operation of the lifting device such as balance, degree of order of stacked loads, surface cleanliness, bending, and load thickness. Procedure for storage of lifting device to protect it from damage.

14.2.6.2 Rated Load Test a. All new, altered, modified, or repaired lifting devices shall be tested and inspected before use. The results of the test and inspection shall be documented in the equipment history file. The rated capacity shall not be more than 80 percent of the maximum load sustained during the test. Test loads shall not be more than 125 percent of the rated capacity unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. Test weights shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. 14-4

2. 3.

b.

4.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

B a la n ce d p a lle t

L iftin g b e a m (sp re a d e r b e a m )

Te le sc o p in g co il g ra b

C o il liftin g h o o k b e a m

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-1. Load-supporting lifting devices

Roll grab, core grip

Bar Tong

Motor-driven roll grab, end grip

Vertical Axis Coil Grab

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-2. Friction-type pressure gripping lifting devices.

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-3. Indentation-type gripping lifting device

Figure 14-4. Typical cask lift fixture

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-6

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-5. Metal-plate clamps.

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

loads) or handle any load for which it is not designed. 5. Instructions for not exceeding the rated capacity of the lifting device or the capacity of the hoisting equipment by the combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and the rigging. 5. Apply the lifting device to the load in accordance with established procedures. Before lifting, ensure that lifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked and multiple-part lines are not interwoven. Ensure that the load is correctly distributed for the lifting device being used. Do not use the lifting device for side pulls or sliding the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified person or by an approved procedure. Do not use a lifting device that is tagged Danger Do Not Operate or otherwise designated as nonfunctional.

6.

b.

Operators shall demonstrate the ability and competence to operate the lifting device as instructed before assuming responsibility for using it. OPERATION

7.

14.2.9 a.

8. Only the following personnel shall operate structural and mechanical lifting devices: 1. 2. Qualified operators or riggers. 9. Trainees under the direct supervision of a qualified operator. Maintenance and test personnel, when it is necessary in the performance of their duties. Inspectors of lifting devices.

3.

10. Do not remove Danger Do Not Operate tags from lifting devices without the approval of the person who placed them or an authorized person. 11. Store the lifting device in a dry, inside location when not in use. 12. Ensure that markings or tags are not removed or defaced. Replace missing or defaced markings or tags. 14.2.10 CRITICAL LIFTS

4. b.

The following shall apply to all personnel who operate structural and mechanical lifting devices: 1. Observe the condition of the lifting device before use and during operation. If you observe a defect that affects the continued safe use of the lifting device, remove it from service. Place any attached load on the floor or ground and, after use, properly store the lifting device before leaving. Before they are used on each shift, test the lifting device controls. If any controls do not operate properly, adjust or repair them before operations begin. Do not load the lifting device in excess of its rated capacity (except for test

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Structural and mechanical lifting devices for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof-load test of not less than 125 percent of its rated capacity or as specified by the design standard to which it was built. If proof-testing cannot be verified, the lifting device shall be proof-tested before being used to make a critical lift.

2.

3.

4.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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14.3 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES


Typical power-operated and mechanically operated vacuum lifting and manipulating devices are shown in Figures 14-5 and 14-6. This section does not cover devices used to handle porous materials, which requires special design and construction. 14.3.1 DESIGN/FABRICATION Power- and mechanically-operated vacuum lifting devices shall be designed and fabricated according to the provisions of ASME B30.20, 20-2.2.2. 14.3.2 MARKING a. The rated capacity, maximum width and length, and minimum thickness of load shall be marked on the main structure where it is visible and legible. Individual pads or groups of pads, controlled by shutoff valves, shall be marked with the rated capacity of each pad or group of pads. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag, or other permanent marker shall be affixed to each lifter displaying the following data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Manufacturers name. 7. Model number or unit identification. 8. Weight of lifting-device. 9. Electric power (when applicable). Pressure and volume of compressed air (when applicable). Rated capacity. Operating the lifting device when the rated capacity, lifting-device weight, or safety markings are missing (except in cases where the device cannot, for security or other reasons, be marked). Removing/obscuring warning labels. Moving loads above people. 2. manager. In these cases, the lifting device shall be marked with an identification number, and its documentation shall contain both its rated capacity and weight. f. A label or labels shall be affixed t each vacuum lifting device in a readable position that displays the word WARNING or other legend designed to bring the label to the attention of the operator. The label shall also contain information cautioning against: 1. Exceeding the rated capacity or lifting loads not specified in the manufacturers instruction manual. Operating a damaged or malfunctioning unit or a unit with missing parts. Operating when vacuum indicators show insufficient vacuum. Operating the unit when vacuum pads are not spaced for equal loading. Incorrect positioning of the lifting device on the load. Lifting people.

