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Nataa Uroevi, research assistant Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Interdisciplinary Study Programme of Culture and Tourism Preradovieva

1/1, 52100 Pula, Croatia Phone:+385/52/377-039 Fax:+385/52/217-922 E-mail: nurosev@unipu.hr Boris Bogunovi, Slavenka Blakovi Janko, Andreas Kancelar, Marina Bajlo, Ina Kihli, students Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Interdisciplinary Study Programme of Culture and Tourism Preradovieva 1/1, 52100 Pula, Croatia

STRATEGIC MARKETING ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL TOURISM DESTINATION (CASE STUDY PULA)


ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the primary research conducted in order to collect information for situation analysis and strategic planning of cultural tourism in Pula. The main goal of our research was to assess the key stakeholders perceptions and perpectives of Pula as a cultural tourism destination and to define the key elements of its cultural identity, which makes the city unique and recognizable in the perception of its guests and residents. Confronting the global trends and preferences of postmodern tourists with local commitment for sustainable development, we set the hypothesis that cultural and other forms of selective tourism best suit destinations which are characterized by a wealth of cultural and natural heritage, but also by the extreme seasonality, standardized and unified mass tourism offer, lack of distinctiveness and local authenticity. We used a hybrid methodological strategy, combining quantitative and qualitative methods, survey and inteviews to examine 417 tourists, 296 local residents and 13 experts. Conducted research and collected data show that the key elements of the destination identity of Pula are heritage tourism, creative industries, multiculturality, civil society, alternative culture and local way of life. Culture is one of the most important motives to visit the city. Although one third of visitors said the sun and the sea as the main motive of their journey, almost a half of the respondents cited urban, cultural and creative tourism as
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the main motive for the visit. Local residents, their guests and experts agree that the city is recognizable primarily for its unique cultural, historical and natural heritage, and that the cultural identity holders are Amphitheater, the old town core with Roman monuments, turbulent history and multiculturality, and a unique combination of the atmosphere of the ancient old town by the sea and the former Austria's main naval port with powerful fortification system, which is still waiting for the proper valorization. To develop competitive products on the base of the distinctive cultural identity, it is necessary to point out special features and enhance the unique characteristics of the destination. This means that the planning priorities have to be investing in the identity holders, such as the old city core, cultural heritage and cultural industries, extending the season through inclusion and integration of attractions in events and cultural routes, valorization of the former military zone and the fortification system and the design of new integrated cultural tourism products that could be financed by international funds. Key words: sustainable tourism, strategic marketing analysis, culture, identity, cultural tourism

