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ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial

ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the People’s Republic of China:

The Consequences of Near Zero US Interest Rates

Ronald McKinnon and Zhao Liu

No. 107 | January 2013

ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial
ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial

ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the People’s Republic of China:

The Consequences of Near Zero US Interest Rates

Ronald McKinnon * and Zhao Liu **

No. 107

January 2013

* Professor Emeritus of Economics, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Landau Economics Bldg.,

Stanford, CA 94305-6072, USA; Tel. +1 650 723 3721; Fax +1 650 725 5702. mckinnon@stanford.edu

** Graduate student in Management Science, Stanford University. zhaol@stanford.edu

ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial

The ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration focuses on topics relating to regional cooperation and integration in the areas of infrastructure and software, trade and investment, money and finance, and regional public goods. The Series is a quick-disseminating, informal publication that seeks to provide information, generate discussion, and elicit comments. Working papers published under this Series may subsequently be published elsewhere.

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The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.

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Unless otherwise noted, $ refers to US dollars.

© 2013 by Asian Development Bank January 2013 Publication Stock No. WPS135349

Contents

Abstract

iv

  • 1. Introduction

1

  • 2. Hot Money Flows and Inflation in Emerging Markets

2

  • 3. Price Bubbles in Primary Commodities and Political Instability

4

  • 4. Financial Repression in the US

6

  • 5. Financial Repression in the People’s Republic of China

9

  • 6. What is the Solution?

11

References

13

ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration

14

Figures

  • 1. GDP Weighted Discount Rate of BRICS and G3

1

  • 2. Foreign Exchange ReservesEmerging Markets and the People’s Republic of China (billion $)

3

  • 3. The US Dollar’s Effective Exchange Rate Movements,

20002012 (January 2000 = 100)

3

  • 4. US Inflation, Emerging Market Inflation, and US Import Prices (y-o-y, %)

4

  • 5. The GreenspanBernanke Bubble Economy, 20032012 (January 2005 = 100)

5

  • 6. Food and Agriculture Product Prices (January 2005 = 100)

6

  • 7. Asset Holdings of US Commercial Bank Assets, October 2008October 2012 (billion $)

7

  • 8. GDP Composition of the People’s Republic of China,

19812011

8

Table

  • 1. Selected Interest Rates of the People’s Republic of China

and the United States, September 2012

9

Abstract

Under near zero United States (US) interest rates, the international dollar standard malfunctions. Emerging markets with naturally higher interest rates are swamped with

―hot money‖ inflows. Emerging market central banks intervene to prevent their

currencies from rising precipitously. They subsequently lose monetary control and begin inflating. Primary commodity prices rise worldwide unless interrupted by an international

banking crisis. This cyclical inflation on the dollar’s periphery only registers in the US

core consumer price index (CPI) with a long lag. The zero interest rate policy also fails to stimulate the US economy as domestic financial intermediation by banks and money

market mutual funds is repressed. Because the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is

forced to keep its interest rates below market-clearing levels, it also suffers from

―financial repression,‖ although in a form differing from that in the US.

Keywords: Dollar standard, carry trades, commodity price inflation

JEL Classification: F31, F32

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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1. Introduction

The international dollar standard is malfunctioning. The United States (US) Federal Reserve’s reduction of the interest rate on Federal Funds to virtually zero in December 2008a move that was followed by other industrial countriesexacerbated the wide interest rate differentials with emerging markets and provoked worldwide monetary

instability by inducing massive ―hot money‖ outflows by carry traders in Asia and Latin

America (McKinnon 2013). A carry trader is one who exploits interest rate differentials across countries by borrowing in low interest rate currencies to invest in currency domains with higher interest rates (Menkhoff et al. 2012).

Figure 1 shows the persistently wide gap between policy rates in emerging markets, represented by the BRICSBrazil, Russian Federation, India, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and South Africacompared with the advanced industrial countries. As the interest rates in advanced economies have approached zero during the recent wave of crises, interest rates in the emerging world have declined. Whereas the interest rate cuts in the industrialized world aimed to stabilize domestic economies during crisis events, the resulting rise of speculative capital inflows in emerging markets has contributed to rising inflationary pressures, speculative booms in local real estate markets, and hikes in food and energy prices. This has led to rising monetary, macroeconomic, and political instability in the emerging world (Magud et al. 2012).

Figure 1: GDP Weighted Discount Rate of BRICS and G3

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC |

BRICS = Brazil, Russian Federation, India, People’s Republic of China, and South Africa; GDP = Gross Domestic Product; G3 = Group of Three: Germany, Japan, and the United States. Source: EIU and IMF.

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2. Hot Money Flows and Inflation in Emerging Markets

Over the past decade, speculative money from carry traders flooding into emerging markets with higher interest rates has provoked domestic inflation and led to local currencies being overvalued. When emerging market currency exchange rates are not tied down by official parities, their ongoing appreciation induces more hot money inflows, as one-way bets on currency appreciation are induced (McKinnon and Schnabl 2009). Neglecting the exchange risks involved, carry traders see a double benefit: the higher interest rates in emerging markets combined with capital gains as their investment currencies appreciate against the US dollar.

