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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 8: Alternating current (6 Hours)

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8 Learning Outcome:


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8.1 Alternating current (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Define alternating current (AC). Sketch and use sinusoidal AC waveform. Write and use sinusoidal voltage and current equations.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.1 Alternating current (AC)


is defined as an electric current whose magnitude and direction change periodically. Figures 8.1a, 8.1b and 8.1c show three forms of alternating current.

I0
0
1 T 2

I0

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.1a: sinusoidal AC


3

PHYSICS
I
I0
0
1 T 2

CHAPTER 8

I0

3 T 2

2T

I
I0
0

Figure 8.1b: saw-tooth AC

I0

1 T 2

3 T 2

2T

t
4

Figure 8.1c: square AC

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

When an AC flows through a resistor, there will be a resistor potential difference (voltage) across it and this voltage is alternating as shown in Figure 8.1d.

V
V0
0
1 T 2

V0
where

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.1d: sinusoidal alternating voltage

V0 : peak( maximum) voltage I 0 : peak( maximum) current

T : period
5

PHYSICS
8.1.1 Terminology in AC Frequency (f)

CHAPTER 8

is defined as a number of complete cycle in one second. second Its unit is hertz (Hz) OR s1.

Period (T) is defined as a time taken for one complete cycle. cycle

Its unit is second (s). Formulae,

1 T= f
Peak current (I0)

(8.1)

is defined as a magnitude of the maximum current. current Its unit is ampere (A).
6

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.1.2 Equations of alternating current and voltage Equation for alternating current (I),

I = I 0 sin t

(8.2) phase (8.3)

Equation for alternating voltage (V),

V = V0 sin t
where

: angular frequency OR angular velocity

( = 2f )

I 0 : peak current V0 : peak voltage t : time

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8 Learning Outcome:


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8.2 Root mean square (rms) (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Define root mean square (rms) current and voltage for AC source. Use the following formula,

I rms

I0 = 2

and

Vrms

V0 = 2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.2 Root mean square (rms)


8.2.1 Mean or Average Current (Iav)

is defined as the average or mean value of current in a half-cycle flows of current in a certain direction. Formulae:

2I 0 I 0 I av = = ( 2)
Note:

(8.4)

Iav for one complete cycle is zero because the current


flows in one direction in one-half of the cycle and in the opposite direction in the next half of the cycle. cycle

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.2.2 Root mean square current (Irm ) s


In calculating average power dissipated by an AC, the mean (average) current is not useful. The instantaneous power, P delivered to a resistance R is

I : instantaneous AC The average power, Pav over one cycle of AC is given by


where

P = I 2R

Pav = I 2 R
2

where I given by

is the average value of I2 over one cycle and is

I 2 = ( I rms )
2

(8.5)

Therefore

Pav = I rms R

(8.6)
10

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
I 2 = I 0 sin 2 t
2

Since I = I 0 sin t thus the square value of current is given by and the graph of I2 against time, t is shown in Figure 8.2.

I2
2 2

I0 I0 2

From Figure 8.2, the shaded region under the curve and above the dashed line for I02/2 have the same are as the shaded region above the curve and below2the dashed line for I02/2. Thus

1 T T 2 Figure 8.2

3 T 2

2T

I0 = 2

(8.7)

11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

By equating the eqs. (8.5) and (8.7), the rms current is

( I rms ) 2

I0 = 2

I rms = I rms =

I0 2 I0 2

(8.8)

Root mean square current (Irms) is defined as the value of the steady DC which produces the same power in a resistor as the mean (average) power produced by the AC. The root mean square (rms) current is the effective value of the AC and can be illustrated as shown in Figure 8.3.

I rms
0
Figure 8.3
1 T 2

I0

0.707 I 0
T
3 T 2

2T

t
12

I0

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.2.3 Root mean square voltage (Vrm ) s


is defined as the value of the steady direct voltage which when applied across a resistor, produces the same power as the mean (average) power produced by the alternating voltage across the same resistor. Its formula is

Vrms =

V0 2

(8.9)

The unit of the rms voltage (potential difference) is volt (V). (V) Note: Equations (8.8) and (8.9) are valid only for a sinusoidal alternating current and voltage. voltage

13

PHYSICS
Example 1 :

CHAPTER 8

An AC source V=500 sin t is connected across a resistor of 250 . Calculate a. the rms current in the resistor, b. the peak current, c. the mean power. Solution : R = 250 By comparing V = 500 sin t to the V = V0 sin t Thus the peak voltage is V0 = 500 V a. By applying the formulae of rms current, thus

I rms = I rms = =

I0

2 V0

and

V0 I0 = R

R 2 500 250 2

I rms = 1.41 A

14

PHYSICS
I0

CHAPTER 8

Solution : R = 250 b. The peak current of AC is given by

I rms =

2 I0 1.41 = 2 I 0 = 1.99 A Pav = I rms R = (1.41) ( 250)


2 2

c. The mean (average) power of the resistor is

Pav = 497 W

15

PHYSICS
Example 2 : I (A)
0.02

CHAPTER 8

0
0.02

20

40

60
and

80

t (ms)