INTRODUCTION In recent decades, many Mediterranean destinations have experienced rapid development accompanied by environmental problems and faced with the need of transition from mass to the new sustainable selective forms that emphasize the importance of culture, creativity and education, such as cultural and creative tourism. New sustainable forms of tourism, that highlight and preserve the key elements of cultural identity, are based on the creative interpretation of unique tangible and intangible heritage assets and are best related to the changes in preferences of (post)modern tourists, who search for new individual experiences and active participation in cultural identity communication process. In the context of dramatic economic, political and social changes that shake the world, cultural tourism has also an important role in communicating the core values of intercultural dialogue, protection and promotion of cultural diversity, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage through models of sustainable tourism development. Cultural and creative tourism, which optimally link global trends and demand features with authentic and unique components of the tourist product could be considered as the most acceptable model for sustainable development, reconstruction, regeneration and revitalisation of urban and rural destinations. Reducing seasonality, they also increase employment and tourist spending,
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and attract fast-growing higher quality segment of cultural tourists, which consumption isn't significantly affected by fluctuations in the global market. They also allow the better global positioning of destinations whose competitiveness is based on the unique cultural resources and preserved natural heritage. Creative tourism, as a new generation of tourism, includes a variety of educational and participatory forms of tourism experience and involves an authentic experience and engagement in the real cultural life of the social community in the destination. Our research will include strategic marketing analysis, that will confront the global trends and key characteristics of Adriatic destinations (Case Study of Pula), and propose a new (re)positioning of cultural tourism destinations based on competitive advantage of authentic and unique local characteristics, cultural and natural heritage, socio-cultural and educational factors. Primary research will include surveys of tourists, local population surveys and interviews with the key cultural and tourism policy-makers. We will also explore the characteristics and preferences of the new (post)modern tourist in the context of the actual global trends, investigate the role of culture as a source of economic and social development, and propose recommendations for marketing valorization of cultural tourism. 1. STRATEGIC MARKETING ANALYSIS IN CULTURAL TOURISM - THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Confronting the global trends and preferences of postmodern tourists (Institut for Tourism, 2009; Richards, 2009; Jelini, 2009; Moutinho, 2004), with local commitment for sustainable development, we set the hypothesis that cultural and other forms of selective tourism best suit the Adriatic coastal destinations which are characterized by a wealth of cultural and natural heritage, but also by the extreme seasonality, standardized and unified mass tourism offer, lack of distinctiveness and local authenticity. Cultural tourism could be defined as the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs (Richards, 2009). This type of tourism is mostly concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people, the history of local comunities, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Our starting point was that cultural and creative tourism as a sustainable alternative to mass tourism, which highlight and protect the cultural identity
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and values of local communities through cultural and educational activities, could solve the key problems of Croatian tourism and ensure optimal use of existing resources: extend the season, increase consumption and employment, and provide a better valuation and protection of unique cultural and natural heritage (Richards, 2009; Institute for Tourism, 2003). Reflecting the strenghts and opportunities of local destinations in a dynamic global context, key stakeholders also highlight the cultural tourism as the most appropriate development model for the Adriatic coast and Istrian destinations. In this context, we wanted to explore the attitudes of key stakeholders on the current problems and prospects of development of cultural tourism in Pula and propose a new (re)positioning and image improvement based on competitive advantages, authentic and unique local characteristics, culture and education as the main factors of local and regional development. One of the aims was also to train future professionals for research and critical reflection of the development of their communities. Therefore, the study included students of second and third year of Interdisciplinary Study Programme of Culture and Tourism at the Juraj Dobrila University Pula, who surveyed tourists and local residents, and interviewed experts in related fields. We used the classic instruments of strategic marketing management: primary marketing research techniques (surveys, interviews, content analysis) as inputs for situational (SWOT) analysis (Kotler, 2008; Marui, Prebeac, 2004). Our assumption was that the results of strategic situation analysis could be used by cultural tourism policy makers in defining the key issues and strategic goals/priorities for resolving them. We defined the strategic marketing as the modern management concept of continuous adjustment of the activities of marketing and the whole oganizational system/destination to the highly dynamic/changing environment, with the aim of reducing uncertainty, better positioning and successful demand management. According to Kotler, marketing management is the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them. Marketing management process includes the analysis, planning, implementing and evaluating programs designed to create, establish and maintain mutually beneficial exchanges and relationships with target markets. (Kotler, 2008), We started from the the so called SOSTAC model of strategic marketing management, which consists of Situation Analysis, Objectives, Strategies, Tactics, Actions and Control: 1. Situation Analysis (Where are we now?) 2. Objectives (Where are we going?) 3. Strategies (How do we get there?) 4. Tactics (What individual steps should be taken to get there?)
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5. Actions (How do we ensure arrival?) 6. Control (How do we know when we have arrived?) The recent global context, characterized by the considerable uncertainty, emphasizes the importance of strategic/situation analysis, as the first phase of marketing management process, which summarizes facts and insights gained from market research and marketing analysis. The role of marketing managers, in response to the global trends (such as recession and its influence on tourism, demographic and sociocultural changes, information and communication technology, political insecurity, environmental concerns, etc.) is: to monitor, research and identify the opportunities and threats arising from external factors in the business environment and confront them with the strenghts and weaknesses of their own destination/organization (in the SWOT analysis). Based on collected information, it is their business to forecast the travel patternes in their markets, taking actions through strategic decisions and through the redefinition of marketing mix. In the context of global crisis, the main goal of the strategic management becomes to convert the market problems into development opportunities by properly positioning and differentiation of the destination product in the global market, and to take market share from the competitors by emphasizing of our comparative advantages. In this important role has the recognition of authentic and unique components of the tourist destination products, with emphasis on the process of research and defining of recognizable identity and image of destinations. We defined marketing research as an organized information process, which deals with the gathering, processing, analysing, storage and communication of information to facilitate marketing decision-making (Middleton, 2009: 57,162). Our marketing research included the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, and survey of key stakeholders, in order to collect information for situation analysis and strategic planning.

