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Project Management Program

Project Management Framework Author Pankaj Sharma

Based on IV Edition

PMI, PMP, CAPM, PgMP, PMI-RMP, PMI-SP and PMBOK are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc.

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Learning Objectives
After the completion of this chapter, the learner will be able to:
Explain the PMBOK Guide Project Management Concepts Explain why Projects Are Undertaken

Describe the Phases of the Project Life Cycle

Describe the five Project Management Process Groups Name the Nine Knowledge Management Areas

Map the Process Groups and the Nine Knowledge Areas

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Project Management Framework: Topics

Project versus Operations

Project Management Project managers skill set

Project life cycle Project stakeholders

Different types of organizations

Project, Program and Portfolio management Project management processes Project management knowledge areas

Intersection of processes and knowledge areas

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Definition of Project

Definition as per PMBOK Guide

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.

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Project Definition

A temporary endeavor means that every project has a definite beginning and end.
Unique means that the product or service or result is different from other product or service or result. Progressively elaborated - proceeding in steps

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Examples of Project

Building a new office Designing a new product or service Creating an advertisement campaign Creating a new process with a business unit Moving from one building to another Designing a space vehicle

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Exercise 1: Projects vs Operation

Differentiating between Projects & Operations

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Project vs Operation

PROJECTS Temporary


Closes after attaining the objectives

Prototyping the new car model

Objective is to sustain business

Assembly line production

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Why Projects Fail ?

Lack of clearly defined purpose Inexperienced project Managers Poor estimation of duration and cost Cultural and ethical misalignment Poor requirements and scope management Lack of coordination of resources and activities Poor communication Inadequate planning of scope, schedule, resources, cost, risk and quality Lack of progress and quality control

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What is Project Management?

Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements Accomplished through the application and integration of PM processes Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling and Closing Establishing clear project objectives and requirements Balancing the competing demands of scope, time, cost and quality Manage uncertain events

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Project Management Benefits

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Project Constraints

Risk Scope Budget Resources Quality

Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Fourth Edition (PMBOK Guide) 2008 Project
Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Typical Project Life Cycle

Projects are divided into phases The project will have at least a beginning, intermediate and ending phase Number of phases depends on complexity and size of the project Reviews are conducted at the end of each phase to measure performance Phase end reviews allows to decide if the project should continue The collection of phases is called project life cycle The project life cycle defines the beginning and end of a project Fast tracking is running the project phases concurrently Examples of phases:- Analysis, Design, Development, Testing

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Characteristics of Project Phase

The completion of one or more deliverables marks the project phase
Deliverables are reviewed and formally accepted by customer at phase end

Phase end reviews are also called phase exits, stage gates or kill points
Rolling wave planning summarizes the future phases at high level

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Project Stakeholders

Individuals and organizations involved in the project Those who will be directly or indirectly impacted Stakeholders should be identified throughout the project They may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome Stakeholder influence goes down as the project progresses

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Project Stakeholders

Key stakeholders include: Project Manager Customer / User Performing organization Project team members Project management team Sponsor Influencers PMO

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Project Manager Skills

Communication Skills Organizational and Planning skills Budgeting Skills Conflict Management Skills Negotiation and Influencing Skills Leadership Skills Team Building and Motivating skills

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Project, Program & Portfolio Management

Collection of related projects Controls are implemented and managed in a coordinated way Collective benefits are realized Each project has a project manager Projects share resources and depends on the outcomes of other projects

Collection of programs and projects Projects meet a specific business goal or objective Includes weighing the value of each project against the portfolios strategic objective Ensures efficient use of resources

Project Management Office [PMO]

Centralized units to oversee project and programs within the organization Establishes and maintains the standards of project management methodologies Support managers in planning, estimating, risk management and provide trainings

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Organization Influence
Functional Organization PMs Title Expediter/Cordinator

Weak Matrix Organisation

Expediter/ Coordinator Functional manager plays a major role, but PM will make decisions

Balanced Matrix Organisation

Project Manager

Strong Matrix Organisation

Project Manager

Projectized Organisation
Project Manager

Decision Making Power

Functional manager

PM and the Functional Manager will have equal power

Project Manager

Project Manager


From within a Dept.

