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DRAFT FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT COURSE WORK MOHAMAD KAMAL KHAIRI BIN ABDUL HAMID PISMP SEM 1 TESL

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INTRODUCTION Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses.

2.0 THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2.1 Theory of cognitive development by Jean Piaget He said that cognitive development goes through 4 stages: Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2) Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7) Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence) Formal Operations 2.2 Theory of social development by Lev Vygotsky He said that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences: Vygotsky was a theorist who worked during the first decades of the former Soviet Union. He posited that children learn through handson experience, as Piaget suggested.

However, unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the zone of proximal development) could help children learn new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn. An example of this might be when a parent "helps" an infant clap or roll her hands to the pat-a-cake rhyme, until she can clap and roll her hands herself.

3.0 Development of child development in Malaysia 3.1 Pre school education 3.2 MBMMBI 3.3 1 Students, 1 Sports 3.4 RIMUP 3.5 KIA2M 3.6 LINUS

4.0 Conclusion Genetic factors play a major role in determining the growth rate, and particularly the changes in proportion characteristic of early human development. However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate. Poor nutrition and frequent injury and disease can reduce the individual's adult stature, but the best environment cannot cause growth to a greater stature than is determined by heredity.