Figure 8.4 Figure 8.4 shows a graph to represent alternating current passes through a resistor of 10 k . Calculate a. the rms current, b. the frequency of the AC, c. the mean power dissipated from the resistor.
16

PHYSICS
Solution : R = 10 10 From the graph, I 0 = 0.02 A; T
3

CHAPTER 8
= 40 10 3 s I rms =
I rms

a. By applying the formulae of rms current, thus

I rms =

I0

0.02

2 = 1.41 10 2 A

b. The frequency of the AC is

1 f = T

1 f = 40 10 3 f = 25 Hz
2

c. The mean power dissipated from the resistor is given by

Pav = I rms R

= 1.41 10 Pav = 1.99 W

2 2

) (10 10 )
3
17

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8 Learning Outcome:


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8.3 Resistance, reactance and impedance (2 hours)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Use phasor diagram and sinusoidal waveform to show the phase relationship between current and voltage for a circuit consisting of pure resistor pure capacitor pure inductor. Define capacitive reactance, inductive reactance and impedance. Analyse voltage, current and phasor diagrams for a series circuit consisting of RC RL 18 RCL.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.3 Resistance, reactance and impedance


8.3.1 Phasor diagram

Phasor is defined as a vector that rotate anticlockwise about its axis with constant angular velocity. A diagram containing phasor is called phasor diagram. diagram It is used to represent a sinusoidally varying quantity such as alternating current (AC) and alternating voltage. It also being used to determine the phase angle (is defined as the phase difference between current and voltage in AC circuit). circuit Consider a graph represents sinusoidal AC and sinusoidal alternating voltage waveform as shown in Figure 8.5a. Meanwhile Figure 8.5b shows the phasor diagram of V and I.

19

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

I
V

V0 I0

0
I0 V0

1 T 2

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.5b: phasor diagram

Note:

From the Figure 8.5a: I = I 0 sin t and V = V0 sin t Thus the phase difference is = t t = 0 Therefore the current I is in phase with the voltage V and constant with time. Leads Lags behind In antiphase
20

Figure 8.5a

= positive value = negative value = radian

PHYSICS
8.3.2 Impedance (Z)

CHAPTER 8

The quantity that measures the opposition of a circuit to the AC flows. flows V0 It is defined by

Vrms Z= I rms
OR

(8.10)

I0 2
(8.11)

V0 Z= I0

It is a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm ( ). In a DC circuit, impedance likes the resistance. resistance
21

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.3.3 Pure resistor in an AC circuit


The symbol of an AC source in the electrical circuit is shown in Figure 8.6.

Figure 8.6 Pure resistor means that no capacitance and self-inductance effect in the AC circuit. Figure 8.7 shows an AC source connected to a pure resistor R.

Phase difference between voltage V and current I

VR
I
Figure 8.7 AC source

22

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
I = I 0 sin t

The alternating current passes through the resistor is given by The alternating voltage across the resistor VR at any instant is given by

VR = IR = ( I 0 sin t ) R and I 0 R = V0 VR = V0 sin t = V = t t = 0

where V : supply voltage Therefore the phase difference between V and I is


In pure resistor, the current I always in phase with the voltage V and constant with time. time

Figure 8.8a shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.8b shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure resistor.

23

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

I
V

V0 I0

0
I0 V0

1 T 2

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.8b: phasor diagram

Figure 8.8a

Impedance in a pure resistor From the definition of the impedance, hence

Vrms V0 Z= = =R I rms I 0

(8.12)

24

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.3.4 Pure capacitor in an AC circuit


Pure capacitor means that no resistance and self-inductance effect in the AC circuit. Figure 8.9 shows an AC source connected to a pure capacitor C. Phase difference between voltage V and current I

VC
I
AC source

Figure 8.9 The alternating voltage across the capacitor VC at any instant is
equal to the supply voltage V and is given by

VC = V = V0 sin t

25

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
Q = CVC Q = CV0 sin t dQ I= dt

The charge accumulates at the plates of the capacitor is

The charge and current are related by

Hence the equation of AC in the capacitor is

d I = ( CV0 sin t ) dt d = CV0 ( sin t ) dt = CV0 cos t and CV0 = I 0 I = I 0 cos t

I = I 0 sin t + 2

OR

26

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
= t t + 2 = rad 2

Therefore the phase difference between V and I is

In the pure capacitor, the voltage V lags behind the current I by OR the current I leads the voltage V by

/2 radians. radians

/2 radians. radians Figure 8.10a shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.10b shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure
capacitor.