3.

b.

4.

c.

5.

6.

6. d.

10. Making alterations or modifications to the lifting device. 11. Lifting loads higher than necessary and leaving suspended loads unattended. g. A label shall be affixed to each unit that directs the user to consult the manufacturers manual if the size or shape of the unit prohibits the inclusion of the above markings.

Manual shutoff valves on individual pads or groups of pads shall be marked to show operating position. Cases may exist where a lifting device cannot be marked with its rated capacity and weight. This may be due to the security classification of the load to be lifted or other reasons approved by the responsible

e.

14-9

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Four-pad pow ered vacuum lifting device

Four-pad pow ered vacuum lifting device manipulator

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-5. Powered vacuum lifting devices.

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-6. Mechanical vacuum lifting devices. Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-10

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.3 VACUUM LIFTING DEVICES

14.3.3 a.

INSTALLATION

Vacuum lifting devices shall be assembled and installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The power supply to the vacuum lifting device shall be the same as that shown on the nameplate and shall be connected to the line side of the crane disconnect or to an independent circuit. The user shall check for correct rotation of all pumps. INSPECTIONS

source. Vacuum levels in the system shall not decrease by more than the manufacturers specified rate. 14.3.4.3 Periodic Inspection a. A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection at the following intervals: 1. Normal service yearly. Inspect equipment at site of use. Heavy service semiannually. Inspect equipment at site of use unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection. Severe service quarterly. Inspect equipment at site of use unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection. Special or infrequent service as recommended by a qualified person before the first use and as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent occurrences.

b.

c.

2.

14.3.4

14.3.4.1 Initial Inspection Prior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shall inspect all new or repaired vacuum lifting devices to ensure their compliance with Section 14.3.4.3, Periodic Inspection. 14.3.4.2 Frequent Inspection 4. a. The operator or other designated person shall inspect each vacuum lifting device at the beginning of each shift or prior to use, if it has not been in regular service. The inspection shall be for the following (records are not required): 1. Deformation, cracks, and excessive wear of load-bearing parts. Adequate vacuum generator output. 2. 3. Cuts, tears, excessive wear, and foreign particles at vacuum pad seal rings. 3. 4. Leakage, cuts, kinks, and collapsed areas of vacuum lines/connections. Leaks or damage to the vacuum reservoir. Failure of the entire vacuum system to function properly by attaching a nonporous, clean test plate to the vacuum pads and then stopping the vacuum 14-11 c. b. 3.

b.

Lifting device service is defined as follows: 1. Normal operation with various weights within the rated load limit, or uniform loads less than 65 percent of rated load. Heavy operation within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. Severe operation under normal or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.

2.

5.

6.

This inspection shall include those conditions or items specified in Section 14.3.4.2, Frequent Inspection, in addition to the following: 1. External evidence of looseness, wear, deformation, cracking, or corrosion. Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

2.

External evidence of damage to supporting structure, motors, controls, and other auxiliary components. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions, Chapter 1). Presence of warning label required by Section 14.3.2, Marking.

and inspection results shall be documented and kept on file. b. The rated capacity shall not be more than 80 percent of the maximum load sustained during the test. Test loads shall not be more than 125 percent of the rated capacity unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. Test weights shall be accurate to within -5 percent, +0 percent of stipulated values. The rated load test shall consist of the following steps at a minimum: 1. 2. Attach pads to the designated test load. Raise the test load a minimum distance to ensure that it is supported by the vacuum lifting device, and hold it for 2 minutes. Remain clear of the suspended load. Lower and release the load. Visually inspect the vacuum lifting device for defects, and correct any deficiencies prior to returning the device to service. MAINTENANCE

3.

4.

d.

A qualified inspector shall inspect fixtures not in regular use according to periodic inspection requirements before placing them in service. Dated inspection reports shall be prepared for each inspection. Inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. TESTING

c.

e.

14.3.5

3. 14.3.5.1 Operational Test 4. a. All new, reinstalled, modified, or repaired vacuum lifting fixtures shall be tested prior to use. Tests shall be performed by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section. Dated reports shall be dept on file. Testing shall include the following: 1. Seals and connections shall be tested for leaks by attaching a nonporous, clean test plate to the vacuum pads and then stopping the vacuum source. Vacuum level in the system shall not decrease by more than the rate specified by the manufacturer. Test indicator lights, gauges, horns, bells, pointers, or other warning devices and vacuum level indicators for proper operation. 5.