To prevent or limit emerging market currencies from appreciating, emerging market central banks sell their local currency and buy dollars. In the presence of ongoing carry trades, however, emerging market central banks need to keep intervening to prevent continuing appreciation. This foreign exchange pressure leads to the violation of the theorem that a floating exchange rate gives monetary independence to central banks. Each emerging market central bank feels forced to stabilize its exchange rate in order to prevent currency appreciation that would make its exports less competitive against its neighbors. (Löffler, Schnabl, and Schobert 2012).

From 2001 to 2011, interventions by central banks in emerging markets were massive:

emerging market foreign exchange reserves increased six-fold from US$1 trillion to US$7 trillion during the period (Figure 2). Although the PRC accounted for about half of this huge buildup, the combined interventions of large emerging marketsincluding Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Russian Federationand a host of smaller ones were equally important.

This large buildup of foreign exchange reserves in emerging markets since 2001 has not been a smooth process. Speculative carry traders are often highly leveraged and heavily dependent on banks for finance. So if an unexpected worldwide banking crisis erupts, banks stop lending to their most risky customers: carry traders. Figure 2 shows declines in emerging market foreign exchange reserves coinciding first with the US subprime mortgage crisis in 2008/09 and again with the eurozone banking crisis since mid-2011.

These two interruptions of the carry trade are illustrated in Figure 3. If carry traders borrow in US dollars to invest in emerging market currencies, and then a banking crisis cuts off their flow of dollar credit, they must sell off their foreign exchange assets to repay their dollar loans. This scenario induced the US dollar to rise sharply in foreign exchange markets in 2009 and again in mid-2011 as inflationary pressures in emerging markets (temporarily) abated. However, if the large interest differential remains, we would expect the carry trade (and weak US dollar) to return once the euro zone banking crisis is over.

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Figure 2: Foreign Exchange ReservesEmerging Markets and the People’s Republic of China (billion $)

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC |

Notes:

  • 1. Emerging Markets include the following countries: Russian Federation; Poland; Czech Republic; Hungary; Romania; Ukraine; Turkey; Israel; United Arab Emirates (UAE); Saudi Arabia; South Africa; People’s Republic of China (PRC); India; Hong Kong,.China; Republic of Korea; Singapore; Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Brazil; Mexico; Chile; Peru; Colombia; Argentina; and Venezuela.

  • 2. Data missing for UAE (May 2012July 2012) and the PRC (July 2012). It is assumed that there were no changes in reserves in these months.

Source: IFS.

Figure 3: The US Dollar’s Effective Exchange Rate Movements, 2000–2012 (January 2000 = 100)

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC |

US = United States. Source: US Federal Reserve.

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The sharp buildup of emerging market foreign exchange reserves, with concomitant increases in domestic base monies, was too big to be fully offset by sterilizing domestic money issuance through the sale of central bank bonds or increases in reserve requirements for domestic commercial banks (Löffler, Schnabl, and Schobert 2012). The resulting loss of monetary control in emerging markets has led to headline inflation that is generally higher than headline, and much higher than core, inflation in developed market economies (Figure 4). This higher inflation occurred despite the fact that, since 2002, emerging market currencies on average have appreciated against the currencies of developed countries.

Despite the Federal Reserve’s goal of stabilizing domestic prices, US headline inflation

can hardly be insulated from worldwide inflation because of international trade. Figure 4

also shows that US headline inflation moves together with emerging market inflation and US import prices.

Figure 4: US Inflation, Emerging Market Inflation, and US Import Prices (y-o-y, %)

4 | Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107 The sharp buildup of emerging

US = United States, y-o-y = Year-on-Year. Source: IHS and IMF.

3. Price Bubbles in Primary Commodities and Political Instability

However, the inflationary impact of these carry trades associated with the ebb and flow of hot money into emerging markets is most obvious in the volatile cyclical movements in primary commodity prices internationally. Because many emerging markets produce primary commodities and are relatively important consumers of basic foodstuffs, their collective loss of monetary control can create worldwide commodity price bubbles.

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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Figure 5 shows the sharp rise in primary commodity prices from 2003 through mid- 2008the first phase of the carry trade after the US Federal Reserve had cut its interbank lending rate to just 1.0% in 2003/04. Primary commodity prices spiked in mid- 2008 and then fell sharply into 2009 with the onset of the subprime mortgage banking crisis. Then, with the subprime banking crisis seemingly contained by mid-2009, hot money flows into emerging markets, due to interest differentials, started up again. Commodity prices spiked again in early 2011 before beginning to fall in mid-2011 as a result of the eurozone banking and sovereign debt crisis.

Figure 5 also shows the 50% increase in land prices between 2003 and late 2006 before prices collapsed, creating the US subprime mortgage credit crunch.

Figure 5: The GreenspanBernanke Bubble Economy, 20032012 (January 2005 = 100)

CPI = Consumer Price Index, CRB = Commodity Research Bureau, S&P = Standard & Poor’s
CPI = Consumer Price Index, CRB = Commodity Research Bureau, S&P = Standard & Poor’s

Source: Bloomberg.

