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Pay and Compensation, Psychology of

three theories could be discussed; nonetheless, their Thierry H 2001 The reflection theory on motivation. In: Erez M,
tenets are rather representative. Expectancy and reflec- Kleinbeck U, Thierry H (eds.) Work Motiation in the Context
tion theory provide some ground for results-oriented of a Globalizing Economy. L. Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah,
NJ, pp. 141–58
pay, in particular regarding the importance of un-
Thierry H in press Enhancing performance through pay and
ambiguous performance leading to pay perceptions. reward systems. In: Sonnentag S (ed.) Psychological Man-
Yet it is not clear how these perceptions should be agement of Indiidual Performance. John Wiley, Chichester,
structured in the case of group performance; possibly UK
equity theory’s notion on contribution—inducement Thierry H, De Jong J R 1998 Job evaluation. In: Drenth P J D,
ratios should also be considered. The belief embedded Thierry H, De Wolff C J (eds.) Handbook of Work and
in the concept of base pay—that stability and predicta- Organizational Psychology, 2nd edn. Psychology Press, East
bility of pay may cause employees and managers to be Sussex, UK,Vol. 3, pp. 165–83
focused more upon the content of their work—does Van Eerde W, Thierry H 1996 Vroom’s expectancy models and
work-related criteria: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied
not take full account of the meanings of pay (put
Psychology 81: 575–86
forward in reflection theory) relative to the meanings Van Silfhout R K 2000 Inequality in Pay Within Organizations:
of nonmaterial work characteristics. This is clearly in Normatie and Instrumental Perspecties. PhD thesis, Tilburg
need of more research. Continued research on cafe- University, The Netherlands
teria plans, including perquisites, is vital, in order to Vroom V H 1964 Work Motiation. John Wiley, New York
learn whether this compensation component meets its
expectations. All in all, however, beliefs and expecta- H. Thierry
tions about compensation in practice are not so much
missing the point as more outspoken than psycho-
logical theory would require them to be.
See also: Money and Finances, Psychology of; Money:
Anthropological Aspects; Psychological Climate in The major cases of violence and peace relate to the way
the Work Setting the human condition is cut through by fault lines,
dividing humans and nature, normal people from
deviants, different genders, generations, races, classes,
nations, states. Each border defines at least two
Bibliography categories, self and other. The violence can be direct
Adams J C 1963 Toward an understanding of inequity. Journal violence intended by the self to attack the basic needs
of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67: 422–36 of the other; or structural violence, also preventable,
Adams J C 1965 Inequity in social exchange. Adances in not intended, usually slower, but at least equally
Experimental Social Psychology 2 devastating. If the other is dehumanized to a category,
Ajzen I, Fishbein M 1980 Understanding Attitudes and Predicting we end up with genocide—massive category killing.
Social Behaior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
With two types of violence and eight fault lines we get
Barber A E, Bretz R D 2000 Compensation, attraction, and
retention. In: Rynes S, Gerhart B (eds.) Compensation in a 16-fold discourse, as shown in Table 1.
Organizations: Current Research and Practice. Jossey-Bass, Most of the time and in most places there is ‘narrow
San Francisco, pp. 32–60 peace’ or an absence of direct violence across most
Bartol K M, Locke E A 2000 Incentives and motivation. In: fault lines, but not ‘broad peace’ or an absence of
Rynes S, Gerhart B A (eds.) Compensation in Organizations: direct and structural violence. Different cultures view
Current Research and Practice. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, peace differently as descriptive (how is peace possible)
pp. 104–47 or prescriptive (how could peace be possible).
Deci E L, Ryan R M 1985 Intrinsic Motiation and Self- The following is a review of the theories of peace of
determination in Human Behaior. Plenum Press, New York
six macrocultures, or civilizations. Of the six, three are
Deci E L, Koestner R, Ryan R M 1999 A meta-analytic review
of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on from the Occident, defined here as the cultural space
intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin 125: 627–68 spanned by the Abrahamitic religions of the Book, the
Harder J W 1992 Play for pay: Effects of inequity in a pay-for- kitab, or Old Testament: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.
performance context. Administratie Science Quarterly 37: We start with two Europes, secular Europe—the
321–35 Europe of antiquity—and then Christian Europe. We
Lawler E E 1971 Pay and Organizational Effectieness. McGraw- then move East to West Asia (I have not designated
Hill, New York this as the ‘Middle East,’ which is a Western European
Rynes S L, Bono J E 2000 Psychological research on determin- perspective) with Judaism, Islam, and the cradle of
ants of pay. In: Rynes S L, Gerhart B A (eds.) Compensation in
Christianity. Continuing eastward we come to South
Organizations: Current Research and Practice. Jossey-Bass,
San Francisco, pp. 3–31 Asia, with what is conveniently called ‘Hinduism’ and
Thierry H 1998 Compensating work. In: Drenth P J D, Thierry its offspring, Jainism and Buddhism. And further east,
H, De Wolff C J (eds.) Handbook of Work and Organizational in East Asia there are the Chinese and Japanese
Psychology, 2nd edn. Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, cultural amalgams with a Confucian core, Buddhism,
pp. 291–319 and then Taoism in China and Shinto in Japan. We