14.3.6 a.

b.

A preventive maintenance program shall be established and be based on recommendations made by the vacuum lifting device manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to the original specifications. The vacuum generator, vacuum pads, sealing rings, mufflers, and filters shall be maintained and cleaned according to the manufacturers specifications. TRAINING/ QUALIFICATION

b.

c. 2.

14.3.7 14.3.5.2 Rated Load Test a. All new, reinstalled, repaired, or modified vacuum lifting devices shall be tested and inspected before use. Tests and inspections shall be performed by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. Test 14-12 a.

Vacuum lifting device operators shall be trained and qualified as specified in Chapter 6, Personnel Qualification and Training. At a minimum, instruction shall include the following (as applicable):

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

1.

Application of the lifting device to the load and adjustments of the device, if any, that adapt it to various sizes or kinds of loads. Any special operations or precautions. Condition of the load itself required for operation of the lifting device such as balance, degree of order of stacked loads, surface cleanliness, bending, and load thickness. Procedure for storage of lifting device to protect it from damage. Instructions for not exceeding the rated capacity of the lifting device or the capacity of the hoisting equipment by the combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and the rigging. Charging of the battery (if required).

1.

2. 3.

Before starting the lift, verify that the vacuum on indicator has reached the required level. Also, verify that the vacuum lifting device has been correctly applied and a stable vacuum level exists by lifting the load a few inches and observing conditions. Observe the condition of the lifting device before use and during operation. If you observe a defect that affects the continued safe use of the lifting device, remove it from service. Place any attached load on the floor or ground and, after use, properly store the lifting device before leaving. Before they are used on a shift, test the lifting device controls. If any do not operate properly, adjust or repair them before operations begin. Do not load the lifting device in excess of its rated capacity (except for test loads) or handle any load for which it is not designed. Apply the lifting device to the load in accordance with established procedures. Before lifting, ensure that lifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked and multiple-part lines are not interwoven. Ensure that the load is correctly distributed for the lifting device being used. Do not use the lifting device for side pulls or sliding the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified person or by an approved procedure.

2.

4.

3.

5.

4.

6. 7.

5. The purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on the vacuum lifting device. The proper attachment of adaptors to vacuum lifting devices for handling of special loads.

8.

6.

b.

Users shall demonstrate the ability and competence to operate the lifting device as instructed before assuming responsibility for using it. OPERATION

7.

8. 14.3.8 a.

Only the following personnel shall operate vacuum lifting devices: 1. 2. Qualified operators or riggers. Trainees under the direct supervision of a qualified operator. Maintenance and test personnel, when it is necessary in the performance of their duties. Inspectors of lifting devices.

9.

3.

10. Warn all personnel in the vicinity of the lifting device and place the load on the floor or ground, if possible to do so, if electrical power goes off while a load is being lifted. 11. Do not leave your position at the controls. 12. Do not use a lifting device that is tagged Danger Do Not Operate or otherwise designated as nonfunctional. 14-13 Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

4. b.

The following shall apply to all personnel who operate vacuum lifting devices:

DOE-STD-1090-2007

13. Do not remove Danger Do not Operate tags from lifting devices without the approval of the person who placed them or an authorized person. 14. Store the lifting device in a dry, inside location when not in use. 15. Ensure that markings or tags are not removed or defaced. Replace missing or defaced markings or tags.

14.3.9 CRITICAL LIFTS See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Vacuum lifting devices for critical-lift service shall have an initial proof-load test of not more than 125 percent of its rated capacity. If proof-testing cannot be verified, the lifting device shall be proof-tested before being used to make a critical lift.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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14.4 MAGNETS, CLOSE-PROXIMITY-OPERATED


Close-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devices are used for single- or multiple-steelpiece handling operations in which the operator of the magnet is required to manually guide the load during its movement. They are also used in situations where remotely operated magnets are operated close to people. Typical closeproximity-operated magnetic lifting devices are shown in Figure 14-7. 14.4.1 DESIGN/FABRICATION Close-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devices shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the provisions of ASME B30.20, 20-3.2.2 and 20-3.2.3. 14.4.2 MARKING a. At a minimum, a nameplate, name tag, or other permanent marker shall be affixed to each lifting magnet, and shall display the following data: 1. Manufacturers name, or if the magnet has been repaired or modified, the name and address of the repairer/modifier. Model or unit identification. Weight. Duty cycle, if applicable. Cold current. Rated capacity. 4. 3. d.

1.

The voltage of the battery or primary power supply. The cold current or watts at 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) and rated voltage.

2.

c.