Are commodity price bubbles something to worry about? People in mature industrial countries are more insulated from the malign consequences of such bubbles than are those in developing countries. Food and energy make up larger shares of disposable income in developing countries, making the population more sensitive to inflationary pressure, particularly in food markets. Although both episodes of commodity price spikes created distress, Figure 6 shows that the sharp run-up in agricultural prices in 2010, when many basic food prices virtually doubled, corresponded with the food riots associated with the Arab Spring.

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Figure 6: Food and Agriculture Product Prices (January 2005 = 100)

6 | Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107 Figure 6: Food and Agriculture

S&P GSCI = Standard & Poors (formerly Goldman Sachs Commodity Index), UN = United Nations. Source: Bloomberg.

In December 2010, it was a poor Tunisian food vendor that immolated himselfthus starting contagious riots throughout the Arab world. Unfortunately, the Arab Spring (as the name implies) was interpreted by Western diplomats as a sudden longing for democracy and a desire to throw out corrupt dictatorshipsand thus it was widely believed that the West should support the rebels. If the Arab Spring had been recognized as mainly a food riot, the response of Western governments would have been more measured in taking sides, while focusing more actively on monetary measures to dampen cycles in primary commodity prices.

The disruption in emerging markets and other developing countries could be partially justified if zero interest rates on short-term US dollar assets had helped the US recover from the 2008/09 subprime mortgage crises. However, evidence suggests otherwise.

4. Financial Repression in the US

Although the low interest rate policy is claimed by the Federal Reserve to have stabilized US growth and, therefore, to also have had positive spillover effects in the emerging world, the zero interest rate policy per se is unlikely to have stimulated US growth. Conventional thinking has it that the lower the interest rate the more opportunities there are for credit to expand. But this is only true when interest ratesparticularly interbank interest ratesare comfortably above zero. Banks with good retail lending opportunities typically lend by opening credit lines to non-bank customers. But these credit lines are

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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open-ended in the sense that the commercial borrower can choose whenand by how muchto draw on the credit line (subject to some maximum limit of course). Open- ended credit creates uncertainty for the bank since it is difficult to know what its future cash positions will be. An illiquid bank could be in trouble if its customers simultaneously decided to draw down their credit lines.

However, if the retail bank has easy access to the wholesale interbank market, its liquidity is much improved. To cover unexpected liquidity shortfalls, it could borrow from banks with excess reserves with little or no credit checks. But if the prevailing interbank lending rate is close to zero, as it is now, then large banks with surplus reserves become loathe to part with their reserves for a derisory yield. In this case, smaller banks, which collectively are big lenders to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), cannot easily bid for funds at an interest rate significantly above the prevailing interbank rate without inadvertently signaling that they might be in trouble (i.e., distressed borrowers). Indeed, counterparty risk in smaller banks remains substantial as about 100 such banks failed in 2011 in the US.

The US system of bank intermediation is essentially broken. Figure 7 shows the sharp fall in interbank lending; interbank loans outstanding in October 2012 were only one- quarter of their level in October 2008. The US recovery remained weak into 2012, with bank credit and employment languishing or increasing only slowly. Figure 7 shows that commercial and industrial loans were significantly less in 2012 than in 2008; instead, banks loaded up with Treasury and agency securities, and cash assets--which are mainly excess reserves held with the Federal Reserve by large commercial banks.

Figure 7: Asset Holdings of US Commercial Bank Assets, October 2008October 2012 (billion $)

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC |

US = United States. Source: US Federal Reserve.

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But the damage that near zero interest rates has done to financial intermediation in the US is more general than that seen just in banking statistics. 1 Money market mutual funds

attract depositors who believe they can withdraw their deposits to get virtually instant liquidity. But as the yields on the short-term liquid assets of these funds approach zero, a

small negative shock could cause any of them to ―break the buck‖ if marked to market.

That is, a customer trying to withdraw from his account might only get 99 cents on the dollar. Banks and other sponsors of money market mutual funds are paranoid about the

reputational risks of breaking the buck. So they have closed, or are closing, money market mutual funds both in Europe (euros) and the US (dollars). 2

When short-term interest rates are kept close to zero indefinitely, this inevitably drags down long-term rates. A well-known principle of finance is that today’s long rates are just expected future short rates plus a liquidity premium. When Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke drove short rates down to zero in December 2008, the yield on the 10- year US Treasury bond was 4.0%. By July 2012, the 10-year yield had fallen to 1.45%and one can expect it to fall further if short rates remain frozen near zero.

In the medium- and longer-term, pension funds are very important financial intermediaries. However, it is well known that defined benefit pension funds everywhere are in serious trouble. In California, for example, most public sector pension funds have

assumed a nominal yield of 7.5% on their assets. Default is a prospect for the state’s

pension funds as well as for the pension funds of the increasingly numerous California cities and towns that are being forced into bankruptcy because they cannot meet their obligations.

In effect, the US is suffering from a modern form of ―financial repression.‖ Financial

intermediation between savers and investors is repressed because near zero market interest rates threaten the viability of financial intermediariesas discussed aboveeven when general price inflation and burdensome bank regulation are not problems.