27

PHYSICS
= rad 2

CHAPTER 8

V0 I0
0
1 T 2

I0 V0

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.10b: phasor diagram Figure 8.10a Impedance in a pure capacitor From the definition of the impedance, hence

V0 and I 0 = CV0 Z= I0 V0 = CV0

28

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
1 Z= = XC C 1 XC = 2fC
f : frequency of AC source C : capacitance of the capacitor
and

= 2f
(8.13)

where XC is known as capacitive (capacitative) reactance. reactance

Capacitive reactance is the opposition of a capacitor to the alternating current flows and is defined by

Vrms V0 XC = = I rms I 0

(8.14)

Capacitive reactance is a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm ( ) .

29

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

From the eq. (8.13), the relationship between capacitive reactance XC and frequency f can be shown by using a graph in Figure 8.11.

XC

1 X C f

0
Figure 8.11

8.3.5 Pure inductor in an AC circuit

Pure inductor means that no resistance and capacitance effect in the AC circuit.

Phase difference between voltage V and current I Figure 8.12 shows an AC source connected to a pure inductor L.
30

PHYSICS
L

CHAPTER 8
VL
I
AC source

Figure 8.12 The alternating current passes through the inductor is given by When the AC passes through the inductor, the back emf caused by the self induction is produced and is given by

I = I 0 sin t

dI B = L dt d = L ( I 0 sin t ) dt B = LI 0 cos t

(8.15) 31

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

At any instant, the supply voltage V equals to the back emf B in the inductor but the back emf always oppose the supply voltage V represents by the negative sign in the eq. (8.15).Thus

Therefore the phase difference between V and I is

V = B = LI 0 cos t and LI 0 = V0 V = V0 cos t OR V = V0 sin t + 2

= t + t = rad 2 2

In the pure inductor, the voltage V leads the current I by /2 radians. radians OR 32 the current I lags behind the voltage V by /2 radians. radians

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Figure 8.13a shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.13b shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure inductor.

= rad 2

V0 I0
0 1 T 2

I0 V0
Figure 8.13b: phasor diagram

3 T 2

2T

Figure 8.13a

33

PHYSICS
V0 Z= I0

CHAPTER 8

Impedance in a pure inductor From the definition of the impedance, hence and

V0 = LI 0

LI 0 = I0 Z = L = X L

and

= 2f
(8.16)

X L = 2fL
f : frequency of AC source

where XL is known as inductive reactance. reactance

L : self - inductance of the inductor


34

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Inductive reactance is the opposition of a inductor to the alternating current flows and is defined by

Vrms V0 XL = = I rms I 0

(8.17)

Inductive reactance is a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm ( ). From the eq. (8.16), the relationship between inductive reactance XL and the frequency f can be shown by using a graph in Figure 8.14.

XL

X L f

0
Figure 8.14

f
35

PHYSICS
Example 3 :

CHAPTER 8

A capacitor has a rms current of 21 mA at a frequency of 60 Hz when the rms voltage across it is 14 V. a. What is the capacitance of the capacitor? b. If the frequency is increased, will the current in the capacitor increase, decrease or stay the same? Explain. c. Calculate the rms current in the capacitor at a frequency of 410 Hz. 3 Solution : I rms = 21 10 A; f = 60 Hz; Vrms = 14 V a. The capacitive reactance of the capacitor is given by

Vrms = I rms X C

Therefore the capacitance of the capacitor is

14 = 21 10 3 X C X C = 667

1 XC = 2fC

1 667 = 2 ( 60 ) C C = 3.98 10 6 F

36

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Solution : I rms = 21 10 3 A; f = 60 Hz; Vrms = 14 V b. The capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency, so the capacitive reactance will decrease if the frequency frequency increases. Since the current in the capacitor is increases inversely proportional to the capacitive reactance, therefore reactance the current will increase when the capacitive reactance decreases. decreases410 Hz f = c. Given

1 The capacitive reactance is XC = 2fC

1 XC = 2 ( 410) 3.98 10 6 X C = 97.5

Hence the rms =rms current in the = I rms 97is given by 14 capacitor .5 Vnew I rms X C

I rms = 0.144 A

37

PHYSICS
Example 4 :

CHAPTER 8

A rms voltage of 12.2 V with a frequency of 1.00 kHz is applied to a 0.290 mH inductor. a. What is the rms current in the circuit? b. Determine the peak current for a frequency of 2.50 kHz. Solution : Vrms = 12.2 V; f = 1.00 103 Hz; L = 0.290 10 3 H a. The inductive reactance of the inductor is given by

X L = 2fL = 2 1.00 103 0.290 10 3 X L = 1.82

)(

Thus the rms current in the circuit is

12.2 = I rms (1.82) I rms = 6.70 A


38

Vrms = I rms X L

PHYSICS
Solution : Vrms = 12.2 V; f b. Given f = 2.50 103 Hz

CHAPTER 8
= 1.00 103 Hz; L = 0.290 10 3 H

The inductive reactance of the inductor is given by

X L = 2fL = 2 2.50 103 0.290 10 3 X L = 4.56

)(

Thus the peak current in the circuit is V0 = I 0 X L and V0 = Vrms

Vrms 2 = I 0 X L
12.2 2 = I 0 ( 4.56 )