Cases may exist where a lifting device cannot be marked with its rated capacity and weight. This may be due to the security classification of the load to be lifted or other reasons approved by the responsible manager. In these cases, the lifting device shall be marked with an identification number, and its documentation shall contain both its rated capacity and weight. A label or labels shall be affixed to each lifting magnet in a readable position that displays the word CAUTION or other legend designed to bring the label to the attention of the operator. The label shall also contain information cautioning against: 1. Operating when the battery capacity is inadequate. Exceeding magnet duty cycle and disconnecting the magnet with the power on (for externally powered electromagnets). Operating if the internal control function indicator, where applicable, does not indicate a complete cycle (on electrically controlled permanent magnets). Operating with the control handle not fully in the Lift position (on manually controlled permanent magnets).

2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. b.

Also, battery-powered and external-powered lifting electromagnets and electrically controlled permanent-magnet lifting magnets shall be marked with:

14-15

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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Close-proximity-operated lifting electromagnet

Close-proximity-operated electrically controlled permanent magnet

Close-proximity-operated manually controlled permanent magnet

Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-7. Close-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devices.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-16

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.4.2.1 Rated Load (Capacity) a. General-application magnets shall include the rated load (capacity) of the magnet on the lifting magnet or on a tag attached to it. This capacity rating shall refer to the instruction manual for information relating to decreases in rating due to the load surface condition, thickness, percentage of contact with magnet, temperature, metallurgical composition, and deflection. Specified-application magnets shall include the application load (capacity) of the magnet on the lifting magnet or on a tag attached to it. This capacity rating shall refer to the specific loads for which it applies.

device at the beginning of each shift or prior to use, if it has not been in regular service. b. The inspection shall be for the following (records are not required): 1. Lifting magnet face for freedom from foreign materials and for smoothness. Lifting bail or sling suspension for proper condition. Control handle for proper condition and operation. Current indicator, where applicable, for proper condition and operation. Labels, markings, and indicators or meters for legibility. Electrical conductors, if applicable, for loose connections, continuity, corrosion, and damage to insulation. Battery for correct electrolyte level and lack of corrosion of battery posts or connectors, if applicable.

2.

b.

3.

4.

14.4.2.2 Controls The position of the control switch or handle of a lifting magnet shall be marked with Lift, Off, and Drop, or equivalent terms indicating the mode of operation of the lifting magnet. 14.4.3 a. INSTALLATION

5.

6.

7.

Close-proximity-operated magnetic lifting devices shall be installed according to the manufacturers recommendations. Users shall ensure that: 1. External power input is the correct voltage and amperage. Power conductors and controls are of adequate rating and are insulated or otherwise protected against accidental interruption or damage.

14.4.4.3 Periodic Inspection a. A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection with the equipment in place at the following intervals: 1. 2. 3. b. Normal service yearly. Heavy service yearly. Severe service quarterly.

b.

2.

Lifting device service is defined as: 1. Normal operation with various weights within the rated load limit, or uniform loads less than 65 percent of rated load. Heavy operation within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. Severe operation under normal or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.

14.4.4

INSPECTIONS

14.4.4.1 Initial Inspection Prior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shall inspect all new, modified, or repaired lifting magnets to ensure compliance with Section 14.4.4.3, Periodic Inspection. 14.4.4.2 Frequent Inspection a. The operator or other designated person shall visually inspect each magnetic lifting

2.

3.

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c.

This inspection shall include those items specified in Section 14.4.4.2, Frequent Inspection, in addition to the following: b. 1. Deformation, wear, and corrosion of all members, fasteners, locks, switches, warning labels, and lifting parts. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions, Chapter 1). Operation and condition of electrical components (i.e., meters, indicators, and alarms). Magnet coil tested for ohmic/ground readings and readings compared to manufacturers standards. d.

inspection results shall be documented and kept on file. General-application magnets are required to satisfy the rated breakaway-force test. The breakaway force measured in this test must exceed the rated load (capacity) by a factor of at least 2. Specified-application magnets are required to comply with the application breakawayforce test. The breakaway forces measured in this test must exceed the specified application load (capacity) by a factor of at least 2. The rated breakaway-force test shall establish the breakaway force required to vertically remove the lifting magnet from a low-carbon rolled-steel plate of the minimum thickness stated by the magnet manufacturer. The portion of this plate in contact with the magnet shall have a 125in. (3.2 x 10-3 mm) finish and be flat within 0.002 in./ft (0.05 mm/m), but not exceeding 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) total. The full operating face of the lifting magnet shall be in contact with the steel plate, which shall be between 60 degrees F (15 degrees C). Battery-operated electromagnets and external-powered lifting electromagnets shall be operated at the manufacturers recommended current. The application breakaway-force test shall establish the application breakaway forces of the lifting magnet under the variety of loading conditions for which the magnet is specified. The details of this test should be supplied by the manufacturer of the lifting magnet. MAINTENANCE

2.

c.