2. METHODOLOGY To identify key elements of cultural identity and destination image, we combined quantitative and qualitative methods: the survey method and questionnaire technique was used to collect data from tourists, local population and cultural tourism experts. The main goal was to assess the key stakeholders perceptions and perpectives of Pula as a cultural tourism destination and to define the key elements of its cultural identity, which

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makes the city unique and recognizable in the perception of its guests and residents. We used a hybrid methodological strategy, combining survey and inteviews to examine 417 tourists, 296 local residents and 13 experts. The first phase of the research was conducted intentionally during April and May in the Pula old town, to explore attitudes and preferences of guests who visit the town out of the main season. Our assumption was that they could be potentially interesting segment of cultural tourists whose characteristics and preferences are most important in considering the development of cultural and creative tourism in the area. In the tourists survey we used a questionnaire comparable to ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research questionnaire (ATLAS, 2007) and to TOMAS Cultural Tourism research (Institute for Tourism, 2008). The partially modified ATLAS questionnaire was used with additional questions about experiences and attitudes of respondents related to cultural identity and cultural tourism development perspectives in the city. The visitors were asked about their socio-demographic profile, the main motivation of the visit and the holiday type, the level of satisfaction with the stay in the destination and attractions they have visited, sources of information regarding the destination, type of accomodation and lenght of stay. They were asked about distinctive elements of city identity and characteristics they most and least liked, as well as recommendations for improving the cultural tourism offers. Both open and closed questions were included. The basic instrument for gathering information were questionnaires, translated into English, German and Italian, which contained 21 questions. The sample was occasional and included the visitors of the Pula old city centre. In this first phase we surveyed also the sample of 296 randomly intercepted local residents. They were asked about their socio-demographic data, their perceptions of Pula as a cultural tourist destination and as a place of residence, and sugestions towards cultural tourism development. Special group of questions focused on cultural identity and distinctive and unique characteristics of the city. We examined the attitudes of the local residents related to strenghs,weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the cultural tourism offerings as the inputs for the strategic analysis. We explored also their awareness, satisfaction, sources of information and frequency of visits to cultural events in the city. We were interested in the degree of awareness of the importance of cultural heritage and the perception of cultural events, and the attitude of the city's candidacy for European Capital of Culture. Both open and closed questions were included. A five-point Likert scale was used for the measurement of notions.

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For interviewing experts, we used semi-structured interview in which we ask them to describe the current situation in the field of culture and tourism in the city, to list the main problems and development priorities and offer a strategic vision and perspective. We asked them about the current and desired identity and image of the city, and the manner in which the city was perceived by its inhabitants, visitors and potential investors. In conclusion, we asked them whether projects such as the European Capital of Culture could strategically direct the city towards the development of the synergy between culture and tourism, and about the prospects in education and employment in the field of culture and tourism.

