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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] I. Chemistry in Biology a.

Matter -

Anatomy Notes Outline

b. Element -

c. Compound -

d. Mixture -

e. Label the elements and compounds in this example reaction:

Na(s) + Cl2(g) NaCl(s)


II. Essential Elements of Life a. Six Most Prevalent Elements Element Chemical Symbol Percent of Human Body

b. Elements Below 4.0% c. Trace Elements

III.

Atomic Structure a. Atom

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] b. Subatomic Particles i. Protons ii. Neutrons iii. Electrons

Anatomy Notes Outline

c. Neutrality

d. Atomic Structure Diagram

IV.

How Atoms Are Drawn a. Electron Cloud b. Orbital Diagram

V.

Types of Atoms a. Atomic Number b. Atomic Mass

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] c. Periodic Table Format

Anatomy Notes Outline

d. Isotope Format

VI.

Ions a. Definition

b. Four Common Ions i. ii. iii. iv. VII. Isotopes a. Definition b. Stability

c. Carbon-14 Dating i. Isotopes of Carbon

ii. Half-Life d. Radioactive Tracers Anatomy Teaching Resources http://www.aurumscience.com/anatomy.html 3

[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] Chemical Bonds I. Chemical Bonding a. Covalent Bond b. Ionic Bond c. Potential Energy

Anatomy Notes Outline

II.

Covalently Bonded Molecules Molecule Hydrogen (H2) Type(s) of Bond(s) Electron-Shell Diagram Structural Formula

Oxygen (O2)

Water (H2O)

Methane (CH4)

III.

Ionic Bonds a. Ion

b. Example Reaction

IV.

Properties of Water http://www.aurumscience.com/anatomy.html 4

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]

Anatomy Notes Outline

a. Polarity i. Hydrogen Bonding b. Cohesion c. Adhesion d. Heat Capacity e. Universal Solvent

V.

Acids and Bases a. Neutral Solutions b. Acidic Solutions c. Alkaline (Basic) Solutions

d. Example pH Levels: i. Blood

ii. Sweat

iii. Saliva e. Buffers

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] VI. Van der Waals Interactions

Anatomy Notes Outline

VII.

Chemical Bond Strength (Strongest Weakest) a. b. c.

VIII.

Molecular Shape a. Importance of Shape

b. Morphine and Endorphins

Organic Chemistry I. Valence Electrons a. Placement within atom

b. Octet Rule

II.

Carbon a. Number of Valence Electrons

b. Organic Compounds

III.

Macromolecules a. Classes i. ii. iii. iv. b. Polymer

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] IV. Carbohydrates a. Elements b. Monosaccharides i. Examples ii. Purpose c. Disaccharides i. Examples ii. Purpose d. Polysaccharides i. Purposes ii. Starch iii. Glycogen iv. Cellulose v. Chitin V. Lipids a. Hydrophobic

Anatomy Notes Outline

b. Three classes: i. ii. iii. c. Structure i. Glycerol ii. Fatty Acids

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[UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES] d. Saturated Fatty Acids e. Unsaturated Fatty Acids f. Phospholipids i. Bilayer

Anatomy Notes Outline

VI.

Proteins a. Functions: i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v. b. Building blocks

c. Shape and function -

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