I 0 = 3.78 A

39

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.3.5 RC, RL and RCL series circuit RC series circuit Consider an AC source of rms voltage V is connected in series to a resistor R and a capacitor C as shown in Figure 8.15a. C R

VR
I

VC

AC source

Figure 8.15a

The rms current I passes through the resistor and the capacitor is equal because of the series connection between both components.
40

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

The rms voltages across the resistor VR and the capacitor VC are given by VR = IR and VC = IX C The phasor diagram of the RC series circuit is shown in Figure 8.15b. VR I where : phase angle

VC

is an angle between the rms current I and rms supply (or total) voltage V of AC circuit.

Figure 8.15b: phasor diagram Based on the phasor diagram, the rms supply voltage V (or total voltage) of the circuit is given by

V = VR + VC

V=

( IR ) 2 + ( IX C ) 2
2 2

V = I R + XC

(8.18)
41

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
I 2 2 Z = R + XC I

Rearrange the eq. (8.18), thus the impedance of RC series 2 V circuit is V 2 = R + X C and Z = (8.19)

From the phasor diagram in Figure 8.15b , the current I leads the supply voltage V by radians where

VC tan = VR

A phasor diagram in terms of R, XC and Z is illustrated in Figure R 8.15c.

IX C tan = IR XC tan = R

(8.20)

XC

Figure 8.15c

42

PHYSICS
RL series circuit

CHAPTER 8

Consider an AC source of rms voltage V is connected in series to a resistor R and an inductor L as shown in Figure 8.16a.

VR
I

VL

AC source

Figure 8.16a The rms voltages across the resistor VR and the inductor VL are given by

VR = IR
and

VL = IX L
43

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

The phasor diagram of the RL series circuit is shown in Figure 8.16b.

VL

VR

Figure 8.16b: phasor diagram Based on the phasor diagram, the rms supply voltage V (or total voltage) of the circuit is given by

V = VR + VL =

2 2

( IR )
2

+ ( IX L )
2

V = I R + XL

(8.21)
44

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
I 2 2 Z = R + XL I

Rearrange the eq. (8.21), thus the impedance of RL series 2 V circuit is V 2 = R + X L and Z = (8.22)

From the phasor diagram in Figure 8.16b , the supply voltage V leads the current I the by radians where

VL tan = VR

The phasor diagram in terms of R, XL and Z is illustrated in Figure 8.16c.

IX L tan = IR XL tan = R
Z

(8.23)

XL
Figure 8.16c

45

PHYSICS
RCL series circuit

CHAPTER 8

Consider an AC source of rms voltage V is connected in series to a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as shown in Figure 8.17a. R L C

VR
I

VC
AC source

VL

Figure 8.17a The rms voltages across the resistor VR, the capacitor VC and the inductor VL are given by

and

VR = IR VC = IX C VL = IX L

46

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

The phasor diagram of the RL series circuit is shown in Figure VL 8.17b.

(VL VC )
VC

V VR

Figure 8.17b: phasor diagram Based on the phasor diagram, the rms supply voltage V (or total voltage) of the circuit is given by

V = VR + (VL VC )
2

2 2

( IR )

+ ( IX L IX C )
2

V = I R2 + ( X L X C )

(8.24)

47

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
V 2 2 = R + ( X L XC ) I V Z= I

Rearrange the eq. (8.24), thus the impedance of RL series circuit is and

Z = R + ( X L XC )
2

(8.25)

From the phasor diagram in Figure 8.17b , the supply voltage V leads the current I the by radians where

VL VC tan = VR ( IX L IX C ) = IR X L XC tan = R

(8.26)
48

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
XL

The phasor diagram in terms of R, XC, XL and Z is illustrated in Figure 8.17c.

( XL XC )
XC

Z
R

Figure 8.17c

49

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.3.6 Resonance in AC circuit


is defined as the phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of the applied voltage is equal to the frequency of the RCL series circuit. circuit Figure 8.18 shows the variation of XC, XL, R and Z with frequency f of the RCL series circuit.