Table 1
Classification of violence
No. Fault lines Direct violence Structural violence
[1] Nature slaughter of ‘beasts, depletion
savages, wilderness’ pollution
[2] Gender killing women: patriarchy as
abortion, prison of women,
infanticide, putting them
witch-burning ‘in their place’
[3] Generation Priileging middle-aged
abortion schools as ghetto
euthanasia ‘homes’ as ghetto
[4] Deviance Controlling dangerous persons
—criminal capital punishment institution
—mental euthanasia institution
—somatic euthanasia institution
[5] Race Controlling dangerous races
eradication colonialism
slavery slavery
[6] Class Controlling dangerous classes
—military elimination exploitation-body
—economic repression-mind
—political alienation-spirit
[7] Nation ‘genocide’ as the state as a
Culture narrowly defined prison of nations
Ideology run by ‘majority’
[8] State war (killing for food, sacrifice, imperialism
Country conquest) isolating
Territory ‘pariah’ states

then move into Pacific American African spaces, defense. Offensive offense (attack\aggression) and
picking up a Polynesian, an Amerindian, and an defensive offense (pre-emptive warfare) are not peace
African tradition, ending south of Europe. concepts.
Aggression is controlled from above by pacts—the
Roman Empire was capable of enforcing such pacts—
1. Europe: Pax and Eirene—The Roman\Greek and\or by the balance of power. A better word for this
and Modern Traditions kind of peace is security. And there is a basic dilemma:
the military capability used to deter can also be used to
Peace can be interpreted narrowly as absentia belli, the attack, even if the motivation is defensive. The result
absence of organized violence between groups defined can be an arms race, a cold war, or even an actual war.
by the fault lines. International or external peace is the A basic problem with the Roman pax is its insensi-
absence of external wars: intercountry, interstate, or tivity to flagrant injustice and inequality, the Roman
international (in the sense of intercultural). Social or Empire itself being an example. The Greek eirene is
internal peace is the absence of internal wars: national, closer to ‘peace with justice’: absence of direct and
racial, class, or ideological groups challenging central structural violence, among Greeks. But which part has
governance or each other. This concept is carried by priority? What if they think justice can only be
the Roman pax, related to pact, as in pacta sunt obtained through war? That idea was picked up by the
seranda, ‘treaties must be observed.’ Peace as a Marxist tradition as class war, national and inter-
contractual, mutually agreed relation is the source of national, legitimized as necessary and sufficient to
Western international law. obtain a just, socialist society. The Roman thinking
Another Roman legacy, si is pacem, para bellum, led to the liberal tradition, tolerant of enormous
‘if you want peace prepare for war,’ is the source of inequalities, nationally and internationally, but
Western military peace theory. Peace is obtained by strongly against war, both internally and externally.
the balance of power, deterring the aggressor at home And Roman warfare was picked up by the conserva-
with defensive defense, and abroad with offensive tive tradition, extolling still more inequality through


wars, provided they could be won, and even through This can be seen as an effort to limit war even if
empire-building. In the year 2000 these views still accepting war as the last resort. But there is no
prevail. nonviolent alternative, and it may be used to attack
any kind of injustice however defined. In addition, it is
not biblical but derives from St. Augustine and St.
2. Europe: Agape and Bellum Iustum: The Thomas Aquinas. But this cost-benefit thinking is still
Christian Traditions with us.