In the 1970s, the term financial repression originated with McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) when inflation was a problem in a number of less developed countries (LDCs). In the 1960s and 1970s, governments in many LDCs intervened to put ceilings on nominal interest rates and impose high reserve requirements on their banks, along with other techniques to direct the flow of credit in the economy. This repressed the supply of investment finance and depositors wound up seeing negative real interest rates; as a result, banking systems in some LDCs shrunk in size. Wanting to find a pejorative term—akin to ―political repression‖—to describe this syndrome, McKinnon and Shaw first used the term financial repression in 1973.

Although the modern form of financial repression is somewhat different because depositing and lending takes place at market (near zero) rates of interest without bank regulatory distortions, perhaps it is more insidious because it is less obvious.

  • 1 For more detail on the failure of low interest rate policies in Japan, see Ueda (2012).

  • 2 A recent research report from the Boston Federal Reserve found that 78 money market mutual funds would have broken the buck without non-contractual support (Brady et al. 2012).

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5. Financial Repression in the People’s Republic of China

The US Federal Reserve’s ultralow interest rates at the center of the world dollar standard also result in a form of financial repression in the PRC (Lardy 2008). As a result

of US policy, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) is forced to keep Chinese bank deposit

and loan interest rates far below the natural rate of interest associated with a high- growth economy. Even so, because of the large interest differential between the US and

the PRC (Table 1), hot money flows in through somewhat porous capital controls so that the PBOC is forced to buy US dollars to keep the exchange rate stable. (The inflow of hot money can also be accentuated by the expected appreciation of the renminbi.) Some of this excess money creation is sterilized, but potential inflationary pressure in the PRC’s consumer price index (CPI) remains. How does the resulting financial repression distort the PRC’s economy?

Table 1: Selected Interest Rates of the People’s Republic of China and the United States, September 2012

 

PRC

US

Money Market Interest Rate

4.1%

0.20%

Deposit Rate

3.0%

0.30%

Lending Rate

6.0%

3.25%

Source: EIU.

Households see a deposit interest rate below the rate of inflationa form of taxation that reduces household income and consumption. Some enterprises receive a substantial subsidy in the form of cheap creditthe standard bank loan rate in 2010 was 5.56%creating excess demand. At this centrally mandated low lending rate, the state-owned banks pick just the safest borrowers, which are large state-owned enterprises (SOEs).

Because the official lending rate is significantly lower than the market clearing rate, there

is excess demand for bank credit in the PRC’s robust economy. The heavily managed

official loan rate band inevitably leads to distortions in the way that bank credit is allocated. At the low loan rate, the commercial banks prefer to lend to state-owned or state-held enterprises because of their relatively low bankruptcy risk. In addition, there is evidence that state-owned and state-held enterprises enjoy preferential loan rates. Szamosszegi and Kyle (2011) listed a group of SOEs whose capital costs were

significantly lower than the official maximum rate. Ferri and Liu (2010) did more systematic analysis using a 2001–05 dataset from the PRC’s National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). They found that even after controlling for individual features, the cost of debt was significantly lower for SOEs than for private enterprises.

Of course, private SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) get rationed out altogether when official loan rates are set at a low level. Because of their higher default

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rates and higher administrative costs per dollar lent, SMEs typically are given much higher loan ratesbetween 10% and 20%to equilibrate the supply and demand for credit.

With credit and possibly other subsidies, the profitability of large SOEs has surged in recent yearsand there is no policy of remitting these profits to households; thus, the high proclivity of SOEs to invest in fixed assets at home and abroad. 3 Investment reached a remarkable 45% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011 (Figure 8). At near zero real rates of interest, the quality of many of these investments cannot be high. Moreover, the shares of personal income and private consumption are falling as profits surge. Figure 8 shows that the PRC’s level of private consumption in 2011 (35% of GDP) was only about half that of the US.

Figure 8. GDP Composition of the People’s Republic of China, 19812011

10 | Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107 rates and higher administrative costs

GDP = Gross Domestic Product. Source: EIU.

Savers disappointed with negative returns on deposits, together with lenders turned

down by the formal banks, comprise the underground or ―shadow‖ financial system in

the PRC. Although there is no official figure, in 2005, then-Deputy Governor of the

PBOC, Ms. Wu Xiaoling, disclosed that the scale of informal financing was CNY950

  • 3 As the PRC’s financial reform deepens, we expect this phenomenon to be mitigated. Fixed capital formation in the private sector has risen rapidly since 2000, climbing to nearly 20% of GDP in 2011.

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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billion, or 5.92% of total loans, according to a PBOC survey. It is likely that the interest rate would be much higher in the underground financial system. For example, Li and Hsu (2009) estimated the national average to be 16.4% between 2004 and 2006.

By 2012, the shadow banking system in the PRC had expanded enormously, as described by Simon Rabiniovitch in the Financial Times: Shadow banking in [the PRC] assumes various guises. The most basic are the illegal loan sharks who operate mainly in wealthy coastal regions, providing high-interest loans to small businesses that are often ignored by mainstream banks.

