Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

The style of the Victorian novel

Virginia Woolf in her series of essays The Common Reader called George Eliot's Middlemarch
"one of the few English novels written for grown-up people". This criticism, although rather
broadly covering as it does all English literature, is rather a fair comment on much of the
fiction of the Victorian Era. Influenced as they were by the large sprawling novels of sensibility
of the preceding age they tended to be idealized portraits of difficult lives in which hard work,
perseverance, love and luck win out in the end; virtue would be rewarded and wrong-doers are
suitably punished. They tended to be of an improving nature with a central moral lesson at
heart, informing the reader how to be a good Victorian. This formula was the basis for much of
earlier Victorian fiction but as the century progressed the plot thickened.

Eliot in particular strove for realism in her fiction and tried to banish the picturesque and the
burlesque from her work. Another woman writer Elizabeth Gaskell wrote even grimmer, grittier
books about the poor in the north of England but even these usually had happy endings. After
the death of Dickens in 1870 happy endings became less common. Such a major literary figure
as Charles Dickens tended to dictate the direction of all literature of the era, not least because
he edited All the Year Round, a literary journal of the time. His fondness for a happy ending
with all the loose ends neatly tied up is clear and although he is well known for writing about
the lives of the poor they are sentimentalized portraits, made acceptable for people of
character to read; to be shocked but not disgusted. The more unpleasant underworld of
Victorian city life was revealed by Henry Mayhew in his articles and book London Labour and
the London Poor.

This change in style in Victorian fiction was slow coming but clear by the end of the
century, with the books in the 1880s and 90s more realistic and often grimmer. Even
writers of the high Victorian age were censured for their plots attacking the conventions
of the day with Adam Bede being called "the vile outpourings of a lewd woman's mind"
and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall "utterly unfit to be put into the hands of girls". The disgust
of the reading audience perhaps reached a peak with Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure
which was reportedly burnt by an outraged bishop of Wakefield. The cause of such fury
was Hardy's frank treatment of sex, religion and his disregard for the subject of marriage;
a subject close to the Victorians' heart, with the prevailing plot of the Victorian novel
sometimes being described as a search for a correct marriage.
Samuel Butler whose Erewhon was a satire on Victorian society

Hardy had started his career as seemingly a rather safe novelist writing bucolic scenes of rural
life but his disaffection with some of the institutions of Victorian Britain was present as well as
an underlying sorrow for the changing nature of the English countryside. The hostile reception
to Jude in 1895 meant that it was his last novel but he continued writing poetry into the mid
1920s. Other authors such as Samuel Butler and George Gissing confronted their antipathies to
certain aspects of marriage, religion or Victorian morality and peppered their fiction with
controversial anti-heros. Butler's Erewhon, for one, is a utopian novel satirising many aspects of
Victorian society with Butler's particular dislike of the religious hypocrisy attracting scorn and
being depicted as "Musical Banks".

Whilst many great writers were at work at the time, the large numbers of voracious but
uncritical readers meant that poor writers, producing salacious and lurid novels or accounts,
found eager audiences. Many of the faults common to much better writers were used
abundantly by writers now mostly forgotten: over-sentimentality, unrealistic plots and
moralising obscuring the story. Although immensely popular in his day, Edward Bulwer-Lytton is
now held up as an example of the very worst of Victorian literature with his sensationalist
story-lines and his over-boiled style of prose. Other writers popular at the time but largely
forgotten now are: Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Charles Kingsley, and R. D.

Writers from the United States of America and the British colonies of Australia, New Zealand
and Canada were influenced by the literature of Britain and are often classed as a part of
Victorian literature, although they were gradually developing their own distinctive voices.[citation
Victorian writers of Canadian literature include Grant Allen, Susanna Moodie and
Catherine Parr Traill. Australian literature has the poets Adam Lindsay Gordon and Banjo
Paterson, who wrote Waltzing Matilda and New Zealand literature includes Thomas Bracken
and Frederick Edward Maning. From the sphere of literature of the United States during this
time are some of the country's greats including: Emily Dickinson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver
Wendell Holmes, Sr., Henry James, Herman Melville, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry David
Thoreau, Mark Twain and Walt Whitman.
The problem with the classification of Victorian literature is great difference between the early
works of the period and the later works which had more in common with the writers of the
Edwardian period and many writers straddle this divide. People such as Arthur Conan Doyle,
Rudyard Kipling, H. G. Wells, Bram Stoker, H. Rider Haggard, Jerome K. Jerome and Joseph
Conrad all wrote some of their important works during Victoria's reign but the sensibility of
their writing is frequently regarded as Edwardian.

Persistent popular embrace of Victorian literature has a profound influence even on modern
literature and media. Writer’s such as Jane Austen and the Bronte sisters still sell robustly on
most book reseller’s list. The Victorian influence impacts modern movie producers from
comedies (Clueless) to juvenile works (Bridget Jones Diaries). In addition, many modern novels
such as MaelStrom To London and “Great and Terrible Beauty” demonstrate that the intricate
cultural moirés of the Victorian era finds a home in modern cultural psyche.