The three main divisions of Christianity (Orthodoxy\

Roman Catholicism\Protestantism) and the many 3. West Asia: Shalom\Sala’am—The Judaic and
smaller sects had Paradise and Hell as archetypes that Islamic Traditions
became models for peace and war, making peace
remote and static, and war a highly dynamic hell on Looking at some famous quotes from the basic texts
earth. Peace is seen as ordained by a God whose law is (see Table 2, Christianity is included as a family
the only valid law, and valid for all of humanity. But member for comparison) one conclusion may be that
who is God, and how does he relate to human beings ambiguity is the message. It is neither unconditional
in search of peace? peace, nor unconditional war. It is peace under certain
A theological distinction is very useful here, between conditions and war under certain conditions. The
God as immanent, inside us, making us godlike, problem is to spell out those conditions. One reading
sacred, and God as transcendent, above us, saving, of the Judaic shalom and the Arab sala’am is peace
choosing some persons and peoples, rejecting and with justice. Without justice, no peace; hence war for
condemning others. We may even talk about soft and justice is legitimate. The contradiction is mirrored in
hard Christianity, depending on which God-concept is the quotes shown in Table 2.
picked up, in what proportion. They do not exclude If we define justice as absence of structural violence
each other. whereby people, nations, and states are repressed,
Agape (Greek for ‘love’) can be used as a name for exploited, alienated, but not by an actor, then this may
the peace of a soft Christianity based on an immanent lead to bellum iustum as injustice abounds. Jihad,
conception of God. There is God’s love for human- however, translates as ‘exertion’ for the faith. Defend-
kind, through Jesus Christ; the human love for God; ing the faith by violence, against Crusades, Zionism,
and the love of one’s fellow beings as being God-loved. communism, is the fourth stage of Jihad.
The Lord’s Supper and the Eucharist are close to this
concept: a community of humans, God-enlightened, in
God. The face-to-face corpus mysticum is based on an 4. South Asia: Shanti and Ahimsa—The
identity with others so strong that there is a limit to the Hindu\Jainist\Buddhist Traditions
number of members. This may be a reason why very
egalitarian, interactive, direct peace concepts spring There is a trend in all three faiths toward unconditional
out of smaller Christian sects, like the Quakers and the peace by ahimsa, nonviolence. The major carrier of
Mennonites. this message of all times, Mohandas K. Gandhi
Then there is the transcendent God, conceived as (1869–1948) used the formula ‘There is no way to
some male person residing above our planet, and his peace, peace is the way.’ This is a strong stand, ruling
relation to nonbelievers, pagans, and worse still, to the out violence as immoral and unproductive. The
heretics who have rejected God. This is where hard struggle against violence, direct or structural, is by
Christianity enters, administering Hell and torture nonviolence. And, as becomes clear from Gandhi’s
(the Inquisition) and Holy War to the heretics. adulation of the small social unit, the village, peace in
As some kind of peace concept it takes the form of the sense of absence of direct violence, cannot be built
bellum iustum, in the Augustine-Aquinas just war top-down by heavy international and national hier-
tradition: archies, in the pax and Hobbesian traditions.
(a) Wars must be waged by a lawful authority. This, in turn, is related to shanti, inner peace.
(b) Wars must be waged for a just cause, to correct Ahimsa has shanti as a necessary condition: with no
injustice. inner peace, no nonviolence. ‘Unprocessed traumas’
(c) Wars must be waged with the right intention, not will be acted out aggressively. If nonviolence does not
vengefully. lead to change of heart in the other, it is for lack of
(d) Wars must be waged as a last resort and with change of heart in self. Nonviolence then turns into
prospects of success. self-purification, practiced in the little community of
(e) Wars must be waged with proportionality and believers, the sangha, which is like a monastery.
minimum force. Gandhi left behind a theory and practice of
(f) Wars must be waged only against combatants. satyagraha, clinging to truth as he called it. Look at
The first five are ius ad bellum; the last two are ius in the list of nonviolent action: to play a major role in
bello. delivering the nonwhite world from white colonialism,