3. RESULTS a. Tourists Obtained data show that most tourists who visit the city out of the main season came to holiday, and that culture is one of the most important motives to visit the city (the percentage of so-called cultural tourists is higher than average in ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research). Collected data show that Pula could be considered a typical cultural tourism destination, with an emphasis on heritage tourism and creative industries. Although more than one third of guests said the sun and the sea as the main motive of their journey, almost half of the respondents cited urban, cultural and creative tourism as the main motive for the visit. Almost a third travels intentionally to visit the cultural attractions or event in Pula, which is more than the Croatian (26%, according to TOMAS Cultural Tourism 2008) and the European average (25% according to ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research). Many of them combines the classic sun/beach holiday with wellness and ecotourism, cultural/creative tourism and the rest in the countryside, or visiting the city. Foreigners are often interested in opportunities for shopping in the old town. Shopping as a motive often goes with urban tourism/visiting the city. Almost half, more precisely 44% of 419 interviewed tourists had already visited Pula and Istria. They spent in Pula on average 5,5 nights. Most of them, 47% stayed at the hotel, 37% in private accommodation, 9% in camp and 7% in other forms of accommodation (friends and relatives, hostels, coach-surfing). Most of them were very pleased with the stay in the destination: the most frequent rating was 8 out of 10, and the average rating 8,7. They most liked in Pula (open question): cultural heritage/history (115 answers or 27%), sea, beautiful beaches, nature and climate (58), Arena (45)
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and people (37). We can conclude that the main positive associations related to the identity and image of the city were: culture, history, beautiful nature, pleasant climate, kind people and Arena as the iconic symbol of the city. Tourists perceive Pula primarily as a city of rich cultural and historical heritage, surrounded by beautiful nature and the sea, with mild climate, relaxed atmosphere and friendly hosts, recognizable for its Roman amphitheater. Most complaints (open questions) were related to problems with traffic and parking (65 explicitly stated), neglected old town (garbage, fasades, smell of Riva), lack of entertainment and places to go out, poor gastro-offer, old town infrastructure, etc. Recommendations for the improvement of cultural tourism were mostly related to improvement of entertainment attractions, events and places to go out (especially in the evening and out of season), extension of working time of shops and restaurants, investments in the renovation of the old city center (clean, renovate and revive the old city core!), improvement of information and signaling, and improvement of the gastronomic offer. Speaking of attractions, most (a half) of respondents are interested in cultural and historical monuments (primarily Arena, 25% of them), then museums (more then a third), protected natural heritage (a third), and religious sites (a fifth). It is interesting to notice that a lot of tourists are interested to visit the cinema and theater, which means that it would be advisable to prepare some special programs for them (in foreign languages). Regarding the organization of trips, about one-third uses all-inclusive packages, a third booked accommodation and transport separately and a little more than a third (cca 35%) booked nothing in advance (self-organized trip). Far the most common source of information is the Internet, it was used by two thirds of the guests, and this very high proportion of new technology user differs our sample from ATLAS and TOMAS Cultural Tourism Research. It is followed by family and friends (47%) as a source of information, an earlier visit (21%), tourist agency (19%), guide books (9%) and brochures. Last group of questions focused on socio demographic profile. It was found that most respondents (81%) were foreign tourists, most of them from Italy (23%), Germany (17%), Austria (10%), United Kingdom (8%) and Slovenia (7%). The share of respondents from Croatia was 19%.