X C , X L , R, Z

XL f
R
Figure 8.18

fr

1 XC f

50

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

From Figure 8.18, the value of impedance is minimum Zmin when (8.27) X L = XC where its value is given by

Z = R + ( X L XC )
2

This phenomenon occurs at the frequency fr known as resonant frequency. frequency

Z min = R 2 + 0 Z min = R

At resonance in the RCL series circuit, the impedance is minimum Zmin thus the rms current flows in the circuit is maximum Imax and is given by

I max

V V = = Z min R

(8.28)
51

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
I I max

Figure 8.19 shows the rms current I in RCL series circuit varies with frequency.

fr

Figure the At frequencies above or below 8.19resonant frequency fr, the rms
current I is less than the rms maximum current Imx as shown in a Figure 8.19.
52

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
X L = XC 1 L = C 1 2 = LC 1 2 ( 2f r ) = LC

The resonant frequency, fr of the RCL series circuit is given by

and

= 2f r

fr =
where

1 2 LC

(8.29)

: resonant angular frequency

Note:

The series resonance circuit is used for tuning a radio receiver. receiver
53

At resonance, the current I and voltage V are in phase. phase

PHYSICS
Example 5 :

CHAPTER 8

A 2 F capacitor and a 1000 resistor are placed in series with an alternating voltage source of 12 V and frequency of 50 Hz. Calculate a. the current flowing, b. the voltage across the capacitor, c. the phase angle of the circuit. 6 Solution : C = 2 10 F; R = 1000 ; V = 12 V; f = 50 Hz a. The capacitive reactance of the inductor is given by

1 XC = 2fC

and the impedance of the circuit is

1 XC = 2 ( 50 ) 2 10 6 X C = 1592

Z = R + XC

Z=

(1000) 2 + (1592) 2
54

Z = 1880

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
f = 50 Hz

Solution : C = 2 10 6 F; R = 1000 ; V = 12 V; a. Therefore the current flowing in the circuit is

V = IZ 12 = I (1880) I = 6.38 10 3 A

b. The voltage across the capacitor is given by

c. The phase angle between the current and supply voltage is

= 6.38 10 3 (1592) VC = 10.2 V


1

VC = IX C

XC tan = R

XC = tan R 1 1592 = tan 1000


OR

= 1.01 rad

57.9

55

PHYSICS
Example 6 : I

CHAPTER 8
R
C

153 V

115 V
Figure 8.20

314 V

Figure 8.20 Based on the RCL series circuit in Figure 8.20 , the rms voltages across R, L and C are shown. a. With the aid of the phasor diagram, determine the applied voltage and the phase angle of the circuit. Calculate:
b. the current flows in the circuit if the resistance of the resistor R is 26 , c. the inductance and capacitance if the frequency of the AC source is 50 Hz, d. the resonant frequency.
56

PHYSICS
VL

CHAPTER 8
= 314 V

Solution : VR = 153 V; VC = 115 V; VL a. The phasor diagram of the circuit is

(VL VC )
VC

the applied voltage V is


V VR
2

From the phasor diagram,

V = VR + (VL VC )
I

2 2

(153)

+ ( 314 115)

and the phase angle is

V = 251 V
1

VL VC tan = VR

VL VC = tan V R 1 314 115 = tan 153 = 0.915 rad OR 52.4

57

PHYSICS
Solution : VR b. Given R =

CHAPTER 8
= 153 V; VC = 115 V; VL = 314 V 26

Since R, C and L are connected in series, hence the current

VR = IR 153 = I ( 26 ) I = 5.88 A c. Given f = 50 Hz


The inductive reactance is

passes through each devices is the same. Therefore

VL = IX L

314 = ( 5.88) X L X L = 53.4

thus the inductance of the inductor is

X L = 2fL 53.4 = 2 ( 50) L L = 0.170 H

58

PHYSICS
VC = IX C

CHAPTER 8
= 314 V

Solution : VR = 153 V; VC = 115 V; VL c. Meanwhile, the capacitive reactance is

115 = ( 5.88) X C X C = 19.6 1 19.6 = 2 ( 50) C C = 1.62 104 F

thus the capacitance of the capacitor is

1 XC = 2fC

d. The resonant frequency is given by

fr =
=

2 LC
2

( 0.170) (1.62 104 )


59

f r = 30.3 Hz

PHYSICS
Exercise 8.1 :
1.

CHAPTER 8

An AC current of angular frequency of 1.0 104 rad s1 flows through a 10 k resistor and a 0.10 F capacitor which are connected in series. Calculate the rms voltage across the capacitor if the rms voltage across the resistor is 20 V. ANS. : 2.0 V 2. A 200 resistor, a 0.75 H inductor and a capacitor of capacitance C are connected in series to an alternating source 250 V, 600 Hz. Calculate a. the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance when resonance is occurred. b. the capacitance C. c. the impedance of the circuit at resonance. d. the current flows through the circuit at resonance. Sketch the phasor diagram of the circuit. ANS. : 2.83 k , 2.83 k ; 93.8 nF; 200 ; 1.25 A
60

PHYSICS
Exercise 8.1 :
3.