Table 2
Hard and soft peace: quotations from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Judaism Christianity Islam
Soft He will decide the How blest are the And whoever saved a
peace disputes of the peacemakers. God human life, should
nations and settle shall call them his be regarded as
many a people’s sons. (Matt. 5:9) though he had saved
case … till swords all mankind.
are beaten into (Qur’an 5:32)
plough-shares and
spears into
pruninghooks. No
nation draws the
sword against
another. (Isaiah 2:4)
Hard For in the cities within Don’t imagine that I Fight for the sake of
peace the boundaries of came to bring peace Allah those that
the Promised Land to the earth. No, fight against you but
you are to save no rather, a sword. do not attack them
one; destroy every (Matt. 10:34) first. (Qur’an 2:190)
living thing. (Deut.

and the white world from its own Cold War, leaving harmony would be not only ‘absence of violence,’ but
no thirst for bloody revenge behind, is no minor ‘absence of conflict.’ The task of conflict resolution
achievement. That gift comes out of South Asia, not has already been carried out. Indications of conflict
the West. The contribution of the West seems to a are swept under the carpet, and the person articulating
large extent to have been to create the problems. The conflict is frozen out of harmonious society, or
burden of proof is on those who teach peace by prevented from expressing such views.
violence. To assert ‘nonviolence does not work’ is Take the metaphor of Chinese boxes, or in Russia
uninformed, given the amazing successes in the second the matrushka dolls, with one box or doll inside the
half of the twentieth century: other and so on, till they become extremely small.
(a) the liberation of arrested Jews in Berlin, They all look alike. In modern fractal\chaos theory
February 1943 they talk about ‘self-similarity’ as something stabiliz-
(b) Gandhi’s swaraj campaign in India; Indepen- ing. The basic East Asian point is that harmony is
dence from 1947 produced not by a particular structure, be that a
(c) Martin Luther King Jr.’s campaign in the US pyramid or wheel or whatever, but by the same
South from 1956 structure repeated at the personal, social, and world
(d) the anti-Vietnam war movement, inside and levels, within and between.
outside Vietnam In Tao Te Ching we find an example: small, detached
(e) the Buenos Aires Plaza de Mayo mothers against countries: ‘Though they have armor and weapons
the military nobody displays them—they leave each other in peace
(f) the ‘People’s Power’ movement in the Philip- while they grow old and die’ (No. 80). A modern
pines, 1986 version would be domestic and global democracy.
(g) the Children’s Power movement in South Africa,
from 1986
(h) the intifada movement in Occupied Palestine, 6. Pacific, America, Africa—Ho’o ponopono,
from 1987, in the beginning mostly nonviolent Peace Pipe, and Shir
(i) the democracy movement Beijing, spring 1989
(j) the Solidarity\DDR movements which ended the The following are three examples of peace as non-
Cold War. violent conflict resolution.

5. East Asia: Ho p’ing\Heiwa—The 6.2 Ho’o ponopono—The Polynesian Conflict

Chinese\Japanese Traditions Resolution Circle
The standard translation of ho p’ing (Chinese) and Ho’o ponopono (setting straight) is a method of confict
heiwa (Japanese) is ‘harmony.’ And one reading of resolution that brings together around a table per-


Figure 1
Geometric images of peace

petrator, victim, family members, neighbors, friends, nonviolence to be emulated by the rest. They were not
and others, with a moderator, the ‘wise man,’ not from to engage in any quarrels within the tribe regardless of
families or neighbors. The process of resolution has whether their families or children were involved. They
four stages. were not to engage themselves in any force or violence,
Everyone is encouraged sincerely to present their even if their son was killed right in front of their
version of why it happened, how, and what would be tepee.You are to do nothing but take your pipe and
the appropriate reaction, and everybody accepts some smoke. Being a chief becomes a way of life, and the
part of the responsibility. Sincere apologies are then chief’s home a sanctuary where others can be safe.The
offered and accepted; forgiveness is demanded and chiefs mediate disputes and don’t take sides. Ritual,
offered. An action program is defined for everybody like smoking the peace pipe together, makes it possible
according to the principle of shared responsibility. to think with one mind, one heart. Everyone has a
And in the end the record of what happened (but not right to talk, nobody is interrupted, the talk continues
of what has to be done) is then burnt, symbolizing the till the end.
end of the incident, and the construction of a new
relation among all of them.