3.

4.

d.

A qualified inspector shall inspect a lifting magnet that has been idle for 1 month or more according to periodic inspection requirements before placing it in service. Dated inspection reports shall be prepared for each inspection. Inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. TESTING

e.

14.4.5

14.4.5.1 Operational Test a. All new, modified, or repaired lifting magnets shall be tested prior to their initial use. Tests shall be performed by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. Dated reports shall be kept on file. Testing shall include the following: 1. A check to ensure that the lifting magnet contains no visible defects. A check for proper operation of all electrical protective equipment, meters, indicators, alarms, etc. b.

e.

b.

14.4.6 a.

2.

A preventive maintenance program shall be established and be based on recommendations made by the manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to the original specifications. Before adjustment and repairs are started on a lifting magnet or its controls, maintenance personnel shall take the following precautions:

14.4.5.2 Rated Load Test a.

All new, modified, or repaired lifting magnets shall be tested and inspected before c. initial use. Tests and inspections shall be performed by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. Test and Chapter 14 14-18 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

1.

Ensure that all sources of magnet power are disconnected and locked out, tagged out, or flagged. Ensure that a magnet removed for repair is tagged as defective.

6.

Charging of the lifting magnet battery (if required). The purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on the lifting magnet. The proper attachment of adaptors to lifting magnets for handling of special loads.

7. 2.

8. d. Only qualified personnel shall work on equipment when adjustments and tests are required. b. e. After adjustments and repairs have been made, the lifting magnet shall not be returned to service until it has been inspected according to Section 14.4.4.3. Dated records of repairs and replacements shall be available. Maintenance personnel shall ensure that any defective condition disclosed by the inspection is corrected before operation of the lifting magnet is resumed. Repairs shall be done only by designated persons. TRAINING/ QUALIFICATION

Operators shall demonstrate the ability and competence to operate the lifting device as instructed before assuming responsibility for using it. OPERATION

14.4.8 f. a.

Only the following qualified personnel shall operate lifting devices: 1. 2. Designated persons. Trainees under the direct supervision of a designated person. Maintenance and test personnel, when it is necessary in the performance of their duties. Inspectors of lifting devices.

g.

14.4.7

3.

a.

Magnetic lifting device operators shall be trained and qualified as specified in Chapter 6, Personnel Qualification and Training. At a minimum, instruction shall include the following: 1. Application of the lifting device to the load and adjustments of the device, if any, that adapt it to various sizes or kinds of loads. Any special operations or precautions. Condition of the load itself required for operation of the lifting device such as balance, degree of order of stacked loads, surface cleanliness, bending, and load thickness. Procedure for storage of lifting device to protect it from damage. Instructions for not exceeding the rated capacity of the lifting device or the capacity of the hoisting equipment by the combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and the rigging. 14-19

4. b.

The following shall apply to personnel who use close-proximity-operated magnets: 1. Place any attached load on the floor or ground and, after use, properly store the lifting device before leaving it. Before they are used during a shift, test all controls. If any do not operate properly, adjust or repair them before operations begin. Do not load the lifting device in excess of its rated capacity or handle any load for which it is not designed. Apply the lifting device to the load in accordance with established procedures. Before lifting, ensure that lifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple-part lines are not interwoven.

2. 2. 3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

6.

Ensure that the load is correctly distributed for the lifting device being used. Ensure that the temperature of the load does not exceed the maximum allowable limits of the lifting device.

14.4.8.2 Battery-Operated Electromagnets a. Before lifting, confirm that the device indicating correct current flow remains stable for a minimum of 5 seconds. For a lift of extended duration, observe the device indicating correct current flow every 5 minutes. Open the ventilation lid before charging the battery. Before raising the load more than 2 inches (50 mm), ensure that nay adjustable input control is switched to the FULL POWER or FULL ON position and remains in this position until the load is removed.

7.

b. 8. Do not use the lifting device for side pulls or sliding the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified person. Keep the lifting magnet face and the magnet contact area clean.

c.

9.

d.