CHAPTER 8
A capacitor of capacitance C, a coil of inductance L, a resistor of resistance R and a lamp of negligible resistance are placed in series with alternating voltage V. Its frequency f is varied from a low to a high value while the magnitude of V is kept constant. a. Describe and explain how the brightness of the lamp varies. b. If V=0.01 V, C =0.4 F, L =0.4 H, R = 10 and the circuit at resonance, calculate i. the resonant frequency, ii. the maximum rms current, iii. the voltage across the capacitor.
(Advanced Level Physics,7th edition, Nelkon & Parker, Q2, p.423)

ANS. : 400 Hz; 0.001 A; 1 V


61

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8 Learning Outcome:


www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
8.4 Power and power factor (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Apply average power,

Pav = IV cos

instantaneous power,

dW P= dt

power factor,

Pr Pav cos = = Pa IV
in AC circuit consisting of R, RC, RL and RCL in series.
62

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.4 Power and power factor


8.4.1 Power of a pure resistor In a pure resistor, the voltage V and current I are in phase, phase thus the instantaneous power P is given by

P = IV = ( I 0 sin t )(V0 sin t )


= I 0V0 sin 2 t P = P0 sin 2 t

and

I 0V0 = P0
(8.30)

where P0 : peak(maximum) power Figure 8.21 shows a graph of instantaneous power P being absorbed by the resistor against time t.
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PHYSICS
P P0

CHAPTER 8
Power being absorbed

P = P0 sin 2 t

P0 2
0

Pav
1 T 2

Figure 8.21 The average (or mean) power Pav being absorbed by the resistor is given by

3 T 2

2T

Pav = P0 sin 2 t 1 1 Pav = P0 = I 0V0 2 2


(8.31)
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.4.2 Power of a pure capacitor In a pure capacitor, the current I leads the voltage V by /2 radians, thus the instantaneous power P is given by radians

P = IV = ( I 0 cos t )(V0 sin t ) = I 0V0 sin t cos t

and

1 P = P0 sin 2t 2

1 sin t cos t = sin 2t 2


(8.32)

Figure 8.22 shows a graph of instantaneous power P of the pure capacitor against time t.

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PHYSICS
P P0 2
0

CHAPTER 8
Power being absorbed

1 P = P0 sin 2t 2
1 T 2

P0 2

3 T 2

2T

Pav

Power being returned to supply Figure 8.22 The average (or mean) power P of the pure capacitor is given by
av

1 Pav = P0 sin 2t 2

Pav = 0
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.4.3 Power of a pure inductor In a pure inductor, the voltage V leads the current I by /2 radians, thus the instantaneous power P is given by radians

P = IV = ( I 0 sin t )(V0 cos t ) = I 0V0 sin t cos t


1 P = P0 sin 2t 2

and

1 sin t cos t = sin 2t 2

Figure 8.23 shows a graph of instantaneous power P of the pure inductor against time t.

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PHYSICS
P P0 2
0

CHAPTER 8
Power being absorbed

1 P = P0 sin 2t 2
1 T 2

P0 2

3 T 2

2T

Pav

Power being returned to supply Figure 8.23 The average (or mean) power P of the pure inductor is given by
av

Note:

1 Pav = P0 sin 2t 2

Pav = 0

The term resistance is not used in pure capacitor and inductor because no heat is dissipated from both devices. devices
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.4.4 Power and power factor of R, RC, RL and RCL series circuits In an AC circuit in which there is a resistor R, an inductor L and a capacitor C, the average power Pav is equal to that dissipated
from the resistor i.e.

Pav = IVR = I R

(8.33)

rms values From the phasor diagram of the RCL series circuit as shown in VL Figure 8.24,

(VL VC )
Figure 8.24

VC

V VR

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PHYSICS
VR We get cos = V

CHAPTER 8
VR = V cos

then the eq. (8.33 ) can be written as Pav = IV cos and

V = IZ
(8.34)

Pav = I Z cos = Pr
2

where cos is called the power factor of the AC circuit, Pr is the average real power and I2Z is called the apparent power. power

Power factor is defined as

where Pa : apparent power = I Z = IV Note: From the Figure 8.24, the power factor also can be calculated by using the equation below: VR IR R (8.36) cos = = cos =

Pr Pr cos = 2 = I Z Pa

(8.35)
2

IZ

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PHYSICS
Example 7 :

CHAPTER 8

A 100 F capacitor, a 4.0 H inductor and a 35 resistor are connected in series with an alternating source given by the equation below:

V = 520 sin 100t

Calculate: a. the frequency of the source, b. the capacitive reactance and inductive reactance, c. the impedance of the circuit, d. the peak current in the circuit, e. the phase angle, f. the power factor of the circuit.

