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Entropy Discussion Questions

____ 1. For which process is S negative? A) evaporation of 1 mol of CCl4(l) B) C) D) E) ____ 2. mixing 5 mL ethanol with 25 mL water compressing 1 mol Ne at constant temperature raising the temperature of 100 g Cu from 275 K to 295 K grinding a large crystal of KCl to powder

In which reaction is S expected to be positive? I2(s) A) I2(g) B) C) D) E) H2O(1) H2O(s) CH3OH(g) + (3/2)O2(g) 2O2(g) + 2SO(g) none of these CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

2SO3(g)

____ 3.

A 100-mL sample of water is placed in a coffee cup calorimeter. When 1.0 g of an ionic solid is added, the temperature decreases from 21.5 to 20.8 as the solid dissolves. For the dissolving of the solid C C A) H< 0 B) Suniv > 0 C) Ssys< 0 D) Ssurr > 0 E) none of these

____ 4.

Which of the following result(s) in an increase in the entropy of the system? I. (See diagram above.) II. Br2(g) Br2(l) III. NaBr(s) Na+(aq) + Br-(aq) IV. O2(298 K) O2(373 K) V. NH3(1 atm, 298 K) A) ____ 5. I B) II, V NH3(3 atm, 298 K) C) I, III, IV D) I, II, III, IV E) I, II, III, V

A mixture of hydrogen and chlorine remains unreacted until it is exposed to ultraviolet light from a burning magnesium strip. Then the following reaction occurs very rapidly: H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) G = 45.54 kJ H = 44.12 kJ S = -4.76 J/K Select the statement below that best explains this behavior. A) The reactants are thermodynamically more stable than the products. B) The reaction has a small equilibrium constant. C) The ultraviolet light raises the temperature of the system and makes the reaction more favorable. D) The negative value for S slows down the reaction. E) The reaction is spontaneous, but the reactants are kinetically stable.

____ 6.

Which of the following shows a decrease in entropy? A) precipitation B) gaseous reactants forming a liquid C) a burning piece of wood

D) E)

melting ice two of these

____ 7.

A chemical reaction is most likely to be spontaneous if it is accompanied by A) increasing energy and increasing entropy. B) lowering energy and increasing entropy. C) increasing energy and decreasing entropy. D) lowering energy and decreasing entropy. Assume that the enthalpy of fusion of ice is 6020 J/mol and does not vary appreciably over the temperature range 270-290 K. If one mole of ice at 0 is melted by heat supplied from surroundings at 280 K, what is the entropy change in the C surroundings, in J/K?

____ 8.

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____ 9.

If the change in entropy of the surroundings for a process at 451 K and constant pressure is 326 J/K, what is the heat flow absorbed by for the system? A change of state that occurs in a system is accompanied by 64.0 kJ of heat, which is transferred to the surroundings at a constant pressure and a constant temperature of 300. K. For this process Ssurr is:

____ 10.

Use the following to answer questions 11-12: The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.7 kJ/mol at its boiling point (78 C). ____ 11. Calculate the value of Ssurr when 1.00 mole of ethanol is vaporized at 78.0 and 1.00 atm. C Calculate the value of S when 1.00 mole of ethanol is vaporized at 78.0 and 1.00 atm. C For a particular chemical reaction H = 5.5 kJ and S = 25 J/K Under what temperature conditions is the reaction spontaneous? In which case must a reaction be spontaneous at all temperatures? H is positive, S is positive. D) H is negative, S is positive. A) B) H = 0, S is negative. E) none of these C) S = 0, H is positive. For the process CHCl3(s) CHCl3(l), H = 9.2 kJ/mol and S = 43.9 J/mol/K. What is the melting point of chloroform?

____ 12. ____ 13.

____ 14.

____ 15.

____ 16.

At constant pressure, the following reaction 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) is exothermic. The reaction (as written) is A) always spontaneous. B) spontaneous at low temperatures, but not high temperatures. C) spontaneous at high temperatures, but not low temperatures. D) never spontaneous.

Use the following to answer questions 17-19: At 1 atm, liquid water is heated above 100 C. ____ 17. Ssurr for this process is A) B) ____ 18. greater than zero. less than zero. C) D) equal to zero. cannot be determined.

S for this process is A) greater than zero. B) less than zero. Suniv for this process is A) B) greater than zero. less than zero.

C) D)

equal to zero. cannot be determined.

____ 19.

C) D)

equal to zero. cannot be determined.

20.

Given the following data ( Hf, S respectively) for N2O4 (l) 20 kJ/mol, 209 J/K mol, and N2O4(g) 10 kJ/mol, 304 J/K , mol. Above what temperature (in is the vaporization of N2O4 liquid spontaneous? C)

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Use the following to answer questions 21-23: Given that Hvap is 45.7 kJ/mol, and boiling point is 72.5 1 atm, if one mole of this substance is vaporized at 1 atm, calculate the following: C, ____ 21. Ssurr S

____ 22. ____ 23. ____ 24. ____ 25.

Consider the freezing of liquid water at 10 For this process what are the signs for H, S, and G? C. Consider the following processes (at 298 K): H2O(g) I. H2O(l) II. Cl2(g) 2Cl(g) III. 2Fe(s) + (3/2)O2(g)
(H 2 O)

Fe2O3(s)

IV. NaCl(s) NaCl(aq)


C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(s) N2(g, 2 atm) For which is S positive? A) I, II, IV, V B) I, IV, V C) I, IV, V, VI D) III, VI VI. N2(g, 1 atm) ____ 26. Given the following free energies of formation: V. CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l)

E) all six processes

Gfo
C2H2(g) C2H6(g) 209.2 kJ/mol 32.9 kJ/mol calculate Kp at 298 K for C2H2(g) + 2H2(g) C2H6(g)

____ 27.

Calculate G for

at 600. K, using the following data:

____ 28.

For which of the following processes would S be expected to be most positive? 2H2O(g) A) O2(g) + 2H2(g) B) C) D) E) H2O(l) H2O(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(g) 2NH4NO3(s) 2N2(g) + O2(g) + 4H2O(g) N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)

____ 29.

Consider a weak acid, HX. If a 0.10 M solution of HX has a pH of 5.83 at 25 what is G for the acid's dissociation C, reaction at 25 C?

Use the following to answer questions 30-32: Consider the following system at equilibrium at 25 C:

for which H = 92.5 kJ at 25 C. ____ 30. If the temperature of the system is raised, the ratio of the partial pressure of PCl5 to the partial pressure of PCl3 will (increase, decrease, stay the same)

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____ 31.

When some Cl2(g) is added at constant volume and temperature, the ratio of the partial pressure of PCl5 to the partial pressure of PCl3 will (increase, decrease, stay the same)

____ 32.

When the volume is decreased at constant temperature, the ratio of the partial pressure of PCl5 to the partial pressure of PCl3 will (increase, decrease, stay the same)

Use the following to answer questions 33-36: Would you predict an increase or decrease in entropy? 33. 34. the melting of an ice cube 2N2O(g) 2N2(g) + O2(g) N2(g) at 2 atm 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g)

35.

N2(g) at 1 atm 2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g)

36.

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Answer Key -1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. C E B C E E B D E D D C D D A B B A A Above 43 C. B A E E A D A D E B A A increase in entropy increase in entropy decrease in entropy decrease in entropy

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