Project members are from different departments

Only 25% will be assigned to the projects Functional manager

Project members are from different departments

About 50% will be assigned to the projects Two manager (FM and PM) Functional manager and his/her senior manager

Project members are from different departments

About 80% will be assigned to the projects Project Manager

Project based only

Resource Allocation

As needed

About 100% will be assigned to the projects Project Manager

Resources Reports to

Functional manager

PM Reports to

Functional manager

Functional manager

Company Senior manager

Company senior manager/ higher authority

After Project Completion

Team go back to their Dept. (home)

Team go back to their Dept. (home)

Team go back to their Dept. (home)

Team go back to their Dept. (home)

No home move to different project or get laid off

Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Fourth Edition (PMBOK Guide) 2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Organization Types Advantages & Disadvantages

Org. Type

Highly visible project objectives Better Project Manager control over resources Better coordination

Not cost effective because of extra administrative personnel More than ONE boss for project teams More complex to monitor and control

Team members maintain a home

Higher potential for conflict and duplication of effort and functional managers have different priorities
No career path in Project Management


Team members report to one supervisor and clearly defined career paths

Easier management specialists

People place more emphasis on their functional specialty to the determent of the project
No Home when project is completed Duplication of facilities and job functions Lack of professionalism in disciplines and less efficient use of resources


Efficient project organization More effective communication than functional Loyalty to the project

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Exercise 2: Organization Types

Differentiating between Organization Types Functional Vs Projectized

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Exercise 3: Organization Types

Differentiating between Organization Types Functional Vs Projectized Vs Matrix

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Project Management Process Groups

Commitment Approach

Initiating Processes

Planning Processes


Controlling Processes

Executing Processes


Closing Processes

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Project Management Process Groups

Initiating process group authorizes the project Planning process group plans the course of action to achieve objectives Executing process group uses the resources to carry out project tasks Monitoring process group measures progress to identify variances Closing process group formalizes product acceptance and closure

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Project Management Process Groups

Concept of PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle Determine what processes within the process groups are applicable The Process Groups are not Project Phases The result of one process becomes input to another

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Project Management Process Groups

Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Sponsor/Project Initiator


Project Charter


Project Management Plan


Deliverables Requested Changes Corrective/ Preventive Action Defect Repair Change Requests, Corrective Action, Preventive Action, Defect Repair Forecast Approved Deliverable Performance Reports Organizational Process Assets (updates)

Monitoring and Controlling


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Project Management Process Groups Interaction

Executing Processes
Level Of Activity

Initiating Processes

Planning Processes Controlling Processes

Closing Processes

Phase Time Start Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Fourth Source: A
Edition (PMBOK Guide) 2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All
Rights Reserved.
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Phase Finish

PM Process Mapping
Processes Knowledge Areas Integration Management Initiation Planning Execution Monitoring & Control Close Out

Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Management Plan

Direct and Manage Project Execution

Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Scope Verification Scope Control

Close Project or Phase

Scope Management

Collect Requirements Scope Definition Create WBS

Time Management

Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development
Estimate Costs Estimate Budgets

Schedule Control

Cost Management Quality Management Human Resource Management Communication Management

Cost Control Perform Quality Assurance Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Information Distribution Manage Stakeholders Expectation

Quality Planning

Perform Quality Control

Human Resource Planning

Manage Project Team

Identify Stakeholders

Communications Planning

Report Performance

Risk Management

Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Plan Procurement Conduct Procurement

Monitor & Control Risk

Procurement Management

Administer Procurements

Close Procurement

Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Fourth Edition (PMBOK Guide) 2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Initiating Process Group