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
6

Solution : R = 35 ; C = 100 10 F; L = 4.0 H By comparing V = 520 sin 100t to the V = V0 sin t Thus

V0 = 520 V; = 100 rad s 1

a. The frequency of AC source is given by

= 2f

100 = 2f f = 15.9 Hz

b. The capacitive reactance is

1 XC = 2fC

1 XC = 2 (15.9) 100 10 6 X C = 100

and the inductive reactance is

X L = 2fL = 2 (15.9 )( 4.0 ) X L = 400

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8
6

Solution : R = 35 ; C = 100 10 c. The impedance of the circuit is

F; L = 4.0 H

Z=

= Z = 302

( X L XC )2 R + ( 35) 2 + ( 400 100) 2


2

d. The peak current in the circuit is

520 = I 0 ( 302) I 0 = 1.72 A

V0 = I 0 Z

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PHYSICS
X L XC tan = R

CHAPTER 8
6

Solution : R = 35 ; C = 100 10 F; L = 4.0 H e. The phase angle between the current and the supply voltage is

X L XC = tan R 1 400 100 = tan 35 = 1.45 rad OR 83.3


1

f. The power factor of the circuit is given by

power factor = cos = cos 83.3 power factor = 0.117

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PHYSICS
Example 8 :

CHAPTER 8

A 22.5 mH inductor, a 105 resistor and a 32.3 F capacitor are connected in series to the alternating source 240 V, 50 Hz. a. Sketch the phasor diagram for the circuit. b. Calculate the power factor of the circuit. c. Determine the average power consumed by the circuit. Solution :

R = 105 ; C = 32.3 10 6 F; L = 22.5 10 3 H V = 240 V; f = 50 Hz

a. The capacitive reactance is

1 XC = 2fC

and the inductive reactance is

1 XC = 2 ( 50 ) 32.3 10 6 X C = 98.6

X L = 2fL = 2 ( 50) 22.5 10 3 X L = 7.07

)
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PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 8
R = 105 ; C = 32.3 10 6 F; L = 22.5 10 3 H V = 240 V; f = 50 Hz
XL

a. Thus the phasor diagram for the circuit is

( XC XL )
XC
the impedance of the circuit is
2

b. From the phasor diagram in (a),

Z = R + ( XC XL )
2

= (105) + ( 98.6 7.07 ) Z = 139

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PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 8
R = 105 ; C = 32.3 10 6 F; L = 22.5 10 3 H V = 240 V; f = 50 Hz

b. and the power factor of the circuit is

R cos = Z

105 cos = 139 cos = 0.755

c. The average power consumed by the circuit is given by

Pav = IV cos and V2 = cos Z ( 240) 2 ( 0.755) = 139 Pav = 313 W

V I= Z

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PHYSICS
Exercise 8.2 :
1.

CHAPTER 8
An RLC circuit has a resistance of 105 , an inductance of 85.0 mH and a capacitance of 13.2 F. a. What is the power factor of the circuit if it is connected to a 125 Hz AC generator? b. Will the power factor increase, decrease or stay the same if the resistance is increased? Explain.
(Physics, 3rd edition, James S. Walker, Q47, p.834)

ANS. : 0.962; U think 2. A 1.15 k resistor and a 505 mH inductor are connected in series to a 14.2 V,1250 Hz AC generator. a. What is the rms current in the circuit? b. What is the capacitances value must be inserted in series with the resistor and inductor to reduce the rms current to half of the value in part (a)?
(Physics, 3rd edition, James S. Walker, Q69, p.835)

ANS. : 3.44 mA, 10.5 nF

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 8 Learning Outcome:


www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
8.5 Rectification (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Explain half-wave and full wave rectification by using a circuit diagram and V-t graph. Explain the smoothing of rectified output voltage by capacitor by using a circuit diagram and V-t graph.

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PHYSICS 8.5 Rectification


CHAPTER 8

is defined as the process of converting alternating current to direct current. Rectifier: is a device that allows current to flow in one direction only. only diodes are usually used as rectifiers. Diode is said to be forward biased when positive terminal of the diode connected to the positive terminal of the battery and vice versa, hence a current will be able to flow (Figure 8.25a).

Diode

+
I

+ Figure 8.25a: forward biased


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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Diode is said to be reverse biased when positive terminal of the diode connected to the negative terminal of the battery and vice versa, hence no current flows (Figure 8.25b).

I =0

- +
Figure 8.25b: reverse biased

There are two types of rectification i.e. half-wave full-wave

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.5.1 Half-wave rectification

Half-wave rectification means that only one half of an AC cycle can pass through the rectifier (diode). Figure 8.26a shows a half-wave rectification circuit.

supply voltage, V

supply voltage, V V0 B
A V0 D

2T

t Figure

8.26b

VD

V0

VD
T
2T

V0

t Figure

8.26c

VR

R 0 V0

V0

VR
T
2T

t Figure

8.26d
82

Figure 8.26a

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Explanation: First half cycle (Figure 8.26b) When terminal A is positive, diode is forward biased and offers low resistance such that a pulse of current flows through the circuit. There is negligible voltage across the diode, V (Figure D 8.26c). Thus the voltage across the resistor, V is almost equal to R the supply voltage (Figure 8.26d). Next half cycle (Figure 8.26b) When terminal B is positive, diode is now reverse biased and has a very high resistance such that a very small current flows through it. The voltage across the diode, V D is almost equal to the supply voltage (Figure 8.26c). The voltage across the resistor, V is almost zero (Figure R 8.26d).
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

An alternating voltage is thus rectified to give direct current voltage across the resistor. The current flows through the resistor in one direction only and only half of each cycle cab pass through the diode as shown in Figure 8.26e.