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More then half of respondents were female (51%) and 49% of them were male. Most respondents were young (20-29: 25% or total of 37% younger then 30) and middle-aged (30-39: 28%, 40-49: 23%). In total there are 47% guests in the age group from 30-49 (same proportion as in TOMAS Cultural Tourism 2008. We can conclude that young and middle age visitors are the most important segment of cultural tourism demand, and that is in accordance with the profile of European cultural tourists (ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research). Minor part is in the age group 50-59 (11%) an 8% are older then 60. Most of the respondents have 40% have a university degreee, approximately equal proportion secondary school qualifications (39%), and 18% of them masters or doctorate. The quarter of the total number of respondents (26%) has a culture-related job, which is in line with the European average (30%) and considerably more than the Croatian average (13% according to TOMAS Cultural Tourism 2008). b. Local residents In the first phase of the research we surveyed the sample of 196 randomly intercepted local residents. Among the respondents, 55% were female, and 45% male; 55% have secondary school qualifications (most of them are students), 39% have a university degree, 3% master or doctorate, and 3% elementary school. They were first asked about their perception of the city. On a scale of 1-5, the statement Pula is a tourist city get an average rating of 3,65. The statement Pula is a city comfortable for living had an average rating of 3,5 and the statement The attractiveness of tourism offer could be increased by the better valorization of cultural heritage get an average rating of 4,3. Then followed a group of questions related to identity and image of the city. The answers on the question What makes the city unique and recognizable were very interesting: the majority of local residents answered it was primarily for its Amphitheater (117 respondents or 60%), its rich cultural and historical heritage (83 respondents or 42%), the sea (7%) and there were several associations related to its shipyard, Film Festival, multiculturality, the beauty of nature (nearby Brijuni islands), clean sea and beaches. Although it was a small sample, we can conclude that local resident also perceive the Arena and the old town as holders of the identity and image of the city. Local residents were also asked about the main strenghts and weaknesses of the city as a tourist destination. As a major advantage of Pula, they mentioned the sea, climate and the (richness of cultural and natural) heritage. The first place in the perception of its residence convincing holds the sea,
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then the history, culture and heritage (huge fund of monuments in a small space), position and proximity to emissive markets and resources. As major weaknesses they stressed : 1. traffic infrastructure (most complaints); 2. neglectedness of the old city center; poor management of resources; 3. lack of facilities for entertainment (especially for youth and out of season); 4. unordered Riva, infrastructure problems; 5. industry in the city center, unused port; 6. high prices; 7. lack of information; 8. extreme seasonality; 9. poor gastro-offer; 10. lack of intersectoral collaboration and networking of politics, culture and tourism. We explored also their perception, awareness, satisfaction, sources of information and frequency of visits related to cultural events in the city. Among its residents, Pula is perceived as the town of festivals and creative industries (eventful city, creative city, the city of movie and book). Average grade (on the scale 1-5) for the cultural offer of the city was 3,2. Research has shown that most of local residents relatively regularly (from once a week to once a month), and more often during the summer visit theater, cinema, exhibitions, concerts and festivals. Among the most popular festivals are Pula Film Festival, Pula Book Fair, Pula Superiorum, Monte Paradiso, FU, PUF, Seasplash etc. Majority (a half of them) uses Internet as a source of information about cultural offer in the town, then the local press (a third), posters, brochures and flyers (a fifth), radio/TV 10%, and agencies and tourist info-center only 5%. We were interested in the degree of awareness of the importance of cultural heritage and the perception of cultural events, and the attitude related to the city's candidacy for European Capital of Culture. We have found that residents are well informed about local attractions. Asked to list the five most important sites, they most frequently mentioned the Amphitheater, Temple of Augustus and the Roman Forum, Golden and Twin Gate, Hercules Gate, old town and the Castle, Cultural center Rojc, Small Roman Theatre, fortification system, Uljanik shipyard, Cape Kamenjak and Brijuni Islands. Regarding the possibility of nomination for European Capital of Culture, the majority is reserved, a third consider the project could positively contribute to improve the image of the city, while the forth has no information about this project.

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As sugestions for improving the cultural and creative tourism offer in the city they recommended: to invest in the renovation of the old city, traffic and infrastructure; to invest in culture and education, more events and happenings (specially facilities for the young people), longer oppenings hours for shops and restaurats, renew and put into cultural function abandoned and forgotten military complexes; better coordination and networking, and education of all structures for culture and tourism, improve cooperation with the civil sector, arrange cultural events in the entire year and improve promotional activities.