Conduct cost-benefit analysis Determine and define the business needs and the project scope Know the project boundaries and constraints Identify high level risks Understand the required project organization structure Estimate budget and resource requirements Assign a project manager Obtain the project charter approval Formally authorize to start a new project or phase

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Planning Process Group

Determine how you will plan and develop the project management plan Develop the project requirements in detail and agree the final scope Determine the required project activities and their sequencing Develop schedule using estimated resources and costs Agree what quality standards will be met by the project and how Define how project staffing will be done Establish the communication requirements and how it will be fulfilled Identify what can go wrong and the plans to deal with them Document what products or services will be acquired from outside the project Gain formal approval and buy-in from everybody involved in the project

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Executing Process Group

Execute activities in the project plan Procure required project resources Complete work packages Document lessons learnt Implement approved changes, corrective and preventive actions Ensure processes are followed Hold team building activities and boost morale and efficiency Manage resource allocation and utilization Hold progress review meetings and distribute progress reports Keep everyone focused on the project goals

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Monitoring & Control Process Group

Measure project performance using the documented technique in the plan Identify variances and recommend corrective actions to get back on track Approve changes, defect repair, corrective and preventive actions Resolve conflicts and issues Manages changes to scope, time and cost Perform impact analysis to approve or reject changes Obtain formal acceptance of deliverables from the customer Monitor the status of risks and identify new risks have emerged Measure team member performance

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Closing Process Group

Confirm all project requirements are met Obtain formal acceptance of product from the customer Hand over the completed deliverables to the operations team Compile lessons learnt Measure customer satisfaction Archive project data and information for future reference Release resources

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Project Integration Management

Processes that integrates the different elements of project management Coordinates the project work is done correctly and in the right order Ensures changes are properly controlled and managed Comprises of the following processes: Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Plan Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Close Project or Phase

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Project Scope Management

Ensures project includes all of the work and only the work required Identifies, defines and controls the project work Verifies that the deliverables meet the specified criteria Comprises of the following five processes: Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Verify Scope Control Scope

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Project Time Management

Processes concerning with the timely completion of the project Determines the time and the order in which project work will be done Controlling to ensure everything gets done on time Comprises of the following six processes: Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule
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Project Cost Management Processes to ensure the project stays within the budget Determines the project budget Controls the changes to the project budget Comprises of the following three processes: Estimate Costs Determine Budget Control Costs

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Project Quality Management

Processes that ensures the project will satisfy the agreed quality standards Identifies the relevant standards and how they will be met Assurance activities to ensure the agreed processes are followed Monitoring project results to determine compliance Comprises the following three processes: Plan Quality Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality Control

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Project Human Resource Management

Processes that organize and manage the project team Identifies the required roles on the project Obtains the human resources needed to complete the work Enhance competencies and performance Comprises of the following four processes: Develop Human Resource Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team

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Project Communication Management

Processes to ensure timely distribution of project information Determines the information needs of the project stakeholders Makes the information available in timely manner Collecting and distributing project performance information Comprises of the following processes: Identify Stakeholders Plan Communications Distribute Information Manage Stakeholder Expectations Report Performance

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Project Risk Management

Processes to deal with the unexpected when it does happen Identifying events that might affect the project Developing plan and actions to deal with those event Comprises of the following six processes: Plan Risk Management Identify Risks Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses Monitor and Control Risks

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Project Procurement Management

Processes to purchase or acquire the products and services Selecting who will supply the required products and services Planning and administering the contracts Comprises of the following processes: Plan Procurements Conduct Procurements Administer Procurements Close Procurements

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Professional Responsibility Covers legal, ethical and professional behavior of a PMP A PMP must follow the Project Management Institute Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct The responsibilities includes: Doing the right things Making good choices Keep learning and getting better Respecting others culture

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Exercise 4: Process Group

Map all the process groups and their corresponding processes, also mention the corresponding knowledge areas

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Project Management Framework

Assessment Examination

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Project Management Program


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Project Management Program

Next Session
Project Integration Management

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