But most of [the PRC’s] shadow banking is legal. The biggest of the non-bank institutions are trusts, companies akin to hedge funds. They cater to rich investors and promise high returns by lending to risky customers, especially property developers. A range of industrial companies, from shipbuilders to oil majors, also engage in shadow banking as a side business.

Estimates about the size of shadow banking vary widely depending on how it is defined. Tying together various threads of official data, UBS economist Wang Tao believes it is no smaller than CNY13.6 trillion (US$2 trillion), or about one-quarter of this year’s GDP, and could be as big as CNY24.4 trillion, or nearly 50% of GDP.

For all the difficulties of making a calculation, one thing is apparent: its rapid growth. Trusts, the backbone of the shadow sector, had CNY6.3 trillion of assets under management at the end of the third quarter, up 54% from a year earlier and five-times more than at the start of 2009. KPMG says trusts could surpass insurance this year as the second-biggest institutional component of [the PRC’s] financial system, smaller only than banks (Rabiniovitch 2012).

With opaque market structure and information, the PRC’s underground financial system is prone to crisis. A recent example occurred in 2012 in Wenzhou, an underground entrepreneurial hub south of Shanghai. The underground debt panic caused enterprises to go bankrupt, with dozens of firms’ owners escaping their debts simply by fleeing. According to the Financial Times article cited above:

Long chains of underground financing deals, often based on predatory lending rates, collapsed as exports weakened and property prices tumbled… The city’s courts heard 10,269 economic disputes, most related to loan defaults, in the first half of 2012, almost twice as many as last year (Rabiniovitch 2012).

6. What is the Solution?

A zero interest rate policy in the US contributes to rising macroeconomic and political instability in developing countries and emerging market economies, and is also unlikely to stimulate US growth. Reform efforts should focus much more on international monetary harmonization that limits interest differentials, while accepting the need for exchange rate buffers, such as capital controls, to limit hot money flows.

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If interest differentials are too wide, capital controls will always fail. The first item on The Group of Twenty (G-20) agenda should be the abandonment of monetary policies by the mature industrial economies, led by the US, which set interest rates near zero. This would lessen the incentive for central banks in emerging markets to keep their interest rates low despite the inflationary pressures they face and the fact that their ―natural‖ rates of interest are higher. The Federal Reserve must be the leader in raising interest rates in mature economies because, under the asymmetrical world dollar standard, it has the greatest level of autonomy in monetary policy (McKinnon 2013).

US officials point to the stagnant US economy as the reason they want to keep domestic interest rates as low as possibleeven zero. They must be convinced that this common view is mistaken and that raising short-term interest rates on US dollar assets from zero to modest levelssay 2.0%jointly with their peer central banks in developed countries is in the US’ own best interests, as well as the interest of the rest of the world. The longer the Federal Reserve’s zero interest rate policy stays in place, the more difficult it becomes to get out of the resulting liquidity trap and restore a more normal flow of financial intermediation within the US. Such a restoration is needed to avoid in the US the perpetual stagnation we now see in Japan, which is sometimes referred to as ―Japanization‖ (Ueda 2012).

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ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration *

  • 1. The ASEAN Economic Community and the European Experienceby Michael G. Plummer

  • 2. ―Economic Integration in East Asia: Trends, Prospects, and a Possible Roadmap‖ by Pradumna B. Rana

―Central

  • 3. Asia

after

Fifteen

Years

of

Transition:

Growth, Regional

Cooperation, and Policy Choices‖ by Malcolm Dowling and Ganeshan

Wignaraja

  • 4. ―Global Imbalances and the Asian Economies: Implications for Regional Cooperation‖ by Barry Eichengreen

  • 5. ―Toward Win-Win Regionalism in Asia: Issues and Challenges in Forming Efficient Trade Agreements‖ by Michael G. Plummer

  • 6. ―Liberalizing Cross-Border Capital Flows: How Effective Are Institutional Arrangements against Crisis in Southeast Asia‖ by Alfred Steinherr, Alessandro Cisotta, Erik Klär, and Kenan Šehović

  • 7. ―Managing the Noodle Bowl: The Fragility of East Asian Regionalism‖ by

Richard E. Baldwin

  • 8. ―Measuring Regional Market Integration in Developing Asia: a Dynamic Factor Error Correction Model (DF-ECM) Approach‖ by Duo Qin, Marie Anne Cagas, Geoffrey Ducanes, Nedelyn Magtibay-Ramos, and Pilipinas F. Quising

  • 9. ―The Post-Crisis Sequencing of Economic Integration in Asia: Trade as a Complement to a Monetary Future‖ by Michael G. Plummer and

Ganeshan Wignaraja

  • 10. Trade Intensity and Business Cycle Synchronization: The Case of East Asia‖ by Pradumna B. Rana

  • 11. ―Inequality and Growth Revisited‖ by Robert J. Barro

  • 12. ―Securitization in East Asia‖

Schou-Zibell

by Paul

Lejot,

Douglas Arner, and Lotte

  • 13. ―Patterns and Determinants of Cross-border Financial Asset Holdings in East Asia‖ by Jong-Wha Lee