10. Ensure that the load to be lifted is within the magnets rated capacity or application capacity and lifting equipment rated capacity. 11. Observe all meters and indicators on the lifting magnet to confirm proper operation prior to making a lift. 12. Before starting the lift, lift the load a few inches to establish that it is securely attached to the magnet. 13. Do not use a lifting magnet that is tagged Danger Do Not Operate or otherwise designated as nonfunctional. 14. Do not remove Danger Do Not Operate tags from magnetic lifting devices without the approval of the person who placed them or an authorized person. 15. Store the lifting device in a dry, inside location when not in use. 14.4.8.1 External-Powered Electromagnets Before raising the load more than 2 in (50 mm), ensure that any adjustable input control is switched to the FULL POWER or FULL ON position and remains in this position until the load is removed from the magnet.

14.4.8.3 Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets. Before raising the load, check the internal control function indicator, where applicable, to confirm proper operation of the lifting magnet. 14.4.8.4 Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets Before raising the load, confirm that the control handle is in the LIFT or ON position and the control handle latch is operating. 14.4.9 CRITICAL LIFTS

Se Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. General-application magnets are required to satisfy the rated breakaway-force test. The breakaway force measured in this test must exceed 200 percent of the rated load. If the rated breakaway-force test cannot be verified, the lifting device shall be required to satisfy the rated breakaway-force test before being used to make a critical lift. Specified-application magnets are required to satisfy the rated breakaway-force test. The breakaway force measured in this test must exceed 200 percent of the rated load. If the rated breakaway-force test cannot be verified, the lifting device shall be required to satisfy the rated breakaway-force test before being used to make a critical lift.

b.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-20

DOE-STD-1090-2007

14.5 MAGNETS, REMOTE-OPERATED


Typical remote-operated magnetic lifting devices are shown in Figure 14-8. 14.5.1 DESIGN/FABRICATION 14.5.4 2. Power conductors and controls are of adequate rating and are insulated or otherwise protected against accidental interruption or damage. INSPECTIONS

Remote-operated magnetic lifting devices shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the provisions of ASME B30.20, 20-4.2.2. 14.5.2 a. MARKING

14.5.4.1 Initial Inspection Prior to their initial use, a qualified inspector shall inspect all new, modified, or repaired lifting magnets to ensure compliance with Section 14.5.4.3, Periodic Inspection. 14.5.4.2 Frequent Inspection a. The operator or other designated personnel shall visually inspect each magnetic lifting device at the beginning of each shift or prior to use, if it has not been in regular service. The inspection shall be for the following (records are not required): 1. Lifting magnet face for smoothness or presence of foreign materials, if applicable. Magnet suspension system. All visible electrical conductors (without disassembly).

At a minimum, all new lifting magnets shall be provided with a nameplate, mane tag, or other permanent marker displaying the following information. 1. Manufacturers name and address, or if the magnet has been repaired or modified, the name and address of the repairer/modifier. Manufacturers model or unit identification. Weight. Duty cycle, if applicable. Cold current.

2.

b.

3. 4. 5. b.

2. 3.

Cases may exist where a lifting device cannot be marked with its rated capacity and weight. This may be due to the security classification of the load to be lifted, or other reasons approved by the responsible manager. In these cases, the lifting device shall be marked with an identification number, and its documentation shall contain both its rated capacity and weight. INSTALLATION

14.5.4.3 Periodic Inspection a. A qualified inspector shall perform a complete inspection of the lifting device with the equipment in place at the following intervals: 1. 2. 3. 4. Normal service yearly. Heavy Service quarterly. Severe service quarterly. Special or infrequent service as authorized by a qualified person before the first use and as directed by the qualified for any subsequent occurrences.

14.5.3 a.

Remote-operated magnets shall be installed according to the manufacturers recommendations. Operators shall ensure that: 1. External power input is of the correct voltage and amperage.

b.

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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Reprinted from ASME B30.20-2006 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Figure 14-8. Remote-operated magnetic lifting devices. Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices 14-22

DOE-STD-1090-2007

b.

Lifting device service is defined as follows: 1. Normal operation with various weights within the rated load limit, or uniform loads less than 65 percent of rated load. Heavy operation within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. Severe operation under normal or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.

14.5.6 a.

MAINTENANCE

A preventive maintenance program shall be established and be based on the recommendations of the manufacturer or a qualified person. Replacement parts shall be equivalent to original specifications. Before maintenance is started on a lifting magnet or controls, maintenance personnel shall take the following precautions: 1. Ensure that all sources of magnet power are disconnected and locked out, tagged out, or flagged. Ensure that a magnet removed for repair is tagged as defective.

2.

b.

3.

c.

c.