I0
I0

T Figure 8.26e

2T

Rms value after half-wave rectification: In the half-wave rectification, half of the supply voltage is suppressed and therefore the mean square voltage is given by Mean square value 1 Mean square value = after rectification before rectification 2

2 ( half wave rect.)

1 2 = V ( before half wave rect.) 2 1 2 2 = V0 sin t 2

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PHYSICS
V2

CHAPTER 8
( half wave rect.)

1 V0 = 2 2

V0 2 = 4

Therefore the rms voltage of the half-wave rectification is given by 2

Vrms =

( half wave rect.) 2

Vrms

V0 = 4 V0 = 2

(8.37)

In the similar way as to find the rms voltage of half-wave rectification, the rms current of half-wave rectification is given by

I rms

I0 = 2

(8.38)
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.5.2 Full-wave rectification

The half-wave rectification only allows half of each AC cycle to pass through the diode, but the full-wave rectification allows both halves of each AC cycle to pass through the diode. diode To obtain full-wave rectification, four diode are used and are arranged in a form known as the diode bridge. bridge Figure 8.27a shows a full-wave rectification circuit. B

supply vol tage (V )

V0

A supply voltage,V F D

4 2

1 3

VR

V0 R V

T
Figure 8.27b
R

2T

V0

E Figure 8.27a

T
Figure 8.27c

2T

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Explanation First half cycle (Figure 8.27b) When terminal A is positive, diodes 1 and 2 are forward biased and conduct the current. The current takes the path ABC, R and DEF. Diodes 3 and 4 are reverse biased and hence do not conduct the current. The voltages across diodes 1 and 2 are negligible, the voltage across the resistor VR is almost equal to the supply voltage (Figure 8.27c) Next half cycle (Figure 8.27b) When terminal F is positive, diodes 3 and 4 are forward biased and conduct the current.

The path taken by the current is FEC, R and DBA. Diodes 1 and 2 are reverse biased and hence, do not conduct the current. The voltage across the resistor is again almost equal to the supply voltage (Figure 8.27c).
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Both halves of the alternating voltage are rectified. The current flowing through the resistor is in one direction only i.e. a varying DC is obtained as shown in Figure 8.27d.

I0
0
T
2T

Figure 8.27d Rms value after full-wave rectification Notice that the negative side of supply voltage is flipped over to become positive side without being suppressed, thus the rms voltage and current of full-wave rectification are the same as the rms voltage and current of supply voltage and given by

Vrms =

V0

and

I rms =

I0

2
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

8.5.3 Smoothing using Capacitor

The output obtained from half-wave and full-wave rectifications are unidirectional but varying DC. Usually a steady (constant) DC is required for operating various electrical and electronic appliances. To change a varying DC into a steady (constant) DC, smoothing is necessary. A simple smoothing circuit consists of a capacitor ( with a large capacitance >16 F) connected parallel to the resistor R as shown in Figure 8.28. Rectified unsmoothed voltage, V -

I
C

R VR = Voutput

Figure 8.28

The capacitor functions as a reservoir to store charges.


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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Smoothing of a half-wave rectified voltage Figure 8.29 shows an effects of smoothing a half-wave rectified voltage. Charge VR Voutput Discharge Smoothed voltage, VR

Rectified unsmooth input voltage, V Initially, the half-wave rectified input voltage V causes the current to flow through the resistor R. At the same time, capacitor C becomes charged to almost the peak value of the input voltage. Figure 8.29
At A (Figure 8.29), input V (dash line) falls below output VR, the capacitor C starts to discharge through the resistor R. Hence the current flow is maintained because of capacitors action.
90

time, t

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Along AB (Figure 8.29), V output falls. At B, the rectified current again flows to recharge the capacitor C to the peak of the input voltage V. This process is repeated and hence the output voltage VR

VR (Voutput )

across the resistor R will look like the variation shown in figure 8.29. Smoothing of a full-wave rectified voltage Figure 8.30 shows an effects of smoothing a full-wave rectified voltage. Discharge Charge

A B
Figure 8.30

Smoothed voltage, VR

time, t
Rectified unsmooth input voltage, V 91

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

The explanation of the smoothing process likes for a half-wave rectified voltage. The fluctuations of the smoothed output voltage are must less compare to the half-wave rectified. rectified The smoothing action of the capacitor is due to the large time constant , given by RC so the output voltage cannot fall as rapidly as the rectified unsmoothed input voltage. voltage Therefore a large capacitor performs greater smoothing. smoothing However, an initially uncharged capacitor may cause a sudden surge of current through the circuit and damage the diode. diode

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 8

Next Chapter
CHAPTER 9 : Quantization of light

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