  • 14. ―Regionalism as an Engine of Multilateralism: A Case for a Single East Asian FTA‖ by Masahiro Kawai and Ganeshan Wignaraja

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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  • 15. ―The Impact of Capital Inflows on Emerging East Asian Economies: Is Too Much Money Chasing Too Little Good?‖ by Soyoung Kim and Doo Yong

Yang

  • 16. ―Emerging East Asian Banking Systems Ten Years after the 1997/98 Crisis‖ by Charles Adams

  • 17. ―Real and Financial Integration in East Asia‖ by Soyoung Kim and Jong- Wha Lee

  • 18. ―Global Financial Turmoil: Impact and Challenges for Asia’s Financial Systems‖ by Jong-Wha Lee and Cyn-Young Park

  • 19. ―Cambodia’s Persistent Dollarization: Causes and Policy Options‖ by

Jayant Menon

  • 20. ―Welfare Implications of International Financial Integration‖ by Jong-Wha Lee and Kwanho Shin

  • 21. ―Is the ASEAN-Korea Free Trade Area (AKFTA) an Optimal Free Trade Area?‖ by Donghyun Park, Innwon Park, and Gemma Esther B. Estrada

  • 22. ―India’s Bond Market—Developments and Challenges Ahead‖ by Stephen

Wells and Lotte Schou- Zibell

  • 23. ―Commodity Prices and Monetary Policy in Emerging East Asia‖ by Hsiao

Chink Tang

  • 24. ―Does Trade Integration Contribute to Peace?‖ by Jong-Wha Lee and Ju Hyun Pyun

  • 25. ―Aging in Asia: Trends, Impacts, and Responses‖ by Jayant Menon and

Anna Melendez-Nakamura

  • 26. ―Re-considering Asian Financial Regionalism in the 1990s‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 27. ―Managing Success in Viet Nam: Macroeconomic Consequences of Large Capital Inflows with Limited Policy Tools‖ by Jayant Menon

  • 28. ―The Building Block versus Stumbling Block Debate of Regionalism: From the Perspective of Service Trade Liberalization in Asia‖ by Shintaro

Hamanaka

  • 29. ―East Asian and European Economic Integration: A Comparative Analysis‖

by Giovanni Capannelli and Carlo Filippini

  • 30. ―Promoting Trade and Investment in India’s Northeastern Region‖ by M.

Govinda Rao

16

| Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107

  • 31. ―Emerging Asia: Decoupling or Recoupling‖ by Soyoung Kim, Jong-Wha Lee, and Cyn-Young Park

  • 32. ―India’s Role in South Asia Trade and Investment Integration‖ by Rajiv

Kumar and Manjeeta Singh

  • 33. ―Developing

Indicators

for

Regional

Economic

Integration

and

Cooperation‖ by Giovanni Capannelli, Jong-Wha Lee, and Peter Petri

  • 34. ―Beyond the Crisis: Financial Regulatory Reform in Emerging Asia‖ by

Chee Sung Lee and Cyn-Young Park

  • 35. ―Regional Economic Impacts of Cross-Border Infrastructure: A General Equilibrium Application to Thailand and Lao People’s Democratic Republic‖ by Peter Warr, Jayant Menon, and Arief Anshory Yusuf

  • 36. ―Exchange Rate Regimes in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Global Financial Crisis‖ by Warwick J. McKibbin and Waranya Pim Chanthapun

  • 37. ―Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring ADB's Contribution to the Asian Highway Network‖ by Srinivasa Madhur, Ganeshan Wignaraja, and Peter

Darjes

  • 38. ―The Financial Crisis and Money Markets in Emerging Asia‖ by Robert

Rigg and Lotte Schou-Zibell

  • 39. ―Complements

or

Substitutes?

Preferential

and

Multilateral

Trade

Liberalization at the Sectoral Level‖ by Mitsuyo Ando, Antoni

Estevadeordal, and Christian Volpe Martincus

  • 40. ―Regulatory Reforms for Improving the Business Environment in Selected Asian EconomiesHow Monitoring and Comparative Benchmarking can Provide Incentive for Reform‖ by Lotte Schou-Zibell and Srinivasa Madhur

  • 41. ―Global Production Sharing, Trade Patterns, and Determinants of Trade Flows in East Asia‖ by Prema-chandra Athukorala and Jayant Menon

  • 42. ―Regionalism Cycle in Asia (-Pacific): A Game Theory Approach to the Rise and Fall of Asian Regional Institutions‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 43. ―A Macroprudential Framework for Monitoring and Examining Financial Soundness‖ by Lotte Schou-Zibell, Jose Ramon Albert, and Lei Lei Song

  • 44. ―A Macroprudential Framework for the Early Detection of Banking

Problems in Emerging Economies‖ by Claudio Loser, Miguel Kiguel, and

David Mermelstein

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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  • 45. ―The 2008 Financial Crisis and Potential Output in Asia: Impact and Policy Implications‖ by Cyn-Young Park, Ruperto Majuca, and Josef Yap

  • 46. ―Do Hub-and-Spoke Free Trade Agreements Increase Trade? A Panel Data Analysis‖ by Jung Hur, Joseph Alba, and Donghyun Park

47.