This inspection shall include those items specified in Section 14.5.4.2, Frequent Inspection, in addition to the following: 1. Deformation, wear, and corrosion of all members, fasteners, and lifting parts. Check for suspect/counterfeit parts (see Terminology and Definitions, Chapter 1). Proper operation and condition of electrical components. Magnetic coil tested for ohmic/ground readings and compared to manufacturers standards. d.

2.

2.

Only qualified personnel shall work on equipment when maintenance and test are required. After repairs have been made, the lifting magnet shall not be returned to service until it has been inspected according to Section 14.5.4.3. Dated records of repairs and replacements shall be available. Any defective condition disclosed by the inspection shall be corrected before the lifting magnet is returned to service. TRAINING/ QUALIFICATION

3.

e.

4.

f.

d.

Dated inspection reports shall be prepared for each inspection. Inspection records shall be kept on file and shall be readily available. TESTING

g.

14.5.5

14.5.7 14.5.5.1 Operational Test a. All new, modified, or repaired lifting magnets shall be tested prior to initial use. Tests shall be performed by a qualified inspector or under the direction of that inspector. Dated reports shall be kept on file. Testing shall include the following: 1. A check for proper operation of all electrical equipment. A visual inspection of the lifting magnet for visible defects. a.

Operators shall be trained and qualified as specific in Chapter 6, Personnel Qualification and Training. At a minimum, instruction shall include the following: 1. Application of the lifting device to the load and adjustments of the device, if any, that adapt it to various sizes or kinds of loads. Any special operations or precautions. Condition of the load itself required for operation of the lifting device, such as balance, degree of order of stacked Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

b.

2. 3.

2.

14-23

DOE-STD-1090-2007

loads, surface cleanliness, bending, and load thickness. 4. Procedure for storage of the lifting device to protect it from damage. Instructions for not exceeding the rated capacity of the lifting device or the capacity of the hoisting equipment by the combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and the rigging. Charging of the lifting magnet battery (if required). 6. 7. The purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on the lifting magnet. The proper attachment of adaptors to lifting magnets for handling of special loads. 7. 3.

properly, adjust or repair them before operations begin. Do not load the lifting device in excess of its rated capacity or handle any load for which it is not designed. Apply the lifting device to the load in accordance with established procedures. Before lifting, ensure that lifting-device ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple-part lines are not interwoven. Ensure that the load is correctly distributed for the lifting device being used. Ensure that the temperature of the load does not exceed the maximum allowable limits of the lifting device. Do not use the lifting device for side pulls or sliding the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified person. Do not use a lifting magnet that is tagged Danger Do Not Operate or otherwise designated as nonfunctional.

5.

4.

5.

6.

8.

b.

Operators shall demonstrate the ability and competence to operate the lifting device as instructed before assuming responsibility for using it. OPERATION

8.

14.5.8 a.

9.

Only the following qualified personnel shall operate lifting devices: 1. 2. Designated persons. Trainees under the direct supervision of a designated person. Maintenance and test personnel, when it is necessary in the performance of their duties. Inspectors of lifting devices.

10. Do not remove Danger Do Not Operate tags without the approval of the person who placed them or an authorized person. 11. Store the lifting device in a designated location when not in use. 14.5.9 CRITICAL LIFTS

3.

4. b.

See Chapter 2, Critical Lifts, for critical lift requirements. a. Remote-operated magnets for critical-lift service shall have been tested for proper operation of all electrical equipment and a visual inspection of the lifting device for defects. If testing and inspection cannot be verified, the lifting device shall be tested and inspected before being used to make a critical lift.

The following shall apply to all personnel who operate remote-operated magnets: 1. Place any attached load on the floor or ground and, after use, properly store the lifting device before leaving it. Before they are used during a shift, test all controls. If any do not operate

2.

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-24

DOE-STD-1090-2007

Exhibit I is intended to be a sample form only. The equipment manufacturers inspection/testing criteria supercede any other criteria. In cases where the equipment manufacturer does not include inspection/testing criteria, other forms developed to facilitate required inspection/testing are acceptable.

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

DOE-STD-1090-2007

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

14-26

DOE-STD-1090-2007

EXHIBIT I (SAMPLE FORM) LIFTING BARS AND SPREADERS LOAD TEST INSPECTOR:________________________________ NOTES: 1. INSPECTION DATE:_______________

Proof-test to not more than 125 percent f rated capacity for critical lift service. The test load shall be accurate to within 5%, +0% of stipulated values. Qualified inspector shall witness all steps below.

2.