6.4 Shir—The Somalian Conflict Resolution Market

A traditional conflict resolution structure that brings
6.3 The Peace Pipe—The Cheyenne Conflict
together all the mature men in the clans involved in a
Resolution Symbol
conflict. Women, children and young hot-blooded
With the Cheyenne, a zone of peace is created at the warriors are excluded. Men lounge under the thorn
top of society, with the peace chiefs being models of trees during the hot, dry day. They chat and drink tea.


At some point, things will jell. The various pieces that the shanti–ahimsa combination from South Asia: the
make up the main issue for which the shir was called source of peace is inside you, its expression is non-
will fall into place because a social climate conducive violence, which makes war abolition a realistic utopia.
to a solution will have slowly emerged. The result will And we pick up the idea of conflict transformation,
be proper peace—a peace felt from the inside. with East Asian harmony as outcome, ho’o ponopono,
Conflict resolution has here been hitched on to one peace pipe, and shir as examples of processes.
of the oldest institutions in the history of human The six approaches divide into two groups: global
beings: the market. The market is based on exchange governance, war abolition, and conflict transform-
for mutual benefit: I give, you give (do ut des, I give so ation being more familiar; nonviolence, peace struc-
that you give), and some principle of equal exchange, tures, and peace cultures unfamiliar and challenging.
(quid pro quo). Peace in the complex, highly interconnected world of
the twenty-first century, bringing conflict parties very
close to each other, will depend on the ability to draw
upon all six—not easy given that they hail from
7. Peace as Geometry different parts of the world.
Five geometric archetypes for peace are shown in
Figure 1: the vertical, big pyramid for the hierarchic See also: Alliances: Political; Balance of Power,
rule from above, of human beings or of law; the wheel History of; Balance of Power: Political; Conflict
for the smaller, tight, equal exchange; the symmetry— Sociology; Diplomacy; International Relations, His-
like the garden of Versailles—for the balance of power; tory of; National Security Studies and War Potential
the sun for the nonviolence radiating from inner peace; of Nations; Peace and Nonviolence: Anthropological
and the Chinese boxes of harmony based on self- Aspects; Peace Movements; Peace Movements, His-
similarity, from micro to macro levels. tory of; Religion: Peace, War, and Violence; Violence,
Different kinds of peace can also be expressed in History of; Violence: Public; War, Sociology of;
terms better known from the history of diplomacy, Warfare in History
focusing on interstate and internation peace: the
Napoleonic peace forged by a prince\lawmaker; the
silent peace brought about by groups of ordinary
humans, or countries; the Nixon–Brezhnev peace Bibliography
negotiated at a bilateral summit; the Gandhian peace
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resolution. How conflict is handled is the best peace Ehrenreich B 1997 Blood Rites: Origins and History of the
indicator. Passions of War. Metropolitan Books, New York
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Each society, community, family, and person has ways United Nations, Geneva
Giorgi P P 1999 The Origins of Violence by Cultural Eolution.
of being peaceful by peaceful means, but they also
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often have ways of being violent, summarized in their Howell S, Willis R (eds.) 1989 Societies at Peace. Routledge,
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survey of peace cultures and the peace as geometry Keeley L H 1996 War Before Ciilization. Oxford University
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An interview with Lawrence Hart, Cheyenne Peace Chief. In:
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based on global architecture. Regional versions may Centre for the 21st Century, Cambridge, MA pp. 85–94
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nonmembers. The counterpoint to the pyramid, the An Intellectual Map. United States Institute of Peace, Wash-
wheel, found in five cultural spaces, expresses the ideas ington DC
of peace from below, small is beautiful, inspiring the
search for alternative peace structures. Then comes J. Galtung

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