―Does

a

Leapfrogging

Growth

Strategy

Raise

Growth

Rate?

Some

International Evidence‖ by Zhi Wang, Shang-Jin Wei, and Anna Wong

  • 48. ―Crises in Asia: Recovery and Policy Responses‖ by Kiseok Hong and

Hsiao Chink Tang

  • 49. ―A New Multi-Dimensional Framework for Analyzing Regional Integration:

Regional Integration Evaluation (RIE) Methodology‖ by Donghyun Park and Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada

50.

―Regional

Surveillance

for

East

Asia:

How Can

It

Be Designed to

Complement Global Surveillance?‖ by Shinji Takagi

  • 51. ―Poverty Impacts of Government Expenditure from Natural Resource Revenues‖ by Peter Warr, Jayant Menon, and Arief Anshory Yusuf

  • 52. ―Methods for Ex Ante Economic Evaluation of Free Trade Agreements‖ by

David Cheong

  • 53. ―The Role of Membership Rules in Regional Organizations‖ by Judith

Kelley

  • 54. ―The Political Economy of Regional Cooperation in South Asia‖ by V.V.

Desai

  • 55. ―Trade Facilitation Measures under Free Trade Agreements: Are They Discriminatory against Non-Members?‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka, Aiken Tafgar, and Dorothea Lazaro

  • 56. ―Production Networks and Trade Patterns in East Asia: Regionalization or Globalization?‖ by Prema-chandra Athukorala

  • 57. ―Global Financial Regulatory Reforms: Implications for Developing Asia‖

by Douglas W. Arner and Cyn-Young Park

  • 58. ―Asia’s Contribution to Global Rebalancing‖ by Charles Adams, Hoe Yun

Jeong, and Cyn-Young Park

  • 59. ―Methods for Ex Post Economic Evaluation of Free Trade Agreements‖ by

David Cheong

  • 60. ―Responding to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis: Meeting the Challenges in Asia‖ by Douglas W. Arner and Lotte Schou-Zibell

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| Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107

  • 61. ―Shaping New Regionalism in the Pacific Islands: Back to the Future?‖ by

Satish Chand

  • 62. ―Organizing the Wider East Asia Region‖ by Christopher M. Dent

  • 63. ―Labour and Grassroots Civic Interests In Regional Institutions‖ by Helen

E.S. Nesadurai

  • 64. ―Institutional Design of Regional Integration: Balancing Delegation and Representation‖ by Simon Hix

  • 65. ―Regional Judicial Institutions and Economic Cooperation: Lessons for Asia?‖ by Erik Voeten

  • 66. ―The Awakening Chinese Economy: Macro and Terms of. Trade Impacts

on 10 Major Asia-Pacific Countries‖ by Yin Hua Mai, Philip Adams, Peter Dixon, and Jayant Menon

  • 67. ―Institutional Parameters of a Region-Wide Economic Agreement in Asia:

Examination of Trans-Pacific Partnership and ASEAN+α Free Trade Agreement Approaches‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 68. ―Evolving Asian Power Balances and Alternate Conceptions for Building Regional Institutions‖ by Yong Wang

  • 69. ―ASEAN Economic Integration: Features, Fulfillments, Failures, and the Future‖ by Hal Hill and Jayant Menon

  • 70. ―Changing Impact of Fiscal Policy on Selected ASEAN Countries‖ by

Hsiao Chink Tang, Philip Liu, and Eddie C. Cheung

  • 71. ―The Organizational Architecture of the Asia-Pacific: Insights from the New Institutionalism‖ by Stephan Haggard

  • 72. ―The Impact of Monetary Policy on Financial Markets in Small Open Economies: More or Less Effective During the Global Financial Crisis?‖ by Steven Pennings, Arief Ramayandi, and Hsiao Chink Tang

  • 73. ―What do Asian Countries Want the Seat at the High Table for? G20 as a New Global Economic Governance Forum and the Role of Asia‖ by

Yoon Je Cho

  • 74. ―Asia’s Strategic Participation in the Group of 20 for Global Economic Governance Reform: From the Perspective of International Trade‖ by

Taeho Bark and Moonsung Kang

  • 75. ―ASEAN’s Free Trade Agreements with the Peoples Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea: A Qualitative and Quantitative

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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Analysis‖

by

Gemma

Estrada,

Donghyun Park,

Innwon

Park,

and

Soonchan Park

 
  • 76. ―ASEAN-5 Macroeconomic Forecasting Using a GVAR Model‖ by Fei Han and Thiam Hee Ng

  • 77. ―Early Warning Systems in the Republic of Korea: Experiences, Lessons, and Future Steps‖ by Hyungmin Jung and Hoe Yun Jeong

  • 78. ―Trade and Investment in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Remaining

Challenges and the Unfinished Policy Agenda‖ by Jayant Menon and

Anna Cassandra Melendez

  • 79. ―Financial Integration in Emerging Asia: Challenges and Prospects‖ by

Cyn-Young Park and Jong-Wha Lee

  • 80. ―Sequencing Regionalism: Theory, European Practice, and Lessons for Asia‖ by Richard E. Baldwin

  • 81. ―Economic Crises and Institutions for Regional Economic Cooperation‖ by

82.