INSPECTION Lifting bars and spreaders shall be checked for signs of incipient failure in bending and shall be replaced if permanently bent more than inch in 10 feet, or twisted more than 5 degrees out of the original plan. Hook attachment welds shall be examined for cracks and signs of failure in tension. Qualified inspector shall perform test by visual examination, liquid-penetrant examination, or magneticparticle examination. Acceptance: No cracks, linear indication, laps, or seams. STATIC TEST: Hold weight for 10 minutes and visually inspect for deformation. Type________________________________________ Rated Capacity (SWL) _________________________lb Serial Number ________________________________ Qualified Inspector Verify (Load Test) ______________________________________________________ Remarks ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Size __________________________________ Actual Load Test _______________________lb

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Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Chapter 14 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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CHAPTER 17 REFERENCES
American Institute of Steel Construction AISC Specifications for the design, fabrication, and erection of structural steel for buildings. American Iron and Steel Institute AISI Standards for Type-302 or Type-304 stainless steel. American National Standards Institute and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI A10.28, Work Platforms Suspended From Cranes or Derricks. ANSI A10.18, Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toe Boards. ASME B30.1, Jacks ASME B30.2, Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top-Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top-Running Trolley Hoist). ASME B30.5, Mobile and Locomotive Cranes. ASME B30.6, Derricks. ASME B30.7, Base-Mounted Drum Hoists. ASME B30.9, Slings. ASME B30.10, Hooks. ASME B30.11, Monorail Systems and Underhung Cranes. ASME B30.12, Handling Loads Suspended from Rotorcraft. ASME B30.14, Side Boom Tractors. ASME B30.16, Overhead Hoists (Underhung). ASME B30.17, Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist). 17-1 ANSI/ASTM Specification A391, Specification for Alloy Steel Chain. ANSI/ASTM Specification E-165, Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method. ANSI/ASTM Specification E-709, Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination. ANSI/AWS D14.1, Specification for Welding of Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. ASME HST-1M, Performance Standard for Electric Chain Hoists. ASME B56.11.4, Forks and Fork Carriers for Powered Industrial Fork Lift Trucks, Hook Type. ASME PALD, Portable Automotive Lifting Devices. ANSI/ITSDF B56.6, Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks. ASME B56.7, Industrial Crane Trucks. Special Notice 6-88. ASME B30.20, Below-The-Hook Lifting Devices. ASME B30.21, Manually Lever Operated Hoists. ASME B30.22, Articulating Boom Cranes. ASME B30.23, Personnel Lifting Systems. ASME B30.26, Rigging Hardware ASME BTH-1, Design of Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices ANSI/ITSDF B56.1, Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Low Lift and High Lift Trucks. ANSI/ITSDF B56.5, Guided Industrial Vehicles.

Chapter 17 References

DOE-STD-1090-2007

ASME HST-2M, Performance Standard for Hand Chain Manually Operated Chain Hoists. ANSI/ASME HST-3M, Performance Standard for Manually Lever Operated Chain Hoists. ANSI/ASME HST-4M, Performance Standard for Electric Wire Rope Hoists. ANSI/ASME HST-5M, Performance Standard for Air Chain Hoists. ANSI/ASME HST-6M, Performance Standard for Air Wire Rope Hoists. ANSI MH 27.1, Specifications for Underhung Cranes and Monorail Systems. ANSI N14.6, Standard for Special Lifting Devices for shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials. ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities. ASME Cranes for Nuclear Facilities: ASME NUM-1, Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists (With Bridge or Trolley or Hoist of the Underhung Type). ASME NOG-1, Rule for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Toprunning Bridge, Multiple Girder). American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice No. ASNT-TC-1A.

Department of Energy DOE 440.1A, Worker Protection Management for Federal and Contractor Employees. DOE 440.1-6, Suspect Counterfeit Items Guide. Department of Labor 29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry. 29 CFR 1926, Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. Department of Transportation 49 CFR 391.41, physical Qualification for Drivers. National Fire Protection Association ANSI/NFPA 505, Powered Industrial Trucks, Type Designation and Areas of Use. NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Power Crane and Shovel Association PCSA-4, Mobile Power Crane and Excavator Standards and Hydraulic Crane Standards. Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J376-85, Load-Indicating Devices in Lifting Crane Service. Code.SAE J765, Crane Load Stability Test SAE J874, Center of Gravity Test Code.

American Welding Society SAE J987, Crane Structure, Method of test. ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel. Crane Manufacturers Association of America CMAA No. 70, Specification for Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes. CMAA No. 74, Specification for Top Running and Under Running, Single Girder, Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes. Underwriters Laboratories UL 558, Internal-Combustion-Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks. UL 583, Electric-Battery-Powered Industrial Trucks.

Chapter 17 References

17-2