c. Experts We interviewed 13 experts from the related fields (tourist industry, cultural sector, local and regional administration, education and science, civil society). Most of them consider current situation complicated, primarily due to a recession and lack of cooperation and coordination between the sectors of culture and tourism. However, they emphasize the great potential for the development of cultural tourism, primarily because of the rich cultural heritage and developed cultural industries in the town. They emphasize the need for research and more precise defining of the core values of identity and image the city wants to communicate to the target markets. As the important problems they cited insufficient strategic thinking of the cultural tourism development, insufficient use of resources of cultural heritage and creative industries in tourism, poor condition of the old town, inadequate promotion and communication, inertia and bureaucratization of the system. They highlight the need to encourage entrepreneurship in the field of culture and tourism, which could revive the old town and stress the lack of Destination Management Companies, which could design the quality offer in the pre- and post-season. They consider culture and tourism, and cultural tourism in general as the strategic guideline for the development of the city. As a development priorities they list: defining the main development projects and reach the public consensus about them, regulation of the public infrastructure, defining the most important tourist segments and adjust the cultural tourism product to them, increase the level of cultural tourism offer in the city (to attract the greater spending power segment), put in order the old city center and present better the attractions through manifestations and cultural routes, extend the season, take advantage of good position and increase the number of air and ship lines, use the European Union funds and networking and the opportunity to develop cross-border projects, improve education and professionalization in the sector of culture and tourism, valorization of the fortification system,
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involvement of civil society and the alternative scene in the cultural and creative tourism offer. Part of them considers the candidature for the European capital of culture desirable and important for the city, as an opportunity to better valorize and finance the culture, develop the infrastructure and renew the city center, other (cultural workers) are more critical and consider the city at this time does not meet even minimum requirements for candidacy. As a conclusion, they emphasize the importance of education and professionalization in the field of culture and tourism.

4. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION Conducted research and collected data show that the key elements of the destination identity of Pula are heritage tourism, creative industries, multiculturality, civil society and local way of life. Culture seen as the cocreative process of transforming experience is one of the most important motives to visit the city. Although one third of visitors said the sun and the sea as the main motive of their journey, almost a half of the respondents cited urban, cultural and creative tourism as the main motive for the visit. Local residents, their guests and experts agree that the city is recognizable primarily for its unique cultural, historical and natural heritage, and that the cultural identity holders are Amphitheater, the old town core with roman monuments, turbulent history and multiculturality, and a unique combination of the atmosphere of the ancient old town by the sea and the former Austria's main naval port with powerful fortification system, which is still waiting for the proper valorization. To develop competitive products on the base of the distinctive cultural identity, it is necessary to point out special features and enhance the unique characteristics of the destination. This means that the planning priorities have to be investing in the identity holders, such as the old city core, cultural heritage and cultural industries, extending the season through inclusion and integration of attractions in events and cultural routes, valorization of the former military zone and the fortification system and the design of new integrated cultural tourism products that could be financed by international funds. One of possibilities, which could significantly contribute to the investments in cultural infrastructure and facilities, destination branding and better global positioning is the candidacy for the European Capital of Culture title. Key stakeholders agree that Pula first has to fulfill some essential requirements, such as professionalization and education of experts in the field of culture and tourism.

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Research has indicated the great potential for development of cultural and creative tourism through attractions, events and stories covering the most recognizable elements of identity and heritage (the Roman heritage, Austrian fortresses, former military complex that could be put in the cultural and tourist function, Mediterranean and Central European identity, industrial heritage, military heritage, alternative scene in the social center Rojc etc.). Research has shown that Pula also fits in the concept of eventful and creative city (Richards, 2007, 2010). Development of cultural and creative tourism models will enable the cocreation of transforming tourist experience, new meaning and identity both of tourist and local community. It could also solve typical problems such as seasonality, revitalize Old Town core, increase employment and attract new and recession-resistant segments of cultural and creative tourists. In consideration of the strategic development of the city, after they solve underlying infrastructure requirements, the key stakeholders could "play" with stories and identities of the at the same time ancient and postmodern city, using creative potential of its citizens and actual and future experts, some of whom participated in this study.