C. Randall Henning

―Asian

Regional

Institutions

and

the

Behavior of States‖ by Amitav Acharya

Possibilities for

Socializing

the

  • 83. ―The People’s Republic of China and India: Commercial Policies in the Giants‖ by Ganeshan Wignaraja

  • 84. What Drives Different Types of Capital Flows and Their Volatilities‖ by Rogelio Mercado and Cyn-Young Park

  • 85. ―Institution Building for Africal Regionalism‖ by Gilbert M. Khadiagala

  • 86. What Drives Different Types of Capital Flows and Their Volatilities‖ by Rogelio Mercado and Cyn-Young Park

―The

  • 87. Role

of

the

People’s

Republic

of

China in International

Fragmentation and Production Networks: An Empirical Investigation‖ by

Hyun-Hoon Lee, Donghyun Park, and Jing Wang

 

―Utilizing

  • 88. the

Multiple

Mirror

Technique

to

Assess

the

Quality

of

Cambodian Trade Statistics: by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 89. ―Is Technical Assistance under Free Trade Agreements WTO-Plus?‖ Review of Japan–ASEAN Economic Partnership Agreements‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 90. Intra-Asia Exchange Rate Volatility and Intra-Asia Trade: Evidence by of Goods‖ by Hsiao Chink Tang

20

| Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 107

  • 91. Is Trade in Asia Really Integrating?‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

92.

The

PRC's

Free

Trade

Agreements

with

ASEAN,

Japan,

and

the

Republic of Korea: A Comparative Analysis‖ by Gemma Estrada, Donghyun Park, Innwon Park, and Soonchan Park

  • 93. Assessing the Resilience of ASEAN Banking Systems: The Case of Philippines‖ by Jose Ramon Albert and Thiam Hee Ng‖

  • 94. Strengthening the Financial System and Mobilizing Savings to Support More Balanced Growth in ASEAN+3" by A. Noy Siackhachanh

  • 95. Measuring Commodity-Level Trade Costs in Asia: The Basis for Effective Trade Facilitation Policies in the Regionby Shintaro Hamanaka and Romana Domingo

  • 96. ―Why do Imports

Fall More

than Exports Especially During

Crises?

Evidence from Selected Asian Economies‖ by Hsiao Chink Tang

  • 97. Determinants

of

Local

Currency

Bonds

and

Foreign

Holdings:

Implications for Bond Market Development in the People’s Republic of Chinaby Kee-Hong Bae

  • 98. ASEANChina Free Trade Area and the Competitiveness of Local Industries: A Case Study of Major Industries in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic‖ by Leebeer Leebouapao, Sthabandith Insisienmay, and Vanthana Nolintha

  • 99. The Impact of ACFTA on People's Republic of China-ASEAN Trade:

Estimates Based on an Extended Gravity Model for Component Tradeby Yu Sheng, Hsiao Chink Tang, and Xinpeng Xu

  • 100. Narrowing the Development Divide in ASEAN: The Role of Policy‖ by Jayant Menon

  • 101. Different Types of Firms, Products, and Directions of Trade: The Case of the People’s Republic of China‖ by Hyun-Hoon Lee, Donghyun Park, and Jing Wang

  • 102. Anatomy of SouthSouth FTAs in Asia: Comparisons with Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific Islands‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 103. Japan's Education Services Imports: Branch Campus or Subsidiary Campus?‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka

  • 104. A New Regime of SME Finance in Emerging Asia: Empowering Growth- Oriented SMEs to Build Resilient National Economies‖ by Shigehiro Shinozaki

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the PRC

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  • 105. Critical Review of East Asia South America Trade ‖ by Shintaro Hamanaka and Aiken Tafgar

  • 106. ―The Threat of Financial Contagion to Emerging Asia’s Local Bond Markets: Spillovers from Global Crisesby Iwan J. Azis, Sabyasachi Mitra, Anthony Baluga, and Roselle Dime

*These papers can be downloaded from (ARIC) http://aric.adb.org/archives.php? section=0&subsection=workingpapers or (ADB) http://www.adb.org/publications/series/ regional-economic-integration-working -papers

Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the People’s Republic of China: The Consequences of Near Zero US Interest Rates

Under near zero U.S. interest rates, the international dollar standard malfunctions. Emerging markets (EM) with naturally higher interest rates are swamped with hot money inflows and begin inflating. The zero interest rate policy also fails to stimulate the US economy as domestic financial intermediation is repressed. The People’s Republic of China also suffers from financial repression. Near zero U.S. interest rates are bad for the rest of the world and bad for the U.S. itself.

About the Asian Development Bank

ADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. Its mission is to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Despite the region’s many successes, it remains home to two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1.7 billion people who live on less than $2 a day, with 828 million struggling on less than $1.25 a day. ADB is committed to reducing poverty through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants, and technical assistance.

Asian Development Bank 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 Metro Manila, Philippines www.adb.org/poverty Publication Stock No. WPS135349

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