5. FUTURE RESEARCH AND RECOMMENDATIONS This paper presents the results of the first phase of our research. In order to gain a better picture of our new tourist profile, preferences and perceptions of the town's identity and image, research will continue this summer and next year. Since one of the aims was to introduce a new research paradigm and methodologies and to train future professionals for independent research in the field of culture and tourism, future research will be conducted within the courses on the Interdisciplinary Study Programme of Culture and Tourism of the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, and they will actively involve the student population, local residents and experts. We will definitely try to increase the number and representativeness of the sample, as well as comparability with similar studies on national and global level. We'll also try to connect to major institutions and research networks in the region and Europe, to exchange and compare results. The research results will be presented to key stakeholders, with the ultimate goal to make input to the broader situation analysis in the strategic planning and development of cultural tourism. Since, according to collected information, at the local level there have not yet been carried out a similar study, it is recommended that that research continues, especially the analysis
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of the elements of the current and desirable identity and the destination image, the analysis of the profile of current and target consumer segments and other elements of the strategic analysis in the process of strategic planning of cultural tourism and sustainable development of the city and the region. SWOT analysis Pula as the cultural tourism destination
STRENGTHS The beauty of nature and the sea Pleasant climate The richness and diversity of cultural and natural heritage Rich attraction base History and multiculturality Advantageous geographical position Proximity to emissive markets Tradition Cultural identity of the city Belonging to the Mediterranean and the Central European cultural circle Human capital Resources Strong alternative scene Eventful and creative city New university study programmes OPPORTUNITIES Global cultural tourism trends Development of selective forms of tourism Growth of creative industries Interregional and cross-border cooperation Financing from EU funds Networking of cultural projects and programs Creating of DMC and DMO Development of cultural tourism as a key factor for sustainable development and intercultural dialogue Creating of new jobs Investing in scientific research Nostalgia as a motive for travel Use of new information and communication technologies Candidacy for the European Capital of Culture title WEAKNESSES Traffic and infrastructure problems Neglectedness of the old city center; poor management of resources Undeveloped and unrecognized cultural tourism product Lack of facilities for entertainment Industry in the city center, unused port Extreme seasonality Poor gastro-offer Lack of programs of urban revitalization, rehabilitation and regeneration Lack of cultural managers Inadequate communication strategies Insufficient intersectoral cooperation Insufficient awareness of local residents and government about the heritage potential

THREATS Global recession Changing trends in the global demand Unresolved environmental and infrastructure problems Sharp competition of the (potential) European capitals of culture Further devastation of the natural and cultural attractive basis Inadequate communication strategies and poor promotion Inadequate coordination and networking of programmess and institutions Undefined image of the city in the global market

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REFERENCES Institute for Tourism (2003). Development strategy of cultural tourism: From tourism and culture to cultural tourism, Zagreb: Government of the Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Tourism. Institute for Tourism (2009). TOMAS Trends, attitudes and consumption of tourists in Croatia 1987-2008 Zagreb: Institute for Tourism. Jelini, D.A. (2009). Abeceda kulturnog turizma (ABC of Cultural Tourism), Zagreb: Meandar. Jelini, D.A. (2010). Kultura, turizam, interkulturalizam (Culture, Tourism, Interculturalism), Zagreb: IMO, Meandarmedia. Kotler, P., Keller, K.L. (2008). Upravljanje marketingom (Marketing Management), Zagreb: Mate. Kotler, P., Bowen J., Makens J. (2005). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Marui, M., Prebeac, D. (2004). Istraivanje turistikih trita (Marketing Research in Tourism), Zagreb: Adeco. Middleton, V.T.C., Fyall, A., Morgan, M. (2009). Marketing in travel and tourism, Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman. Moutinho, L. (2004). Strateki menadment u turizmu (Strategic Management in Tourism), Zagreb: Masmedia. Richards, G. (2007). ATLAS Cultural Tourism Survey, Summary Report 2007. Richards, G. (2007). Cultural Tourism, Global and Local Perspectives, New York: THHP. Richards, G. (2009). The Impact of Culture on Tourism, Paris: OECD. vob oki, N. (ed.) (2007). The Creative City: Crossing Visions and New Realities in the Region, Zagreb: Institute for International Relations.

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